English language translation from other languages.
This book has been authored by Asif Qureshi.

Linguistic Anthropology

Table of Contents
What is in the table of contents of this resource?
Annotation or definition.
Arabic and English
Communication Abilities
Conversation Questions Languages
Number of languages
Top 5 Most Spoken Languages In The World

Annotation or definition.
What is Linguistics?
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language.

Linguistics is the study of language as a cognitive ability. Questions linguists ask are - How do children learn language? How do people understand speech sounds? How and why does language change over time? How is language processed in the brain?

Linguistics is the study of language - how it is put together and how it functions. Various building blocks of different types and sizes are combined to make up a language. Sounds are brought together and sometimes when this happens, they change their form and do interesting things. Words are arranged in a certain order, and sometimes the beginnings and endings of the words are changed to adjust the meaning. Then the meaning itself can be affected by the arrangement of words and by the knowledge of the speaker about what the hearer will understand. Linguistics is the study of all of this. There are various branches of linguistics which are given their own name, some of which are described below. Linguists are people who study linguistics.

Phonetics is the study of the sounds of speech. It includes understanding how sounds are made using the mouth, nose, teeth and tongue, and also understanding how the ear hears those sounds and can tell them apart. A study of phonetics involves practicing producing (sometimes exotic) sounds, and figuring out which sound you heard. The wave form of each sound can be analysed with the help of computer programs. In sign language, phonetics refers to the the possible shapes, movements and use of physical space.

Phonology makes use of the phonetics in order to see how sounds or signs are arranged in a system for each language. In phonology, it matters whether sounds are contrastive or not, that is, whether substituting one sound for another gives a different, or "contrastive," meaning. For example in English, [r] and [l] are two different sounds - and the words "road" and "load" differ according to which of these sounds is used. But in some languages, [r] and [l] are variations of the same sound. They could never make a meaning difference in words that differ by only that sound. Phonologists describe the contrastive consonants and vowels in a language, and how pronunciation is affected by the position of the sound in the word and the sounds that are nearby. They are also interested in syllables, phrases, rhythm, tone, and intonation.

Morphology looks at how individual words are formed from smaller chunks of meaningful units called morphemes. For example, the English word 'untied' is really made up of three parts, one refering to the process of reversing an action (un-), one indicating the action of twisting stringlike things together so they stay (tie), and the last indicating that the action happened in the past (-d). Many languages have a much more complex way of putting words together. Morphology interacts in important ways with both phonology (bringing sounds together can cause them to change) and syntax, which needs to pay attention to the form of a word when it combines it with other words.

Syntax is the study of how phrases, clauses and sentences are constructed and combined in particular languages. Writing a grammar requires defining the rules that govern the structure of the sentences of the language. Such rules involve both the order of words, and the form of words in their various possible positions. There are common patterns among even unrelated languages, and many linguists believe this is the result of general principles which apply to most, if not all, languages. For example, languages where the direct object generally follows the verb have a lot of things in common, in contrast to the things in common held by languages in which the direct object generally precedes the verb.

Discourse analysis looks at bigger chunks of language - texts, conversations, stories, speeches, etc. Different types of these use language differently, and there can even be differences in how a language is used based on the genre. For example, "Once upon a time" is an appropriate start to a fairy tale, but not to a news story on the evening news. Discourse features can also show important principles of organization such as which players in a story have key roles and which just have bit parts.

Semantics is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between words, phrases and other bits of language and on how these words and phrases connect to the world. Pragmatics is similar, but it involves the study of how speakers of a language use the language to communicate and accomplish what they want. Pragmatics looks more at the relationship between speaker and listener which allows assumptions to be made about the intended message, considering, for example, the way context contributes to meaning. A classic example is where someone is asked "Do you want some coffee?" Does the reply "Coffee will keep me awake" mean yes or no? It depends whether the person wants to stay awake - and the questioner will only understand the intended meaning if they know whether the person wants to stay awake.

Historical Linguistics is the study of how languages have changed over time. Some changes happen because of slow (maybe incremental) changes within the language, such as in pronunciation or in the meaning of a word. Other changes happen because of contact with speakers of other languages. The most well know example of this is "borrowing," but language contact can cause other types of change as well. It can be interesting to compare phonology, syntax and word lists of similar or geographically close languages to see how similar they are. Some linguists then use this information to figure out the past of the languages, such as when two languages split from each other. Combined with other known facts about the speakers of the language, it can lead to important discoveries about their history.

Sociolinguistics is the study of society and language. Sociolinguists may use surveys to examine in which contexts a language is used (e.g. market, home, school, workplace) and the attitudes to each language (particularly in multilingual contexts). They may look at ways that variation in a particular language correlates with social factors such as speaker age, ethnic identity, location, etc. For more information on sociolinguistics, see here.

Do linguists perform simultaneous translation?
No. Simultaneous translation is a specialized ability usually associated with people who have spoken two or more languages since childhood. Some linguists HAVE speciliazed in studying bilingual speakers, but many study other fields outside translation.

What is language?
Language is a set of symbols being used mainly for communication. The symbols may be spoken or written. Language is an aspect of human behavior. In written form it is a long-term record of knowledge from one generation to the next while in spoken form it is a means of communication. Language is the key aspect of human intelligence.

Natural Language

Natural language is an ordinary language that has evolved as the normal means of communication among people. Examples: English, Mandarin, Arabic, Arabic and Ukrainian.

Constrained Language(Programming language)

Constrained languages are those that have a special or limited vocabulary designed for restricted types of communication. Examples: programming languages such as PHP, JavaScript and Java and languages that apply only to a certain domain.

Number of languages

How many languages are there?

There are approximately 6,900 distinct languages in existence today, though there may be languages spoken in remote areas that we have yet to discover.

The English language is the most popular language. If you know the English language well, you can help others to learn it.

Top 5 Most Spoken Languages In The World

Which languages have the most speakers?
How many languages do linguists have to know?
All linguists are exposed to data from a number of languages, but may only be able to speak their own native language proficiently.

What do linguists actually study?
Linguists specialize in different components of language. Although some linguists perform psychological studies, many study texts or ask for native speaker judgements to collect their data. Some subgroups include:

Phonology/Phonetics - The study of speech sounds Morphology - The study of word structure Syntax - The study of how words are put together to create sentences and phrases Semantics/Pragmatics - How meaning is structured and communicated via language Historical Linguistics - How language changes over time Language Acquisition - How children insticntively acquire the ability to use language Applied Linguistics - How to effectively teach adults and teens a second language Computational - Studying artifical intelligence & cognitive models of language Sign Language Studies - How sign language has similar and distinct properties from spoken language Sociolinguistics - How languages & dialects from different socio-economic groups interact and change

What do you do with a linguistics degree?
In addition to teaching linguistics at the college level, linguists have been known to: Observe or test unconscious linguistic behavior to develop models of cognition or communication. Work with software developers on language-based applications including grammar checkers, search engines, natural language processing, speech recognition and artifical speech production. Decipher and interpret ancient texts. Consult on language policy issues (bilingualism, foreign language education, etc.) Work with communities of minority languages on maintaining and teaching their linguistic heritage. Create artifical languages for their novels or favorite sci-fi show.

A bachelor's in linguistics (combined with the right electives) can also be a good gateway to law school, international business, psychology, computer science, English language teaching abroad and more. In my experience, linguistics has given me a better appreciation of world cultures, improved my writing, and sharpened my reasoning. Not a bad educational payoff.

What do you think of bilingual education?
To be incredibly vague, my answer is "It depends on the context". Balancing the needs of language use between ease of communication and preserving ethnic heritages is quite complicated. What is important to me is that any decision consider linguistic and language acquisition principles, not just raw emotion.

What do linguists think about chat/texting language?
A lot of people observing texting/chatting/tweeting are interested/worried about the fact that lots of abbreviations are included (e.g. LOL, :), c u l8tr), however the heavy use of abbreviations in writing is not unique to texting. Medieval manuscript writers (and almost all manuscript professionals in any culture) are notorious for creating symbols and abbreviations (e.g. , &,#, e.g., i.e., ...). The reasons for abbreviating in manuscripts and texting are essentially the same – it saves space and is less effort. Manuscript writers were worried about writers cramp, but texters are worried about blackberry thumb. As Txting, the Gr8 Db8 points out, typing text on a numeric phone pad is very much a PITN.

What is unique about social media language is how informal language is being recorded in a written medium. Traditional writing genres tend to be very formal and very carefully crafted for a public audience. In the past, it would be rare that a document potentially accessible to billions of viewers would be filled slang, swearwords or talk about what you ate last night. No longer. In past eras, linguists would have to rely on graffiti or the some personal letters/diaries to find information about colloquial language. But thanks to social media, the 21st century colloquial language will be extremely well-documented...providing the servers remain in service.

What was the first language and how did it develop into all others?
Explain, particularly, Icelandic and Basque.

Who was its first speaker?

What is the most ordinary language you can think of?

What effect does the enlargement of the genioglossus have on child language development?

To what extent can we say that context plays a part in events? Why do we say this?

There is much discussion currently about syntax. Discuss phonology.

How does a language become synchronic?

Why is there so much embedding going on these days?

Distinguish between conjunction and insubordination.

How can reduplication be drastically reduced (perhaps eliminated altogether)?
You have been asked to address a congress of Persian ornithologists. What would you tell them about morphology? Relativisation?
English Language
Intercultural communication in English language
Arabic and English
English to Afghani (Pashto dialect)
Kashmiri and English
Kannada and English
Punjabi and English
Spanish and English
French and English
Mandarin (about 850 million)
Wu (90 million)
Cantonese (Yue) (70 million)
Min (50 million).
Japanese and English
Persian and English
Portugese and English
Ukrainian (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Latvia, Estonia) and English
Tamil and English
Marathi and English
Gujarati and English
Hindi and English
Tagalu and English
Indonesian and English
Urdu and English
Malayalam and English

Arabic and English
  1. Arabic alphabet

  2. Asif
    A Quranic Name for Boys

  3. Adverbs

  4. Animals

  5. Adjective

  6. Arabic crime and punishment vocabulary

  7. Around the house

  8. Arabic Clothing and Colors

  9. Arabic vocabulary for times of day

  10. Arabic Numbers

  11. Arabic Phrases

  12. Basic Arabic words

  13. Basic verbs

  14. Congratulations

  15. Conversation

  16. City & transportation

  17. Clothes

  18. Conjunctions

  19. Colors

  20. Common Arabic Words and Phrases

  21. Crime & punishment

  22. Colloquial

  23. Courteous phrases

  24. Days of the Week in Arabic

  25. Days and numbers

  26. Departments that are essential in every state.

  27. Discussion

  28. Eating out/drinking

  29. Emotions

  30. Education

  31. Emergency Arabic

  32. Emotions & personality traits

  33. Food

  34. Forms of address

  35. Fruits and Vegetables

  36. Geography

  37. Getting around

  38. General

  39. General media vocabulary

  40. Government & politics

  41. Greetings & polite expressions

  42. Greetings & Goodbyes

  43. How to Name Objects in the Room in Arabic

  44. Homes/Rooms

  45. Human Body Parts in Arabic

  46. Insults & crude language

  47. Introductions & Small Talk

  48. Legal Terms: English - Arabic

  49. Mankind & kinship

  50. Media & the arts

  51. Medicine

  52. Meal times/Food

  53. Military Meaning in Arabic

  54. Muslim Funeral Guide

  55. Nouns

  56. Names of Colors in Arabic

  57. Nature & weather

  58. Objects

  59. Online medical consultation

  60. Parts of Speech

  61. Police

  62. Proverbs

  63. Prepositions

  64. Phrases for travelers

  65. Police Training

  66. Professions

  67. Prepositions

  68. Quranic References

  69. Question word question.

  70. Questions in Arabic

  71. Research

  72. References to people

  73. Religion

  74. Relationship

  75. Sex Meaning in Arabic

  76. Subjective Personal Pronouns

  77. Sports & hobbies

  78. Technology

  79. Television

  80. Telephone conversation in Arabic.

  81. Travel Phrases

  82. Translation

  83. T words

  84. Time

  85. The human body

  86. Useful Arabic Words & Phrases

  87. Verbs

  88. Varieties of Arabic

  89. War

  90. Weather

  91. Work

  92. Miscellaneous idioms

Arabic alphabet

A Quranic Name for Boys
A Quranic Name for Boys


Alternate spellings of Asif

Aasef Aaseph Aciph Aasiyf Asiyf Aseph Aseph Aeseyf Asiph Aesef Aesiph

Meaning of Asif

Asif is a direct Quranic name for boys that means “strong”, “stormy”, “powerful”, “fierce”. It is mentioned four times in the Quran.


A Quranic Name for Girls

Zakiya is a direct Quranic name for girls that means "pure", "innocent", "untainted", "having a sweet scent".



Here are further facts.

Here are further guidelines.


Arabic Numbers

Arabic English Translation
Basic Arabic words

Arabic crime and punishment vocabulary
crime (in general) ijraam
crime jariima (pl.) jaraa'im
criminal mujrim (pl.) mujrimuun
murderer saffaaH
victim DaHiyya (pl.) DaHaaya
prisoner asiir (pl.) asra
suspect in muštaba fi
accused of muttaham bi
involvement in Dil3 (pl.) Duluu3 fi
illegal geir qaanuuni
to arrest i3taqala - ya3taqilu (i3tiqaal)
to suspect s.o. of ištabaha - yaštabihu (ištibaah) s.o. fi
to charge, indict ittahama - yattahimu (ittihaam) s.o. bi
to sue qaaDa - yuqaaDi (muqaaDaah)
to extradite sallama - yusallimu (tasliim)
to confess to i3tarafa - ya3tarifu (i3tiraaf) bi
to release, free aTlaqa - yuTliqu (iTlaaq) saraaH
to pardon 3afa - ya3fu (3afw) 3an
warrant mudakkirat tawqiif
bail kafaala
justice - just 3adaala/3adl - 3aadil
denial of justice Hirmaan min al-3adaala
trial muHaakama
case, lawsuit qaDiyya (pl.) qaDaaya
court or tribunal maHkama (pl.) maHaakim
appeal maHkamat al-isti'naaf
judge qaaDin (pl.) quDaah
lawyer muHaamin (pl.) muHaamiyuun
witness šaahid (pl.) šuhuud
eyewitness šaahid 3iyaan
prosecution iddi3aa'
defense difaa3
case qaDiyya (pl.) qaDaaya
to claim, allege za3ama - yaz3umu (za3m)
to prove dalla - yadullu (dalaala)
proof, evidence daliil (pl.) adilla
to convict adaana - yudiinu (idaana)
guilty mudnib (pl.) mudnibuun
to acquit abraa'a - yubri'u (ibraa') s.o. min
innocent bari' (pl.) abriyaa'
theft sariqa
robbery nahb
burglary of ? saTw 3ala
drug possession Hiyaazat muxaddiraat
drug trade mutaajarat muxaddiraat
smuggling tahriib
rape igtiSaab
murder qatl
bribery irtišaa'/rašwa
embezzlement ixtilaas
fraud iHtiyaal
blackmail ibtizaaz
punishment (in general) 3iqaab
(a) punishment 3uquuba (pl.) 3uquubaat
sentence Hukm (pl.) aHkaam 3ala
sentenced to maHkuum bi
fine garaama (pl.) garaamaat
prison, jail sijn (pl.) sujuun
prison cell zinzaana (pl.) zinzaanaat
imprisonment Habs
life imprisonment as-sijn al-mu'abbad
death penalty Hukm al-i3daam
to execute s.o. a3dama - yu3dimu (i3daam)
hanging šanq
gallows mišnaqa (pl.) mašaaniq
lethal injection al-Huqna l-qaatila
the electric chair al-kursi l-kahrabaa'i
chained, handcuffed mukabbal
chains salaasil (sing.) silsila

How to Name Objects in the Room in Arabic

book ::: kee-ta-b
clock/time::: sa'ah
computer ::: ha-soob
pen/pencil::: qa-lam
telephone ::: ha-tef
paper ::: w'a-ra-qa
notebook ::: daff-tar
trash ::: muh-mal-at
clock/time::: sa'ah :
door ::: b-a-b
window ::: na-fi-za
flag ::: a'a-lam
homework ::: wa-jib
home ::: b-ay-t
light ::: dow'a
chair ::: kur-see
Names of Colors in Arabic
colors alwan
English Transliteration Color
Blue Azraq
Black Aswad
Brown Bunni
Green Akhdhar
Gray Ramadi
Purple Banafsaji
Red Ahmar
Orange Burtuqali
Yellow Asfar
White Abyad

Days of the Week in Arabic

Arabic vocabulary for times of day
Why is understanding, speaking, reading, and writing the English language essential?

Military Meaning in Arabic

Military Meaning in Arabic
Military Vocabulary/Politics

Air force Quwwaat jawwiyya
Armed forces Quwwaat musallaHa
Attack Hujuum
Commander in chief Al-qaa'id al-a3la
Military Aircraft Tayara Askari
Navy Al-bahariyya
Tank Dabbaaba (pl.) dabbaabaat

What is the Arabic word for aircraft?

Air force Alquwatu jovia/Silaho Jov
Ammunition Zakhira/Zakayer
An Ambush Kameen/Kamain
Army Jash/Jaush
Attack hujuum
Base Qaeda/Qawaid
Battle Mareka/Marik
Bomb Qumbula/Kanabil
Camp Muasker/Muaskarat
Car=bomb Sayar Mukafafa
Cease-fire Wakfun Iklakun Nar
Civilian Madani/Madanauun
Commander Quaid/Quada
Commander in chief Qaa'id al-ala
Enemy Adu/Ada
Fighter-plane Mukatila/Mukatilaat
Forces Kowa/Kowat
Explosives Mutafajirat
Fighting Kital
Headquaters/Command Quyada/Quyadat
Intelligence Almukhabarat
Invasion gazw
Missile/rocket Sarook/sawareekh
Navy Al bahreya
Occupied Muhtel
Officer Dabit/Dabat
POW (Prisoners of War) Aseer/Asra
Submarine Gawasa/Gawasat
Soldier Jaundi/Janud
Special Forces Al Quwatul khasa
Tank ? dabbaaba (pl.) dabbaabaat
Truce Hudna
Warship Safenatun herbeya/ Safunun harbeya
Weapon Silah/Aslah

Police Training
State Police
Shurtha tun vilaya

Criminal Offences
Al gariyemu ginayatu

What should police or military in the state and outside the state know?
Police Training
Criminal Offences

Emergency Arabic

Ambulance: [sayarat esaaf]
Doctor: [tabeeb]
To ask for a nurse say mumarriD (M), mumarriDa (F).
Hospital: [mustashfa]
Pharmacy: [saydalia]
alam (pain)
Sudaa' (headache)
Huruuq ash-shams (sunburn)
zukaam (a cold)
iltihaab (inflammation)
Stomach Ache: [alam maeda]
al-is-haal (diarrhea)
mariiD (sick)
Hi [salam]
How are you? [kaif haluk?]
I'm good, thank you [ana bekheir, shukran]
What is your name? [ma ismuk?]
Are you okay? [hal anta bekhair?]
I need a doctor [ahtaaj tabeeb]
I am sick [ana mareed]
Help [annajda]
Where are you from? [men ayn ant?]
Where do you live? [ayn taeesh?]
How old are you? [kam huwa sinnuk?]
Can I help you? [hal mumken an usaedak?

Here are further guidelines.

T words



Debate Munakasha
Conversation Muhadata
Discussion Nikashun
I have
I have few questions.
Can you give
Can you give brief introduction about yourself?
Where is your biodata on the Internet?

Parts of Speech

Arab grammarians traditionally break down the words into three categories:
Noun ????
Verb ?????
Particle ?????


Arabic Nouns

Here are further guidelines.



Arabic Prepositions

About: hawla حولَ

By: ‘ala على

On: ‘ala... على

Above: fawqa فوقَ

close by: bel qurbi men بالقرب من

on top of: fawqa... فوقَ

according to…: wafqan li …وفقا ل

close to: bejaneb …بجانب

Opposite to: ‘aksa... عكسَ

Across: ‘abra عبرَ

Concerning: bekhosoos بخصوص

Out: khaarej... خارج

After: ba’da بعدَ

Despite: raghma رغمَ

Outside…: bel kharej men... بالخارج

Against: dedda ضدَ

Down: tahta تحت

Over: ‘ala... على

ahead of: amama أمامَ

due to: naatej ‘an ناتج عن

Per …: li kolli... لكل

all over: men jaded من جديد

During: khelaala خلالَ

Plus …: idafatan ila...إضافةً الى

Along: ‘ala tool على طول

except for: bestethnaa’ (th as in think) باستثناء

Regarding: bekhosoos...بخصوص

Among: men bayn من بين

Excluding: mostathnian مستثنياً

Save: bestithnaa’ (th as in think)...باستثناء

Around: hawla حولَ

for: li…. ل

similar to: moshaabeh li...مشابه ل

As: ka…كَ

From: men من

Since: mundu...منذُ

As … as: … ka ….كَ

In: fi... فِ

Than: men... من

Aside: bejaaneb بجانب

in front of: amama أمامَ

thanks to…: befadli…بفضل

At: ‘ala على

in place of: makana …مكانَ

Through: khelaala …خلالَ

away from: ba’eedan ‘an بعيدا عن

in spite of: berraghmi men….بالرغم من

Till: ila (or) ila ghaayat …الى or الى غاية

because of: besababi بسبب

Including: mo’taberan معتبراً

To: ila …إلى

Before: qabla قبلَ

Inside: beddakhel... بالدّاخل

Towards: bettejaah … باتجاه

Behind: waraa’ وراءَ

instead of: ‘ewadan ‘an …عوضاً عن

Under: tahta...تحت

Below: tahta تحت

Less: aqal... أقل

Unlike: kheelafan ‘an...خلافاً عن

Beneath: men taht من تحت

Like …: methla … (or) ka …مثلَ . (or) كَ

Until: ila ghayet …الى غاية

Beside: bejaneb بجانب

Minus: naqes …ناقص

Up: fawq فوق

Besides: bel idafati ila باللإضافة الى

Near: qareeb... قريب

Versus: ‘aaksa …عكسَ

Between: bayna بينَ

near to …: qareeb men…. قريبٌ من

Via: ‘abra….عبر

Beyond: wara’a وراءَ

next to: bejaneb …بجانب

With: ma’a….مع

But: laken لكن

Of: men (not for possessive)... من

Without: bedoon…بدون

English Prepositions Arabic Prepositions
about hawl
above fawq
across 'abr
after ba'd
against thed
among baeen
around hawl
as kamaa
at feee
before qabl
behind waraa'
below aaqol men
beneath taht
beside bejaaneb
between baeen
beyond waraa'
but laken
by men qabl
despite 'alaa alraghm men
down aasfal
during khelaal
except eelaa
for eelaa
from men
in feee
inside daakhel
into eelaa
near qorb
next altaaleee
of men
on feee
opposite mo'aakes
out khaarej
outside khaarej
over khelaal
per lekol
plus zaa'ed
round - jawlah
since month
than men
through men khelaal
till hataa
to eelaa
toward nahw
under taht
unlike 'alaa 'aks
until - hataa
up fawq
via bewaasetah
with ma'
within themn
without bedown
two words kalemataeen
according to behasab
because of besabab
close to qareeebah men
due to besabab
except for beastethnaa'
far from bo'aeed 'an
inside of daakhel
instead of badalaa men
near to bealqorb men
next to qorb
outside of khaarej
prior to qabl
three words thalaath kalemaat
as far as beqadar maa
as well as wakathalek
in addition to bealeethaafah eelaa
in front of aamaam
in spite of 'alaa alraghm men
on behalf of beasm
on top of fawq
demonstratives borhaaneeeah horowf aljar
this hathaa
that aan
these ha'olaa'
those ha'olaa'


And wa
But laakin
Or aw
So lizalik
Yet lakin
Not Lisa
Nor Valla

Arabic education vocabulary
Standard Arabic Transliteration
school madrasa (pl.) madaaris
nursery school HaDaana (pl.) HaDaanaat '' HaDaana (pl.) HaDanaat
kindergarten rawDat al-aTfaal
elementary school al-madrasa l-ibtidaa'iyya
middle school al-madrasa l-i3daadiyya
secondary school al-madrasa t-taanawiyya '' al-madrasa s-sanawiyya
university jaami3a (pl.) jaami3aat '' gam3a (pl.) gam3aat
higher education ad-diraasaat al-3ulyaa '' id-dirasaat il-3ulya
department qism (pl.) aqsaam '' 'ism (pl.) a'saam
program barnaamaj (pl.) baraamij '' barnaamag (pl.) baraamig
studies diraasaat '' dirasaat
curriculum manhaj (pl.) manaahij '' manhag (pl.) manaahig
school subject (or material, as in building materials) maadda (pl.) mawaadd '' madda (pl.) mawaadd
college, academy kulliyya (pl.) kulliyyaat
institute ma3had (pl.) ma3aahid
Ministry of Education wizaarat at-tarbiyya wat-ta3liim
diploma, degree (or certificate) šahaada
with distinction bimtiyaaz
baccalaureate bakalooriyaa
BA (bachelor of arts) lesaans
BS (bachelor of science) bakaloriyoos
masters' majisteir
doctorate doctooraah
professor ustaad (pl.) asaatida '' ustaaz (pl.) asatza
teacher mudarris
pupil tilmiid (pl.) talaamiid '' tilmiiz (pl.) talamiiz
student Taalib (pl.) Tullaab
major, specialization taxaSSuS (pl.) taxaSSuSaat bi
lesson dars (pl.) duruus
homework (or duty) waajib (pl.) waajibaat '' waagib (pl.) wagibaat
exam imtiHaan (pl.) imtiHaanaat '' imtiHaan (pl.) imtiHanaat
test ixtibaar (pl.) ixtibaaraat '' ixtibaar (pl.) ixtibaraat
lecture muHaaDara '' muHaDra
discussion munaaqaša '' muna'ša
research abHaat '' abHaas
analysis taHliil (pl.) taHaaliil '' taHliil (pl.) taHaliil
to deduce (an inference) istantaja - yastantiju (istintaaj) '' instantig - yistantig (istintaag)
(an) exercise tamriin (pl.) tamaariin/tamriinaat '' tamriin (pl.) tamariin/tamrinaat
(an) activity našaaT (pl.) našaaTaat/anšiTa '' našaaT (pl.) našaTaat/anšiTa
presentation taqdiim (pl.) taqdiimaat '' ta'diim (pl.) ta'dimaat
textbook kitaab madrasi (pl.) kutub madrasiyya
grade, form Saff (pl.) Sufuuf
class faSl (pl.) fuSuul
class period HiSSa (pl.) HiSaS
recess, holiday ajaaza (pl.) ajaazaat '' agaaza (pl.) agazaat

3uTla (pl.) 3uTal
scholarship, grant minHa (pl.) minaH
notebook daftar (pl.) dafaatir ?????? (?) ??????? kurraasa (pl.) kurrasaat
(thick) notebook kaškuul (pl.) kašakiil
pen qalam (pl.) aqlaam '' 'alam (pl.) a'laam
pencil qalam raSaaS '' 'alam raSaaS
paper waraqa (pl.) awraaq '' wara'a (pl.) awraa'
eraser mimHaah
astiika (pl.) asatiik
blackboard sabbuura (pl.) sabbuuraat
tuxta (pl.) tuxat
chalk Tabaašiir '' Tabašiir
calculator aala Haasiba (pl.) aalaat Haasiba '' aala Hasba (pl.) alaat Hasba
(measuring) ruler misTara (pl.) masaaTir '' masTara (pl.) masaaTir
encyclopedia mawsuu3a (pl.) mawsuu3aat
dictionary qaamuus (pl.) qawaamiis '' qamuus (pl.) qawamiis
to teach 3allama - yu3allimu (ta3liim) 3allim - yi3allim (ta3liim)
darrasa - yudarrisu (tadriis) '' darris - yidarris (tadriis)
to learn ta3allama - yata3allamu (ta3allum)
to specialize or major in (a field of study) taxaSSaSa - yataxaSSaSu (taxaSSuS) bi
itxaSSaS - yitxaSSaS (taxaSSuS) bi
to study (a subject) darasa- yadrusu (diraasa) '' daras - yidris (diraasa)
to study (e.g. lessons, for a test) daakara - yudaakiru (mudaakara) '' zaakir - yizaakir (muzakra)
to memorize HafiZa - yaHfaZu (HifZ) '' HifiZ - yiHfaZ (HifZ)
to attend, be present HaDara - yaHDuru (HuDuur) '' HaDar - yiHDar (HuDuur)
to be absent (from) gaaba - yagiibu (giyaab) 3an '' ''
to make s.t. up (ex. missed homework) 3awwaDa - yu3awwiDu (ta3wiiD) '' 3awwaD - yi3awwaD (ta3wiiD)
to graduate from taxarraja - yataxarraju (taxarruj) fi
itxarrag - yitxarrag (taxarrug) min
grade, mark daraja (pl.) darajaat '' daraga (pl.) daragaat
good grades darajaat 3aaliya '' daragaat 3alya
to get a good grade on an exam ? najaHa - yanjaHu (najaaH) fil-imtiHaan '' nagaH - yingaH (nagaaH) fil-imtiHaan
wrong, incorrect xaTa'
to add jama3a - yajma3u (jam3) '' gama3 - yigma3 (gam3)
to subtract (a number) from (another) __ ?? __ TaraHa - yaTraHu (TarH) __ min __ '' TaraH - yiTraH (TarH) __ min
to multiply (a number) by (another) Daraba - yaDribu (Darb) __ fi __ '' Darab - yiDrab (Darb) __ fi __
to divide (a number) by (another) qasama - yaqsimu (qasm) __ 3ala __ '' 'asam - yi'sim ('isma) __ 3ala __
__ plus __ is __ __ ???? __ ????? __ __ zaa'id __ yusaawi __ __ zaa'id __ yisaawi __
__ minus __ is __ __ ???? __ ????? __ __ naaqiS __ yusaawi __ '' __ naa'iS __ yisaawi __
__ times __ is __ __ ?? __ ????? __ __ fi __ yusaawi __ '' __ fi __ yisaawi __
__ (divided) by __ is __ __ ??? __ ????? __ __ 3ala __ yusaawi __ '' __ 3ala __ yisaawi __
equation mu3aadala (pl.) mu3aadalaat '' mu3adla (pl.) mu3adlaat
fraction kasr (pl.) kusuur '
(math) problem mas'ala (pl.) masaa'il
shape šakl (pl.) aškaal
circle daa'ira (pl.) dawaa'ir ???? (?) ????? deira (pl.) dawaayir
square murabba3 (pl.) murabba3aat '' mirabba3 (pl.) mirabba3aat
rectangle mustaTiil (pl.) mustaTiilaat
triangle mutallat (pl.) mutallataat '' musallas (pl.) musallasaat
side Dil3 (pl.) Duluu3
angle zaawiya (pl.) zawaaya '' zawya (pl.) zawaaya
human sciences (liberal arts) al-3uluum al-insaaniyya
history at-taariix
political science al-3uluum as-siyaasiyya
sociology 3ilm al-ijtimaa3 '' 3ilm il-igtimaa3
psychology 3ilm an-nafs
literature al-adab
linguistics al-lisaaniyaat
philosophy al-falsafa
accounting al-muHaasaba '' il-muHasba
business administration idaarat al-a3maal
journalism aS-SaHaafa
engineering al-handasa
civil engineering al-handasa l-madaniyya
computer engineering handasat al-Haasuubaat ????? ?????????? handasit il-kombyuuter
electrical engineering al-handasa l-kahrabaa'iyya
industrial engineering al-handasa S-Sinaa3iyya
nuclear engineering al-handasa n-nawawiyya
architecture al-3imaara
economics al-iqtiSaad
home economics al-iqtiSaad al-manzili
law al-Huquuq '' il-Hu'uu'
fine arts al-funuun al-jamiila '' il-funuun il-gamiila
art fann (pl.) funuun
music al-muusiiqa '' al-musiiqa
dance ar-raqS '' ar-ra'S
science 3ilm (pl.) 3uluum
biology al-aHyaa'
microbiology al-aHyaa' ad-daqiiqa '' il-aHyaa' id-di'ii'a
chemistry al-kiimiyaa' '' kimiya
biochemistry al-kiimiyaa' al-Hayawiyya
physics al-fiiziyaa' '' fiziya
astronomy al-falak
mathematics ar-riyaaDiyaat
statistics al-iHSaa'
algebra al-jabr '' il-gabr
geology al-jiyolojiya
geography al-jigrafiya '
anthropology 3ilm al-insaan
archaeology 3ilm al-aataar '' 3ilm il-asaar
computer science 3ilm al-Haasuub ??? ???????????? 3ilm il-kombyuuteraat
agricultural sciences al-3uluum az-ziraa3iyya
earth sciences 3uluum al-arD
environmental science 3ilm al-bii'a
botany 3ilm an-nabaat
veterinary science aT-Tibb al-beiTari
forensic medicine aT-Tibb aš-šar3i
psychiatry aT-Tibb an-nafsaani
medicine aT-Tibb
nursing at-tamriiD
public health aS-SiHHa l-3aamma
dentistry Tibb al-asnaan
optics al-baSriyaat
pharmacy aS-Seidala
language luga (pl.) lugaat
grammar qawaa3id
vocabulary mufradaat
synonym muraadif (pl.) muraadifaat '' muraadif (pl.) muradifaat
spelling tahji'a ????? tahgiyya
to spell tahajja - yatahajja (tahajjin) '' ithagga - yithagga (tahgiyya)
pronunciation lafZ (pl.) alfaaZ
style (as in writing style) usluub
fluency Talaaqa '
proficiency, ability kafaa'a
skill mahaara (pl.) mahaaraat '' mahaara (pl.) maharaat
ability qudra (pl.) qudaraat '' 'udra (pl.) 'udaraat

Government & politics
English Transliteration
Administration idaara (pl.) idaaraat
Analysis taHliil
Emperor (plural emperors) Amir Toor
Mughal Emperors
Prince Amir
Statistics iHSaa'aat
Scandal faDiiHa (pl.) faDaa'iH
Grave qabr (pl.) qubuur
State Dawlat
Dawlat Qa?ar
Deceased marHuum
Air force quwwaat jawwiyya
Navy al-baHariyya
Tank dabbaaba (pl.) dabbaabaat
rank rutba (pl.) rutab
commander in chief al-qaa'id al-a3la
bloc kutla (pl.) kutal
bribery irtišaa'/rašwa
committee lajna (pl.) lijaan
connections waasTa
conservative muHaafiZ
constitution dustuur (pl.) dasaatiir
corruption - corrupt fasaad - faasid
council majlis (pl.) majaalis
councillor, advisor mustašaar (pl.) mustašaaruun
crown prince waliiy al-3ahd
delegation wafd (pl.) wufuud
discrimination tamyiiz
election rigging, fraud tazwiir al-intixaabaat
embezzlement ixtilaas
empire imbraaTuuriyya (pl.) imbraaTuuriyyaat
fraud iHtiyaal
governor; ruler Hakim (pl.) Hukkaam
human rights Huquuq al-insaan
intelligence muxaabaraat
issue qaDiyya (pl.) qaDaaya
king malik (pl.) muluuk
kingdom mamlaka (pl.) mamaalik
law qaanuun (pl.) qawaaniin
leader zu3amaa'
liberal liibiraali
negligence ihmaal
neo-conservative muHaafiZ jadiid
oppression Zulm
patriotism waTaniyya
persecution iDTihaad
political siyaasi
politics as-siyaasa
prejudice taHayyuz
prince amiir (pl.) umaraa'
protection Himaaya
racism 3unSuriyya
repression qam3
restrictions (on) quyuud 3ala
right Haqq (pl.) Huquuq
safety salaama
scandal faDiiHa (pl.) faDaa'iH
security amn
slogan ša3aar (pl.) ša3aaraat
stability istiqraar
statistics iHSaa'aat
swindling naSb
transparency šaffaafiyya
tyranny istibdaad
unity waHda


Dear Viewers
Asif is a direct Quranic name for boys that means “strong”, “stormy”, “powerful”, “fierce”. It is mentioned four times in the Quran.

Viewers/Al Mushahideena
Dear Viewers/Mushahideen nal Kiram
Asif is a direct Quranic name for boys that means “strong”, “stormy”, “powerful”, “fierce”. It is mentioned four times in the Quran./Asif hul ismul Qiranil mibahare fitanyane va hada yane qawi yate al asfati Qawiya sharifatan ve ezkaru arba maratul fil Quran nul karima.
Hello, I am Doctor Asif Qureshi. Marhaban/Ana Tabeeb Asif Qureshi
I have a few questions about your health./Ladaye bedatu es ela an satika.
How are you feeling now?/Limada tash harul al ananna?
Can you describe issues you have now? Umkinu towasafal kadayal Ladeka aana?

English Transliteration
atomic bomb qunbula darriyya
bloodless coup inqilaab abyaD
coup inqilaab
defense (of) difaa3 3an
military (adj.) askari
missile, rocket Saaruux (pl.) Sawaariix

Greetings & Goodbyes
Hello – Salam
Welcome – Marhaban
Hello, friend (female) – Ahlan sadiqati
Hello, friend (male) – Ahlan sadiqi
Good morning – Sabah el kheer
Good evening – Masaa el kheer
Long time, no see – Lam naraka mundhu muddah
I missed you so much (female) – Eshtaqto elaiki katheera
I missed you so much (male) – Eshtaqto elaika katheera
How are you? (female) – Kaifa haloki?
How are you? (male) – Kaifa haloka?
(I’m) good – Jayed
(I’m) okay – aadee
I am fine, thank you – Ana bekhair, shokran
And what about you? (female) – Wa anti?
And what about you? (male) – Wa ant?
What is new? – Maljadeed?
Nothing new – Lashai jadeed
I have to go – Yajebu an athhaba al aan
I will be right back – Sa arje’o halan
Good bye – Ma’a salama
Good night – Tosbeho (male) / Tosbeheena (female) ‘ala khair
See you later – Araka (male) / Araki (female) fi ma ba’d

Introductions & Small Talk
What’s your name? (female) – Ma esmouki?
What’s your name? (male) – Ma esmouk?
My name is… – Esmee
Where are you from? (female) – Men ayna anti
Where are you from? (male) – Men ayna anta
I’m from… – Ana men…
Where do you live? (female) – Ayna taskuneen?
Where do you live? (male) – Ayna taskun?
I live in the United States/France – A’eesho fel welayat almotaheda / faransa
What do you do for a living? (female) – Ma mehnatuki?
What do you do for a living? (male) – Ma mehnatuk?
I work as a… – A’mal ka
How old are you? (female) – Kam howa umroki?
How old are you? (male) – Kam howa umruk?
I’m (twenty) years old – Umri eshreen sanah
It’s nice to meet you (female) – Motasharefatun bema’refatek
It’s nice to meet you (male) – Motasharefon bema’refatek
Do you speak Arabic? – Hal tatakallam al-lughah al-‘arabiyah?
Slightly/Some – Qaleelan

Travel Phrases
Can you help me? – Hal beemkanek mosa’adati?
Excuse me (passing by) – Alma’derah
Where is the bathroom? – Ayna ajedu al merhaad?
Where is the pharmacy? – Ayna ajedu assaidaliah?
What is this? – Ma hatha?
How much is this? – Kam howa thamanoh?
Can you speak slowly? – Takalam bebot’ men fadlek (male) /fadleki (female)?
Can you say it again? – A’ed men fadlek! (male) A’eedi men fadleki (female)
I don’t understand – La afham
I don’t know – La a’ref
I’m sorry (didn’t hear something) – ‘Afwan
My Arabic is bad – Lughati al arabic laisat kama yajib

Word Arabic
Useful Arabic Words & Phrases
Hello Salam - Marhaba
What is your name? Sho Ismak? (m) Sho Ismek? (m)
My name is ... Ismi ...
I don't speak Arabic Ana ma ba'aref ahkee Arabee
I speak Arabic a little Baa'ref Arabee Showayya
I / Me Ana
You Inta (m) Inti (f)
He Howwa
She Heyya
We Ehna
They Homm
Yes Na'am - Aaywa
No La'a
How are you? Keef halak? (m) Keef halek? (f)
Thanks God (answer to How are you?) Al-Hamdolillah
Fine (answer to How are you?) Kowayyes (m) Kowayyesah (f)
Good morning Sabah El-Khair
Good evening Masaa El-Khair
Goodbye Ma'assalama - Bye
Hopefully Inshalla
Thank you Shukran
Thanks indeed Shukran Jazilan
Welcome Afwan (answer to Shukran)
You are welcome Ahlan Wa Sahlan
Excuse me? (as question) Laww Smaht (m) Laww Smahti (female)
Excuse me! (as sorry) Afwan
Pardon me Samehni (m) Samehini (f)
If you please Min fadlak (m) Min fadlik (f)
Help me Sa'adni (m) Sa'adini (f)
Sorry Aeseef
Congratulations Mabrook - Tahanina
Wait Istanna
Hurry up Besora'a
Go away Emshi
I want Biddi
We want Bidna
Do you want? Beddak (m) Beddek (f)
How much? Bekam? - Addesh?
This Hada
That Hadak
These Hadol
How much is this? Bekam Hada? - Addesh Hada?
What is this? Sho Hada?
Expensive Ghali
Too Much Kteer
Beautiful Jameel - Helow
Nice Lateef
Right Yameen
Left Shemal
Straight Doghree
Down Town Wast El-Balad
Street Share'a
Hotel Fondoq
Museum Mathaf
Mall Souq
Restaurant Mat'am
Hospital Mustashfa
Toilet / W.C. Hammam
Doctor Tabeeb
Police Shorta
Passport El-Jawaz
Identity Haweyya
Car Seyyara
Taxi Taxi Ojrah
Bus Bas
Airplane Teyyara
Train Qetar
Tea Shai
Coffee Ahwe
Food Akel
Juice Aaseer
Hubbly-bubbly water pipe Argila
Sugar Sokkar
Without Sugar Bdoun Sokkar
Milk Haleeb

Courteous phrases
na'am (yes)
min faDlik (please)
tafaDDal (go ahead, be my guest)
shukran. (Thank you.)
shukran jaziilan. (Thank you very much.)
'afwan (You’re welcome.)
aasef (Sorry.)
'afwan (Excuse me.)
mara thaaniya, min faDlik? (Please repeat.)
laa (no)

References to people
anaa (I)
huwa (he)
hiya (she)
naHnu (we)
anta/anti (you [M/F])
antum (you [plural])
hum (they)

Phrases for travelers
hal tatakallam al-’arabiya? (Do you speak Arabic?)
hal tatakallam al-injliiziya? (Do you speak English?)
atakallam al-'arabiya. (I speak Arabic.)
laa atakallam al-'arabiya. (I do not speak Arabic.)
atakallam qaliilan. (I speak a little.)
afham. (I understand.)
laa afham. (I do not understand.)
hal tafham? (Do you understand? [M])
hal tafhamiin? (Do you understand? [F])

Days and numbers
today/al yoom
Monday/yoom al ithnayn
Tuesday/yoom ath thalatha
Wednesday/yoom al araba’a
Thursday/yoom al khamees
Friday/yoom al jum’a
Saturday/yoom as sabt
Sunday/yoom al had
twenty-one/wáhid wa áishreen
twenty-two/ithnayn wa áishreen
one hundred/maya
one hundred and fifty/may wa khamseen
two hundred/mayatayn
three hundred/thaltamaya
four hundred/rab’amaya
five hundred/khamsamaya
six hundred/sittamaya
seven hundred/sabamaya
eight hundred/tamnamaya
nine hundred/tissamaya
one thousand/alf
no money/mish fulús
expensive (very)/gháli (jídan)
too expensive/ktir gháli
receipt, invoice/fatúra, wásl
How much does it cost?/Adáysh?/Bikaim?
I like this/Buhíbb hádha
I do not like this/Ma buhíbb hádha

Getting around
How far is it to…?/Kam kiloometre ila…?
downtown/wást al bálad
shared taxi/servís
petrol, super/benzín
Eating out/drinking
with sugar/bi súkkar
without sugar/bidún súkkar
mineral water/mái ma’adaniya
I don’t eat meat/Ana ma bakul laham
I am a vegetarian/ána nabbáti (for a man)/nabbátiya (for a woman)
Enough, thanks/Bas, shukran
the bill/al-hisáb

post office/máktab al-baríd
not good, bad/mish kuways

Arabic Phrases English Phrases Arabic Transliterated Phrases
Hi! Salam!
Good Morning! Sabah el kheer
Good Evening! Masaa el kheer
Welcome! (to greet someone) Marhaban
How Are You? Kaifa haloka/ haloki ( female)
I'm Fine, Thanks! Ana bekhair, shokran!
And You? Wa ant? / Wa anti? (female)
Good/ So-So. Jayed/ 'aadee
Thank You (Very Much)! Shokran (jazeelan)
You're Welcome! (for “thank you”) Al’afw
Hey! Friend! Ahlan sadiqi/ sadiqati! (female)
I Missed You So Much! Eshtaqto elaika/ elaiki (female) katheeran
What's New? Maljadeed?
Nothing Much Lashai jadeed
Good Night! Tosbeho/ tosbeheena (female) ‘ala khair/
See You Later! Araka/ Araki (female) fi ma ba'd
Good Bye! Ma’a salama

Help & Directions
I'm Lost Ada'tu tareeqi!
Can I Help You? Hal beemkani mosa’adatuk?
Can You Help Me? Hal beemkanek mosa’adati?
Where is the (bathroom/ pharmacy)? Ayna ajedu (al merhaad/ assaidaliah)?
Go Straight! Then Turn Left/ Right! imshy ala tool, thumma ‘arrij yaminan/ shimalan
I'm Looking For Doctor Asif Qureshi. Abhatu ‘an Doctor Asif Qureshi
One Moment Please! Lahda men fadlek/ fadleki (female)
Hold On Please! (phone) ibqa/ ibqay (female) ala al khat raja'an
How Much Is This? Kam howa thamanoh? (th as in bath)
Excuse Me ...! ( to ask for something) Men fathlek/ fathleki (female) (th as in that)
Excuse Me! ( to pass by) Alma'derah!
Come With Me! Ta'ala/ ta'alay (female) ma'ee!
Personal Info: Do You Speak (English/ Arabic)? Hal tatakallamu alloghah alenjleziah/ alarabiah?
Just a Little. Qaleelan!
What's Your Name? Ma esmouk? Ma esmouki?
My Name Is …. Esmee…
Mr. Mrs.…/ Miss… Assayed…/ Assayeda…/ Al anesah ...
Nice To Meet You! Motasharefon/ motasharefatun (f) bema'refatek
You're Very Kind! Anta lateef/ Anti lateefa
Where Are You From? Men ayna anta/ anti (female)?
I'm From (the U.S/ Morocco) Ana men (amreeka/ almaghrib)
I’m (American) Ana (amreeki/ amrekiah (female)
Where Do You Live? Ayna taskun?/ Ayna taskuneen? (female)
I live in (the U.S/ France) A'eesho fel welayat almotaheda/ faransa
Did You Like It Here? Hal istamta'ta bewaqtika/ bewaqtiki (f) huna?
Morocco Is a Wonderful _________ Al maghrib _____ _______!
What Do You Do For A Living?
Ma mehnatuk? Mehnatuki (female)
I Work As A (Translator/ Businessman) A'mal ka(motarjim/ rajul a'maal)
I Like Arabic Ohibbu allughah al arabia
I've Been Learning Arabic For 1 Month adrusu allughah al arabia mundu shahr
Oh! That's Good! Hada shay'un Jameel
How Old Are You? Kam howa umruk? umroki (female)
I'm (twenty, thirty…) Years Old. Umri ( 'eshreen/ thalatheen) sanah (th as in bath)
I Have To Go Yajebu an athhaba al aan! (th as in that)
I Will Be Right Back! Sa arje’o halan

Good Luck! Bettawfeeq
Happy Birthday! Eid meelad sa'eed!
Happy New Year! Sana sa'eedah!
Merry Christmas! A'yaad meelad Saeedah
Happy Eid! Eid mobarak!
Happy Ramadan Ramadan mobarak!
Congratulations! Mabrook!
Enjoy! (For meals…) Shahia tayebah!
I'd Like To Visit Morocco One Day Arghabu bezeyarat al maghrib.
Say Hi To John For me. Sallem ‘ala Doctor Asif Qureshi men ajlee
Bless you (when sneezing) Rahimaka Allah
Good Night & Sweet Dreams! Laila sa'eda wa ahlaam ladida
Misunderstanding: I'm Sorry! (if you don't hear something) ‘Afwan!
Sorry (for a mistake) Aaaseef
No Problem! La moshkelah
Can You Say It Again? A’ed men fadlek!/ A’eedi men fadleki (fem)
Can You Speak Slowly? Takalam bebot’ men fadlek/ fadleki (fem)
Write It Down Please! Oktobha men fadlek/ Oktobiha men fadleki (fem)
I Don't Understand! La afham!
I Don't Know! La a’ref!
I Have No Idea. La adri!
What's That Called In Arabic? Ma esmoho bel arabiah?
What Does "qit" Mean In English? Mada ta'ni kalemat "qit" bel inglizia?
How Do You Say "Please" In Arabic? Kaifa taqoulu kalimat "please" bel arabia?
What Is This? Ma hatha (th as in that)
My Arabic Is Bad. Lughati al arabic laisat kama yajib
I need to practice my Arabic Ahtaaju an atadarraba 'ala al arabia!
Don't Worry! La taqlaq! La taqlaqi (fem)

Arabic Expressions & Words
Good/ Bad/ So-So. Jayed/ saye'/ 'adee
Big/ Small Kabeer/ Sagheer
Today/ Now Alyawm/ Al aan
Tomorrow/ Yesterday Ghadan/ Albareha
Yes/ No Na’am/ Laa
Here You Go! (when giving something) Khod!
Do You Like It? Hal a’jabak? Hal a’jabaki? (female)
I Really Like It! A’jabani haqqan!
I'm Hungry/ Thirsty. Ana jae’/ ana ‘atshaan
In The Morning/ Evening/ At Night. Sabahan/ masa’an/ laylan
This/ That. Here/There Hatha/ thalek. Huna/ hunaak (th as in that)
Me/ You. Him/ Her. Ana/ anta/ anti (you female). Houwa/ Hiya
Really! Haqqan!
Look! Onzor / Onzori (female)
Hurry Up! Asre'/ Asre'ee (female)
What? Where? Matha? Ayn? (th as in that)
What Time Is It? kam essa'a?
It's 10 o'clock. 07:30pm. Enaha al 'ashera. Ennaha assaabe'a wa nesf.
Give Me This! A'teni hatheh! (th as in that)
I Love You! Uhibbok/ uhibboki (female)
I Feel Sick. ana mareed.
I Need A Doctor ahtaju tabeeban!
One, Two, Three wahed, ithnaan, thalatha (th as in think).
Four, Five, Six arba'a, khamsa, sitta
Seven, Eight, Nine, Ten sab'a, thamania (th as in think), tis'a, 'ashara.



objects ashyaa'
shampoo shampoo
soap saboon
towel menshafah
toothbrush furshat asnan
toothpaste ma'joon asnan
bed sareer
refrigerator thalajah
table tawelah
cup koob
fork shawkah
knife sekeen

Conversation is a form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people.

How are you? - [kaifa haluka?]
What is new? – Maljadeed?
Do you speak English? - [hal tatakallam al ingliziya?]
Hello - [marhaban]
Congratulations - [mabrouk!]
Please - [min fadlak]
You're welcome - [a’afwan]
Yes - [na’am]
No - [la’a]
See you later - [ma’a ssalama!]

Where is Arabic spoken?
Arabic is also the liturgical language of over a billion Muslims around the world, as it’s the language in which the ??????, Qur'an, the Holy Book of Islam, was revealed.

10. How to be polite and show respect

When meeting someone for the first time, use the greeting
[assalamu a’alaikum], peace be upon you.

When asking for something, you start or end your request with the expression [min Fadlak], which is a polite form of saying please.

When introducing someone, you say [assayed], Mr., or [assayida], Ms., before their name.


Subjective Personal Pronouns

Meal times/Food



Question word question.
Questions in Arabic
There are 12 the most common words to use for making up questions in STANDARD Arabic language. These are:
Ayna where
Man who
Mata when
Maza what (usually after it, comes a verb)
Ma what (usually after it, comes a noun/pronoun)
Lemaza why
Hal for Yes/No questions
Kaifa how
Bekam how much
Ayyu which
Bemaza by what or how
Leman for who / for whom

ayna? (Where?) Egyptian Arabic where fyn
ayy/ayya? (Which?)
hal hunaaka (Is there?) (Are there?)
kayfa? (How?) bikam (How much?)
kam? (How many?)
limaadhaa? (Why?)
maa? (What? [without a verb])
maadhaa? (What [with a verb])
man? (Who?)
mataa? (When?) minyn where from

kayf Haalak? (How are you?)
maa ismuka? (What is your name?)
ayna-l-baab? (Where is the gate?)
maa waDHiifatuka? (What is your profession?)
ayna al-mustashfaa? (Where is the hospital?)
mataa taSil aT-Taa'ira? (When does the plane arrive?)
hal hunaaka markaz bariid qariib min hunaa? (Is there a post office nearby?)
bi-kam al-______? (How much is the ______?)

When will I see you? 'ashufak 'imta?
Where are you from? 'inta minyn?
which book (m) do you(m) want? Aaewiz ilkitaeb 'anhw?
How many days will you stay? hatinizil kaem yum?
What is your telephone number? nimritak kaem? ????? ????? ?? ??

Human Body Parts in Arabic

Varieties of Arabic
  1. Arabic to English Translation

  2. Algerian Arabic

  3. Andalusian group

  4. Bahrani Arabic

  5. Bareqi Arabic

  6. Bedawi Arabic

  7. Chadic Arabic

  8. Comoros

  9. Cypriot Arabic

  10. Dhofari Arabic

  11. Djibouti

  12. Egyptian Arabic (Masri)

  13. Emirati Arabic

  14. Eritrea

  15. Fusha Arabic (Modern Standard Arabic)

  16. Gulf Arabic (Khaliji)

  17. Hadhrami Arabic

  18. Hassaniya Arabic

  19. Hejazi Arabic

  20. Iraq

  21. Jordanian Arabic

  22. Juba Arabic

  23. Kuwaiti

  24. Lebanese Arabic (?????????)

  25. Levantine Arabic

  26. Libyan Arabic (Li?bi)

  27. Medina

  28. Mecca

  29. Mesopotamian Arabic

  30. Moroccan Arabic (Darija)

  31. Mauritania

  32. Nigerian Arabic

  33. North Mesopotamian Arabic (Moslawi/Qeltu)

  34. North Syrian Arabic

  35. Omani Arabic

  36. Palestinian Arabic

  37. Qatari Arabic

  38. Saharan Arabic

  39. Somali Arabic

  40. Sudanese Arabic

  41. Syrian Arabic

  42. Tihamiyya Arabic

  43. Tunisian Arabic (Tunsi)

  44. Yemeni Arabic

Today, Hassaniya is spoken in Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Senegal and the Western Sahara.

What Are the Different Forms of Arabic?
Classical Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic

What is classical Arabic?
Arabic has been in usage in the Arabian Peninsula for at least 2000 years. Classical Arabic is the formal version that was used in the Al-Hijaz region 1500 years ago. Written records of the language include poetry that was composed in pre-Islamic times (ca. 600 AD). The Quran was revealed in Classical Arabic, which is the main reason why the language has preserved its purity throughout the centuries. Arabs consider Classical Arabic an important part of their culture. Throughout Islamic history, Classical Arabic has been the language of royal and princely courts, the bureaucracy and the learned. Literary expression was conducted mainly in Classical Arabic. Mastery of Classical Arabic and the exhibition of this mastery, using both written and oral mediums, has always led to respect and awe.

What is Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)?
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), as its name indicates, is the modern counterpart of Classical Arabic. It is the official language of 44 Arab ________ where it is used in the oral and written form on all formal occasions. The main difference between MSA and Classical Arabic lies in the vocabulary. MSA reflects the needs of contemporary expression whereas Classical Arabic reflects the needs of older styles.

What is colloquial Arabic?
Colloquial Arabic is the spoken Arabic used by Arabs in their every day lives. Unlike MSA that is uniform in all Arab ______, colloquial Arabic is subject to regional variation, not only between different ______, but also across regions in the same ______.

What are the main Arabic dialects?
Whereas MSA is the same throughout the Arab world, the dialects vary according to the geographical location. The further away the ______, the greater the variation between the dialects. In a broad sense there is a wide difference between the dialects of eastern ______ (Arabian Peninsula) and dialects of western ______ (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and western Libya). Dialects in the Middle East, may be broadly classified as follows:

• Dialects of Egypt and Sudan
• Dialects of the Arabian Peninsula
• Dialects of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine
• Dialects of Iraq
• Dialects of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and western Libya

Within each category, further sub-classification takes place, depending amongst other factors – on the location, level of education, and degree of urbanization.

Does Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) ever overlap with colloquial Arabic?
Whereas all Arabs use MSA for the exchange of printed information, especially on formal occasions, Arabic dialects are predominantly used for oral communication. Arabic as a spoken language has thus become more flexible. Although all dialects may have descended from a single source (which is either Classical Arabic or another spoken variety of it), their development was not tied to the norms or rules of Classical Arabic. However, in spite of the differences between all Arabic dialects, their underlying structures are quite similar.

In fact, it is very difficult to find a situation where one type is used exclusively. For example, MSA is used in formal speeches or interviews. However, as soon as the speaker diverts away from his well-prepared speech in order to add a comment or respond to a question, the rate of colloquial usage in his speech increases dramatically. How much MSA versus colloquial is used depends on the speaker, the topic, and the situation. At the other end of the spectrum, public education, as well as exposure to mass media, has introduced MSA elements amongst the least educated so it would be equally difficult to find an Arab speaker whose speech is totally unaffected by MSA.

Can Arabs from different regions communicate with each other in their respective dialects?
Arabic speakers from various parts of the world do communicate in their respective dialects.

However, the degree and ease of comprehensibility depends on two factors:

• The geographical location pertaining to the dialects

• The level of exposure to each dialect

With regards the first factor, Algerians may have more trouble communicating with Saudis than they would with Tunisians, as Algeria is much closer to Tunisia than it is to Saudi Arabia. With regards to the second factor, the average Arab throughout the Arab world has no problem whatsoever understanding the Egyptian dialect as they are all exposed to it via popular TV programs, films and music produced in Egypt.

Should a non-native Arabic learner study MSA, Classical Arabic, or one of the dialects, or all three?
Before venturing on a learning journey, you should choose the learning exercise that would best match your objectives. If your goal is to do research, be able to read/understand Arabic books or the media, or use Arabic in formal situations, then MSA is what you need to study. If you are going to use Arabic mainly in the spoken form in order to communicate with people on the streets, then colloquial Arabic may suffice. It is important to note that by studying MSA as the basis of your Arabic language knowledge, you easily acquire the colloquial form, as it is in many ways a simplified version of MSA. Non-Arabic speaking Muslims who wish to learn Arabic for religious purposes often find learning Classical Arabic to be most rewarding.

Which dialect should a non-native Arabic learner study?
If you know in advance the region or ______ where you may use Arabic, then, you should choose its dialect. If, on the other hand, no such plans are definite, then it may be wiser to choose one of the dialects that is most easily comprehensible throughout the Arab region, such as the Medina/Egyptian one.

Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits & Melons


Common Arabic Words and Phrases
Fawq above
Bayn between
Amaam In front
Daakhil Inside
Khaarij Outside
Jamb Next to
Laakin But/however
Waraa Behind
TaHt Below
ala On
Wa and
Fee in/at
Darasa to study ana adrous anta tadrous anti tadrousiin
Kataba to write ana aktoub anta taktoub anti taktoubiin
Taawila Table
Kursee Chair
Kuraasa Notebook
Mimsaha Eraser
Ustaath Teacher
Jaamia University
sabuura Board
Saaa Clock
Haa'it Wall
Noor Light
Shoubaak Window
Qalam Rusaas Pencil
Qalam Pen
SafHa Page
Kalimaat Words
Al-Fasl The Classroom
Dars arabee Arabic lesson/class
ImtiHaan Exam
Taalib/Taliba/Tulaab Students/s
Waajib/waajibaat Homework
Waajib/waajibaat Homework
Zamiil/Zamiila Classmate/s
Maktab Desk or office
Taalib Student

Sex Meaning in Arabic

sex (intercourse) {noun}
[jins] {noun}

sex (intercourse) {noun} (also: coitus, copulation, intercourse, sexual intercourse)
[jima] {noun}

Arabic Verbs and Tenses
Arabic verbs list


Verb=akala=to eat, masc=m, feminine=f
English Pronouns Arabic Pronouns Perfect Imperfect
I anaa akaltu a'kulu
Thou (m) anta akalta ta'kulu
Thou (f) anti akalti ta'kuliyna
He huwa akala ya'kulu
She hiya akalat ta'kulu
We nahnu akalnaa na'kulu
You (m) antum akaltum ta'kuluuna
You (f) antunna akaltunna ta'kulna
You two (m,f) antumaa akaltumaa ta'kulaani
They two (m) humaa akalaa ya'kulaani
They two (f) humaa akalataa ya'kulaani
They (m) hum akaluu ya'kuluuna
They (f) hunna akalna ya'kulna



Globe Newspaper/Gareeda tul alama
English Newspaper/Gareeda tun Englezia
Breaking News/Akhbaaroon Ajeelah
Electronic Newpaper/Sahefatoon Electonia
Print Newpaper/Tobatun Gareeda
News report/Takreen roon Akhbarren
News reader/Kariul Akhbar
Jail superintendent/Al Signu musharafu

Head of the state/Raeesu Dawla
Correctional officer/Dabitul Islahiya
Guide head of the state/Raeesu dawlati daleelen
Airforce/Alkowatul jowiya
Armed forces/Alkowatul Musalahatu
Navy/Alkowatul Behariya
Emperor/Ameer Toor

World News/Akhbar ul alam ha
Proper Human Food/Al Geza eatul Insane Saleema
Weight Training/Tadreeb bul waznee

Arabic Clothing and Colors
Arabic Women Clothing

Shalwar Kameez

Arab men clothing

Ghutra and Egal

Clothes: almalabis
Socks: [jawareb]
Shoes: [hedaa]
Trousers: [serwal]
Shirt: [qamees]
Sweater: [qamees sufi]
Coat: [maataf]
Jacket: Jacket

Arabic Women Clothing

Skirt: Aljiba
Bra: Malaabis daaxiliyya Hariimi
Clothing size (maqaas (pl.) maqaasaat
Wear: Yartadi
Put on: Yalbis
Shalwar Kameez

Online medical consultation

Where is the patient now?
Ayna howal mareed ul aana?

What seems to be the issue or issues?
Ma ubdu ana hazihul kadeyata awal kedaya?

State department of health.
Wazarate karije sahatu

Take a look at this.
Tafked hada
  1. A–Z alphabetical listing of human health emergency symptoms and signs.

  2. A–Z alphabetical listing of human health emergency diagnoses and treatment.

  3. All human symptoms and signs.

  4. All human diseases and medical conditions.

  5. Assessment of a patient by a physician.

  6. 2015/16 ICD-10-CM Codes

  7. Community health center in the state.

  8. Critical Care

  9. Death Certificates

  10. Nonemergency medical services (Primary care physician training program)

  11. Emergency Medical Services

  12. Emergency Medical Department in a hospital in the state.

  13. Hospitals by state, islands, continents.

  14. International classification of diseases

  15. Physician guide to physician or physicians

  16. Surgical Emergencies

  17. Testing for Human Blood

  18. Training programs for various physicians and their subordinates.

  19. State department of health administrative services.

  20. State department of public health.

  21. Allied health workers guidelines

  22. Pharmacist

  23. Internet guidelines for patient.

  24. Medical Supplies and Equipment

  25. Mental Health

  26. Weight Training Exercises

Muslim Funeral Guide
Salat al-Janazah: The Funeral Prayer
What should happen after the death of an individual?
Normally, this sequence happens.
Announcement of death
If sudden, unexpected, premature death, investigations, forensic analysis, and case handed over to state administration of justice.
(Arrests, detention, termination of services, further punishments)
In case of sudden, premature, unexpected death, investigations required follow-up.
Circumstances of death must be elaborated minute by minute, second by second.

Death certificate issuance
Washing the body
Wrapping the body (Kafan)
Funeral prayers or Namaz-e-Janaza (funeral prayers in absentia).
Funeral Condolences or Messages
Death anniversary

Why is it necessary to elaborate facts about human death in detail?
Condolences have to be forwarded accordingly.
Further investigations have to be conducted as per causes, mechanism, and circumstances (manner) of death.
Further medical research needs to go ahead based on findings.
Administrative recommendations in the state and outside the state have to go ahead.
Death certificates must be ideally available publicly through Internet.

Where is funeral prayer offered?
It is preferable that those praying divide themselves into odd rows with one person as an Imam standing alone in front and while facing in the direction of Qiblah. The body is placed in front of the Imam. If there is more than one body, then these should be put one in front of the other.

How is funeral prayer offered?
Funeral prayers
Genaza Prayer
Funeral prayer should be performed while standing.

The Imam The followers
Takbeer#1:Raise hands and says Allah u-Akbar loudly, Recite Thana And Surah Fatiha silently. Say:Allah u-Akbar silently
Recite Thana and Surah Fatiha silently
1. For Funeral Prayer, Thana is recited in the following:
Subhaanaka allaahumma wa bihamdika wa tabaaraka ismuka wa ta'aala jadduka wa jalla thannaa-uka wa laal ilaaha ghayruka

Translation: Glory be to you Oh Allah, and praise be to You, and blessed is your name, and exalted is Your Majesty, and there is none to be served besides.

Surah Fatiha

Arabic, English Transliteration & Translations

Bismillah Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem
Al-hamdu lillahi Rabb il-'alamin
Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem
Maliki yawmi-d-Din
Iyya-ka na'budu wa iyya-ka nasta'in
Ihdina-sirat al-mustaqim
Sirat al-ladhina an'amta 'alai-him
Ghair il-Maghdubi 'alai-him wa la-d-dallin

In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds:
The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful:
Owner of the Day of Judgement.
Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) was ask for help.
Show us the straight path:
The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not (the path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.
Takbeer#2: With hands folded says Allah u-Akbar loudly Invoke peace and Blessings on the Holy Prophet
2. Invoking Peace and Blessings on the Holy Prophet as given below:

Allaahumma salli alaa muhammadin wa alaa muhammadin kama sallayta alaa ibraaheema wa alaa aali ibraaheema innaka hameedun majeed. Allahumma baarik alaa muhammadin wa alaa aali muhammadin kamaa baarakta alaa ibraheema wa alaa aali ibraheema innaka hameedun majeeedun.

Translation: Oh Allah ! Shower Your mercy upon Muhammad (upon him be peace) and the followers of Muhammad (upon him be peace), as You showered Your mercy upon Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam) and the followers of Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam). Behold You are Praise worthy, Glorious. Oh Allah! Shower Your blessing upon Muhammad (upon him be peace), as you showered Your blessings upon Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam) and the followers of Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam). Behold You are Praise worthy, Glorious.

Allaahumma salli alaa muhammadin wa alaa muhammadin kama sallayta alaa ibraaheema wa alaa aali ibraaheema innaka hameedun majeed. Allahumma baarik alaa muhammadin wa alaa aali muhammadin kamaa baarakta alaa ibraheema wa alaa aali ibraheema innaka hameedun majeeedun.
Translation: Oh Allah ! Shower Your mercy upon Muhammad (upon him be peace) and the followers of Muhammad (upon him be peace), as You showered Your mercy upon Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam) and the followers of Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam). Behold You are Praise worthy, Glorious. Oh Allah! Shower Your blessing upon Muhammad (upon him be peace), as you showered Your blessings upon Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam) and the followers of Ibrahim (Alayhis salaam). Behold You are Praise worthy, Glorious.
Takbeer#3:Hands still folded says Allah u-Akbar loudly Recites Dua for the deceased Hands still folded say Allah u-Akbar silently
Recite Dua for the deceased
3. This is the Dua that is recited after the third Takabeer:

Allaahumma ighfir lihayyinaa, wa mayyitinaa, wa shaahidinaa, wa ghaa-ibinaa, wa sagheerinaa, wa kabeerinaa, wa dhakarinaa wa unthaanaa. Allaahumma man ahyaytahoo minnaa fa ahyihee alal islaam wa man tawaffaytahoo minnaa fatawaffahoo alal iemaan. Translation :

Oh Allah! Forgive those of us who are alive and those of us who are dead; those of us who are present and those of us who are absent; those of us who are young and those of us who are adults; our males and our females. O`Allah! Whomsoever You keep alive, let him live as a follower of Islam and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die as a Believer.

If the deceased is a male child, the invocation is:
Allaahumma ij'alhu lanaa faratan, wa j'alhu lanaa ajran wa dhukharn wa j'alhu lanaa shaafi'an wa mushaffa'an.

If the deceased is a female child, the invocation is :
Allaahumma ij'alhu lanaa faratan, wa j'alhaa lanaa ajraan wa dhukhran wa j'alhaa lanaa shaafi'atan wa mushaffa'atan.

Translation: Oh Allah, make him/her (this child) a source for our salvation; and make him/her a source of reward and treasure for us; and make him/her an intercessor for us, and one whose intercession is accepted.
For a child who has not reached the age of puberty the following Dua should be recited after the THIRD Takbeer:
Dua for boy:-

Dua for girl:-

Takbeer#4:Hands folded says Allah u-Akbar Loudly and immediately thereafter Loudly calls Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah (twice), turning the head First to the right and then to the left. Hands folded say Allah u-Akbar silently and say Assalamu alaikum wa Rahmatullah (once) turning the head To the right and then again turning the Head to the left.
Death certificate issuance
Here are further facts.
Here are further facts.

Quranic References
Surah 4. An-Nisaa, Ayah 59

Transliteration : Ya_ ayyuhal lazina a_manu_ ati'ulla_ha wa ati'ur rasu_la wa ulil amri minkum, fa in tana_za'tum fi syai'in fa ruddu_hu ilalla_hi war rasu_li in kuntum tu'minu_na billa_hi wal yaumil a_khir(i), za_lika khairuw wa ahsanu ta'wila_(n).

Who all have translated Quran from Arabic to English language?
From the year 2000 to 2014, there were 28 Arabic to English translation from more than 28 translators.
From 1900 to 1999, there were 30 Arabic to English various translations.

Where do we go from here?
Take a look at this.
All issues are elaborated at these resources.

What will happen if you follow any others resources?
You will get harmed, you will be harmed, you will have to repent if you have not followed these www.qureshiuniversity.com resources.
Here are further guidelines.

Telephone conversation in Arabic.
Telephone Call
Telephone Hatef
Telephone Number Raqm Hatef
Call Ittisal
Do you want to leave a message? Hal tureed an tatruk risala?
Line is busy Al khat mashgool
Wait a moment please Iathan min fatlika
Stay on the line Ibqa ala alkhat
Call later Itasil lahiqan
Is Asif there? Hal Asif mawjood?
Yes, tell him I called. Naam, qul lahu annani ittasaltu.
Is Zakia there? Hal Zakia mawjooda?
What Ma = Nouns
Mada = Verbs
Ma Ismuka?
Mada Hasala?
Mada or matha
Laka/laki(female) to you
What happened? Mada Hasala?
What happened to you(female)? Mada Hasala laki?
What's wrong? Mada bika?
I love you.

Male to female. Ana Uhibbuki
Female to male. Ana Uhibbuka
How should telephone conversation in Arabic go ahead?

Doctor Zakia from Medina will call 7735616102 Chicago, Illinois, North America.
She will record message in Arabic.
Even her brother and mother can record a message.
Hello, I am Zakia from Medina.
This message is for Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia's email and telephone number is been communicated.

What best describes me?
Zakia is missing Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia needs to eat with Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia needs to live with Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Zakia needs to sleep with Doctor Asif Qureshi.
All of the above.

Zakia in Medina: What do you have to do?
Take a look at this.
Arabic language transliteration to English and other guidelines for departments in the state http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/linguistics.html

What is your response to these facts?

Departments that are essential in every state.

Here are further facts.

Last Updated: January 3, 2016