|What is in the table of contents of this resource?|
|Annotation or definition.|
|Arabic and English|
|Conversation Questions Languages|
|Number of languages|
|Top 5 Most Spoken Languages In The World|
What is Linguistics?
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language.
Linguistics is the study of language as a cognitive ability. Questions linguists ask are - How do children learn language? How do people understand speech sounds? How and why does language change over time? How is language processed in the brain?
Linguistics is the study of language - how it is put together and how it functions. Various building blocks of different types and sizes are combined to make up a language. Sounds are brought together and sometimes when this happens, they change their form and do interesting things. Words are arranged in a certain order, and sometimes the beginnings and endings of the words are changed to adjust the meaning. Then the meaning itself can be affected by the arrangement of words and by the knowledge of the speaker about what the hearer will understand. Linguistics is the study of all of this. There are various branches of linguistics which are given their own name, some of which are described below. Linguists are people who study linguistics.
Phonetics is the study of the sounds of speech. It includes understanding how sounds are made using the mouth, nose, teeth and tongue, and also understanding how the ear hears those sounds and can tell them apart. A study of phonetics involves practicing producing (sometimes exotic) sounds, and figuring out which sound you heard. The wave form of each sound can be analysed with the help of computer programs. In sign language, phonetics refers to the the possible shapes, movements and use of physical space.
Phonology makes use of the phonetics in order to see how sounds or signs are arranged in a system for each language. In phonology, it matters whether sounds are contrastive or not, that is, whether substituting one sound for another gives a different, or "contrastive," meaning. For example in English, [r] and [l] are two different sounds - and the words "road" and "load" differ according to which of these sounds is used. But in some languages, [r] and [l] are variations of the same sound. They could never make a meaning difference in words that differ by only that sound. Phonologists describe the contrastive consonants and vowels in a language, and how pronunciation is affected by the position of the sound in the word and the sounds that are nearby. They are also interested in syllables, phrases, rhythm, tone, and intonation.
Morphology looks at how individual words are formed from smaller chunks of meaningful units called morphemes. For example, the English word 'untied' is really made up of three parts, one refering to the process of reversing an action (un-), one indicating the action of twisting stringlike things together so they stay (tie), and the last indicating that the action happened in the past (-d). Many languages have a much more complex way of putting words together. Morphology interacts in important ways with both phonology (bringing sounds together can cause them to change) and syntax, which needs to pay attention to the form of a word when it combines it with other words.
Syntax is the study of how phrases, clauses and sentences are constructed and combined in particular languages. Writing a grammar requires defining the rules that govern the structure of the sentences of the language. Such rules involve both the order of words, and the form of words in their various possible positions. There are common patterns among even unrelated languages, and many linguists believe this is the result of general principles which apply to most, if not all, languages. For example, languages where the direct object generally follows the verb have a lot of things in common, in contrast to the things in common held by languages in which the direct object generally precedes the verb.
Discourse analysis looks at bigger chunks of language - texts, conversations, stories, speeches, etc. Different types of these use language differently, and there can even be differences in how a language is used based on the genre. For example, "Once upon a time" is an appropriate start to a fairy tale, but not to a news story on the evening news. Discourse features can also show important principles of organization such as which players in a story have key roles and which just have bit parts.
Semantics is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between words, phrases and other bits of language and on how these words and phrases connect to the world. Pragmatics is similar, but it involves the study of how speakers of a language use the language to communicate and accomplish what they want. Pragmatics looks more at the relationship between speaker and listener which allows assumptions to be made about the intended message, considering, for example, the way context contributes to meaning. A classic example is where someone is asked "Do you want some coffee?" Does the reply "Coffee will keep me awake" mean yes or no? It depends whether the person wants to stay awake - and the questioner will only understand the intended meaning if they know whether the person wants to stay awake.
Historical Linguistics is the study of how languages have changed over time. Some changes happen because of slow (maybe incremental) changes within the language, such as in pronunciation or in the meaning of a word. Other changes happen because of contact with speakers of other languages. The most well know example of this is "borrowing," but language contact can cause other types of change as well. It can be interesting to compare phonology, syntax and word lists of similar or geographically close languages to see how similar they are. Some linguists then use this information to figure out the past of the languages, such as when two languages split from each other. Combined with other known facts about the speakers of the language, it can lead to important discoveries about their history.
Sociolinguistics is the study of society and language. Sociolinguists may use surveys to examine in which contexts a language is used (e.g. market, home, school, workplace) and the attitudes to each language (particularly in multilingual contexts). They may look at ways that variation in a particular language correlates with social factors such as speaker age, ethnic identity, location, etc. For more information on sociolinguistics, see here.
Do linguists perform simultaneous translation?
No. Simultaneous translation is a specialized ability usually associated with people who have spoken two or more languages since childhood. Some linguists HAVE speciliazed in studying bilingual speakers, but many study other fields outside translation.
What is language?
Language is a set of symbols being used mainly for communication. The symbols may be spoken or written. Language is an aspect of human behavior. In written form it is a long-term record of knowledge from one generation to the next while in spoken form it is a means of communication. Language is the key aspect of human intelligence.
Natural language is an ordinary language that has evolved as the normal means of communication among people. Examples: English, Mandarin, Arabic, Arabic and Ukrainian.
Constrained Language(Programming language)
Number of languages
How many languages are there?
There are approximately 6,900 distinct languages in existence today, though there may be languages spoken in remote areas that we have yet to discover.
The English language is the most popular language. If you know the English language well, you can help others to learn it.
Top 5 Most Spoken Languages In The World
Which languages have the most speakers?
How many languages do linguists have to know?
All linguists are exposed to data from a number of languages, but may only be able to speak their own native language proficiently.
What do linguists actually study?
Linguists specialize in different components of language. Although some linguists perform psychological studies, many study texts or ask for native speaker judgements to collect their data. Some subgroups include:
Phonology/Phonetics - The study of speech sounds Morphology - The study of word structure Syntax - The study of how words are put together to create sentences and phrases Semantics/Pragmatics - How meaning is structured and communicated via language Historical Linguistics - How language changes over time Language Acquisition - How children insticntively acquire the ability to use language Applied Linguistics - How to effectively teach adults and teens a second language Computational - Studying artifical intelligence & cognitive models of language Sign Language Studies - How sign language has similar and distinct properties from spoken language Sociolinguistics - How languages & dialects from different socio-economic groups interact and change
What do you do with a linguistics degree?
In addition to teaching linguistics at the college level, linguists have been known to: Observe or test unconscious linguistic behavior to develop models of cognition or communication. Work with software developers on language-based applications including grammar checkers, search engines, natural language processing, speech recognition and artifical speech production. Decipher and interpret ancient texts. Consult on language policy issues (bilingualism, foreign language education, etc.) Work with communities of minority languages on maintaining and teaching their linguistic heritage. Create artifical languages for their novels or favorite sci-fi show.
A bachelor's in linguistics (combined with the right electives) can also be a good gateway to law school, international business, psychology, computer science, English language teaching abroad and more. In my experience, linguistics has given me a better appreciation of world cultures, improved my writing, and sharpened my reasoning. Not a bad educational payoff.
What do you think of bilingual education?
To be incredibly vague, my answer is "It depends on the context". Balancing the needs of language use between ease of communication and preserving ethnic heritages is quite complicated. What is important to me is that any decision consider linguistic and language acquisition principles, not just raw emotion.
What do linguists think about chat/texting language?
A lot of people observing texting/chatting/tweeting are interested/worried about the fact that lots of abbreviations are included (e.g. LOL, :), c u l8tr), however the heavy use of abbreviations in writing is not unique to texting. Medieval manuscript writers (and almost all manuscript professionals in any culture) are notorious for creating symbols and abbreviations (e.g. , &,#, e.g., i.e., ...). The reasons for abbreviating in manuscripts and texting are essentially the same – it saves space and is less effort. Manuscript writers were worried about writers cramp, but texters are worried about blackberry thumb. As Txting, the Gr8 Db8 points out, typing text on a numeric phone pad is very much a PITN.
What is unique about social media language is how informal language is being recorded in a written medium. Traditional writing genres tend to be very formal and very carefully crafted for a public audience. In the past, it would be rare that a document potentially accessible to billions of viewers would be filled slang, swearwords or talk about what you ate last night. No longer. In past eras, linguists would have to rely on graffiti or the some personal letters/diaries to find information about colloquial language. But thanks to social media, the 21st century colloquial language will be extremely well-documented...providing the servers remain in service.
What was the first language and how did it develop into all others?
Explain, particularly, Icelandic and Basque.
Who was its first speaker?
What is the most ordinary language you can think of?
What effect does the enlargement of the genioglossus have on child language development?
To what extent can we say that context plays a part in events? Why do we say this?
There is much discussion currently about syntax. Discuss phonology.
How does a language become synchronic?
Why is there so much embedding going on these days?
Distinguish between conjunction and insubordination.
How can reduplication be drastically reduced (perhaps eliminated altogether)?
You have been asked to address a congress of Persian ornithologists. What would you tell them about morphology? Relativisation?
|Intercultural communication in English language|
|Arabic and English|
|English to Afghani (Pashto dialect)|
|Kashmiri and English|
|Kannada and English|
|Punjabi and English|
|Spanish and English|
|French and English|
Mandarin (about 850 million) |
Wu (90 million)
Cantonese (Yue) (70 million)
Min (50 million).
|Japanese and English|
|Persian and English|
|Portugese and English|
|Ukrainian (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Latvia, Estonia) and English|
|Tamil and English|
|Marathi and English|
|Gujarati and English|
|Hindi and English|
|Tagalu and English|
|Indonesian and English|
|Urdu and English|
|Malayalam and English|
A Quranic Name for Boys
Alternate spellings of Asif
Aasef Aaseph Aciph Aasiyf Asiyf Aseph Aseph Aeseyf Asiph Aesef Aesiph
Meaning of Asif
Asif is a direct Quranic name for boys that means “strong”, “stormy”, “powerful”, “fierce”. It is mentioned four times in the Quran.
A Quranic Name for Girls
Zakiya is a direct Quranic name for girls that means "pure", "innocent", "untainted", "having a sweet scent".
Here are further facts.
|Here are further guidelines.|
Basic Arabic words |
|crime (in general)||ijraam|
|crime||jariima (pl.) jaraa'im|
|criminal||mujrim (pl.) mujrimuun|
|victim||DaHiyya (pl.) DaHaaya|
|prisoner||asiir (pl.) asra|
|suspect in||muštaba fi|
|accused of||muttaham bi|
|involvement in||Dil3 (pl.) Duluu3 fi|
|to arrest||i3taqala - ya3taqilu (i3tiqaal)|
|to suspect s.o. of||ištabaha - yaštabihu (ištibaah) s.o. fi|
|to charge, indict||ittahama - yattahimu (ittihaam) s.o. bi|
|to sue||qaaDa - yuqaaDi (muqaaDaah)|
|to extradite||sallama - yusallimu (tasliim)|
|to confess to||i3tarafa - ya3tarifu (i3tiraaf) bi|
|to release, free||aTlaqa - yuTliqu (iTlaaq) saraaH|
|to pardon||3afa - ya3fu (3afw) 3an|
|justice - just||3adaala/3adl - 3aadil|
|denial of justice||Hirmaan min al-3adaala|
|case, lawsuit||qaDiyya (pl.) qaDaaya|
|court or tribunal||maHkama (pl.) maHaakim|
|judge||qaaDin (pl.) quDaah|
|lawyer||muHaamin (pl.) muHaamiyuun|
|witness||šaahid (pl.) šuhuud|
|case||qaDiyya (pl.) qaDaaya|
|to claim, allege||za3ama - yaz3umu (za3m)|
|to prove||dalla - yadullu (dalaala)|
|proof, evidence||daliil (pl.) adilla|
|to convict||adaana - yudiinu (idaana)|
|guilty||mudnib (pl.) mudnibuun|
|to acquit||abraa'a - yubri'u (ibraa') s.o. min|
|innocent||bari' (pl.) abriyaa'|
|burglary of||? saTw 3ala|
|drug possession||Hiyaazat muxaddiraat|
|drug trade||mutaajarat muxaddiraat|
|punishment (in general)||3iqaab|
|(a) punishment||3uquuba (pl.) 3uquubaat|
|sentence||Hukm (pl.) aHkaam 3ala|
|sentenced to||maHkuum bi|
|fine||garaama (pl.) garaamaat|
|prison, jail||sijn (pl.) sujuun|
|prison cell||zinzaana (pl.) zinzaanaat|
|life imprisonment||as-sijn al-mu'abbad|
|death penalty||Hukm al-i3daam|
|to execute s.o.||a3dama - yu3dimu (i3daam)|
|gallows||mišnaqa (pl.) mašaaniq|
|lethal injection||al-Huqna l-qaatila|
|the electric chair||al-kursi l-kahrabaa'i|
|chains||salaasil (sing.) silsila|
|book ::: kee-ta-b|
|computer ::: ha-soob|
|telephone ::: ha-tef|
|paper ::: w'a-ra-qa|
|notebook ::: daff-tar|
|trash ::: muh-mal-at|
|clock/time::: sa'ah :|
|door ::: b-a-b|
|window ::: na-fi-za|
|flag ::: a'a-lam|
|homework ::: wa-jib|
|home ::: b-ay-t|
|light ::: dow'a|
|chair ::: kur-see|
|Why is understanding, speaking, reading, and writing the English language essential?|
Military Meaning in Arabic
Air force Quwwaat jawwiyya
Armed forces Quwwaat musallaHa
Commander in chief Al-qaa'id al-a3la
Military Aircraft Tayara Askari
Tank Dabbaaba (pl.) dabbaabaat
What is the Arabic word for aircraft?
Parts of Speech
Arabic education vocabulary
Government & politics
Greetings & Goodbyes
Introductions & Small Talk
Useful Arabic Words & Phrases
References to people
Phrases for travelers
Days and numbers
Arabic Phrases English Phrases Arabic Transliterated Phrases
Help & Directions
Arabic Expressions & Words
Subjective Personal Pronouns
Question word question.
Questions in Arabic
There are 12 the most common words to use for making up questions in STANDARD Arabic language. These are:
Human Body Parts in Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
Today, Hassaniya is spoken in Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Senegal and the Western Sahara.
Fruits and Vegetables
Common Arabic Words and Phrases
Sex Meaning in Arabic
|Arabic verbs list|
|English Pronouns||Arabic Pronouns||Perfect||Imperfect|
|You two (m,f)||antumaa||akaltumaa||ta'kulaani|
|They two (m)||humaa||akalaa||ya'kulaani|
|They two (f)||humaa||akalataa||ya'kulaani|
Globe Newspaper/Gareeda tul alama
English Newspaper/Gareeda tun Englezia
Breaking News/Akhbaaroon Ajeelah
Electronic Newpaper/Sahefatoon Electonia
Print Newpaper/Tobatun Gareeda
News report/Takreen roon Akhbarren
News reader/Kariul Akhbar
Jail superintendent/Al Signu musharafu
Head of the state/Raeesu Dawla
Correctional officer/Dabitul Islahiya
Guide head of the state/Raeesu dawlati daleelen
Armed forces/Alkowatul Musalahatu
World News/Akhbar ul alam ha
Proper Human Food/Al Geza eatul Insane Saleema
Weight Training/Tadreeb bul waznee
Arabic Women Clothing |
Arab men clothing
Ghutra and Egal
Sweater: [qamees sufi]
Arabic Women Clothing
Bra: Malaabis daaxiliyya Hariimi
Clothing size (maqaas (pl.) maqaasaat
Put on: Yalbis
Where is the patient now?
Ayna howal mareed ul aana?
What seems to be the issue or issues?
Ma ubdu ana hazihul kadeyata awal kedaya?
State department of health.
Wazarate karije sahatu
Take a look at this.
What should happen after the death of an individual? |
Normally, this sequence happens.
Announcement of death
If sudden, unexpected, premature death, investigations, forensic analysis, and case handed over to state administration of justice.
(Arrests, detention, termination of services, further punishments)
In case of sudden, premature, unexpected death, investigations required follow-up.
Circumstances of death must be elaborated minute by minute, second by second.
Death certificate issuance
Washing the body
Wrapping the body (Kafan)
Funeral prayers or Namaz-e-Janaza (funeral prayers in absentia).
Funeral Condolences or Messages
Why is it necessary to elaborate facts about human death in detail?
Condolences have to be forwarded accordingly.
Further investigations have to be conducted as per causes, mechanism, and circumstances (manner) of death.
Further medical research needs to go ahead based on findings.
Administrative recommendations in the state and outside the state have to go ahead.
Death certificates must be ideally available publicly through Internet.
Where is funeral prayer offered?
It is preferable that those praying divide themselves into odd rows with one person as an Imam standing alone in front and while facing in the direction of Qiblah. The body is placed in front of the Imam. If there is more than one body, then these should be put one in front of the other.
How is funeral prayer offered?
Funeral prayer should be performed while standing.
Death certificate issuance |
Here are further facts.
|Here are further facts.|
Surah 4. An-Nisaa, Ayah 59 |
Transliteration : Ya_ ayyuhal lazina a_manu_ ati'ulla_ha wa ati'ur rasu_la wa ulil amri minkum, fa in tana_za'tum fi syai'in fa ruddu_hu ilalla_hi war rasu_li in kuntum tu'minu_na billa_hi wal yaumil a_khir(i), za_lika khairuw wa ahsanu ta'wila_(n).
Who all have translated Quran from Arabic to English language?
From the year 2000 to 2014, there were 28 Arabic to English translation from more than 28 translators.
From 1900 to 1999, there were 30 Arabic to English various translations.
Where do we go from here?
Take a look at this.
All issues are elaborated at these resources.
What will happen if you follow any others resources?
You will get harmed, you will be harmed, you will have to repent if you have not followed these www.qureshiuniversity.com resources.
|Here are further guidelines.|
|Telephone Number||Raqm Hatef|
|Do you want to leave a message?||Hal tureed an tatruk risala?|
|Line is busy||Al khat mashgool|
|Wait a moment please||Iathan min fatlika|
|Stay on the line||Ibqa ala alkhat|
|Call later||Itasil lahiqan|
|Is Asif there?||Hal Asif mawjood?|
|Yes, tell him I called.||Naam, qul lahu annani ittasaltu.|
|Is Zakia there?||Hal Zakia mawjooda?|
Ma = Nouns |
Mada = Verbs
Mada or matha
Laka/laki(female) to you
Mada Hasala? |
|What happened to you(female)?||
Mada Hasala laki? |
Mada bika? |
I love you.
| Hub |
Male to female. Ana Uhibbuki
Female to male. Ana Uhibbuka
How should telephone conversation in Arabic go ahead? |
Doctor Zakia from Medina will call 7735616102 Chicago, Illinois, North America.
She will record message in Arabic.
Even her brother and mother can record a message.
Hello, I am Zakia from Medina.
This message is for Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia's email and telephone number is been communicated.
What best describes me?
Zakia is missing Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia needs to eat with Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia needs to live with Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia needs to sleep with Doctor Asif Qureshi.
All of the above.
Zakia in Medina: What do you have to do?
Take a look at this.
Arabic language transliteration to English and other guidelines for departments in the state http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/linguistics.html
What is your response to these facts?
Here are further facts.