Psychiatry
  1. Emergencies

  2. Non-Emergency


    Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
    Human behavior
    Mental Health
    Psychiatry
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    Alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints
    History taking and further evaluation by specific physician on duty.
    Assessment relevant to situation. Answer
    What is on the alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints? Answer
    Medical emergency situation: What questions will you ask? Answer
    Medical nonemergency situation: What questions will you ask? Answer Answer
    How will you further proceed in this situation? Answer
    Human Behavior: Why People Do What They Do
    What is human behavior? Answer
    What is student misbehavior? Answer
    What is mental health? Answer
    Symptoms and sign
    How do you know if this is a medical emergency or medical nonemergency? Answer
    Emergencies
    Emergency Psychiatry
    What should an emergency medical doctor or any psychiatrist exclude before diagnosing and treating any emergency medical condition relevant to psychiatry? Answer
    What is emergency psychiatry? Answer
    What conditions require emergency psychiatry consultation? Answer
    What should an emergency medical record look like? Answer
    Tests and Procedures
    Diagnosis and Treatment
    What should police know about psychiatry? Answer
    Where are the skills and knowledge of psychiatry applicable in the real world? Answer
    What are the guidelines for counseling in psychiatry? Answer
    Psychiatric disorders
    What are psychiatric disorders? Answer
    DSM- 5 CODE/ ICD 10 CODE Answer
    Prevention
    Rights of a patient
    What are the rights of a patient? Answer
    What are the rights of a psychiatric patient or a person with developmental disabilities? Answer
    Who should create and update the statute relevant to involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility in the state? Answer
    Workers in psychiatry
    What are various workers in psychiatry? Answer
    Behavioral Intensive Care Unit
    Psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU)
    Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility
    How should police verify the findings in case they are called for involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility? Answer
    What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness? Answer
    When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility? Answer
    When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility? Answer
    Psychiatric Consultations
    What should you know about evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric medical conditions in various healthcare settings? Answer
    What is included in a comprehensive psychiatric consultation? Answer
    What do you have to do before a patient or individual from the public seeks individualized doctor consultation? Answer
    What should you expect from a doctor during individualized consultation? Answer
    Drug Screening
    Do you use drugs or drink alcohol? Answer
    Forensic psychiatry
    What is forensic psychiatry? Answer
    What is a forensic psychiatrist? Answer
    Food (Nutrition and Health)
    Glossary of psychiatry
    What is on the list? Answer
    Human Rights
    Human Rights Violations
    What are examples of various human rights? Answer
    License of doctor of medicine
    Have there been scandals in America about issuance of professional licenses, including that of a doctor of medicine? Answer
    What should be the focus of a doctor of medicine? Answer
    Medications in psychiatry
    List of psychiatric medications by condition treated
    What should a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician verify before prescribing or recommending psychiatric medication? Answer
    Psychiatry, law and justice
    Who may utilize this program for education and reference? Answer
    Psychiatry and Media.
    Should the media get involved in an awareness campaign from medical doctors associated with psychiatry and mental health care? Answer
    How should the media handle articles and an awareness campaign from medical doctors associated with psychiatry and mental health care? Answer
    Mental status examination
    What questions should a doctor answer in a mental status examination? Answer
    Psychiatric hospital
    What should you monitor in a psychiatric hospital? Answer
    Questions doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians needs to answer.
    What is the diagnosis? Answer
    How did you reach this diagnosis? Answer
    Reference resource for psychiatry
    Where is reference resource for psychiatry? Answer
    Referral request.
    How should you write a referral for medical evaluation? Answer
    Academic Problem (Study Skills, Time Management)
    What recommendations should you expect? Answer
    When You Harm Others Intentionally
    What are intentional enforced harms? Answer
    What are examples of intentional enforced harms? Answer
    Research
    What have been various significant findings in psychiatry research? Answer


    Who has established these guidelines?
    Doctor Asif Qureshi





    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    Where do we start?
    Has anyone already created a profile of the patient?

    ______________________________________

    Where is the profile of the patient?

    ______________________________________

    What is the profile of the patient?

    ______________________________________

    Where is the patient now?

    ______________________________________

    What seems to be the issue or issues?

    ______________________________________

    The answer to this question can be from patient or others.

    What are the sources of these facts?

    ______________________________________

    Patient
    Legal guardian
    Parent
    Relative
    Community resident
    Healthcare provider
    Administrator or police
    If other, specify

    ______________________________________

    Is it a medical or nonmedical issue?

    ______________________________________

    What are medical and nonmedical issues?

    ______________________________________

    Human healthcare complaint, issue, problem, concern is a medical issue.
    Utility fault (water, electricity, or gas) and similar concerns are nonmedical issues.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencyworld.html

    How old is the patient?

    ______________________________________

    Once the category of medical condition is identified through medical history, further questions are needed relevant to the category of medical condition.
    International classification of human diseases.
    What is the latest version of the international classification of human diseases.
    ICD 10 Stands for International Classification of Diseases version 10.

    What type of issue can a person have?

    ______________________________________

    Medical Emergency (survival issues, medicolegal issues, critical issues, post-medical emergency, medical emergencies that need ER consultation)
    Medical nonemergency.
    Nonmedical emergency.
    Non medical issue that is not an emergency.

    What best describes the issue?

    ______________________________________

    Medical emergency
    Medical nonemergency
    Medicolegal case
    Nonmedical issue

    Nonmedical issues means patient has an issue; at the same time, a professional other than a physician has to bring solutions or remedies.
    Is this a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?

    ______________________________________

    How do you know if this is a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?

    ______________________________________

    Unconsciousness at a public location, sudden unconsciousness at home, trauma, survival needs issues, seizures, burns, drowning, pregnancy emergencies need on-the-spot evaluation and treatment.
    In the medical emergency room, treatment if patient has any of these: http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergencyworld.html

    What is the diagnosis?

    ______________________________________
    Alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints
    Psychiatric disorders

    What category of human medical condition is this?

    ______________________________________

    Behavioral, mental, and neurodevelopmental disorders of human.
    Blood and blood-forming organs diseases, immune mechanism diseases of human.
    Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period of human.
    Circulatory system diseases of human.
    Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities of human.
    Digestive system diseases of human.
    Ear and mastoid process diseases of human.
    Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases of human.
    External causes of morbidity of human.
    Eye and adnexa diseases of human.
    Factors influencing health status and contact with health services of human.
    Genitourinary system diseases of human.
    Infectious and parasitic diseases of human.
    Injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes of human.
    Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases of human.
    Medicolegal case of human.
    Neoplasms of human.
    Nervous system diseases of human.
    Old age-related issues of human.
    Pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium of child-bearing age of women.
    Respiratory system diseases of human.
    Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases of human.
    Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified of human.

    What is the best location to further treat this medical condition?

    ______________________________________

    On the spot
    Emergency medical room
    Intensive care unit
    Hospital ward
    Home healthcare

    What is the treatment plan?

    ______________________________________

    Where are the skills and knowledge of psychiatry applicable in the real world?
    1. Annotation or definition of a psychiatrist

    2. Abilities a doctor should have

    3. Age-specific social skills (Social Sciences)

    4. Addiction psychiatry

    5. Alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints

    6. Behavioral Health Unit/Psychiatry ward

    7. Behavior Counseling

    8. Behavioral Therapy

    9. Biological psychiatry

    10. Case management

    11. Case Reports

    12. Causes of psychiatric complaints

    13. Coauthor

    14. Counseling Services

    15. Child and adolescent psychiatry

    16. Community psychiatry

    17. Controversies in psychiatry

    18. Cross-cultural psychiatry

    19. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV)

    20. Doctor Consultation (Psychiatric Consultation)

    21. Drug Screening

    22. Emergency Psychiatry

    23. Emergency medical record
      What should an emergency medical record look like?

    24. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (Children)

    25. Forensic psychiatry

    26. Food (Nutrition and Health)

    27. Geriatric psychiatry

    28. Glossary of psychiatry

    29. Human Rights Violations

    30. Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)

    31. Intentional enforced harms

    32. Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility

    33. License of doctor of medicine

    34. Liaison psychiatry

    35. Medical Doctor(Required skills for the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders in the general medical setting)

    36. Mental status examination

    37. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE)

    38. Multi-Axial Diagnosis

    39. Medications in psychiatry

    40. Mental retardation (appearing before adulthood)

    41. Neuropsychiatry

    42. Psychiatric Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index

    43. Personality disorders screening

    44. Personality Disorders

    45. Psychiatric disorders

    46. Psychiatry, law and justice

    47. Psychiatry and home office.

    48. Psychiatry and family courses or counseling.

    49. Psychiatry and duties of police.
        What should police know about psychiatry?

    50. Psychiatry and home health care.

    51. Psychiatry and the Internet.

    52. Psychiatry and OPD.

    53. Psychiatry and state department of health.

    54. Psychiatry and duties of courts.

    55. Psychiatry and Media.

    56. Political abuse of psychiatry

    57. Psychiatric hospital

    58. Psychiatry and work-specific or occupational training.

    59. Psychiatry and duties of counselors or social workers.
        What are the guidelines for counseling in psychiatry

    60. Psychiatry and duties of schools or the state department of education.

    61. Psychiatry and state or non-state legislators.

    62. Psychiatry and education of quacks.

    63. Psychiatry and complaints.

    64. Psychiatry and new patient consultation.

    65. Psychiatry and duties of psychiatric nurses.

    66. Psychiatry and education of medical students.

    67. Psychiatry and psychiatry research.

    68. Psychiatry and continuing education of medical doctors.

    69. Psychiatric disorders

    70. Questions doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians needs to answer.

    71. Questions you need to ask a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician in case medication is prescribed or recommended.

    72. Rights of a patient
        What are the rights of a patient?
        What are the rights of a psychiatric patient or a person with developmental disabilities?
        Who should create and update the statute relevant to involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility in the state?

    73. Reference resource for psychiatry

    74. Referral request

    75. Research

    76. Sponsoring medical research

    77. Stress (Life Stressors)

    78. Social skills in alphabetical order (Good human character/Good human behavior)

    79. Social psychiatry

    80. Textbook of Hospital Psychiatry

    81. Treatment

    82. Workers in psychiatry
        What are various workers in psychiatry?
    Psychiatry
    Annotation or definition of a psychiatrist

    Mental Health

    What is human behavior?
    Human behavior is the sum of what people think, feel, and do. Normal and abnormal variations.

    What is student misbehavior?
    Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

    Student misbehavior can be defined as a student’s action or interaction that disrupts or distracts the flow of the learning processes. That is any behavior that is inappropriate in the classroom can be termed as students’ misbehavior.

    Reasons Why Students Misbehave in Your Class

    There are so many reasons why students misbehave in class. These are often due to the following factors: a) student (b) teacher, and (c) environmental/societal factors. These factors are discussed in detail below:

    Student Factors

    Student factors are those emanating from the student and his/her personality. Some of these factors are;

    1. Impulsivity: This is a personality factor that makes the student react quickly to actions without much prior thought. That is, when the student faces a situation, he/she spends less time thinking through it before putting up responsive behavior.

    This means the more prone students are to react quickly to issues without thinking through it, the more they are likely to misbehave in class. Thus, they are less likely to control themselves in situations.

    Impulsivity is mostly caused by psychological disorders such as Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Attention/Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), etc. It is, however, important to note that not all behavioral impulsiveness is as a result of psychological disorder.

    2. Personal skill deficiency: This happens when the student lacks certain skills that will help him/her cope with the classroom environment and/or other students. For instance, when students lack personal skills such as empathy, knowledge of desired social behavior, self-discipline, etc., they are more likely to misbehave in the classroom.

    3. Belief deficiency: The beliefs of students sometimes lead them to misbehave in the classroom. These misbehaviors are classified here. Example, some students believe that some courses/subjects are not important in school and because of that, they tend to put behaviors that are disruptive against teachers of those courses. Misbehavior antecedents such as that are considered a belief deficiency.

    Teacher factors

    These are the factors that emanate from the actions and/or inactions of the teacher that result in students’ misbehavior. They are explained in details below;

    1. Failure to teach effectively: I have mentioned earlier in my previous articles that effective classroom management doesn’t occur in a vacuum. Of course, you have to put in place a classroom setting that is conducive for your students to achieve their educational and emotional needs.

    Failure to do so will result in the chaos that will impede all your teaching and learning efforts. One of the ways to promote an environment that is suitable for learning is for you to teach effectively.

    Example, if you don’t plan your lessons adequately you will lose the expert power you exercise over your students. This will reduce your control and influence over happenings in your classroom.

    For instance, if you don’t have extra materials to engage students who are quick to finish their activities, they may get space to distract the class or their colleagues. But if you plan to teach effectively, you will be able to find a way to engage those students who will likely finish their activities quickly.

    2. Inaccurate expectations: First, I have come across colleagues who just expect the student to accept blindly all that they are saying. With this, some teachers are quick to blame external factors like the parents of students for their children’s misbehavior. This is inaccurate. Why?

    Because this prevents you from actively thinking of a solution to your students’ behavior. It also degrades your relationships with students’ parents who otherwise could be your partners in finding solutions to students’ misbehavior.

    Second, your aim is to train your students to become strong adults. But how do they become strong adults? Most teachers’ perceptions of this question are wrong. This is because strong adults don’t accept all that people tell them.

    Students develop this behavior in their childhood. Thus, they will always try to defend and stand for all that they believe in.

    So, if you think your students are deliberately trying to frustrate you by not listening to you or standing for what they believe, you will lose control of yourself and your classroom. Now, the onus lies on you to work hard to find ways of managing these behaviors effectively without squelching your students’ development processes.

    3. Inaccurate judgment: I think you want your students to grow to become smart, well-adjusted, and strong. Thus, you want them to become independent adults who can think and make decisions for themselves. But you have to understand that these qualities are developed in the early years of the student.

    So, be careful not to exercise wrong judgment on your students’ behavior. Example, don’t always scold your students for expressing their own will. Else, you will squelch their strong will to become strong adults.

    Also, don’t punish your student for an initial refusal or reluctance to do what you have asked him/her to do. This is because they might end up making the right choice of behavior if you insist on them.

    Finally, if your student doesn’t listen to you it doesn’t mean you have failed as a teacher. To be successful you only have to teach appropriate/proper consequence. Thus, you are not to force your students to listen to you but you are going to teach them the consequences of listening versus not listening to you.

    Therefore, your job is to determine beforehand the consequences for each set of behavior in the classroom. This will guide your students in their behavior. If you fail to do so you will likely lose the battle in the classroom. Also, if you exercise wrong judgment and punish your students for everything they will rebel and that will be more frustrating for you.

    Environmental/Societal Factors

    These are factors that are societal in nature but promotes students’ misbehavior in the classroom. Below are some of these factors:

    1. Family: Your students family set up affects their behavior in school. This could be a reason why one of your students will misbehave in the classroom. For example, a student from a broken home is likely to misbehave more than any student whose parents are still together. Also, students from awful and poor upbringing are likely to several problems that will make them misbehave in the classroom.

    So, your knowledge of all these should help you understand your students and to manage their behavior appropriately.

    2. Sociability: The desire of your students to interact with others may lead them to misbehave. This may occur due to peer pressure and/or a desire to impress others. With this, students are more interested in their friends such that they will choose to misbehave. Also, due to their interactions with others during the break time, their communication will continue into the classroom.

    So, understanding this will help you put in place adequate steps to limit the tendencies of this factor.

    3. Other responsibilities/works: If your students have other responsibilities to carry out outside school, it may become a reason for their misbehavior. Thus, these students will have other things to worry about and this may limit the attention they give to classroom activities and tasks.

    For example, heavy work schedule, relationships and/or financial problems may force your students to misbehave. These responsibilities will put much pressure on students to misbehave.

    Therefore, you need to understand and be aware of these behavioral tendencies in order to help your students to cope with the classroom environment.

    How to Deal with Student Misbehavior

    I think it is possible to prevent student misbehavior in the classroom. This can be done through the following:
    1.You can effectively reduce student misbehavior by giving effective single-action ______. What is expected of you?
    2.If you are capable of giving effective _______, you will effectively prevent student misbehavior.
    3.There is no classroom without flare-ups and tantrums, so your ability to handle them will reduce misbehavior significantly.
    4.Instituting behavioral contracts is an effective way to help you improve your management of behavioral problems.
    5.Your ability to manage and reduce misbehavior will highly be dependent on your ability to manage transitions effectively.
    6.You will also have to discourage interruptions effectively.
    7.Improved behavior in out-of-class settings
    8.Develop an effective homework routine.

    What is threatening behavior?
    Words or gestures that create a reasonable fear of harm or injury.
    Words or gestures that cause emotional distress.
    Direct or indirect threats of harm or injury.
    Prolonged or frequent shouting that creates a reasonable fear of harm or injury.

    What is violent behavior?
    Violent behavior is defined as the use of physical force or violence to inflict harm on others, to endanger the health or safety of another person or property, or restrict the freedom of action or movement of another person. These include slapping, punching, striking, pushing, or otherwise physically attacking a person; unwelcome physical contact; throwing, punching, or otherwise handling objects in an aggressive manner; or stalking an individual.

    What's the Job Description of a Clinical Psychiatrist?
    Clinical psychiatrists use counseling, therapy, and medication to help people cope with various mental health problems.

    Clinical psychiatrists are medical doctors who diagnose patients' mental health issues and treat them through medication and various forms of therapy.

    What is mental health?

    Why is there a need to elaborate on this question?
    Nowadays, people tend to be champions of mental health care without knowing its definition.

    There are advertisements like rally for mental health or funding for mental health, but these individuals do not know the definition of mental health.
    Mental health exploitation has become a new trend for certain unscrupulous people to extract funding from the system for those who are not helped by it. Those who are getting funding do not know the definition of mental health.
    Everyone knows that exploiters, opportunists, dishonest, incompetent people have infiltrated the system and are extracting resources intended for mental health while free resources are available at this resource.

    What is mental health?
    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being.

    If a harmful, lying, badly behaved, incompetent individual and his or her associates are fraudulently placed in administration, what will happen to the emotional, psychological, and social well-being of an individual or individuals?
    The emotional, psychological, and social well-being of an individual or individuals will get harmed.

    A prerequisite for the emotional, psychological, and social well-being of an individual or individuals in the state or outside the state is to have truthful, well behaved, competent, public service-oriented administrators and associates in the state and outside the state.

    How can we improve our mental health?
    Associate with truthful, well behaved, public service-oriented people in the state and outside the state.
    Anyone can get stressed. Fix the causes of stress.
    Talk about or express your feelings.
    Exercise regularly.
    Eat healthful meals.
    Get enough sleep.
    Spend time with friends and loved ones.
    Develop new skills.
    Relax and enjoy your hobbies.
    Set realistic goals.
    Talk to your primary health professional.
    Form and maintain healthy relationships.
    Remember that it is better to be alone than to be in a sick relationship.
    Use your abilities to reach your potential.
    Deal with life’s challenges
    Identify sources of harms and fix sources of harms on you and your surroundings.
    Make sure that truthful, well behaved, competent, public service-oriented administrators and associates are in the state and outside the state for public services.
    Here are further facts.

    Mental health and role of primary care physician.

    What should a primary care physician know about mental health?
    A primary care physician should know everything about mental health.
    A primary care physician should rarely refer a case that is a diagnostic puzzle.

    Questions you need to answer in the referral.

    What complaints, issues, and problems did the individual present to you that need referral?

    What complaints, issues, and problems do not need a referral?
    If an individual feels stressed, this does not need referral from primary care physician to another physician of different abilities.

    Referral or Reference

    What referral or reference of any department in the state or outside the state should you give?
    Please see the examples of essential department in the state or outside the state.

    Why was there need to elaborate on the issues?
    If you give a referral or reference of any entity other than these departments in the state or outside the state, most of these agencies or entities have gang members that have inflicted harms and can inflict harms.

    What is a Psychiatrist?
    A psychiatrist is a medical doctor with additional experience and knowledge of psychiatric disorders and normal human behavior. If you know what is normal, then you can diagnose and manage abnormal medical conditions.

    Psychiatrists are trained in the medical, psychological, and social components of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and utilize a broad range of treatment modalities, including diagnostic tests, prescribing medications, psychotherapy, and helping patients and their families cope with stress and crises. Psychiatrists increasingly work in integrated settings and often lead or participate on treatment teams and provide consultation to primary care physicians and other medical specialties.

    What is the difference between a doctor of medicine and a psychiatrist?
    A psychiatrist is a doctor of medicine with additional abilities of a psychiatrist.

    You need to have abilities of doctor of medicine with additional abilities of a specific specialty to deserve to be called a specialist.

    What is a doctor of medicine?
    A doctor of medicine is a human being:
    1. Able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being in various healthcare settings.
    2. Able to answer relevant questions of human healthcare.
    3. Able to offer Internet human healthcare.
    4. Able to offer public health advice.
    5. Able to offer patient education guidelines.
    6. Able to offer administrative issues guidelines.

    If a doctor of medicine can guide new medical students and postgraduates, he or she can be designated a professor or guide.

    What additional abilities should a psychiatrist have compared to a doctor of medicine?
    Ability to deal with stress and intentional enforced harms.
    Human rights violations knowledge.
    Psychiatric disorder knowledge.
    Medicolegal cases knowledge.
    Forensic psychiatry knowledge.
    Vast knowledge of psychiatric medications.

    Is there a difference between complaints due to stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others, and mental illness?
    Yes.

    What is the difference between complaints due to stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others, and mental illness?
    Fixing the underlying causes of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others will make an individual far better and normal.

    What is mental illness?
    Mental illness is a term used for a group of psychiatric disorders.
    You should not diagnose anyone with mental illness unless you verify that the person is not having stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others.

    The boundary between mental distress and mental illness is clear if you know everything about stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others, and psychiatric disorders.

    How difficult is it to get an appointment with a psychiatrist?
    Take a look at this.
    www.qureshiouniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html.
    Everything is displayed at this location.
    Guidelines for patients.
    Guidelines for relatives, friends, and well-wishers of patients.
    Education for doctor of medicine with additional abilities of a psychiatrist.
    Continuing education for existing psychiatrists.
    Guidelines for family doctors and local hospitals.

    If you have any further issues, forward the patient’s profile or issues to Doctor Asif Qureshi.

    Who seeks psychiatric consultation?
    Civilized people seek psychiatry consultation.

    What is a psychiatric Consultation?
    A psychiatric consultation is a comprehensive evaluation of psychiatric complaints in a nonemergency setting that can have psychological, biological, medical, social, or any other causes.

    What is Psychiatry?
    Psychiatry is medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders and enhancing normal human behavior.

    What are psychiatric disorders?
    Pysciatric disorders include threatening behavior; violent behavior; psychotic disorder; infancy, childhood, and adolescence mental health or behavior disorders; cognitive disorders, substance-related disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; somatoform disorders; fictitious disorders; dissociative disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders; eating disorders; sleep disorders; impulse control disorders; adjustment disorders; personality disorders; and abuse and neglect medical conditions.

    What isn't a psychiatric disorder?
    What isn't a psychiatric disorder still may need psychiatric consultation?
    What will a normal person do if subjected to harmful conditions?

    This isn't a psychiatric disorder, but needs psychiatric consultation.

    What will happen if you don't diagnose and manage a psychiatric emergency correctly?
    Possibilities include homicides, suicides, assaults, harassments, harm to self, harm to others, disability, escalation of conflict and disputes, decreased productivity, and other harms.

    Can a case be a psychiatric and legal emergency at the same time?
    Yes.

    What will happen if you diagnose a psychiatric emergency incorrectly?
    The person diagnosed incorrectly could suffer emotional distress Or other harms.

    What factors influence adherence to medical doctors? or psychiatrists? recommendations?
    Confidence in the experience and knowledge of the medical doctors or psychiatrists.
    Confidence that the diagnosis is correct.
    Confidence in the standard of treatment as per preventive and curative concepts of medicine.
    Compliance with environmental factors.

    What factors influence the best outcome of medical doctors? or psychiatrists? recommendations?
    Correct diagnosis.
    Recommendations as per international standards and recent advances regarding preventive and curative concepts of medicine.
    Compliance with environmental factors.

    What should a psychiatric complaint look like?
    He or she is getting anger bouts, is forgetful, abusive, provokes quarrels, is hostile, and misinterprets facts.

    How do you file revision of diagnosis?
    Based on the recent discovery of case scenario of deprivation of rights under the color of law, discrimination, abuse, neglect, harassments, physical torture, psychological torture, disruption, or exclusion.

    What should you do before you act on any information?
    You need to verify.

    Can a psychologist or clinician reach a correct diagnosis without knowing about medical subjects and medical conditions?
    No.

    Who is more knowledgeable, a forensic psychiatrist or a judge without knowledge of forensic psychiatry?
    A forensic psychiatrist is more knowledgeable than a judge without knowledge of forensic psychiatry.

    Who is more knowledgeable, a forensic psychiatrist or a forensic psychologist without knowledge of forensic psychiatry?
    A forensic psychiatrist is more knowledgeable than a forensic psychologist.
    A forensic psychiatrist is basically a doctor of medicine with additional abilities of general psychiatry and forensic psychiatry.
    Alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints
    What is on the alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints?

    Emergency

    1. Abuse.

    2. Aggressive

    3. Attempted homicide.

    4. Attempted suicide.

    5. Choking

    6. Disorderly Conduct / Disorderly Conduct Statute and Ordinances Cover a Wide Range of Behavior
      Does the patient get angry without any provocation?
      Does the patient shout without provocation or deprivation of rights?
      Does the patient assault others without provocation or deprivation of rights?

    7. Environmental factors (hostile environment).

    8. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).

    9. Human rights violations from others.

    10. Intentional enforced harms from others.

    11. Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility

    12. Irritability

    13. Likely to be harmful to self or others.

    14. Loosening of social inhibitions.

    15. Neglect of responsibilities

    16. Other.

    17. Panic attacks.

    18. Personality disorders (harmful to others).

    19. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).

    20. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications. Substance abuse.

    21. Suicidal thoughts, homicidal thoughts.

    22. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.

    23. Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation
    Non-emergency
    1. Anger

    2. Anxiety

    3. Apathy — Loss of initiative or desire to participate in any activity

    4. Avoidance of situations

    5. Being unable to limit the amount of alcohol you drink

    6. Blunted

    7. Building a tolerance so that you need an increasing number of drinks to feel the effects

    8. Carelessness about personal grooming

    9. Change in appetite

    10. Changed sleeping pattern

    11. Changes in Behavior – Sleep disturbance

    12. Changes in Emotion and Motivation

    13. Changes in Thinking and Perception

    14. Chronic fatigue, lack of energy

    15. Confusion

    16. Constipation

    17. Crying spells

    18. Decrease concentration and memory

    19. Decreased appetite

    20. Decreased coordination

    21. Delusions

    22. Depression

    23. Depression as the drug wears off

    24. Diarrhea, muscle aches

    25. Difficulties with concentration or attention

    26. Difficulty concentrating

    27. Distress in social situations

    28. Dizziness

    29. Drinking alone or in secret

    30. Drop in functioning — An unusual drop in functioning, at school, work or social activities, such as quitting sports, failing in school or difficulty performing familiar tasks

    31. Drowsiness

    32. Dry mouth

    33. Elated mood

    34. Especially if alcohol isn't available

    35. Euphoria

    36. Experiencing physical withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating and shaking

    37. Feeling a need or compulsion to drink

    38. Feeling disconnected — A vague feeling of being disconnected from oneself or one’s surroundings; a sense of unreality

    39. Feeling that self or others have changed or are acting different in some way

    40. Flashbacks, a re-experience of the hallucinations — even years later

    41. Flat or inappropriate emotion

    42. Flushing

    43. Frequent self-criticism

    44. Grandiose delusions

    45. Greatly impaired perception of reality, for example, interpreting input from one of your senses as another, such as hearing colors guilt

    46. Gulping drinks, ordering doubles, becoming intoxicated intentionally to feel good or drinking to feel "normal"

    47. Hallucinations

    48. Having legal problems

    49. Having problems with relationships

    50. Headache, sweating

    51. Heart palpitations

    52. Helplessness

    53. High blood pressure

    54. Hopelessness

    55. Hyperventilation

    56. Illogical thinking — Unusual or exaggerated beliefs about personal powers to understand meanings or influence events; illogical or “magical” thinking typical of childhood in an adult

    57. Impaired memory and concentration

    58. Impaired motor function

    59. Impatience

    60. Increased appetite

    61. Increased blood pressure and heart rate

    62. Increased energy and overactivity

    63. Increased heart rate

    64. Increased heart rate, blood pressure and temperature

    65. Increased sensitivity — Heightened sensitivity to sights, sounds, smells or touch; avoidance of over-stimulating situations

    66. Indecisiveness and confusion

    67. Indecisiveness, irritability

    68. Insomnia

    69. Irregular menstrual cycle

    70. Irritability when your usual drinking time nears

    71. Keeping alcohol in unlikely places at home

    72. Lack of coordination

    73. Lack of emotional responsiveness

    74. Lack of energy, overeating or loss of appetite

    75. Lack of inhibitions

    76. Lack of insight.

    77. Losing interest in activities and hobbies that used to bring pleasure

    78. Loss of appetite

    79. Loss of interest in hobbies, sports, and other favorite activities

    80. Loss of interest in personal appearance(Social grooming)

    81. Loss of memory

    82. Loss of motivation, chronic fatigue

    83. Loss of motivation, drug or alcohol use

    84. Loss of sexual desire

    85. Making a ritual of having drinks before, with or after dinner and becoming annoyed when this ritual is disturbed or questioned

    86. Memory impairment

    87. Mood changes — Rapid or dramatic shifts in emotions or depressed feelings

    88. Mind racing or going blank

    89. Mood swings

    90. Nasal congestion and damage to the mucous membrane of the nose in users who Snort drugs

    91. Nausea and vomiting

    92. Nausea, vomiting

    93. Needing less sleep than usual

    94. Needle marks (if injecting drugs)

    95. Nervousness — Fear or suspiciousness of others or a strong nervous feeling

    96. Not remembering conversations or commitments, sometimes referred to as blacking out

    97. Numbness

    98. Obsessive or compulsive behavior

    99. Overeating or loss of appetite

    100. Panic

    101. Paranoia

    102. Paranoid thinking

    103. Permanent mental changes in perception

    104. Phobic behavior

    105. Poor memory

    106. Rapid heartbeat

    107. Problems thinking — Problems with concentration, memory or logical thought and speech that are hard to explain

    108. Rapid speech

    109. Rapid thinking and speech

    110. Red eyes

    111. Red or glassy eyes

    112. Reduced ability to carry out work or other roles.

    113. Reduced energy and motivation

    114. Reduced sense of pain

    115. Restlessness

    116. Restlessness or feeling “on edge” or nervousness

    117. Runny nose

    118. Sadness

    119. Sedation

    120. Self-blame, pessimism

    121. Self-criticism, self-blame, pessimism

    122. Sense of alteration of self

    123. Sensory Changes(A heightened sense of visual, auditory and taste perception. A reduction or greater intensity of smell, sound or color)

    124. Shortness of breath

    125. Sleep disturbance

    126. sleeping too much or too little

    127. Sleep or appetite changes — Dramatic sleep and appetite changes or decline in personal care

    128. Slowed breathing

    129. Slowed breathing and decreased blood pressure

    130. Slowed reaction time

    131. Slurred speech

    132. Social isolation or withdrawal

    133. Strange ideas

    134. Sudden change in behavior

    135. Sudden mood swings

    136. Suspiciousness

    137. Tendency to believe others see you in a negative light

    138. Thoughts of death and suicide

    139. Tingling and numbness

    140. Tiredness

    141. Tremors

    142. Tremors/shaking

    143. Unexplained aches and pains

    144. Unrealistic and/or excessive fear and worry

    145. Unusual behavior – Odd, uncharacteristic, peculiar behavior

    146. Unusual perceptual experiences

    147. Vivid dreams

    148. Weight loss

    149. Weight loss or gain

    150. Withdrawal from family members and/or long-term friends

    151. Withdrawal from others

    152. Withdrawal — Recent social withdrawal and loss of interest in activities previously enjoyed

    153. Worrying
    If several of the following are occurring, it may useful to follow up with a mental health professional.

    ‘SIGECAPS’: A Mnemonic for Symptoms of Major Depression and Dysthymia
    SIGECAPS = SIG + Energy + CAPSules

    Sleep disorder (either increased or decreased sleep)*
    Interest deficit (anhedonia)
    Guilt (worthlessness,* hopelessness,* regret)
    Energy deficit*
    Concentration deficit*
    Appetite disorder (either decreased or increased)*
    Psychomotor retardation or agitation
    Suicidality

    ‘DIGFAST’: Mnemonic for the Cardinal Symptoms of a Manic Episode Distractibility

    Indiscretion (DSM-IV's “excessive involvement in pleasurable activities . . . “)

    Grandiosity
    Flight of ideas
    Activity increase
    Sleep deficit (decreased need for sleep)
    Talkativeness (pressured speech)

    ‘I DESPAIRR’: A Mnemonic for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder and Suggested Screening Questions
    Identity problem
    “Do you have trouble knowing who ___________ is?” (say patient's name)
    Disordered affect
    “Are you a moody person?”
    Empty feeling
    “Do you often feel empty inside?”
    Suicidal behavior
    “When something goes really wrong in your life, like ____ __________, do you ever do something to hurt yourself, like cutting yourself or overdosing?”
    Here are further guidelines.
    Behavioral Intensive Care Unit
    Psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU)
    Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility
    How should police verify the findings in case they are called for involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?
    What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness?
    When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
    When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
    Case management
    What is case management?
    Case management refers to the coordination of services on behalf of an individual who may be considered a case in different settings, such as health care, nursing, rehabilitation, social work, and law.

    If diagnosis of an individual is wrong, case management is ineffective.
    If professionals with case management are incompetent or not fit for duty, an individual can be harmed.

    States that are deficient in case management services must enhance them.

    What are the prerequisites of effective case management?
    A doctor of medicine should be competent.
    If an individual claims to be a medical specialist, he or she should have at least basic abilities of a doctor of medicine.
    A case manager should be competent with legal abilities.
    The state legal system should have insight of human rights and competent professionals, including lawyers and judges.

    What are the parameters that determine the elements of effective case management with regard to a human being?
    Here are further guidelines.

    Questions you need to answer

    What do you know about case management?
    What should be the abilities of a case manager?


    Case Manager
    Human Services Case Manager
    Resident Services Case Manager

    Discussion and psychiatry

    Does discussion help in psychiatric medical conditions?
    Yes, it does.

    How does discussion help in psychiatry medical conditions?
    Discussion helps to identify harms.
    Discussion helps in suggesting solutions or remedies for harms.
    A discussion coordinator helps bringing solutions or remedies for harms. Healthy discussion keeps your mind active.
    An inactive mind is susceptible to psychiatric disorders.

    Storytelling is one form of discussion.

    How will discussion or story telling help residents?
    Most of the residents have psychiatric medical conditions.
    Discussion will help them to identify the harms.
    They can gain motivation from discussion.

    What can be the context of discussion/storytelling?
    Harms.
    Ongoing struggles.
    Achievements.

    Harms should be the focus of storytelling/discussion.

    If you discuss harms and bring solutions or remedies, then this activity/discussion is going to be helpful.

    If you discuss harms and give suggestions to resolve the harms during meetings and e-mails than this is going to be helpful.

    Questions for discussion or storytelling.

    How have you been harmed?
    What problems are you facing?
    How would you like to resolve these harms?
    What are your goals?

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/discussion.html
    Case Reports
    What is a case report relevant to human healthcare?
    In human healthcare, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.

    These usually are findings that others do not know or findings and recommendations that need revision of diagnosis and treatment.

    Who is circulating this case report?
    Doctor Asif Qureshi

    About the Founder
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/aboutthefounder.html

    What is extraordinary about this case report?
    It is valid, original, credible, and educational.

    Case Report 1

    On March 10, 2014 1PM at C4 Broadway 5710 North Broadway St. Chicago, IL 60660, I tried to evaluate with conversation a Caucasian man in his 40s who has lived in Chicago, Illinois, for more than 40 years.

    What has he been told?
    His diagnosis is schizophrenia.

    What has he been told about what causes this medical condition?
    Genetics.

    What are the symptoms and signs of schizophrenia?
    These are the prominent symptoms and signs.
    Patient has lost touch with reality.
    Lack of insight into the condition itself.
    There can be other symptoms and signs less concerning.

    What are my findings?
    This individual had neither lost touch with reality nor had lack of insight into conditions based on the facts brought in front of him.

    He could answer all my questions.
    He was aware of the location at that point.
    He had properly taken care of himself while bathing and putting on proper clothes.

    What are my recommendations?
    Revision of diagnosis

    Wrong diagnosis is medical negligence.
    Case Report 2

    Why was there a need to establish this?
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html psychiatric services? Take a look at this.
    A simple consultation is approximately $800.
    A comprehensive consultation is almost always less than $1,500.

    Who has displayed these types of consultations?
    Gateway Psychiatric Services
    548 Market St # 18351
    San Francisco, CA 94104-5401

    On March 10, 2014, at 3.20 PM, this was verified.

    Take a look at this.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html
    Have you look at this resource to verify if your questions and concerns have been answered?

    If you go through this resource, you will realize there is no need for $800 consultation or $1,500 comprehensive psychiatric consultation.
    Case Report 3

    Harmful healthcare providers.

    What are examples of harmful healthcare providers?
    This is happening in America up to March 10, 2014.
    An individual complaint that he feels stress after specific harms.
    He displays all his profile to prove there are no other symptoms and signs.

    The unethical healthcare provider makes self-styled symptoms and signs and records them in his medical records.
    He makes self-styled diagnosis and records that he needs five various types of services at the healthcare provider. The individual clearly mentions that he does not have these symptoms and signs that you have recorded.
    What was the location?
    On March 10, 2014 1PM at C4 Broadway 5710 North Broadway St. Chicago, IL 60660,

    How are such healthcare providers allowed to have public dealing?

    How can these harms be prevented?
    Ask them to answer relevant questions.
    Ask them to displays their competence publicly through Internet.

    The world’s medical doctors make sure that every individual has high quality of life up to 90 years.
    More facts are at www.qureshiuniversity.com.
    Coauthor
    Can you be a coauthor for these resources?
    Can you recommend another doctor of medicine or psychiatrist to be a coauthor for this resource?

    If you would like to be associated with these resources as a doctor of medicine or psychiatrist, what do you have to do?

    What is expected of a coauthor?

    A coauthor will read through the facts, recommend any addition, deletion or modification, and recommend that others utilize this as a reference resource.

    If you are a medical student or postgraduate, what do you have to do?
    Learn from these resources.
    Causes of psychiatric complaints
    What are the most common causes of psychiatric complaints?
    Stress.
    Intentional enforced harms from others.
    Human rights violations from others.

    Other causes

    Substandard education
    Genetic
    Biological
    Systemic

    Education is the most essential component of psychiatric treatment.
    Controversies in psychiatry
    What are some of the known controversies in psychiatry?
    The NIMH has withdrawn support for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), circulated in 2013 and 2014.
    What should a doctor know relevant to psychiatry?
    Doctor Consultation


    Psychiatry history essentials
    Patient Profile
    Individualized consultation nonemergency patient
    Comprehensive patient assessment
    How is a comprehensive patient assessment done?

    Psychiatric Consultations
    What should you know about evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric medical conditions in various healthcare settings?
    Never diagnose a psychiatric medical condition unless you make sure the individual is not being harmed in any way.

    Always get answers to these questions.

    How do you know if the individual has any of these:
    Stress without intentional enforced harms or without human rights violations. Intentional enforced harms from others. Human rights violations from others?


    Ask questions relevant to the issues mentioned.
    Verify the findings with questions relevant to issues mentioned.

    Answers to these questions are essential.

    Does the individual have any of this?
    Stress.
    Intentional enforced harms from others.
    Human rights violations from others.

    If yes, fix these issues immediately.

    What is the profile of the patient who needs doctor consultation?

    What best describes intentional or willful harms on you?

    Deprivation of rights under the color of law.
    Intentional harms.
    Provocation.
    Retaliation.
    If the individual cannot answer himself or herself, ask an individual who is trustworthy, not harmful, and truthful to get answers to relevant questions.

    If any one of these exists, what should be written in the diagnosis?
    Intentional enforced harms.
    Medicolegal case.

    Why should every state have stress counseling resources?
    At any point, an individual can have stress.

    What will happen if stress on an individual is ignored?
    Ignoring stress can cause an acute stress reaction.
    Various complications of stress can occur.

    Psychiatric Consultation

    What is included in a comprehensive psychiatric consultation?
    Questions relevant to stress.
    Questions relevant to intentional enforced harms from others.
    Questions relevant to human rights violations from others.
    Questions relevant to major mental illnesses.
    Questions relevant to personality disorders.
    Questions relevant to mental retardation in children.
    Questions relevant to dementia in elders.
    Questions relevant to systemic medical conditions.
    Evaluation relevant to specific symptoms, signs, and complaints.

    Take a look at this.
    Questions you need to answer.
    JavaScript Form Validation
    Question 1

    What is your Email address?
    Question 2

    What is the name of the individual who needs doctor consultation?
    Question 3

    What is the date of birth of the individual who needs doctor consultation?
    Question 4

    What is your mailing address?
    Question 5

    What is your telephone number?
    Question 6

    Where is the patient now?
    Question 7

    How old is the patient?
    Question 8

    What is the gender of the patient?
    Question 9

    What are the sources of medical history?
    Question 10

    What best describes the patient?:
    Question 11

    In general, how is your physical and mental health?
    Question 12

    Do you have any appointments scheduled with doctors or other specialists?
    Yes
    No
    Question 13

    Have you been in the hospital in the last month?
    Yes
    No
    Question 14

    Do you have health problems that you need help with right away?
    Yes
    No
    Question 15

    Do you need extra help to access services, such as a wheelchair ramp, a computer screen reader or large print materials?
    Yes
    No
    Question 16

    Screening for survival needs

    Do you have enough of these resources from the state?
    Food
    Clothing
    Housing
    Health care
    Transportation
    Security
    Education
    Consumer goods
    Communication

    Do you need any of these resources to be enhanced?
    Question 17

    What are the issues?
    Question 18

    Is your complete medical history ready?
    Yes
    No
    Question 19

    Can I get a copy of your photo identity card?
    Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

    Emergency Contact Name:______________

    Relationship:________________________

    Question 20

    Your Height:_________________________

    Your Weight:_________________________
    Question 21

    Referred by:_________________________
    Question 22

    What seems to be the problem?
    Question 23

    What is the reason for consultation?
    Question 24

    What best describes problem of the patient?
    Sleep problems.
    Anger.
    Relationship problem.
    Not taking care of self.
    Not taking care of others.
    Misinterpreting the facts.
    Recent social withdrawal or loss of interest in others.
    Illogical thinking typical of childhood but in an adult.
    Repeatedly checking or doing activities that seem abnormal.
    Restlessness.
    Administrative abuse/harms from others.
    Thoughts or threats to hurt oneself or others.
    Social withdrawal after death of a person known to the patient.
    Communication problem (speech, writing, reading, expression).
    Not enough food, clothing, housing needs, transportation, health care, or education.
    Other issues.
    You need to give details of the issues or problems.

    Life-threatening conditions.

    Suicidal thoughts.
    Homicidal thoughts.
    Assault, violent actions or behavior.
    Delirium or extreme agitation.
    Feeling that harms have been inflicted or are being inflicted, and that harms are going to be inflicted that need to be prevented.
    Question 25

    Is the claim any one of these?
    Psychological torture
    Physical torture
    Corruption in politics of regulations
    Racism
    Deprivations of rights under the color of law
    Political abuse
    Discrimination
    Disruption
    Exclusion
    Question 26

    Did anyone beat or torture you at any point since birth?
    Question 27

    Is there any incident or issue in past, present, or future that is causing distress to you?
    Question 28

    Did you experience any one of these that has troubled you since the day you were born?

    Assault.
    Accidents.
    Child abuse or captivity.
    Childbirth.
    Death of a loved one.
    Fire.
    Rape.
    Natural disaster (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis).
    Road traffic crash.
    Building collapse.
    Fire.
    Shooting.
    Neglect of a child leading to a serious harms.
    Domestic violence.
    War.
    Genocide.
    Torture.

    If yes, what are the details?

    If any other traumatic, stressful, harmful, or horrifying event, give more details.
    Question 29

    What conditions require emergency psychiatry consultation?
    1. Attempted suicide.
    2. Attempted homicide.
    3. Substance abuse.
    4. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).
    5. Suicidal thoughts, homicidal thoughts.
    6. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.
    7. Abuse.
    8. Environmental factors (hostile environment).
    9. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).
    10. Personality disorders (harmful to others).
    11. Panic attacks.
    12. Loosening of social inhibitions.
    13. Likely to be harmful to self or others.
    14. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications.
    15. Intentional enforced harms.
    16. Other.
    Here are further guidelines.

    What best describes you?
    Question 30

    Is the individual on any medication?
    Question 31

    Intentional enforced harms

    What are intentional enforced harms?
    Question 32

    Commons Signs and Symptoms of Major Mental Illnesses
    Anxiety
    Bi-Polar Disorder
    Chemical Dependency
    Depression
    Psychotic Disorders

    Take a look at this.
    What best describes you?
    Aggressive
    Anger
    Anxiety
    Avoidance of situations
    Being unable to limit the amount of alcohol you drink
    Blunted
    Building a tolerance so that you need an increasing number of drinks to feel the effects
    Carelessness about personal grooming
    Change in appetite
    Changed sleeping pattern
    Changes in Behavior – Sleep disturbance
    Changes in Emotion and Motivation
    Changes in Thinking and Perception
    Chest pain
    Choking
    Chronic fatigue, lack of energy
    Confusion
    Constipation
    Crying spells
    Decrease concentration and memory
    Decreased appetite
    Decreased coordination
    Delusions
    Depression
    Depression as the drug wears off
    Diarrhea, muscle aches
    Difficulties with concentration or attention
    Difficulty concentrating
    Distress in social situations
    Dizziness
    Drinking alone or in secret
    Drowsiness
    Dry mouth
    Elated mood
    Especially if alcohol isn't available
    Euphoria
    Experiencing physical withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating and shaking
    Feeling a need or compulsion to drink
    Feeling that self or others have changed or are acting different in some way
    Flashbacks, a re-experience of the hallucinations — even years later
    Flat or inappropriate emotion
    Flushing
    Frequent self-criticism
    Grandiose delusions
    Greatly impaired perception of reality, for example, interpreting input from one of your senses as another, such as hearing colors guilt
    Gulping drinks, ordering doubles, becoming intoxicated intentionally to feel good or drinking to feel "normal"
    Hallucinations
    Having legal problems
    Having problems with relationships
    Headache, sweating
    Heart palpitations
    Helplessness
    High blood pressure
    Hopelessness
    Hyperventilation
    Impaired memory and concentration
    Impaired motor function
    Impatience
    Increased appetite
    Increased blood pressure and heart rate
    Increased energy and overactivity
    Increased heart rate
    Increased heart rate, blood pressure and temperature
    Indecisiveness and confusion
    Indecisiveness, irritability
    Insomnia
    Irregular menstrual cycle
    Irritability
    Irritability when your usual drinking time nears
    Keeping alcohol in unlikely places at home
    Lack of coordination
    Lack of emotional responsiveness
    Lack of energy, overeating or loss of appetite
    Lack of inhibitions
    Lack of insight.
    Losing interest in activities and hobbies that used to bring pleasure
    Loss of appetite
    Loss of interest in hobbies, sports, and other favorite activities
    Loss of interest in personal appearance(Social grooming)
    Loss of memory
    Loss of motivation, chronic fatigue
    Loss of motivation, drug or alcohol use
    Loss of sexual desire
    Making a ritual of having drinks before, with or after dinner and becoming annoyed when this ritual is disturbed or questioned
    Memory impairment
    Mind racing or going blank
    Mood swings
    Nasal congestion and damage to the mucous membrane of the nose in users who Snort drugs
    Nausea and vomiting
    Nausea, vomiting
    Needing less sleep than usual
    Needle marks (if injecting drugs)
    Neglect of responsibilities
    Not remembering conversations or commitments, sometimes referred to as blacking out
    Numbness
    Obsessive or compulsive behavior
    Overeating or loss of appetite
    Panic
    Paranoia
    Paranoid thinking
    Permanent mental changes in perception
    Phobic behavior
    Poor memory
    Rapid heartbeat
    Rapid speech
    Rapid thinking and speech
    Red eyes
    Red or glassy eyes
    Reduced ability to carry out work or other roles.
    Reduced energy and motivation
    Reduced sense of pain
    Restlessness
    Restlessness or feeling “on edge” or nervousness
    Runny nose
    Sadness
    Sedation
    Self-blame, pessimism
    Self-criticism, self-blame, pessimism
    Sense of alteration of self
    Sensory Changes(A heightened sense of visual, auditory and taste perception. A reduction or greater intensity of smell, sound or color)
    Shortness of breath
    Sleep disturbance
    sleeping too much or too little
    Slowed breathing
    Slowed breathing and decreased blood pressure
    Slowed reaction time
    Slurred speech
    Social isolation or withdrawal
    Strange ideas
    Sudden change in behavior
    Sudden mood swings
    Suspiciousness
    Tendency to believe others see you in a negative light
    Thoughts of death and suicide
    Tingling and numbness
    Tiredness
    Tremors
    Tremors/shaking
    Unexplained aches and pains
    Unrealistic and/or excessive fear and worry
    Unusual perceptual experiences
    Violent Behavior
    Vivid dreams
    Weight loss
    Weight loss or gain
    Withdrawal from family members and/or long-term friends
    Withdrawal from others
    Worrying
    Question 33

    Who is writing answers to these questions?
    The patient.
    Someone else on behalf of patient.

    If someone else is answering these questions on behalf of the patient, how are you related to the patient?
    Sister
    Cousin
    Brother
    Mother
    Father
    Case manager
    Relative
    Primary care physician
    Nurse
    If other, specify.
    Question 34

    Does the individual have any of this?
    Stress.
    Intentional enforced harms from others.
    Human rights violations from others.

    If yes, fix these issues immediately.
    Question 35

    How do you know an individual has stress, intentional enforced harms from others, or human rights violations from others?
    Here are further guidelines.

    What best describes you?
    Question 36

    Questions relevant to stress.

    What is troubling you at present?
    Question 37

    What is troubling you from the past or about the future?
    Question 38

    Questions relevant to intentional enforced harms from others.

    Who has harmed you in the past or present or is likely to harm you in the future?
    Question 39

    Questions relevant to human rights violations from others.

    Do you know what basic human rights are?
    Question 40

    What best describes your human rights violations from others?
    Question 41

    Oppressor screening

    How do you know a person is harmful or a gang member?
    He or she has disregard for human rights of others.
    He or she has harmed others and is likely going to harm others.
    He or she has prejudice toward good charactered, well-behaved individuals.
    A harmful individual will not have proper answers to questions relevant to good character, good behavior, or human rights.

    What type of individual goes to jail or has involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?
    Is there an oppressor/harmful individual in the community?
    How has/is this individual harming others?
    How is this individual likely to continue to harm others?
    Is he or she acting alone or is a gang member?
    Who are among the other gang members?
    I have read and agree to the Terms & Conditions.

    Are you ready to get started, or do you have other questions about the Internet consultation?

    Have you read the facts about the services you are getting?
    Everything is displayed publicly.
    There is no hidden agenda.
    There is no professional damages for these services through www.qureshiuniversity due to the fact that everything is displayed publicly for scrutiny by any professional.
    If any individual or professional feels any professional abilities need to be added, he or she can forward recommendations.

    Where are you in the process?

    I am trying to get information about the services via the Internet: how it works, whether it is right for me.
    I have decided to get consultation, recommendations; I need to set up remuneration issues.
    I have decided to get consultation and am in the process of answering questions.
    I have a question about online questions and consultation. Other.
    I have read and agree to the Terms & Conditions.

    These are basic questions.
    There are many more.

    Once the above listed relevant questions about comprehensive patient assessment are answered and received, you will get another questions list relevant to age, gender, location, problems, or issues, if any.

    This will be followed by specific recommendations.
    What best describes the patient?
    Child
    Adolescent girl
    Adolescent boy
    Woman
    Man
    What do you have to do before a patient or individual from the public seeks individualized doctor consultation?

    Has this issue been explained at the public health level?
    Take a look at this.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html

    Has this issue been explained in patient education?
    Take a look at this.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html

    If yes, you need to go through these facts.

    If no, you need to seek individualized doctor consultation.

    A doctor should first try to resolve health issues at the public health level or patient education.

    If the public health level or patient education does not resolve your issues, individualized doctor consultation is required.

    What should you expect from a doctor during individualized consultation?
    1. Obtaining a complete medical history.
    2. Verifying the obtained complete medical history.
    3. Reviewing patient records.
    4. Performing physical examinations.
    5. Medical test recommendations.
    6. Monitoring in various settings.
    7. Treatment/recommendations.
    What are the various methods of completing a medical history?
    You need to complete the options listed.
    You need to answer relevant questions.
    Depending on the situation, more questions can be asked.

    How healthy are you?
    How can various emergencies be prevented in the state and outside the state?
    Enhance various essential departments in the state.
    Take all nonemergency complaints and issues seriously.
    Resolve nonemergency complaints and issues immediately before they become an emergency.
    If you ignore nonemergency complaints and issues, this can become an emergency.
    What will happen if you don't resolve a conflict or dispute?
    What is conflict?
    What is a conflict of interest?
    There are a number of examples that explain this situation.
    When can a conflict of interest occur?
    What are the types of conflict?
    Are disagreement and conflict the same?
    What are some examples?
    What causes it?
    How do people respond to conflict?

    Don't reach self-styled conclusions.
    Did anyone provoke this behavior?

    What are the non-psychiatric causes of the symptoms?

    What organizations have been found to be abusing a "petition for involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?"

    How should they be disciplined?

    What are the organizations whose staff has been found to be incompetent, leading to unjustified admission to a psychiatric facility?

    What are various stages of conflict?
    Pre-conflict, confrontation, crisis, and outcome.

    How do you manage conflict?
    You first need to understand the issues, problems, claims.

    Are we facing a conflict or a dispute?
    Understanding conflict.
    Analyzing the conflict
    Who is involved?
    Education
    Finding solutions
    How do you manage retaliation?
    Mutual understanding
    Communication channels opened
    Determine management strategy
    What is the appropriate way to manage it?
    Pre-negotiation
    Negotiation
    Post-negotiation
    Post conflict management

    Drug Screening
    Do you use drugs or drink alcohol?

    Are these substances harming your health or increasing your risk for other problems?

    Have you used drugs other than those required for medical reasons?

    Do you abuse more than one drug at a time?

    Are you unable to stop using drugs when you want to?

    Have you ever had blackouts or flashbacks as a result of drug use?

    Do you ever feel bad or guilty about your drug use?

    Does your spouse (or parents) ever complain about your involvement with drugs?

    Have you neglected your family because of your use of drugs?

    Have you engaged in illegal activities in order to obtain drugs?

    Have you ever experienced withdrawal symptoms (felt sick) when you stopped taking drugs?

    Have you had medical problems as a result of your drug use (e.g. memory loss, hepatitis, convulsions, bleeding)?

    Do you inject drugs?

    How often do you use drugs

    Which recreational drugs you have used in the past year?

    ____ Alcohol
    ____ Amphetamines
    ____ Barbiturates (except phenobarbital)
    ____ Benzodiazepines
    ____ Cannabis (marijuana, pot)
    ____ Cocaine
    ____ Cotinine (a breakdown product of nicotine)
    ____ Hallucinogens (LSD, mushrooms)
    ____ Heroin
    ____ Inhalants (paint thinner, aerosol, glue)
    ____ Injection Drugs
    ____ LSD
    ____ MDMA (Ecstasy)
    ____ Methadone
    ____ Methamphetamine (speed, crystal)
    ____ Morphine
    ____ Narcotics (heroin, oxycodone, methadone, etc.)
    ____ Other Drugs
    ____ PCP
    ____ Phenobarbital
    ____ Prescription Medications
    ____ Rohypnol and GHB
    ____ Steroids
    ____ Tranquilizers (valium)
    ____ Tobacco
    ____ Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's)
    ____ other ______________________________

    Have you used drugs other than those required for medical reasons?

    Have you abused prescription drugs?

    Do you abuse more than one drug at a time?

    Can you get through the week without using drugs (other than those required for medical reasons)?
    Are you always able to stop using drugs when you want to?

    Do you abuse drugs on a continuous basis?

    Do you try to limit your drug use to certain situations?

    Have you had “blackouts” or “flashbacks” as a result of drug use?

    Do you ever feel bad about your drug abuse?

    Does your spouse (or parents) ever complain about your involvement with drugs?

    Do your friends or relatives know or suspect you abuse drugs? Has drug abuse ever created problems between you and your spouse?

    Has any family member ever sought help for problems related to your drug use?

    Have you ever lost friends because of your use of drugs?

    Have you ever neglected your family or missed work because of your use of drugs?

    Have you ever been in trouble at work because of drug abuse?

    Have you ever lost a job because of drug abuse?

    Have you gotten into fights when under the influence of drugs?

    Have you ever been arrested because of unusual behavior while under the influence of drugs?

    Have you ever been arrested for driving while under the influence of drugs?

    Have you engaged in illegal activities in order to obtain drug?

    Have you ever been arrested for possession of illegal drugs?

    Have you ever experienced withdrawal symptoms as a result of heavy drug intake?

    Have you had medical problems as a result of your drug use (e.g., memory loss, hepatitis, convulsions, bleeding, etc.)?

    Have you ever gone to anyone for help for a drug problem?

    Have you ever been in a hospital for medical problems related to your drug use?

    Have you ever been involved in a treatment program specifically related to drug use?

    Have you been treated as an outpatient for problems related to drug abuse?

    Urine drug screen

    Drug test

    Alcohol
    Amphetamines
    Barbiturates (except phenobarbital)
    Benzodiazepines
    Cannabis
    Cannabis (marijuana)
    Cocaine
    Cotinine (a breakdown product of nicotine)
    Hallucinogens (LSD)
    Heroin
    Inhalants
    Injection Drugs
    LSD
    MDMA (Ecstasy)
    Methadone
    Methamphetamine
    Morphine
    Other Drugs
    PCP
    Phenobarbital
    Prescription Medications
    Rohypnol and GHB
    Steroids
    Tobacco
    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's)

    Normal Results

    No drugs in the urine.

    What Abnormal Results Mean

    If the test result is positive, another test called gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) may be done to confirm the results. The GC-MS will help tell the difference between a false positive and a true positive.

    In some cases, a test will register a false positive. This can result from interfering factors such as some foods, prescription medications, and other drugs.
    Emergency Psychiatry
    What is emergency psychiatry?
    Emergency psychiatry is the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings.

    What conditions require emergency psychiatry consultation?
      1. Attempted suicide.
      2. Attempted homicide.
      3. Substance abuse.
      4. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).
      5. Suicidal thoughts, homicidal thoughts.
      6. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.
      7. Abuse.
      8. Environmental factors (hostile environment).
      9. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).
      10. Personality disorders (harmful to others).
      11. Panic attacks.
      12. Loosening of social inhibitions.
      13. Likely to be harmful to self or others.
      14. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications.
      15. Intentional enforced harms.
      16. Other.

    What should an emergency medical doctor or any psychiatrist exclude before diagnosing and treating any emergency medical condition relevant to psychiatry?
    Exclude intentional enforced harms. Intention enforced harms are emergencies; however, they need solutions and remedies, not medications or hospitalizations.

    How may individuals arrive for emergency psychiatric service?
    1. Voluntarily.
    2. Referral from another health professional.
    3. Through involuntary commitment.

    How should wrong referrals or abuse of involuntary commitment in emergency psychiatry be prevented?
    1. Education of police officers.
    2. Education of emergency medical doctors and psychiatrists.
    3. Public awareness that sending anyone for psychiatric referral or involuntary commitment through trickery or malice is a Class A misdemeanor.

    What should patients expect from emergency psychiatry?
    1. Medications.
    2. Counseling.
    3. Involuntary hospital admission.
    4. Voluntary hospital admission.
    5. Outpatient facilities.
    6. Partial hospitalization.
    7. Residential treatment centers.
    8. E-mail or telephone counseling.
    9. In case of intentional enforced harms, solutions, remedies, or adjudication.

    What is the essential requirement of a psychiatric behavioral unit or ward?
    Provide a protected environment.
    Other.
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html

    What is the future of psychiatry?
    Demand for psychiatric services is going to increase as people tend to be more civilized.

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencypsychiatry.html

    Forensic psychiatry
    What is forensic psychiatry?
    What is a forensic psychiatrist?
    What kinds of determinations do forensic psychiatrists make in civil proceedings?
    What about criminal cases?
    Can there be civil proceedings and criminal proceedings at the same time?
    How does a forensic psychiatrist go about conducting an evaluation?
    Is a forensic psychiatrist the same thing as a forensic psychologist?
    How is forensic psychiatry useful to the legal process?
    Are forensic psychiatrists "advocates" for one side or the other in legal matters?
    What is a forensic pathologist?
    Where do forensic pathologists work?
    What does a forensic pathologist do?
    Why is knowledge of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others essential for a doctor or healthcare provider?
    What is the profile of the individual for whom forensic psychiatrist consultation has been sought?
    Who has sought forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?
    What has led to seeking forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?
    How should a lawyer select a forensic expert for a specific case?
    How has Internet human health care changed the public service of forensic psychiatry?
    What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
    What best describes the individual whose fitness for duty required forensic psychiatric consultation?
    Have previous doctors, psychiatrists, or clinicians made any wrong diagnosis and wrong recommendations relevant to the individual?
    What is the actual genuine diagnosis and treatment of the individual?
    What is a forensic psychiatrist?
    A forensic psychiatrist is a medical doctor with, first, the additional training of a psychiatrist, and then with special training and experience (forensic) in the application of psychiatric knowledge to questions posed by the legal system. A forensic psychiatrist may also have a clinical practice. However, when acting in the capacity of a forensic specialist, he or she is not providing therapy to alleviate the patient's suffering or to help the patient be free and healthy, but an objective evaluation for use by the retaining institution, attorney, or court.

    Forensic pathologists (one kind at least) are the physicians who perform autopsies, a different medical specialty altogether.

    What is a forensic psychiatrist?
    A forensic psychiatrist is a medical doctor with, first, the additional training of a psychiatrist, and then with special training and experience (forensic) in the application of psychiatric knowledge to questions posed by the legal system. A forensic psychiatrist may also have a clinical practice.

    In addition to the highly visible role of expert witness, the forensic psychiatrist performs numerous consultative services out of the public eye. These include client management, witness evaluation, witness preparation, jury selection, and establishing witness credibility. You can decide in each individual case which of these services will be most helpful to your client. But it helps to engage in an ongoing dialogue with the consulting expert.

    What is an expert witness and what is the role of a psychiatrist as an expert witness?
    First let's define a witness as a person with knowledge not normally possessed by the average person concerning the topic that he is to testify about. An expert witness is a witness who has knowledge beyond that of the ordinary layperson such that he or she could give testimony regarding an issue that requires expertise to understand.

    What is the difference between a forensic psychologist and a forensic psychiatrist?
    A forensic psychologist is initially qualified as a psychologist (PhD), and then trained at postgraduate level to practice in the forensic field. A forensic psychiatrist is first qualified as a doctor of medicine, and then taken further training to qualify as a psychiatrist. After training in general psychiatry, one pursues further fellowship to develop skills as a forensic psychiatrist.

    How does a forensic psychiatrist go about conducting an evaluation?
    A properly conducted forensic evaluation is an extended, in-depth process. It entails multiple interviews, detailed review and comparison of what the examinee has communicated on different occasions, microanalysis of the data (with consideration of sequence, tone, and nonverbal behavior), and cross-checking with corroborative evidence (interviews with relevant others, police and medical records, other expert witness reports, and psychological testing).

    This evaluation must be conducted with subtlety and delicacy. The examinee not only may falsify or misattribute, but also may minimize or deny symptoms of traumatic stress or exhibit amnesia or denial of past events whose remembrance evokes such stress. Thus, people under stress may forget details that subsequently emerge, or they may embellish their memories and engage in wishful thinking. Neither of these distortions ipso facto constitutes malingering or perjury.

    The essence of forensic psychiatry lies in creating a working alliance with the person being examined for the limited purposes of the examination. It is to have the person be a collaborator (albeit sometimes a reluctant, conflicted, or inhibited one) in reconstructing the mental, emotional, and physical states in question.

    What is the difference between treatment-related clinical evaluation and forensic evaluation?
    The most important difference lies in the purpose of the evaluation. In treatment-related clinical evaluation, the psychiatrist typically performs an initial psychiatric evaluation for an hour or so, primarily focusing on the patient's presenting problems with an ultimate goal of formulating a diagnostic impression and treatment plan. The assumption is that there will be ongoing therapeutic relationship such that diagnosis and treatment becomes a continuous process; many times, there is no urgent need to know "everything" you can possibly know about the patient since there will be follow-up interviews. The psychiatrist is an advocate for the patient's welfare and what matters is what the patient feels or believes, whether it's the truth or not.. On the other hand, a forensic evaluation (or any independent psychiatric evaluation for that matter) is requested by a third-party rather than the individual being evaluated. The purpose of evaluation is to answer specific questions posed by the requesting third-party or agency. Although these questions typically involve diagnostic impressions, the forensic psychiatrist usually gives opinions transcending beyond a diagnosis of the mental condition. In fact, most of the opinions sought by the requesting agency can only be helpful if the psychiatrist is able to explain the link between the mental disorder and the psychiatric-legal issue in question. Obviously, in evaluation settings like this, the psychiatrist is not an advocate for the individual's welfare and the evaluation does not create a patient-doctor relationship. I would like to believe that the forensic psychiatrist is an advocate for truth rather than an advocate for the hiring agency either. Most of these evaluations are a "one-time" evaluation and thus it is crucial to get all necessary and obtainable information in order to arrive at expert opinions.

    What is a forensic pathologist?
    They specialize in determining the causes of sudden, unexpected or violent deaths.

    What does a forensic pathologist do?
    According to the College of American Pathologists, forensic pathologists are experts in investigating and evaluating cases of sudden, unexpected, suspicious and violent death, as well as other specific classes of death defined by state laws.

    Where do forensic pathologists work?
    Most serve the public as a coroner or a medical examiner, or by performing autopsies for those officials.

    Why is knowledge of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others essential for a doctor or healthcare provider?
    If you do not have knowledge of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others. you are likely going to reach a wrong diagnosis and treatment for a human being.

    Questions that need to be answered.

    What is the profile of the individual for whom forensic psychiatrist consultation has been sought?

    Who has sought forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?

    What has led to seeking forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?

    How should a lawyer select a forensic expert for a specific case?

    Get honest answers from a forensic psychiatry expert or an Internet human healthcare resource.
    Display this resource www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html in front of him or her and get his or her response.
    There is no better psychiatry resource around at this point.
    Do not be swayed by a board certified psychiatrist or licensed psychiatrist, without getting answers to relevant questions.

    How has Internet human health care changed the public service of forensic psychiatry?
    Previously, forensic psychiatrist had to testifying in court.
    Nowadays, a lawyer can give reference of this resource on behalf of a forensic psychiatrist.

    Fitness for duty

    What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
    Illiterate.
    Personality disorder (liar, etc).
    Harmful to self or others.
    Lack of knowledge of specific profession.
    Insufficient knowledge of specific profession.
    Criminal traits.
    Disability; after reasonable adjustment an individual cannot fulfill expected standard of service/profession.
    Lack of desire for public service.

    What best describes the individual whose fitness for duty required forensic psychiatric consultation?
    Having a license does not mean an individual has knowledge of a specific profession.

    Wrong diagnosis and treatment from others.

    Have previous doctors, psychiatrists, or clinicians made any wrong diagnosis and wrong recommendations relevant to the individual?
    If the previous doctors, psychiatrists, or clinicians have not focused on stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others, the diagnosis and treatment is wrong.

    What is the actual genuine diagnosis and treatment of the individual?
    First possibilities in psychiatry diagnosis: stress, intentional enforced harms from others, or human rights violations from others.

    Here are further guidelines.
    Food (Nutrition and Health)
    Age and Lifestyle

    What is his/her age?
    Are you vegetarian or vegan? ¡ Yes ¡ No
    Do you take nutritional supplements?
    Yes
    No
    If yes, what kind?

    When the weather is nice, how often do you spend at least 10 minutes a day in full sun without sunscreen?
    Daily
    3-5 times a week
    1-3 times a week
    Not on a regular basis
    Never

    General Nutrition

    1. How often do you buy food from the outer aisles of the grocery store?
    (i.e., fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables, fresh meat or seafood, dairy, grains, and nuts from the bulk bins)
    All the time ¡Often ¡Sometimes ¡Not at all*

    2. How often do you buy food from the center aisles of the grocery store?
    (i.e., foods that come in cans, bags, or boxes, such as crackers, canned soups, cereals, and frozen dinners)
    Not at all ¡Sometimes
    Often
    All the time

    3. How often do you eat out at restaurants or fast-food restaurants?
    Not at all
    Sometimes
    Often
    All the time

    4. What do you eat when you snack?

    Fruits and Vegetables

    1. How often do you eat fresh or frozen green vegetables, such as kale, collard greens, chard, or spinach?
    All the time
    Often
    Sometimes
    Not at all

    2. How often do you eat fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables from at least 3 different color groups
    (e.g., red berries, purple eggplant, orange sweet potatoes, and green broccoli) all in one day?
    All the time
    Often
    Sometimes
    Not at all

    3. What are your favorite fruits and vegetables?

    Dairy, Seafood, and Meat

    1. How often do you eat low-fat dairy products such as yogurt or cheese, soy, or rice-milk products?
    All the time
    Often
    Sometimes
    Not at all

    2. How often do you eat fish, such as sardines, salmon, trout, and tilapia?
    All the time
    Often
    Sometimes
    Not at all

    3. How often do you eat red meat, such as beef, mutton, lamb, goat, and game meats (e.g., rabbit, venison, buffalo)?
    Not at all
    Sometimes
    Often
    All the time

    4. How often do you eat other meats, such as chicken, turkey, pork, and game birds (e.g., pheasant, quail)?
    All the time
    Often ¡Sometimes
    Not at all

    5. How often do you eat processed meats, such as bacon, sausage, hot dogs, and bologna?
    Not at all
    Sometimes
    Often
    All the time

    6. How often do you eat fried, canned, or smoked meats?
    Not at all
    Sometimes
    Often
    All the time

    Here are further guidelines.
    Glossary of psychiatry

    Glossary of Mental Health/Mental Illness Terminology
    A

    Addiction

    An organism's psychological or physical dependence on a drug, characterised by tolerance and withdrawal.

    Adjustment disorder

    A pathological psychological reaction to trauma, loss or severe stress. Usually these last less than six months, but may be prolonged if the stressor e.g. pain or scarring is enduring.

    Affect

    A person's affect is their immediate emotional state which the person can recognise subjectively and which can also be recognised objectively by others. A person's mood is their predominant current affect.

    Agnosia

    An inability to organise sensory information so as to recognise objects (e.g. visual agnosia) or sometimes even parts of the body, (e.g. hemisomatoagnosia).

    Agoraphobia

    Fear of the marketplace literally; taken now to be a fear of public of public places associated with panic disorder.

    Akathisia

    An inner feeling of excessive restlessness which provokes the sufferer to fidget in their seat or pace about.

    Amnesia

    A partial of complete loss of memory. Anterograde amnesia is a loss of memory subsequent to any cause e.g. brain trauma. Retrograde amnesia is a loss of memory for a period of time prior to any cause.

    Anorexia nervosa

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by excess control - a morbid fear of obesity leads the sufferer to try and limit or reduce their weight by excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Sufferers are typically more than 15% below the average weight for their height/sex/age. Typically they have amenorrhoea (if female) or low libido (if male). 1-2% of female teenagers are anorexic.

    Anxiety

    Anxiety is provoked by fear or apprehension and also results from a tension caused by conflicting ideas or motivations. Anxiety manifests through mental and somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, hyperventilation, and faintness.

    Asthenia

    Asthenia is a weakness or debility of some form, hence neurasthenia, a term for an illness seen by dctors around the turn of the century, a probable precursor to chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME).

    Agoraphobia

    A panic disorder that involves intense fear and avoidance of any place or situation where it is perceived that escape might be difficult or help unavailable in the event of developing sudden panic-like symptoms. The fear can especially be directed towards situations in which feelings of panic have occurred before. These situations may include driving, shopping, crowded places, traveling, standing in line, meetings, social gatherings and even being alone.

    Alzheimer’s Disease

    A progressive disorder that gradually destroys a person’s memory and ability to learn, reason, make judgments, communicate and carry out daily activities. Individuals with more advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease may also experience changes in personality and behavior such as anxiety, suspiciousness or agitation, as well as delusions or hallucinations. The disease usually starts in middle or old age, beginning with memory loss concerning recent events and spreading to memory loss concerning events that are more distant.

    Anxiety Disorders

    Chronic feelings of overwhelming anxiety and fear, unattached to any obvious source, that can grow progressively worse if not treated. The anxiety is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as sweating, cardiac disturbances, diarrhea or dizziness. Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessivecompulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder are considered anxiety disorders (all defined individually in Glossary).

    Asperger’s Syndrome

    A Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) characterized by normal language and intelligence development, but impaired social and communication skills as well as difficulty with transitions or changes. Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome often have obsessive routines and may be preoccupied with one particular field of interest. Although they may be low functioning in many areas, they often have above-average performance in a narrow field.

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

    A biologically-based disorder that includes distractibility and impulsiveness. Recent research suggests that ADD can be inherited and may be due to an imbalance of neurotransmitters (chemicals used by the brain to control behavior) or abnormal glucose metabolism in the central nervous system. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A form of ADD that includes hyperactivity. Children with ADHD are unable to sit still. They may walk, run or climb around when others are seated, and often talk when others are talking.

    Autism

    A Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) that affects a person’s ability to communicate, form normal social relationships and respond appropriately to the external world. Autism typically appears in the first three years of life, although there may be signs in infancy such as avoiding eye contact and abruptly stopping language development. Children with autism may stare into space for hours, throw uncontrollable tantrums and show no interest in people including their parents. They may pursue strange, repetitive activities with no apparent purpose. Some people with autism can function at a relatively high level, with speech and intelligence intact. Others, however, have serious learning problems and language delays, and some never speak.

    B

    Bipolar Disorder

    Also known as manic-depressive illness. A serious illness that causes shifts in a person’s mood, energy and ability to function. Dramatic mood swings can move from “high” feelings of extreme euphoria or irritability to depression, sometimes with periods of normal moods in between. Manic episodes may include such behaviors as prolonged periods without sleep or uncontrolled shopping. Each episode of mania or depression can last for hours, weeks or several months. Borderline Personality Disorder A mental illness marked by a pattern of unstable personal relationships and self image, as well as marked impulsivity. Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder often have a strong fear of abandonment and may exhibit recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures or threats or self-mutilating behavior. They also may have inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger. Brain Disorder Any abnormality in the brain that results in impaired functioning or thinking.

    Bulimia nervosa

    Described by Russell in 1979, bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by lack of control. Abnormal eating behaviour including dieting, vomiting, purging and particularly bingeing may be associated with normal weight or obesity. The syndrome is associated with guilt, depressed mood, low self-esteem and sometimes with childhood sexual abuse, alcoholism and promiscuity. May be asociated with oesophageal ulceration and parotid swelling (Green's chubby chops sign).

    C

    Case Management

    Case management focuses on accelerating the use of available services to restore or maintain independent functioning to the fullest extent possible. In pursuing this goal, case management helps people connect to needed services and supports within the community.

    Catatonic

    A marked psychomotor disturbance that may involve stupor or mutism, negativism, rigidity, purposeless excitement and inappropriate or bizarre posturing. Catatonic schizophrenia is a form of the illness characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods. This catatonia may give way to short periods of extreme excitement.

    Community Solutions

    Continuum of Care

    A complete range of programs for children and adolescents with mental illness. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, a seamless continuum of care includes, from least to most intensive:
    • Office or outpatient clinic, with visits usually under one hour.
    • Intensive case management, with specially trained individuals coordinating or providing psychiatric, _______, legal and medical services to help the child or adolescent live successfully at home and in the community.
    • Home-based treatment services, with a team of specially trained staff members who go into a home and develop a treatment program to help the child and family.
    • Family support services, which help families care for their children, possibly including parent training and support groups.
    • Day treatment program, an intensive combination of psychiatric treatment with special education, which the child or adolescent usually attends five days a week.
    • Partial hospitalization (day hospital), which provides all the treatment services of a psychiatric hospital; however, the patients go home each evening.
    • Emergency/crisis services, providing 24-hour support for emergencies. May include hospital emergency departments and mobile crisis teams.
    • Respite care services, which provide a brief period in which the patient stays away from home with specially trained individuals.
    • Therapeutic group home or community residence, which usually includes six to 10 children or adolescents in each home. This may be linked with a day treatment program or specialized educational program.
    • Crisis residence, which provides short-term (usually fewer than 15 days) crisis intervention and treatment. Patients receive 24-hour supervision.
    • Residential treatment facility, where seriously disturbed patients receive intensive and comprehensive psychiatric treatment in a campus-like setting on a longer-term basis.
    Hospital treatment, where patients receive comprehensive psychiatric treatment in a hospital. The length of treatment depends on each situation.

    Co-occurring/Comorbidity

    In general, the existence of two or more illnesses – whether physical or mental – at the same time in a single individual. With SAMHSA, the term usually means the coexistence of mental illness and substance abuse.

    Coordinated Network

    In referring to mental health, communication and coordination among mental health, public and private agencies that may be working with the same individual. The goal is to benefit the individual with seamless care across the system.

    CRCG (Community Resource Coordination Group)

    A local group composed of public and private providers that come together to develop individual service plans for children, youth and adults whose needs can be met only through interagency coordination and cooperation.

    Cultural Competence

    A group of skills, attitudes and knowledge that allows persons, organizations and systems to work effectively with diverse racial, ethnic and social groups.

    Compulsion

    The behavioural component of an obsession. The individual feels compelled to repeat a behaviour which has no immediate benefit beyond reducing the anxiety associated with the obsessional idea. For instance for a person obsessed by the idea that they are dirty, repeated ritual handwashing may serve to reduce anxiety.

    Confabulation

    Changing, loosely held and false memories created to fill in organically-derived amnesia

    Cyclothymia

    A variability of mood over days or weeks, cycling from positive to negative mood states. The variability is not as severe in amplitude or duration as to be classified as a major affective disorder.

    D

    Delusion

    A belief that is false, fanciful or derived from deception. In psychiatry, a false belief strongly held in spite of evidence that it is not true, especially as a symptom of a mental illness.

    Dementia

    A condition of declining mental abilities, especially memory. Individuals with dementia may have trouble doing things they used to do such as keeping the checkbook, driving a car safely or planning a meal. They often have trouble finding the right word and may become confused when given too many things to do at one time. Individuals with dementia may also experience changes in personality, becoming aggressive, paranoid or depressed. Department of Aging and Disability Services (DADS) Created in September 2004, this department consolidates the mental retardation services and state school programs of the Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation; community care, nursing facility, and long-term care regulatory services of the Department of Human Services; and aging services and programs of the Department on Aging.

    Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services

    Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services.

    Depression

    In psychiatry, a disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness and sometimes suicidal thoughts or attempts to commit suicide. While standing alone as a mental illness, depression also can be experienced in other disorders such as bipolar disorder. Depression can range from mild to severe, and is very treatable with today’s medications and/or therapy.

    Diagnosable Mental Illness

    Any mental illness or mental disorder, including those that have not yet received a formal diagnosis from a medical or mental health professional. Sometimes referred to as a “brain disorder.”

    Dejà vu

    Haven't you been here before? An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a particular or unique event has happened before in exactly the same way.

    Delirium

    An acute organic brain syndrome secondary to physical causes in which consciousness is affected and disorientation results often associated with illusions, visual hallucinations and persecutory ideation.

    Delusion

    An incorrect belief which is out of keeping with the person's cultural context, intelligence and social background and which is held with unshakeable conviction.

    Delusional mood

    Also known as wahnstimmung, a feeling that something unusual is about to happen of special significance for that person.

    Delusional perception

    A normal perception which has become highly invested with significance and which has become incorporated into a delusional system, e.g. 'when I saw the traffic lights turn red I knew that the dog I was walking was a Nazi and a lesbian Nazi at that'.

    Dementia

    An chronic organic mental illness which produces a global deterioration in cognitive abilities and which usually runs a deteriorating course.

    Depersonalisation

    An experience where the self is felt to be unreal, detached from reality or different in some way. Depersonalisation can be triggered by tiredness, dissociative episodes or partial epileptic seizures.

    Depression

    An affective disorder characterised by a profound and persistent sadness. Derealisation An experience where the person perceives the world around them to be unreal. The experience is linked to depersonalisation.

    Dyskinesia

    Abnormal movements as in tardive dyskinesia a late onset onet of abnormal involuntary movements. Tardive dyskinesia is conventionally thought a late side effect of first generation antipsychotics, but some abnormal movements were seen in schizophrenia before the introduction of antipsychotics.

    Dyspraxia

    A dyspraxia is a difficulty with a previously learnt or acquired movement or skill. An example might be a dressing dyspraxia or a constructional dyspraxia. Dyspraxias tend to indicate cortical damage, particularly in the parietal lobe region. Dissociative Disorder

    A disorder marked by a separation from or interruption of a person’s fundamental aspects of waking consciousness, such as personal identity or personal history. The dissociative aspect in any form is thought to be a coping mechanism stemming from trauma of some kind. The individual literally dissociates or separates from a situation or experience that is too traumatic to integrate with the conscious self. There are many forms of dissociative disorders: Dissociative amnesia: Characterized by blocking out critical information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature. The amnesia may be localized to a specific window of time; selective, allowing the patient to remember only small parts of events that took place in a defined period of time; generalized to the patient’s entire life; or systematized, in which the loss of memory is related to a specific category of information. Dissociative fugue: A rare disorder in which an individual suddenly and unexpectedly takes physical leave of his or her surroundings and sets off on a journey of some kind. Individuals in a fugue state are unaware of or confused about their identities. Rarely, these individuals will assume a new identity. Dissociative identity disorder: Previously known as multiple personality disorder. Individuals with DID have more than one distinct identity or personality state that surfaces on a recurring basis. The disorder is also marked by differences in memory, which vary with the individual’s “alters” or other personalities. Depersonalization disorder – Marked by recurrent feelings of detachment or distance from one’s own experience, body or self. When severe, individuals with this disorder may believe the external world is unreal or distorted.

    DSM-IV

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    E

    Early Intervention

    In mental health, diagnosing and treating mental illnesses early in their development. Studies have shown early intervention can result in higher recovery rates. However, many individuals do not have the advantage of early intervention because the stigma of mental illness and other factors keep them from pursuing help until later in the illness’ development.

    Eating Disorder

    A serious disturbance in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating. Usually accompanied by feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Eating disorders, which are treatable, usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood and frequently co-occur with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Eating disorders can lead to serious physical health complications including heart conditions and kidney failure, which may lead to death. The main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Echolalia

    A speech disorder in which the person inappropriately and automatically repeats the last words he or she has heard. Palilalia is a form of echolalia in which the last syllable heard is repeated endlessly.

    Echopraxia

    A movement disorder in which the person automatically and inappropriately imitates or mirrors the movements of another.

    Electroconvulsive Therapy (Electroshock Therapy)

    A treatment for some severe mental illnesses in which a brief application of electrical stimulus is used to generate a generalized seizure. According to the National Institutes of Health, this therapy has been highly successful in treating certain types of depression, especially when followed with anti-depressant medication. It has not been effective with individuals who have less severe forms of depression.

    Evidence-Based Practice

    Refers to treatment guidelines that can be supported by quality clinical research.

    Family-Driven Care

    In mental health, a model in which families have a primary decision-making role in the care of their own children. Families also have a primary role in the policies and procedures governing care for all children in their community. Family involvement includes choosing supports, services and providers; setting goals; designing and implementing programs; monitoring outcomes; and determining the effectiveness of all efforts to promote the mental health of children and youth.

    Family Resource Centers

    First rank symptoms

    Schneider classified the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia as first-rank features of schizophrenia. These included third person auditory hallucinations, thought echo, thought interference (insertion, withdrawal, and broadcasting), delusional perception and passivity phenomena.

    Flight of ideas

    In mania and hypomania thoughts become pressured and ideas may race from topic to topic, guided sometimes only by rhymes or puns. Ideas are associated though, unlike thought disorder.

    Frontal lobe syndrome

    This follows frontal lobe damage or may be consequent upon a lesion such as a tumour of infarction. There is a lack judgement, a coarsening of personality, disinhibition, pressure of speech, lack of planning ability, and sometimes apathy. Perseveration and a return of the grasp reflex may occur.

    G

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Characterized by excessive uncontrollable worry about everyday things. The chronic worrying can affect daily functioning and cause physical symptoms, filling an individual’s days with tension even though there is little or nothing to provoke it. Unlike a phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder is not triggered by a specific object or situation. Individuals with this disorder are always anticipating disaster, often worrying excessively about health, money, family or work. In addition to chronic worry, symptoms may include trembling, muscular aches, insomnia, abdominal upsets, dizziness and irritability.

    H

    Hallucination

    An abnormal sensory experience that arises in the absence of a direct external stimulus, and which has the qualities of a normal percept and is experienced as real and usually in external space. Hallucinations may occur in any sensory modality.

    Hypomania

    An affective disorder characterised by elation, overactivity, an insomnia.

    I

    Illusion

    An abnormal perception caused by a sensory misinterpretation of and actual stimulus, sometimes precipitated by strong emotion, e.g. fear provoking a person to imagine they have seen an intruder in the shadows.

    Insight

    In psychotic mental disorders and organic brain syndromes a patient's insight into whether or not they are ill and therefore requiring treatment may be affected. In depression a person may lack insight into their best qualities and in mania a person may overestimate their wealth and abilities.

    J

    Jamais vu

    An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a routine or familiar event has never happened before. (See Dejà vu).

    Juvenile Justice Facility

    Encompasses detention centers, shelters, reception or diagnostic centers, training schools, ranches, forestry camps or farms, halfway houses, group homes and residential treatment centers for young offenders.

    Korsakoff's Syndrome

    A syndrome of amnesia and confabulation following chronic alcoholism. Short-term memory is particularly affected.Named after the Russian psychiatrist Korsakoff.

    M

    Mania

    An affective disorder characterised by intense euphoria, overactivity and loss of insight.

    Managed Care

    Managed Health Care Plan

    Manic-Depressive Disorder
    See Bipolar Disorder
    Mental Disorder

    A health condition characterized by alterations in thinking, mood or behavior (or a combination of the three). Mental disorders are mediated by the brain and associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. They can be the result of family history, genetics or other biological, environmental, social or behavioral factors that occur alone or in combination.

    Mental Health

    The condition of being mentally and emotionally sound and well adjusted, characterized by the absence of mental disorder and by adequate adjustment. Individuals with mental health feel comfortable about themselves, have positive feelings about others and exhibit an ability to meet the demands of life.

    Mental Health Services

    Diagnostic, treatment and preventive services that help improve the way individuals with mental illness feel, both physically and emotionally, as well as the way they interact with others. These services also intervene on behalf of those who have a strong risk of developing a mental illness.

    Mental Illness

    Refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders.

    Mental Retardation

    Below normal intellectual ability that originates during the developmental period. Mental retardation is associated with impairment in maturation, learning and/or social adjustment. In general with mental retardation, the IQ is equivalent to or less than 70 and the condition is present from birth or infancy. Individuals with mental retardation have abnormal development, learning difficulties and problems in social adjustment.

    Multiple Personality Disorder See Dissociative Disorder

    N



    Neologism

    A novel word often invented and used in schizophrenic thought disorder.

    Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    A syndrome ascribed to neuroleptics. The syndrome includes hyperpyrexia (temperature over 39 degrees Celsius), autonomic instability and muscular rigidity. The syndrom is not dose related and appears to be related to a very wide variety of substances including antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium. There is a significant risk of mortality. Whether the syndrome is a variant of the lethal catatonia syndrome (described before the advent of modern neuroleptics) is a debated point.

    Neurobiology

    A branch of the life sciences that deals with the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nervous system. The term refers especially to the biology of the brain when used in conjunction with learning disorders, some mental illnesses, Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases that may be caused or impacted by the central nervous system.

    Neuropsychiatry

    A branch of medicine concerned with both neurology (the scientific study of the nervous system) and psychiatry (a branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional and behavioral disorders).

    Nonverbal Learning Disorder

    A neurological disorder originating in the right hemisphere of the brain. Because reception of information is impaired in the right brain, those with nonverbal learning disorder may experience a lack of psychomotor coordination and an inability to recognize nonverbal social cues such as body language, facial expressions, personal space, touch and tone of voice. It can also affect organizational and evaluative skills.

    O

    Obsession

    An unpleasant or nonsensical thought which intrudes into a person's mind, despite a degree of resistance by the person who recognises the thought as pointless or senseless, but nevertheless a product of their own mind. Obsessions may be accompanied by compulsive behaviours which serve to reduce the associated anxiety.

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    A disorder in which individuals are plagued by persistent, recurring thoughts or obsessions that reflect exaggerated anxiety or fears. Typical obsessions include worry about being contaminated or fears of behaving improperly or acting violently. The obsessions may lead to the performance of ritual or routine compulsions such as washing hands, repeating phrases or hoarding. Oppositional Defiant Disorder A disruptive behavior pattern of childhood and adolescence characterized by defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior, especially toward adults in positions of authority.

    P

    Panic Disorder

    An anxiety disorder in which individuals have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. Individuals cannot predict when an attack will occur and may develop intense anxiety between episodes, worrying when the next one will strike. Symptoms can include heart palpitations, chest pain or discomfort, sweating, trembling, tingling sensations, a feeling of choking, fear of dying, fear of losing control and feelings of unreality.

    Parietal Lobe signs

    Parietal lobe signs include various agnosias (such as visual agnosias, sensory neglect, and tactile agnosias), dyspraxias (such as dressing dyspraxia), body image disturbance, and hemipareses or hemiplegias.

    Passivity phenomena

    In these phenomena the individual feels that some aspect of themselves is under the external control of another or others. These may therefore include 'made acts and impulses' where the individual feels they are being made to do something by another, 'made movements' where their arms or legs feel as if they are moving under another's control, 'made emotions' where they are experiencing someone else's emotions, and 'made thoughts' which are categorised elsewhere as thought insertion and withdrawal.

    Perseveration

    Describes an inappropriate repetition of some behaviour or thought or speech. Echolalia is an example of perseverative speech. Talking exclusively on one subject might be described as perseveration on a theme. Perseveration of thought indicates an inability to switch ideas, so that in an interview a patient may continue to give the same responses to later questions as he did to earlier ones. Perseveration is sometimes a feature of frontal lobe lesions.

    Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)

    A class of neurological disorders usually evident by age 3. They are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in social interaction skills, communication skills and possibly by stereotyped behavior, interests and activities. Pervasive Developmental Disorders include autism, Asperger’s syndrome and nonverbal learning disorder.

    Personality Disorders

    An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from expectations. A personality disorder is pervasive and inflexible, beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. Individuals with a personality disorder tend to be stable over time, but the disorder leads to distress or impairment. There are currently 10 personality disorders identified in DSM-IV:
    • Antisocial Personality Disorder: Lack of regard for the moral or legal standards in the local culture, along with a marked inability to get along with others or abide by societal rules. Sometimes called psychopaths or sociopaths.
    • Avoidant Personality Disorder: Marked social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and extremely sensitive to criticism.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder: Lack of one's own identity, with rapid changes in mood, intense unstable interpersonal relationships, marked impulsivity, instability in affect and in self-image.
    • Dependent Personality Disorder: Extreme need of other people, to a point where the person is unable to make any decisions or take an independent stand on his or her own. Submissive behavior and fear of separation. Marked lack of decisiveness and self-confidence.
    • Histrionic Personality Disorder: Exaggerated and often inappropriate displays of emotional reactions, approaching theatricality, in everyday behavior. Sudden and rapidly shifting expressions of emotion.
    • Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Behavior or a fantasy of grandiosity, a lack of empathy, a need to be admired by others, an inability to see the viewpoints of others and hypersensitivity to the opinions of others.
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Characterized by perfectionism and inflexibility as well as preoccupation with uncontrollable patterns of thought and action.
    • Paranoid Personality Disorder: Marked distrust of others, including the belief, without reason, that others are exploiting, harming or trying to deceive him or her; lack of trust; belief of others' betrayal; belief in hidden meanings; unforgiving and grudge holding.
    • Schizoid Personality Disorder: Primarily characterized by a very limited range of expressing and experiencing emotion. Indifferent to social relationships.
    • Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Peculiarities of thinking, odd beliefs and eccentricities of appearance, behavior, interpersonal style and thought (e.g., belief in psychic phenomena and having magical powers).

    Phobia

    An intense and sometimes disabling fear reaction to a specific object or situation that poses little or no actual danger. The level of fear is usually recognized by the individual as being irrational.

    Postpartum Depression

    A potentially serious condition that occurs within six months after childbirth in which a woman feels extreme sensations of sadness, despair, anxiety and/or irritability. Differs from “baby blues” in intensity and duration. Postpartum often keeps a woman from doing the things she needs to do every day. Some symptoms include:
    • Loss of interest or pleasure in life
    • Loss of appetite
    • Less energy and motivation to do things
    • A hard time falling asleep or staying asleep
    • Sleeping more than usual
    • Increased crying or tearfulness
    • Feeling worthless, hopeless or overly guilty
    • Feeling restless, irritable or anxious
    • Unexplained weight loss or gain
    • Feeling like life isn't worth living
    • Having thoughts about hurting herself
    • Worrying about hurting her baby

    Postpartum Psychosis

    A rare but very serious mental illness that can affect new mothers within the first six months after childbirth. Women lose touch with reality, often having hallucinations and delusions focused on the baby. Other symptoms include severe insomnia, paranoia, agitation and restlessness. Homicidal and suicidal thoughts are not uncommon. This condition poses significant danger to the baby's safety and should be managed as a medical emergency requiring hospitalization of the mother.

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    A psychological reaction that occurs after experiencing a highly stressing event, such as wartime combat, physical violence or a natural disaster. It is usually characterized by depression, anxiety, flashbacks, recurrent nightmares and avoidance of reminders of the event. Individuals can feel emotionally numb, especially with people who were once close to them. Also called delayed-stress disorder or posttraumatic stress syndrome.

    Psychiatry

    The branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional or behavioral disorders.

    Psychosis

    A serious mental disorder characterized by defective or lost contact with reality, often with hallucinations or delusions, causing deterioration of normal social functioning.

    Psychotropic

    In mental illness, a medication prescribed to treat the illness or symptoms of that illness.

    R

    Recovery

    According to the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Illness, a process by which people who have a mental illness are able to work, learn and participate fully in their communities. For some individuals, recovery is the ability to live a fulfilling and productive life despite a disability. For others, recovery implies the reduction or complete remission of symptoms.

    Residential Treatment

    Intensive and comprehensive psychiatric treatment in a campus-like setting, usually for a minimum of several months.

    Resilience

    An ability to recover from or adjust easily to significant challenges such as misfortune or change.

    S

    Schizoid

    A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships, social isolation and a restricted range of expressing emotions in interpersonal settings. Pattern begins in early adulthood. Does not occur exclusively with schizophrenia, but may also appear with another psychotic disorder or a pervasive developmental disorder. Schizoid behavior is indicated by four or more of the following:
    • neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
    • almost always chooses solitary activities
    • has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
    • takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
    • lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
    • appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
    • shows emotional coldness, detachment or flattened affectivity

    Schizophrenia

    A psychotic disorder characterized by loss of contact with the environment, noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life and disintegration of feeling, thought and conduct. Individuals with schizophrenia often hear internal voices not heard by others (hallucinations) or believe things that other people find absurd (delusions). The symptoms also may include disorganized speech and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. Individuals with schizophrenia have marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.

    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    A form of depressive illness only occurring during winter months, associated with overeating and sleepiness. Responsive to antidepressants and phototherapy. Little researched and scientifically controversial.

    Screening

    In mental health, a brief formal or informal assessment to identify individuals who have mental health problems or are likely to develop such problems. If a problem is detected, the screening can also determine the most appropriate mental health services for the individual.

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)

    A class of antidepressants that act within the brain to increase the amount of serotonin, a chemical nerves use to send messages to one another (neurotransmitter). Neurotransmitters are released by one nerve and taken up by other nerves. Those that are not taken up by other nerves are taken up by the same nerve that released them, a process called reuptake. By inhibiting reuptake, SSRIs allow more serotonin to be taken up by other nerves. Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED) A diagnosable mental disorder found in individuals from birth to 18 years of age. The disorder is so severe and long lasting it seriously interferes with functioning in family, school, community or other major life activities.

    Serious Mental Illness

    A diagnosable mental disorder found in individuals aged 18 years and older. The disorder is so severe and long lasting, it seriously interferes with a person’s ability to take part in major life activities.

    Social Anxiety Disorder

    Characterized by extreme anxiety about being judged by others or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or ridicule. Individuals experience excessive selfconsciousness in everyday social situations. Physical symptoms may include heart palpitations, faintness, blushing and profuse sweating. Individuals often worry for days or weeks in advance of a dreaded situation. Symptoms may be limited to only one type of situation, such as fear of speaking in formal or informal situations or eating, drinking or writing in front of others. In its most severe form, individuals may experience symptoms anytime they are around other people.

    Special Education

    In _______, education that ensures all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for ________ and independent living. Services may be available to students with a physical disability, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, learning disability, autism, speech disability or traumatic brain injury.

    State Hospitals

    Stigma

    A mark of shame or discredit. A sign of social unacceptability.

    Strength-Based Treatment

    In mental health, a process that builds upon an individual’s strengths to work towards recovery.

    Substance Abuse

    The inappropriate use of and possibly addiction to illegal and legal substances including alcohol and prescription and non-prescription drugs.

    System of Care

    A partnership of mental health, education, child welfare and juvenile justice agencies as well as teachers, children with serious emotional disturbances and their families and other caregivers. These agencies and individuals work together to ensure children with mental, emotional and behavioral problems and their families have access to the services and supports they need to succeed. Together, this team creates an individualized service plan that builds on the unique strengths of each child and each family. The plan is then implemented in a way that is consistent with the family’s culture and language.

    T

    Tardive dyskinesia

    An abnormal involuntary movement disorder which may manifest as lipsmacking bucco-lingual movements or grimacing, truncal movements or athetoid limb movements.

    Thought blocking

    The unpleasant experience of having one's train of thought curtailed absolutely, often more a sign than a symptom.

    Thought broadcasting

    The experience that one's thoughts are being transmitted from one's mind and broadcast to everyone.

    Thought disorder

    A disorder of the form of thought, where associations between ideas are lost or loosened.

    Thought echo

    Where thoughts are heard as if spoken aloud, when there is some delay these are known as echo de la pensée and when heard simultaneously, Gedankenlautwerden.

    Thought insertion

    The experience of alien thoughts being inserted into the mind.

    Thought withdrawal

    The experience of thoughts being removed or extracted from one's mind. Therapy

    Treatment of physical, mental or behavioral problems that is meant to cure or rehabilitate. Psychotherapy emphasizes substituting desirable responses and behavior patterns for undesirable ones.

    W

    Wraparound

    A process in which families with children who have severe emotional disturbance are able to address their needs through a strengths-based, family-driven team approach. A “wraparound facilitator” helps link families of children with severe emotional disturbances with needed services and supports. All members of the family are served through a partnership with the facilitator and other service professionals. The family can choose others they want to have as a part of the team, including friends, ______ members and relatives. Wraparound helps develop creative strategies to meet the needs of each person that may include both traditional and non-traditional approaches and supports.
    Human Rights
    Human Rights Violations


    What are examples of various human rights?
    Are human rights laws state laws, international laws, or both?
    What is a state?
    What are other names of human rights laws?
    Where are human rights applicable on planet Earth?
    What state has the duty to take care of basic human rights of an individual?
    What do you know about human rights?
    What should you know about human rights?
    What are the basic human rights?


    Human Rights Violations

    What do you know about human rights violations?
    What are examples of various human rights violations?
    How do you classify criminal offenses?
    Where do you place human rights violations in the classification of criminal offenses?


    Right to life

    What should you know about human right of right to life?
    Does a civilized human being have a right to live in the community?
    What are examples of human rights violations by violating one’s right to be heard by a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal or judiciary in the state?


    Human rights violations investigations

    What is the location of this human rights violation?
    Who is the victim of human rights violations at this location?
    What needs to be done to prevent these human rights violations?


    Questions you need to answer about human rights.

    What needs to be done to protect human rights in the state and outside the state?
    Who has the duty to monitor human rights violations in the state and outside the state?
    What should be the role of the world military in protecting human rights?
    Is the world military ready to protect human rights?
    What should be the role of international police in protecting human rights?
    Are international police ready to protect human rights?
    What are examples of various human rights?
    Right to life.
    Right to food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, security, and education are basic human rights.
    Right to freedom from torture.
    Right to live without abuse.
    Right to freedom from slavery.
    Right to housing.
    Right to be heard by a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal.
    Right to a public hearing.
    Right to be heard within a reasonable time.
    Right to file complaint/complaints.
    Right to counsel.
    Right to interpretation.
    Right to family life.
    Right to an adequate standard of living.
    Right to human health care.
    Right to free education .
    Right to participation in cultural life.
    Right to freedom of speech.
    Right to freedom from fear,
    Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.
    Right to freedom of movement.
    Right to restoration of rights.
    Right to debate.
    Right to refuse to kill a human.
    Right to live in the community.
    Right to participate in the human/political life of the state without discrimination or repression.
    Rights of persons with special needs.

    Each right has further details.

    Are human rights laws state laws, international laws, or both?
    Human rights laws are both state laws and international laws.

    What is a state?
    A state is a land area of at least 360,000 square miles with proper human survival products and services.

    State means state of Illinois, California, New York, Yukon, in North America.
    State means Kashmir, Karnataka, Jiangsu, Magadan Oblast, Germany, France, in Asia.
    States in Latin America, Africa, and Australia have been listed. Oceans.
    Individual continents.

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/state.html

    What are other names of human rights laws?
    Human rights act.

    Where are human rights applicable on planet Earth?
    Human rights are universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone).

    What state has the duty to take care of basic human rights of an individual?
    The state an individual is resident of at this point and plans to live in for at least the next five years has the duty to take care of the basic human rights of that individual.

    The state in which an individual lived for first 18 years of his or her life has the duty to supervise and monitor, as well.

    Are basic human rights violations criminal or civil cases?
    Basic human rights violations are criminal cases.

    What should you do if you detect basic human rights violations?
    In case of basic human rights violations, immediate solutions and remedies are required.
    The case you are dealing is an extreme human rights violation.
    Alert everyone that this is an extreme case of human rights violations.
    The victim suffers from extreme human rights violations.

    Human Rights violations

    What do police know about human rights violations in the state and outside the state?
    What should police know about human rights violations in the state and outside the state?
    What should you do as a police officer if you detect an individual without survival needs including food and housing, or an individual indicates to you that he/she does not have survival needs including food, housing, communication resources, or other survival needs?
    How does the world’s military monitor human rights violations around the planet earth?


    Complaints of human rights violations can be filed from within the state or outside the state from any individual based on truth and genuine harms.

    An administrator or judge cannot violate basic human rights of an individual even if a lawyer or any other individual tries to persuade the administrator or judge to do so.
    Here are further guidelines.

    Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
    What is intellectual disability?
    What are the signs of intellectual disability in children?
    What causes intellectual disability?
    How is intellectual disability diagnosed?
    What services are available for people with intellectual disability?
    What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child?
    What is intellectual disability?
    Is intellectual disability the same as mental retardation? Why do some programs and regulations still say mental retardation?
    Is intellectual disability the same as developmental disabilities?
    Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test?
    What causes intellectual disability?
    What is the most modern thinking about how to help people with intellectual disability?
    What role has AAIDD played in defining intellectual disabilty?
    Can intellectual disability be prevented?
    How is intellectual disability diagnosed?
    What services are available for people with intellectual disability?
    What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child?
    Intellectual disability (ID), once called mental retardation, is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. People with intellectual disabilities can and do learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. There are varying degrees of intellectual disability, from mild to profound.

    What is intellectual disability?
    Someone with intellectual disability has limitations in two areas. These areas are:

    Intellectual functioning. Also known as IQ, this refers to a person’s ability to learn, reason, make decisions, and solve problems. Adaptive behaviors. These are skills necessary for day-to-day life, such as being able to communicate effectively, interact with others, and take care of oneself.

    IQ (intelligence quotient) is measured by an IQ test. The average IQ is 100. A person is considered intellectually disabled if he or she has an IQ of less than 70 to 75.

    To measure a child’s adaptive behaviors, a specialist will observe the child’s skills and compare them to other children of the same age. Things that may be observed include how well the child can feed or dress himself or herself; how well the child is able to communicate with and understand others; and how the child interacts with family, friends, and other children of the same age.

    Intellectual disability is thought to affect about 1% of the population. Of those affected, 85% have mild intellectual disability. This means they are just a little slower than average to learn new information or skills. With the right support, most will be able to live independently as adults.

    What are the signs of intellectual disability in children?
    There are many different signs of intellectual disability in children. Signs may appear during infancy, or they may not be noticeable until a child reaches school age. It often depends on the severity of the disability. Some of the most common signs of intellectual disability are:

    Rolling over, sitting up, crawling, or walking late Talking late or having trouble with talking Slow to master things like potty training, dressing, and feeding himself or herself Difficulty remembering things Inability to connect actions with consequences Behavior problems such as explosive tantrums Difficulty with problem-solving or logical thinking In children with severe or profound intellectual disability, there may be other health problems as well. These problems may include seizures, mental disorders, motor handicaps, vision problems, or hearing problems.

    What causes intellectual disability?
    Anytime something interferes with normal brain development, intellectual disability can result. However, a specific cause for intellectual disability can only be pinpointed about a third of the time.

    The most common causes of intellectual disability are:

    Genetic conditions. These include things like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
    Problems during pregnancy. Things that can interfere with fetal brain development include alcohol or drug use, malnutrition, certain infections, or preeclampsia.
    Problems during childbirth. Intellectual disability may result if a baby is deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
    Illness or injury. Infections like meningitis, whooping cough, or the measles can lead to intellectual disability. Severe head injury, near-drowning, extreme malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it.

    How is intellectual disability diagnosed?
    Intellectual disability may be suspected for many different reasons. If a baby has physical abnormalities that suggest a genetic or metabolic disorder, a variety of tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis. These include blood tests, urine tests, imaging tests to look for structural problems in the brain, or electroencephalogram (EEG) to look for evidence of seizures.

    In children with developmental delays, the doctor will perform tests to rule out other problems, including hearing problems and certain neurological disorders. If no other cause can be found for the delays, the child will be referred for formal testing.

    Three things factor into the diagnosis of intellectual disability: interviews with the parents, observation of the child, and testing of intelligence and adaptive behaviors. A child is considered intellectually disabled if he or she has deficits in both IQ and adaptive behaviors. If only one or the other is present, the child is not considered intellectually disabled.

    After a diagnosis of intellectual disability is made, a team of professionals will assess the child’s particular strengths and weaknesses. This helps them determine how much and what kind of support the child will need to succeed at home, in school, and in the community.

    What services are available for people with intellectual disability?
    For babies and toddlers, early intervention programs are available. A team of professionals works with parents to write an Individualized Family Service Plan, or IFSP. This document outlines the child’s specific needs and what services will help the child thrive. Early intervention may include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, family counseling, training with special assistive devices, or nutrition services.

    School-aged children with intellectual disabilities (including preschoolers) are eligible for special education for free through the public school system. This is mandated by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Parents and educators work together to create an Individualized Education Program, or IEP, which outlines the child’s needs and the services the child will receive at school. The point of special education is to make adaptations, accommodations, and modifications that allow a child with an intellectual disability to succeed in the classroom.

    What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child?
    Steps to help your intellectually disabled child include:

    Learn everything you can about intellectual disabilities. The more you know, the better advocate you can be for your child. Encourage your child’s independence. Let your child try new things and encourage your child to do things by himself or herself. Provide guidance when it’s needed and give positive feedback when your child does something well or masters something new.

    Get your child involved in group activities. Taking an art class or participating in Scouts will help your child build social skills. Stay involved. By keeping in touch with your child’s teachers, you’ll be able to follow his or her progress and reinforce what your child is learning at school through practice at home. Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children. They can be a great source of advice and emotional support.

    What is intellectual disability?
    Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

    Is intellectual disability the same as mental retardation? Why do some programs and regulations still say mental retardation?
    The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, duration of disability, and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Furthermore, every individual who is or was eligible for a diagnosis of mental retardation is eligible for a diagnosis of intellectual disability.

    While intellectual disability is the preferred term, it takes time for language that is used in legislation, regulation, and even for the names of organizations, to change.

    Is intellectual disability the same as developmental disabilities?
    "Developmental Disabilities" is an umbrella term that includes intellectual disability but also includes other disabilities that are apparent during childhood.

    Developmental disabilities are severe chronic disabilities that can be cognitive or physical or both. The disabilities appear before the age of 22 and are likely to be lifelong.Some developmental disabilities are largely physical issues, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy. Some individuals may have a condition that includes a physical and intellectual disability, for example Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Intellectual disability encompasses the “cognitive” part of this definition, that is, a disability that is broadly related to thought processes. Because intellectual and other developmental disabilities often co-occur, intellectual disability professionals often work with people who have both types of disabilities.

    Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test?
    No. The evaluation and classification intellectual disability is a complex issue. There are three major criteria for intellectual disability: significant limitations in intellectual functioning, significant limitations in adaptive behavior, and onset before the age of 18.

    The IQ test is a major tool in measuring intellectual functioning, which is the mental capacity for learning, reasoning, problem solving, and so on. A test score below or around 70—or as high as 75—indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning.

    Other tests determine limitations in adaptive behavior, which covers three types of skills:
    •Conceptual skills—language and literacy; money, time, and number concepts; and self-direction
    •Social skills—interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naïveté (i.e., wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules, obey laws, and avoid being victimized
    •Practical skills—activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone
    AAIDD publishes the most advanced scientific thinking on this matter in the 11th edition of its manual, Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. In defining and assessing intellectual disability, AAIDD stresses that, in addtion to an assessement of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, professionals must consider such factors as
    •community environment typical of the individual’s peers and culture •linguistic diversity
    •cultural differences in the way people communicate, move, and behavior

    What causes intellectual disability?
    There are a number of causes. Our understanding of the causes of intellectual disability focuses on the types of risk factors (biomedical, social, behavioral, and educational) and the timing of exposure (prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal) to those factors.

    What is the most modern thinking about how to help people with intellectual disability?
    The overarching reason for evaluating and classifying individuals with intellectual disabilities is to tailor supports for each individual, in the form of a set of strategies and services provided over a sustained period.

    Our goal is to enhance people’s functioning within their own environment in order to lead a more successful and satisfying life. Some of this enhancement is thought of in terms of self-worth, subjective well being, pride, engagement in political action, and other principles of self-identity.

    What role has AAIDD played in defining intellectual disabilty?
    AAIDD, the world’s largest and oldest organization of intellectual disability professionals, has played a major role in evolving ideas about and approaches to intellectual disability. In fact, the Association, founded in 1876, has published 11 editions of its definitional manual between 1908 and 2010, each edition containing the latest scientific understanding of the condition.

    The first definitions of the condition focused on a failure to adapt socially to the environment. Later definitions added a medical approach that considered heredity and pathology and called for individuals with intellectual disability to be segregated. Then the rise of the cognitive testing movement brought an emphasis on measuring intellectual functioning by IQ test. The IQ test became the way to define the group and classify the people within it.

    In its 1959 definition and classification manual, AAIDD first attempted a dual-criterion approach: a definition that mentioned both intellectual functioning and “impairments in maturation, learning, and social adjustment.” In its 1961 manual, AAIDD folded the “impairments” description into the phrase “adaptive behavior,” a term still used today. The definition was refocused in 1992 to reflect a new way of understanding and responding to the condition.. AAIDD moved away from a diagnostic process that identified deficits solely on the basis of an IQ score, and began considering social, environmental, and other elements as well. Most crucially, the emphasis shifted from providing programs to people with intellectual disability to designing and delivering support tailored to each individual to help them reach their highest level of functioning.

    The third element of the definition involves age of onset. Early definitions mentioned “the developmental period.” AAIDD’s 2002 definition clarified that the disability originates "before the age of 18.”

    The mainstay of MR/ID treatment is the development of a comprehensive management plan for the condition. The complex habilitation plan for the individual requires input from care providers from multiple disciplines, including special educators, language therapists, behavioral therapists, occupational therapists, and community services that provide social support and respite care for families affected by MR/ID.

    No specific pharmacologic treatment is available for cognitive impairment in the developing child or adult with MR/ID. Medications, when prescribed, are targeted to specific comorbid psychiatric disease or behavioral disturbances.

    What do we know about parenting by people who have an intellectual disability?

    Health Guidelines for Adults with an Intellectual Disability.

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions.

    Here are further guidelines.


    When You Harm Others Intentionally

    Intentional enforced harms
    F43.8Other reactions to severe stress
    DSM- 5 CODE/ ICD 10 CODE
    What are intentional enforced harms?
    Who authors and updates ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders?
    What does ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral Disorders say about intentional enforced harms?
    Who authors and updates the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
    What does the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders say about intentional enforced harms?


    What are intentional enforced harms?
    What are examples of intentional enforced harms?

    Deprivation of food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, security, education, consumer goods, and communication are intentional, willful harms.

    Willful violations of human rights are intentional harms.

    Who has the duty to prevent intentional enforced harms?
    Who authors and updates ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders?
    What does ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders reveal about intentional enforced harms?
    Who authors and updates the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
    What does the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders reveal about intentional enforced harms?
    What are your rights as a civilized human being?
    Who is a civilized human being?
    How do you define a civilized human being?
    What are provoke and crush techniques?
    What techniques induce stress, harass, entrap?
    How have these techniques been maliciously used for involuntary, judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
    What is been done to protect victims of these malicious techniques?
    How is retaliation detected, prevented, and managed?
    How are police educated to handle such situations?
    How are counselors trained to screen such abuse?
    How are petitioners given counseling to know the consequences of such misuse?
    How many such incidents and admissions happen every year in each county?
    What are the duties and responsibilities of administrators to prevent and manage abuse in this situation?
    Who has the duty and responsibility to fund such research?
    What are the duties and responsibilities of medical doctors and psychiatrists to detect, prevent, report, and manage such abuse?
    How can incompetent, racist, medical doctors and psychiatrists be detected?
    Are there pecuniary and punitive damages for these harms?
    Yes, there are.

    Here are further guidelines.

    Mental status examination
    What questions should a doctor answer in a mental status examination?
    Who needs a mental status examination?
    Every patient needs a mental status examination.
    In certain situations, an individual may be specifically recommended for mental status examination.

    What is a mental status examination?
    Specific conversation questioning.
    Observations relevant to the individual.
    Physical examination in case required (When is physical examination of a patient required? See the guidelines for physical examination).

    The Mental Status Examination (MSE) is a standardized procedure used to evaluate the client’s mental and emotional functioning at the time the client is seen by the mental health professional. It involves a precise series of observations as well as some specific questions.

    Each of the topics listed below is included in the MSE because it provides valuable information about the client’s function.

    What is the best method for a doctor of medicine to do a mental status examination?
    Start a conversation with the patient and ask these questions:
    What is your name?
    What is your date of birth?
    What is your mailing address?
    How long have you lived at this location?
    How are you feeling now?


    If the individual cannot understand, read, write, or speak the English language, arrange an interpreter for the time being and recommend education for English language abilities.

    If the individual can understand, read, write, and speak the English language, here are further conversation questions.

    What is today's date and time? (This gets an answer to orientation.)
    How would you describe your mood: happy, sad, miserable, frightened, angry? (This gets an answer to mood.)
    What is on your mind that you would like to discuss now? (This gets an answer to thought content.)
    Can you count down from one hundred by sevens? (This gets an answer to calculating test/serial sevens.)
    What has happened in your past that I should know? (This gets an answer to memory.)
    What do you recall of your remote past experiences? (This gets answer to memory.)
    What has happened in the past 24 hours in your life that I should know? (This gets an answer to recent memory.)
    Do you feel you are normal or Ill? (This gets an answer to insight.)


    Observations relevant to the patient.

    What have you observed in this individual relevant to the parameters enumerated?
    Appearance
    Affect
    Attitude
    Behavior
    Consciousness
    Concentration
    Insight
    Language
    Judgment
    Motor activity
    Memory
    Mood
    Orientation
    Patient hygiene
    Perceptions
    Speech
    Thought form
    Thought process
    Thought content
    Further evaluation and referral

    What best describes your observation/findings for the patient?
    Agitated: Yes/No
    Blocking, or a sudden interruption in thought processes (like anxious, depressed, dysphoric, euphoric, angry): Yes/No
    Cooperative/not cooperative
    Eye contact: Normal/abnormal
    Hostile/polite
    Irritable/withdrawn
    Unpleasant/pleasant
    Restless/calm
    Self-care abilities: Normal/abnormal
    Speech (Appropriate/inappropriate)
    Stress/intentional enforced harms/human rights violations from others
    Unable to provide reliable information/able to provide reliable information
    Answer relevant questions from those listed.

    Appearance

    How does the patient look?
    Emaciated (extremely thin because of serious illness or lack of food).
    Obese (extremely fat).
    Healthy.
    Age appropriate height, weight.
    Clothes relevant to particular subculture (explain).
    Unkempt, dirty clothes/washed, clean clothes.
    Neatly dressed.
    Well groomed.
    Cleanliness with proper bath.
    Obvious physical signs such as tremor, goiter, ptosis.

    Are the facial expressions like smiles/cries appropriate to the situation?

    General appearance and behavior

    Does the patient appear his/her stated age?
    What is his/her facial expression, dress, and grooming?
    Is the patient unkempt or malnourished?
    Does he/she smell?
    If yes, ask these questions.
    How often do you take a bath, brush your teeth, change clothes?
    Are there any scars, lacerations, tattoos?
    Does the patient use a wheelchair, cane, eyeglasses, or a hearing aid?
    Is there any motor overactivity, underactivity, or rigidity?
    Is the patient cooperative, calm, or agitated?
    Does he/she regard the examiner during the interview?
    Does he she avoid eye contact?
    Does his/her mouth move when he/she is not talking?

    DSM criteria, according to diagnostic and statistical manual .
    State your assessment in the format (Axis 1-V)
    When was it last updated?
    Affect

    Is the patient's affect appropriate to the conversation?

    Sensorium and intellect

    What language does the patient speak?
    Can the patient name objects and repeat words, questions, or phrases?
    Can the patient multiply 7 x 8 and divide 75 by 3?
    Is the patient aware of current events and past history?
    Can the patient compare and contrast properly?
    How are an apple and an orange alike?
    What is the difference between a cow and a pig?
    What is the difference between a human being and a cow? How does the patient appear to you?
    Does the patient make eye contact?
    Does the tone of the patient’s voice change?
    Attitude (Politeness)

    Is the individual polite or hostile?
    If the individual is polite in front of you, is the individual always polite in normal conditions and environment without provocations or duress?
    If yes, his/her attitude is normal.

    Politeness means your words and gestures should be pleasant to others. Being polite is a matter of etiquette, manners, being considerate of people's feelings.

    Hostile means rude or boorish.

    Attitude (Politeness)
    How to Be Polite

    Is the person cooperative, irritable, belligerent etc.?
    Is there any indication of malingering or factitious behavior? Explain.
    Ability to perform calculations:

    Can the patient perform simple addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division?
    Are the responses appropriate for the patient’s level of education?
    Are there any problems in calculations?
    Behavior

    Is the individual cooperative?
    Is the person suicidal, homicidal, or both? What leads you do this conclusion?


    Behavior

    Rapport. Degree of cooperation. Motility, gestures, disinhibition.
    Consciousness
    Level of alertness:

    Is the patient conscious?
    If not, can the patient be awakened?
    Can the patient remain focused on your questions and conversation?
    What is attention span of the patient?


    In case of altered sensorium, get answers to these questions.

    How would you rate Glasgow Coma Scale of this patient in the range of 3—15, with a score of 3 indicating brain death (the lowest defined level of consciousness), and 15 indicating full consciousness?

    Cognition: level of consciousness, memory (immediate, recent, remote), orientation (time, place, person), concentration: serial 7s, abstract thinking.

    If nothing else, apparent level of consciousness. Orientation. Concentration, attention (digit span, serial sevens). Short term memory (name and address, recent events). Further testing when indicated for: naming/comprehension difficulties, constructional apraxia, dysgraphia, left-right orientation, verbal fluency, sensory/visual inattention, perseveration, astereognosis. May include subjective estimate of approximate intelligence.
    Cultural considerations
    Content of thought: delusions, suicidal thoughts, amount of thought and rate of production, continuity of ideas.
    Fund of Knowledge

    Can the person answer simple geography questions, such as naming bordering states?
    Insight and judgment

    What kind of problems are you having currently?
    Do you need help?
    What would you like to do next?
    What do you plan to do when you leave?

    Do you reach any diagnosis under these harmful conditions or remove harmful conditions for the person who has been oppressed and transferred to a psychiatric facility?
    If theory isn't clear, there will be conflict and disputes. Problems won't be solved.
    Simple negligence or wrong planning can lead to conflicts, disputes, and harms.

    How could this have been prevented?
    We should focus on expected outcome.

    Insight: extent of the individual's awareness of the problem.

    Hospitalized Patient

    Why were you brought here? or
    What brings you to the hospital?

    Judgment: If you found a letter on the ground in front of a mailbox, what would you do with it?").
    Language

    How are English language understanding, reading, writing, and speaking abilities of the individual?
    The individual can understand, read, write, and speak the English language.
    The individual is unable to understand, read, write, and speak the English language.
    Memory: Short term memory is assessed by listing three objects, asking the patient to repeat them to you to insure that they were heard correctly, and then checking recall at 5 minutes. Long term memory can be evaluated by asking about the patients job history, where they were born and raised, family history, etc.

    QUESTIONS TO ASK

    Long-term memory:

    Where did you live when you were growing up?
    What was the name of the school you went to?
    Short-term memory:

    What did you have for breakfast?
    What did you do yesterday?

    Remote—can person remember past events?
    · Recent—can person remember 3/3 objects after 5 min?
    Immediate—how well can the person do digit span back and forward?
    Mood

    Do you get angry, sad, depressed, or happy without any reason?
    How would you rate your mood on a scale of 1-10?

    How does the person describe his or her mood?
    Is the person’s affect congruent with the stated mood? Explain.

    Subjective mood over last days/weeks. Variability of mood. Energy, enjoyment, interest, anhedonia? Reports being tearful? Recent and current suicidal intent. Biological features of affective disorder: appetite, weight, sleep (initial/middle/terminal insomnia), diurnal mood variation, libido, constipation.

    Questions to ask about mood

    How do you generally feel most of the time?
    What's your mood like?
    How would you say you feel generally - happy, sad, frightened, angry?

    Mood words

    Happy
    Very happy
    Fine
    OK
    Fed up
    Sad
    Low
    Miserable
    Depressed
    Cross
    Angry
    Worried
    Afraid
    Down
    Cheerful
    Bad
    Excited
    Bright

    Questions to ask about low or high mood

    Do you feel miserable all the time?
    Do you ever cheer up, even a little bit?
    Do you ever enjoy anything?
    If something nice happens, do you cheer up a bit?
    Do you cry?
    Would you say that you're more cheerful than usual?

    Questions about suicidal intent


    8 Signs Someone Is at Risk of Suicide

    What to watch for
    Talking about suicide
    A bipolar or depression diagnosis
    Feelings of guilt
    Drinking or drug use
    Anxiety
    Buying a firearm
    Health problems
    Internet searches
    Signs that someone is considering suicide may also show up on a computer. For instance, a Web-browser history may show that a person has been researching suicide and ways to kill himself,

    Do you ever feel really desperate?
    Do you ever feel life is not worth living?
    Do you ever feel it would be better if you were dead?
    Do you ever feel that it wouldn't matter if you didn't wake up in the morning?
    Do you ever wish you were dead?
    Have you thought seriously about killing yourself?
    Have you thought about how you might kill yourself?
    Have you done anything about getting ready to kill yourself? (E.g. paying bills, hoarding tablets.)
    Do you think that you might actually kill yourself?
    Do you really want to die?
    Would you say that you were determined to kill yourself?

    Questions about biological features of affective disorder

    Is there any pattern to how your mood changes through the day?
    Is there any time of day when you tend to feel better or worse?
    Do you tend to feel worse in the evening?
    What's your appetite like?
    How are you eating?
    Is there any change in your weight?
    How are you sleeping?
    What time do you get to sleep and what time do you wake?
    Do you sleep right through or wake in the night?
    After you've woken do you get back to sleep?
    What time do you eventually wake in the morning?
    Is there any change in your interest in sex?
    Are you less interested in sex than usual?
    Is there any change in how often you defecate / have your bowels open?
    Do you experience constipation?
    Is there any change in your energy levels?
    Do you have more or less energy than usual?

    Questions about thought form

    Do your thoughts seem faster than normal?
    Do you find you have lots and lots of different thoughts?
    Does your mind seem to be slowed down?
    Do you ever have the experience when your thoughts suddenly stop?
    Do you ever feel that your mind is suddenly wiped blank and you have no thoughts at all?

    Questions about delusions

    Do you ever feel that people are following you?
    Do you ever feel that people are seeking to harm you in some way?
    Do people spy on you?
    Has anything strange or unusual been going on?
    Is there anything special about yourself which makes you different from other people?
    Is there anything you can do which other people can't?
    Is there anything which particularly bothers you?
    How did you find out this was happening?
    When did you realise this?
    How do you know about this?
    Are you sure this is happening or might you be imagining it?
    Are you absolutely certain this is what's going on?
    Do you think that somebody has put a spell on you?
    Is a spirit/djinn/demon causing problems for you?

    Questions about thought insertion

    Do you ever have thoughts in your mind which are not your own?
    Does anything else use your mind to think with?
    Does anything put thoughts into your mind from outside?
    Where do those thoughts come from?

    Questions about thought withdrawal

    Does anything ever take your thoughts away?
    Do you ever have your mind wiped blank?
    Does anything take thoughts out of your mind so that they're not there any more?

    Questions about thought broadcast

    Can other people tell what you are thinking?
    Do your thoughts ever go out of your own mind?
    Do your thoughts go out of your mind to other people?
    Are your thoughts ever put on the television or radio?
    Do your thoughts go out of your mind to somewhere else?

    Questions about passivity

    Do you ever feel that somebody else controls your body?
    Do you ever have something else moving your arms or legs?
    Can anybody else move your body without you being able to stop them?
    Do you ever find that a spirit/djinn/demon controls your body?
    Has anything inside your body or brain been changed?
    Is there anything strange inside your body?

    Questions about depressive cognitions

    What's your opinion of yourself?
    Do you think you're better than most people, worse, or about the same?
    Are you a good or bad person?
    Are there things you feel guilty about?
    Do you feel more guilty about things than most people?
    Do you feel guilty about things which other people wouldn't feel guilty about?
    What's your view of the future?
    Do you think things will get better or worse?
    Do you hope things might get better?
    Is there any possibility that things might get better?
    Do you see any possibility at all that things might get better, even a little bit?

    Questions about panic attacks

    Do you get panic attacks?
    Do you get times when you feel very frightened?
    Do you feel anxious?
    Do you feel afraid?
    Does your heart beat fast?
    Do you feel your heart beating hard?
    Do you feel dizzy?
    Do you feel faint?
    Do you feel sick?
    Do you feel shaky?
    Do you have an uncomfortable feeling in your stomach?
    Do you feel breathless?
    What do you think is going to happen?
    Do you think you're going to die?
    Do you think you're going to faint?
    Does this happen in particular places?
    Can this happen when you're at home?

    Questions about compulsions

    How often do you wash?
    Do you wash your hands a lot?
    Do you always do it in a particular way?
    Do you feel that you have to do it?
    Do you try to resist but find that you can't?
    What would happen if you didn't do it?
    Do you have to check you've locked the door properly?
    Do you check locks, windows, switches, electrical appliances?
    How many times would you check?
    Do you do the checking in a particular order?
    How much time does it take you?

    Questions about perceptual abnormalities

    Do you hear voices?
    Do you see visions?
    Do you hear people talking when there's nobody there?
    Do you hear things other people don't hear?
    Do you ever hear anything strange?
    Where do the voices come from?
    Are the voices in your head or outside?
    Are these thoughts in your mind or sounds that you would hear with your ears?
    How many voices are there?
    Do they talk to you or do they talk to each other about you?
    Do they ever talk about what you are doing?
    Do they repeat your thoughts or comment on your thoughts?
    Do your thoughts ever sound loud, as if somebody next to you could hear them?
    Do the voices tell you to do things?
    Do you ever hear angels talking?
    Do you ever hear spirits/djinns/demons talking?
    Do you see strange things?
    Do you see things other people don't see?
    Do things ever smell strange or taste strange?
    Do you feel things touching you?
    Do you feel things changing inside your body?
    Orientation (Awareness of environment)

    Orientation in terms of time, place, person, and self is assessed to determine the presence of confusion or clouding of consciousness. This is important information for determining whether the person has organic mental impairment.

    QUESTIONS TO ASK

    Can you tell me today’s date?
    Do you know the day of the week?
    What month is it?
    What year is it?
    Do you know where you are?
    Do you know who I am?
    Do you remember your name?
    Patient Hygiene (Appearance/Social grooming/hygiene)
    Perceptions

    Hallucinations, illusions. Describe modality and nature, taking particular care in relation to possible first-rank symptoms, other perceptual disturbances (derealisation; depersonalisation; heightened/dulled perception).
    Speech
    What is the rate and volume?
    Is it monotone?
    What is the rhythm?
    Is there dysarthria?
    Is there an increase in latency (normal time to respond is 3-5 seconds)?
    Is the amount of speech increased or decreased?
    Is it spontaneous or does the patient talk only when a questions is asked?
    Is the speech stilted?
    What is the level of the vocabulary?
    Are there neologisms, word approximations, phonemic or semantic paraphasias?

    Flow of thought
    Content of thought
    Is patient suicidal or homicidal?
    Do you plan to get involved in any kind of violence?
    Did you ever get arrested?
    Do you think it was justified?
    Do you hear any voices?
    Do you see things that aren't there?
    Do you hear, see, smell, taste, or feel things that aren't there?
    Do you feel someone is hearing your thoughts?
    Do you feel someone is inserting thoughts in you?
    Do you have beliefs that no other person had or is having up to now?

    Speech: Is it normal in tone, volume and quantity? Behavior: Pleasant? Cooperative? Agitated? Appropriate for the particular situation?

    Rate, volume, quantity, fluency. Any accent, dysarthria, problems with language. Use of obscenities. Mention briefly gross thought disorder, neologisms, obvious dysphasia. Uninterruptible.

    Is speech normal or tangential or circumstantial? Give Examples.

    Can the patient stop talking, if requested?
    Thought form

    (Abnormalities of stream usually included here.) Loosening of associations, derailment, neologisms, punning, clang associations, etc. Appropriateness of answers. Subjective rate, quantity, experience of thought block. ______ of content.
    Thought Process: This is a description of the way in which they think. Are their comments logical and presented in an organized fashion? If not, how off base are they? Do they tend to stray quickly to related topics? Are their thoughts appropriately linked or simply all over the map?
    Thought Content: A description of what the patient is thinking about. Are they paranoid? Delusional (i.e. hold beliefs that are untrue)? If so, about what? Phobic? Hallucinating (you need to ask if they see or hear things that others do not)? Fixated on a single idea? If so, about what. Is the thought content consistent with their affect? If there is any concern regarding possible interest in committing suicide or homicide, the patient should be asked this directly, including a search for details (e.g. specific plan, time etc.). Note: These questions have never been shown to plant the seeds for an otherwise unplanned event and may provide critical information, so they should be asked!

    Thought content

    Include passivity experiences and thought insertion, broadcasting, withdrawal. Delusions, over-valued ideas. Depressive cognitions consisting of low self-esteem, guilt, hopelessness. Grandiosity. Preoccupations, obsessions. Traditionally compulsive behaviours, panic attacks and anxiety-related symptoms are often described here.

    Are there any delusions?
    Is the person suicidal? Homicidal? What leads you do this conclusion?
    Mini-mental state examination (MMSE)
    The MSE is not to be confused with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), which is a brief neuro-psychological screening test for dementia.

    Multi-Axial Diagnosis
    Axis I: All psychological diagnostic categories except mental retardation and personality disorder

    Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation

    Axis III: General medical condition; acute medical conditions and physical disorders

    Axis IV: Psychosocial stressors

    Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning or Children’s Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18
    License of doctor of medicine
    Have there been scandals in America about issuance of professional licenses, including that of a doctor of medicine?
    Yes.

    What should be the focus of a doctor of medicine?
    Abilities to be a doctor of medicine are essential.
    This takes many years of desire to learn and desire for public service.
    Issuing a license of doctor of medicine nowadays takes just a few minutes.
    Do not claim to be a specialist without having minimum abilities required of a doctor. This is how a specialist is interpreted.
    A psychiatrist is a medical doctor with additional abilities of a psychiatrist.
    A surgeon is a medical doctor with additional abilities of a surgeon.
    A doctor who performs medical operations is called a surgeon.
    An individual who can do an eight-inch incision and close in three layers is not a surgeon.
    A surgeon is basically a doctor of medicine.
    Being a doctor of medicine means a human being is able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being in various healthcare settings, able to offer Internet human healthcare, public health advice, patient education guidelines, and administrative issues guidelines.
    Being a licensed doctor of medicine does not mean the individual has minimum abilities of a doctor of medicine.
    Being a board-certified member does not mean the individual has the minimum abilities of a doctor of medicine.

    In case you display or circulate your abilities as a doctor of medicine, the system will recognize you.
    The system will come forward to offer you a license of doctor of medicine.
    In situations where the system maintains silence or does not reply to your issues, You have the right to complaint and contest this exclusion provided you have competence and abilities of a doctor of medicine.

    What should various professional boards, certification resources, or licensing resources advise professionals, including doctor of medicine?
    You real-world performance is essential.
    You should be able to answer relevant questions in the real world from time to time relevant to your profession.
    There should be no complaints.
    You should resolve complaints immediately before they become a big scandal.
    You should have general abilities.
    You should have profession-specific abilities.
    You have to prove your performance in the real world.

    Here are further guidelines.

    Abilities a doctor should have
    Medical Doctor(Required skills for the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders in the general medical setting)
    1.Ability to take a medical-psychiatric history
    2.Ability to recognize and categorize symptoms
    3.Ability to assess neurological dysfunction
    4.Ability to assess the risk of ________
    5.Ability to assess medication effects and drug–drug interactions
    6.Ability to know when to order and how to interpret psychological testing
    7.Ability to assess interpersonal and family issues
    8.Ability to recognize and manage hospital stressors
    9.Ability to place the course of hospitalization and treatment in perspective
    10.Ability to formulate multiaxial diagnoses
    11.Ability to perform psychotherapy
    12.Ability to prescribe and manage psychopharmacological agents
    13.Ability to assess and manage agitation
    14.Ability to assess and manage pain
    15.Ability to administer drug detoxification protocols
    16.Ability to make medicolegal determinations
    17.Ability to apply ethical decisions
    18.Ability to apply systems theory and resolve conflicts
    19.Ability to initiate transfers to a psychiatry service
    20.Ability to assist with disposition planning
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/doctorworld.html


    Medications in psychiatry
    List of psychiatric medications by condition treated
    What should a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician verify before prescribing or recommending psychiatric medication?
    Correct diagnosis is essential.
    Wrong diagnosis is medical negligence and is subject to punishments or disciplinary action with relief to the victim.
    No question can remain unanswered while reaching a correct diagnosis.
    Up to April 11, 2014, a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician in America did not know anything about stress, intentional enforced harms, or human rights violations from others. Such individuals have been placed at prestigious healthcare establishments in America. This shows the quality of healthcare in the system.

    Take a look at case reports. See how wrong diagnoses and misinterpretation of facts are harming residents.

    What medication has been elaborated at this resource?
    1. Antianxiety medications (benzodiazepines)

    2. Antidepressants

    3. Antipsychotic medications

    4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication

    5. Atypical antipsychotic medications

    6. Autism medication

    7. Depressants

    8. Drug dependence therapy

    9. Drugs to treat insomnia (sleeping pills)

    10. Hallucinogens (not prescribed now)

    11. Mood stabilizers

    12. Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome medication

    13. Stimulants
    Here is a preferred drug list that Illinois revised effective April 7, 2014.
    Here are further guidelines.

    Medication that is available through the state (Preferred drug list).
    Medication that exists but may not be available through the state.

    Depressants that are used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anesthetics.

    Stimulants that treat disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, and to suppress the appetite.

    What are psychiatric medications?
    Psychiatric medications treat mental disorders. Sometimes called psychotropic or psychotherapeutic medications, they have changed the lives of people with mental disorders for the better. Many people with mental disorders live fulfilling lives with the help of these medications. Without them, people with mental disorders might suffer serious and disabling symptoms.

    Psychiatric Medications:
    The Six Main Classes

    Anxiolytics – If you suffer from nervousness, anxiety related disorders, or panic attacks this class of psychiatric medication is the one you are looking for.

    Anti-depressants – These compounds treat the various types of mood disorders which leave a patient feeling depressed. These disorders include clinical depression itself, as well as related problems like anxiety, BPD, dysthymia, or even eating disorders. There are different types of antidepressants, including:

    ?MAOIs - Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
    ?SARI - Serotonin Antagonist and Reuptake Inhibitors
    ?NDRI - Norepinephrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors
    ?TCAs - Tricyclic Antidepressants
    ?SNRI - Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
    ?SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

    Anti-psychotics – These powerful psychiatric medications are prescription only and only given under supervised care by licensed psychiatrists. This is because they have serious side effects in and of themselves, and are therefore only used on the most serious of conditions, such as mania, psychosis, or schizophrenia.

    Depressants – Our final class of psychiatric medication is the depressants. These find their usage as sedatives (these help a person sleep), and in applications like anesthesiology.

    Mood stabilizers – Another potent class of drug, these are intended for the treatment of conditions like bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder. Though not as severe as psychosis, these disorders are still quite serious themselves.

    Stimulants – This class of drug is designed to treat those who suffer from things like attention deficit disorder (or ADHD as well), narcolepsy, or as appetite control or suppression enhancements. Because stimulant medications are Schedule II controlled substances, the doctor must give the patient a written prescription each time and refills are not allowed (by law).

    How are medications used to treat mental disorders?
    Medications treat the symptoms of mental disorders. They cannot cure the disorder, but they make people feel better so they can function.

    Medications work differently for different people. Some people get great results from medications and only need them for a short time. For example, a person with depression may feel much better after taking a medication for a few months, and may never need it again. People with disorders like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, or people who have long-term or severe depression or anxiety may need to take medication for a much longer time.

    Some people get side effects from medications and other people don't. Doses can be small or large, depending on the medication and the person. Factors that can affect how medications work in people include:

    Type of mental disorder, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia
    Age, sex, and body size
    Physical illnesses
    Habits like smoking and drinking
    Liver and kidney function
    Genetics
    Other medications and herbal/vitamin supplements
    Diet
    Whether medications are taken as prescribed.

    Antianxiety medications (benzodiazepines)

    What medications are used to treat anxiety disorders?
    Antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, and beta-blockers are the most common medications used for anxiety disorders.

    Anxiety disorders include:

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    Panic disorder
    Social phobia.

    Antidepressants

    Antidepressants were developed to treat depression, but they also help people with anxiety disorders. SSRIs such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil), and citalopram (Celexa) are commonly prescribed for panic disorder, OCD, PTSD, and social phobia. The SNRI venlafaxine (Effexor) is commonly used to treat GAD. The antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin) is also sometimes used. When treating anxiety disorders, antidepressants generally are started at low doses and increased over time.

    Some tricyclic antidepressants work well for anxiety. For example, imipramine (Tofranil) is prescribed for panic disorder and GAD. Clomipramine (Anafranil) is used to treat OCD. Tricyclics are also started at low doses and increased over time.

    MAOIs are also used for anxiety disorders. Doctors sometimes prescribe phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and isocarboxazid (Marplan). People who take MAOIs must avoid certain food and medicines that can interact with their medicine and cause dangerous increases in blood pressure. For more information, see the section on medications used to treat depression.

    Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications)

    The anti-anxiety medications called benzodiazepines can start working more quickly than antidepressants. The ones used to treat anxiety disorders include:

    Clonazepam (Klonopin), which is used for social phobia and GAD
    Lorazepam (Ativan), which is used for panic disorder
    Alprazolam (Xanax), which is used for panic disorder and GAD.
    Buspirone (Buspar) is an anti-anxiety medication used to treat GAD. Unlike benzodiazepines, however, it takes at least two weeks for buspirone to begin working.

    Clonazepam, listed above, is an anticonvulsant medication. See FDA warning on anticonvulsants under the bipolar disorder section.

    Beta-blockers

    Beta-blockers control some of the physical symptoms of anxiety, such as trembling and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is a beta-blocker usually used to treat heart conditions and high blood pressure. The medicine also helps people who have physical problems related to anxiety. For example, when a person with social phobia must face a stressful situation, such as giving a speech, or attending an important meeting, a doctor may prescribe a beta-blocker. Taking the medicine for a short period of time can help the person keep physical symptoms under control.

    What are the side effects?

    See the section on antidepressants for a discussion on side effects. The most common side effects for benzodiazepines are drowsiness and dizziness. Other possible side effects include:

    Upset stomach
    Blurred vision
    Headache
    Confusion
    Grogginess
    Nightmares.
    Possible side effects from buspirone (BuSpar) include:
    Dizziness
    Headaches
    Nausea
    Nervousness
    Lightheadedness
    Excitement
    Trouble sleeping.

    Common side effects from beta-blockers include:

    Fatigue
    Cold hands
    Dizziness
    Weakness.

    In addition, beta-blockers generally are not recommended for people with asthma or diabetes because they may worsen symptoms.

    How should medications for anxiety disorders be taken?
    People can build a tolerance to benzodiazepines if they are taken over a long period of time and may need higher and higher doses to get the same effect. Some people may become dependent on them. To avoid these problems, doctors usually prescribe the medication for short periods, a practice that is especially helpful for people who have substance abuse problems or who become dependent on medication easily. If people suddenly stop taking benzodiazepines, they may get withdrawal symptoms, or their anxiety may return. Therefore, they should be tapered off slowly.

    Buspirone and beta-blockers are similar. They are usually taken on a short-term basis for anxiety. Both should be tapered off slowly. Talk to the doctor before stopping any anti-anxiety medication.

    Antidepressants

    What medications are used to treat depression?
    Depression is commonly treated with antidepressant medications. Antidepressants work to balance some of the natural chemicals in our brains. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters, and they affect our mood and emotional responses. Antidepressants work on neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

    The most popular types of antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include:
    Fluoxetine (Prozac)
    Citalopram (Celexa)
    Sertraline (Zoloft)
    Paroxetine (Paxil)
    Escitalopram (Lexapro).
    Other types of antidepressants are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). SNRIs are similar to SSRIs and include venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta). Another antidepressant that is commonly used is bupropion (Wellbutrin). Bupropion, which works on the neurotransmitter dopamine, is unique in that it does not fit into any specific drug type.

    SSRIs and SNRIs are popular because they do not cause as many side effects as older classes of antidepressants. Older antidepressant medications include tricyclics, tetracyclics, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). For some people, tricyclics, tetracyclics, or MAOIs may be the best medications.

    What are the side effects?
    Antidepressants may cause mild side effects that usually do not last long. Any unusual reactions or side effects should be reported to a doctor immediately.
    The most common side effects associated with SSRIs and SNRIs include:

    Headache, which usually goes away within a few days.
    Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach), which usually goes away within a few days.
    Sleeplessness or drowsiness, which may happen during the first few weeks but then goes away.
    Sometimes the medication dose needs to be reduced or the time of day it is taken needs to be adjusted to help lessen these side effects.
    Agitation (feeling jittery).
    Sexual problems, which can affect both men and women and may include reduced sex drive, and problems having and enjoying sex.
    Tricyclic antidepressants can cause side effects, including:

    Dry mouth.
    Constipation.
    Bladder problems. It may be hard to empty the bladder, or the urine stream may not be as strong as usual. Older men with enlarged prostate conditions may be more affected.
    Sexual problems, which can affect both men and women and may include reduced sex drive, and problems having and enjoying sex.
    Blurred vision, which usually goes away quickly.
    Drowsiness. Usually, antidepressants that make you drowsy are taken at bedtime.
    People taking MAOIs need to be careful about the foods they eat and the medicines they take. Foods and medicines that contain high levels of a chemical called tyramine are dangerous for people taking MAOIs. Tyramine is found in some cheeses, wines, and pickles. The chemical is also in some medications, including decongestants and over-the-counter cold medicine.

    Mixing MAOIs and tyramine can cause a sharp increase in blood pressure, which can lead to stroke. People taking MAOIs should ask their doctors for a complete list of foods, medicines, and other substances to avoid. An MAOI skin patch has recently been developed and may help reduce some of these risks. A doctor can help a person figure out if a patch or a pill will work for him or her.

    How should antidepressants be taken?
    People taking antidepressants need to follow their doctors' directions. The medication should be taken in the right dose for the right amount of time. It can take three or four weeks until the medicine takes effect. Some people take the medications for a short time, and some people take them for much longer periods. People with long-term or severe depression may need to take medication for a long time.

    Once a person is taking antidepressants, it is important not to stop taking them without the help of a doctor. Sometimes people taking antidepressants feel better and stop taking the medication too soon, and the depression may return. When it is time to stop the medication, the doctor will help the person slowly and safely decrease the dose. It's important to give the body time to adjust to the change. People don't get addicted, or "hooked," on the medications, but stopping them abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms.

    If a medication does not work, it is helpful to be open to trying another one. A study funded by NIMH found that if a person with difficult-to-treat depression did not get better with a first medication, chances of getting better increased when the person tried a new one or added a second medication to his or her treatment. The study was called STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression).

    What is an Alternative Therapy?
    A health treatment that is not classified as standard Western medical practice is referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM encompasses a variety of approaches. They include everything from diet and exercise to mental conditioning and lifestyle changes. Examples of CAM therapies include:
    Acupuncture
    Aromatherapy
    Biofeedback
    Chiropractic treatments
    Dietary supplements
    Guided imagery
    Hypnosis
    Massage therapy
    Meditation
    Relaxation

    Are herbal medicines used to treat depression?
    Which Herbal Supplements Can Help Depression?
    Here are further guidelines.

    FDA warning on antidepressants

    Antidepressants are safe and popular, but some studies have suggested that they may have unintentional effects, especially in young people. In 2004, the FDA looked at published and unpublished data on trials of antidepressants that involved nearly 4,400 children and adolescents. They found that 4 percent of those taking antidepressants thought about or tried suicide (although no suicides occurred), compared to 2 percent of those receiving placebos (sugar pill).

    In 2005, the FDA decided to adopt a "black box" warning label—the most serious type of warning—on all antidepressant medications. The warning says there is an increased risk of suicidal thinking or attempts in children and adolescents taking antidepressants. In 2007, the FDA proposed that makers of all antidepressant medications extend the warning to include young adults up through age 24.

    The warning also says that patients of all ages taking antidepressants should be watched closely, especially during the first few weeks of treatment. Possible side effects to look for are depression that gets worse, suicidal thinking or behavior, or any unusual changes in behavior such as trouble sleeping, agitation, or withdrawal from normal social situations. Families and caregivers should report any changes to the doctor.

    Finally, the FDA has warned that combining the newer SSRI or SNRI antidepressants with one of the commonly-used "triptan" medications used to treat migraine headaches could cause a life-threatening illness called "serotonin syndrome." A person with serotonin syndrome may be agitated, have hallucinations (see or hear things that are not real), have a high temperature, or have unusual blood pressure changes. Serotonin syndrome is usually associated with the older antidepressants called MAOIs, but it can happen with the newer antidepressants as well, if they are mixed with the wrong medications.

    Antipsychotic medications

    What medications are used to treat schizophrenia?
    Antipsychotic medications are used to treat schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some of these medications have been available since the mid-1950's. They are also called conventional "typical" antipsychotics. Some of the more commonly used medications include:
    Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
    Haloperidol (Haldol)
    Perphenazine (generic only)
    Fluphenazine (generic only).
    In the 1990's, new antipsychotic medications were developed. These new medications are called second generation, or "atypical" antipsychotics.

    One of these medications was clozapine (Clozaril). It is a very effective medication that treats psychotic symptoms, hallucinations, and breaks with reality, such as when a person believes he or she is the president. But clozapine can sometimes cause a serious problem called agranulocytosis, which is a loss of the white blood cells that help a person fight infection. Therefore, people who take clozapine must get their white blood cell counts checked every week or two. This problem and the cost of blood tests make treatment with clozapine difficult for many people. Still, clozapine is potentially helpful for people who do not respond to other antipsychotic medications.

    Other atypical antipsychotics were developed. All of them are effective. Agranulocytosis is less likely to occur with these medications than with clozapine, but it has been reported. These include:

    Risperidone (Risperdal)
    Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
    Quetiapine (Seroquel)
    Ziprasidone (Geodon)
    Aripiprazole (Abilify)
    Paliperidone (Invega)
    Lurasidone (Latuda)
    The antipsychotics listed here are some of the medications used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia. Additional antipsychotics and other medications used for schizophrenia are listed in the chart at the end.

    Note: The FDA issued a Public Health Advisory for atypical antipsychotic medications. The FDA determined that death rates are higher for elderly people with dementia when taking this medication. A review of data has found a risk with conventional antipsychotics as well. Antipsychotic medications are not FDA-approved for the treatment of behavioral disorders in patients with dementia.

    What are the side effects?
    Some people have side effects when they start taking these medications. Most side effects go away after a few days and often can be managed successfully. People who are taking antipsychotics should not drive until they adjust to their new medication. Side effects of many antipsychotics include:
    •Drowsiness
    •Dizziness when changing positions
    •Blurred vision
    •Rapid heartbeat
    •Sensitivity to the sun
    •Skin rashes
    •Menstrual problems for women.
    Atypical antipsychotic medications can cause major weight gain and changes in a person's metabolism. This may increase a person's risk of getting diabetes and high cholesterol.1 A person's weight, glucose levels, and lipid levels should be monitored regularly by a doctor while taking an atypical antipsychotic medication.

    Typical antipsychotic medications can cause side effects related to physical movement, such as:
    Rigidity
    Persistent muscle spasms
    Tremors
    Restlessness.
    Long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications may lead to a condition called tardive dyskinesia (TD). TD causes muscle movements a person can't control. The movements commonly happen around the mouth. TD can range from mild to severe, and in some people the problem cannot be cured. Sometimes people with TD recover partially or fully after they stop taking the medication.

    Every year, an estimated 5 percent of people taking typical antipsychotics get TD. The condition happens to fewer people who take the new, atypical antipsychotics, but some people may still get TD. People who think that they might have TD should check with their doctor before stopping their medication.

    How are antipsychotics taken and how do people respond to them?
    Antipsychotics are usually pills that people swallow, or liquid they can drink. Some antipsychotics are shots that are given once or twice a month.

    Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as feeling agitated and having hallucinations, usually go away within days. Symptoms like delusions usually go away within a few weeks. After about six weeks, many people will see a lot of improvement.

    However, people respond in different ways to antipsychotic medications, and no one can tell beforehand how a person will respond. Sometimes a person needs to try several medications before finding the right one. Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication or medication combination, and dose.

    Some people may have a relapse—their symptoms come back or get worse. Usually, relapses happen when people stop taking their medication, or when they only take it sometimes. Some people stop taking the medication because they feel better or they may feel they don't need it anymore. But no one should stop taking an antipsychotic medication without talking to his or her doctor. When a doctor says it is okay to stop taking a medication, it should be gradually tapered off, never stopped suddenly.

    How do antipsychotics interact with other medications?
    Antipsychotics can produce unpleasant or dangerous side effects when taken with certain medications. For this reason, all doctors treating a patient need to be aware of all the medications that person is taking. Doctors need to know about prescription and over-the-counter medicine, vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. People also need to discuss any alcohol or other drug use with their doctor.

    To find out more about how antipsychotics work, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) funded a study called CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness). This study compared the effectiveness and side effects of five antipsychotics used to treat people with schizophrenia. In general, the study found that the older medication perphenazine worked as well as the newer, atypical medications. But because people respond differently to different medications, it is important that treatments be designed carefully for each person. You can find more information on CATIE here.

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication

    What medications are used to treat ADHD?
    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs in both children and adults. ADHD is commonly treated with stimulants, such as:

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Daytrana)
    Amphetamine (Adderall)
    Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat).
    In 2002, the FDA approved the nonstimulant medication atomoxetine (Strattera) for use as a treatment for ADHD. In February 2007, the FDA approved the use of the stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse) for the treatment of ADHD in children ages 6 to 12 years.

    What are the side effects?
    Most side effects are minor and disappear when dosage levels are lowered. The most common side effects include:

    Decreased appetite. Children seem to be less hungry during the middle of the day, but they are often hungry by dinnertime as the medication wears off.
    Sleep problems. If a child cannot fall asleep, the doctor may prescribe a lower dose. The doctor might also suggest that parents give the medication to their child earlier in the day, or stop the afternoon or evening dose. To help ease sleeping problems, a doctor may add a prescription for a low dose of an antidepressant or a medication called clonidine.
    Stomachaches and headaches.
    Less common side effects. A few children develop sudden, repetitive movements or sounds called tics. These tics may or may not be noticeable. Changing the medication dosage may make tics go away. Some children also may appear to have a personality change, such as appearing "flat" or without emotion. Talk with your child's doctor if you see any of these side effects.How are ADHD medications taken?
    Stimulant medications can be short-acting or long-acting, and can be taken in different forms such as a pill, patch, or powder. Long-acting, sustained and extended release forms allow children to take the medication just once a day before school. Parents and doctors should decide together which medication is best for the child and whether the child needs medication only for school hours or for evenings and weekends too.

    ADHD medications help many children and adults who are hyperactive and impulsive. They help people focus, work, and learn. Stimulant medication also may improve physical coordination. However, different people respond differently to medications, so children taking ADHD medications should be watched closely.

    Are ADHD medications safe?
    Stimulant medications are safe when given under a doctor's supervision. Some children taking them may feel slightly different or "funny."

    Some parents worry that stimulant medications may lead to drug abuse or dependence, but there is little evidence of this. Research shows that teens with ADHD who took stimulant medications were less likely to abuse drugs than those who did not take stimulant medications.

    FDA warning on possible rare side effects

    In 2007, the FDA required that all makers of ADHD medications develop Patient Medication Guides. The guides must alert patients to possible heart and psychiatric problems related to ADHD medicine. The FDA required the Patient Medication Guides because a review of data found that ADHD patients with heart conditions had a slightly higher risk of strokes, heart attacks, and sudden death when taking the medications. The review also found a slightly higher risk (about 1 in 1,000) for medication-related psychiatric problems, such as hearing voices, having hallucinations, becoming suspicious for no reason, or becoming manic. This happened to patients who had no history of psychiatric problems.

    The FDA recommends that any treatment plan for ADHD include an initial health and family history examination. This exam should look for existing heart and psychiatric problems.

    The non-stimulant ADHD medication called atomoxetine (Strattera) carries another warning. Studies show that children and teenagers with ADHD who take atomoxetine are more likely to have suicidal thoughts than children and teenagers with ADHD who do not take atomoxetine. If your child is taking atomoxetine, watch his or her behavior carefully. A child may develop serious symptoms suddenly, so it is important to pay attention to your child's behavior every day. Ask other people who spend a lot of time with your child, such as brothers, sisters, and teachers, to tell you if they notice changes in your child's behavior. Call a doctor right away if your child shows any of the following symptoms:

    Acting more subdued or withdrawn than usual
    Feeling helpless, hopeless, or worthless
    New or worsening depression
    Thinking or talking about hurting himself or herself
    Extreme worry
    Agitation
    Panic attacks
    Trouble sleeping
    Irritability
    Aggressive or violent behavior
    Acting without thinking
    Extreme increase in activity or talking
    Frenzied, abnormal excitement
    Any sudden or unusual changes in behavior.

    While taking atomoxetine, your child should see a doctor often, especially at the beginning of treatment. Be sure that your child keeps all appointments with his or her doctor.

    Which groups have special needs when taking psychiatric medications? Psychiatric medications are taken by all types of people, but some groups have special needs, including:

    Children and adolescents
    Older adults
    Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant.

    Children and adolescents

    Most medications used to treat young people with mental illness are safe and effective. However, many medications have not been studied or approved for use with children. Researchers are not sure how these medications affect a child's growing body. Still, a doctor can give a young person an FDA-approved medication on an "off-label" basis. This means that the doctor prescribes the medication to help the patient even though the medicine is not approved for the specific mental disorder or age.

    For these reasons, it is important to watch young people who take these medications. Young people may have different reactions and side effects than adults. Also, some medications, including antidepressants and ADHD medications, carry FDA warnings about potentially dangerous side effects for young people. See the sections on antidepressants and ADHD medications for more information about these warnings.

    More research is needed on how these medications affect children and adolescents. NIMH has funded studies on this topic. For example, NIMH funded the Preschoolers with ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), which involved 300 preschoolers (3 to 5 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. The study found that low doses of the stimulant methylphenidate are safe and effective for preschoolers. However, children of this age are more sensitive to the side effects of the medication, including slower growth rates. Children taking methylphenidate should be watched closely.15,16,17

    In addition to medications, other treatments for young people with mental disorders should be considered. Psychotherapy, family therapy, educational courses, and behavior management techniques can help everyone involved cope with the disorder. Click here for more information on child and adolescent mental health research.

    Older adults

    Because older people often have more medical problems than other groups, they tend to take more medications than younger people, including prescribed, over-the-counter, and herbal medications. As a result, older people have a higher risk for experiencing bad drug interactions, missing doses, or overdosing.

    Older people also tend to be more sensitive to medications. Even healthy older people react to medications differently than younger people because their bodies process it more slowly. Therefore, lower or less frequent doses may be needed.

    Sometimes memory problems affect older people who take medications for mental disorders. An older adult may forget his or her regular dose and take too much or not enough. A good way to keep track of medicine is to use a seven-day pill box, which can be bought at any pharmacy. At the beginning of each week, older adults and their caregivers fill the box so that it is easy to remember what medicine to take. Many pharmacies also have pillboxes with sections for medications that must be taken more than once a day.

    Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant

    The research on the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy is limited. The risks are different depending on what medication is taken, and at what point during the pregnancy the medication is taken. Research has shown that antidepressants, especially SSRIs, are safe during pregnancy. Birth defects or other problems are possible, but they are very rare.

    However, antidepressant medications do cross the placental barrier and may reach the fetus. Some research suggests the use of SSRIs during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage or birth defects, but other studies do not support this.20 Studies have also found that fetuses exposed to SSRIs during the third trimester may be born with "withdrawal" symptoms such as breathing problems, jitteriness, irritability, trouble feeding, or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

    Most studies have found that these symptoms in babies are generally mild and short-lived, and no deaths have been reported. On the flip side, women who stop taking their antidepressant medication during pregnancy may get depression again and may put both themselves and their infant at risk.20,21

    In 2004, the FDA issued a warning against the use of certain antidepressants in the late third trimester. The warning said that doctors may want to gradually taper pregnant women off antidepressants in the third trimester so that the baby is not affected.22 After a woman delivers, she should consult with her doctor to decide whether to return to a full dose during the period when she is most vulnerable to postpartum depression.

    Some medications should not be taken during pregnancy. Benzodiazepines may cause birth defects or other infant problems, especially if taken during the first trimester. Mood stabilizers are known to cause birth defects. Benzodiazepines and lithium have been shown to cause "floppy baby syndrome," which is when a baby is drowsy and limp, and cannot breathe or feed well.

    Research suggests that taking antipsychotic medications during pregnancy can lead to birth defects, especially if they are taken during the first trimester. But results vary widely depending on the type of antipsychotic. The conventional antipsychotic haloperidol has been studied more than others, and has been found not to cause birth defects.23,24

    After the baby is born, women and their doctors should watch for postpartum depression, especially if they stopped taking their medication during pregnancy. In addition, women who nurse while taking psychiatric medications should know that a small amount of the medication passes into the breast milk. However, the medication may or may not affect the baby. It depends on the medication and when it is taken. Women taking psychiatric medications and who intend to breastfeed should discuss the potential risks and benefits with their doctors.

    Decisions on medication should be based on each woman's needs and circumstances. Medications should be selected based on available scientific research, and they should be taken at the lowest possible dose. Pregnant women should be watched closely throughout their pregnancy and after delivery.

    Autism medication

    SSRIs

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly known as anti-depressants, or drugs that are used to treat anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some of the FDA approved SSRI drugs used to treat symptoms of autism that can be administered to children above the age of seven include fluoxetine (Prozac™), fluvoxamine (Luvox™), sertraline (Zoloft™), and clomipramine (Anafranil™).

    Anti psychotic (old)

    Older anti-psychotic drugs like Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, and Fluphenazine help in the treatment of behavioral disorders by controlling the intensity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, some of these drugs are known to have side effects like sedation, muscle stiffness, and abnormal movements.

    Anti psychotic (new) - Risperidone

    Recent studies have developed newer anti-psychotic drugs like Risperidone, which have proven effective in the treatment of aggression and self-injury among autistic children with fewer side effects. The maximum side effect of Risperidone has been increased appetite and weight gain. Other effective antipsychotic drugs include Zyprexa and Geodon. Another moderately prescribed drug for controlling hypertensive behavior is Clonidine.

    Anti-convulsants

    Anti-convulsants are drugs that control seizures. Since one in every four autistic patients has seizures, the use of anti-convulsants sometimes becomes imperative in managing symptoms. Drugs such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), lamotrigine (Lamictal), topiramate (Topamax), or valproic acid (Depakote) are some of the most used anti-convulsants. However, these drugs can only reduce the amount of seizures, not eliminate their occurrence completely.

    Stimulants – Ritalin

    Stimulants are drugs that are used for the treatment of autism symptoms to control and treat the autistic tendencies of inattention and hyperactivity. Drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (ADHD) and have proven sufficiently competent in treating the similar symptoms of autism.

    Depressants

    Alcohol

    For instance, in North America a blood alcohol content of 0.10 (0.10% or one tenth of one percent) means that there are 0.10 g of alcohol for every dL of blood.

    Barbiturates
    Benzodiazepines
    Opioids
      Morphine
      Heroin
      Codeine
      Hydrocodone
      Oxycodone
      Methadone

    Miscellaneous[edit]Alpha and beta blockers (Carvedilol, Propanolol, atenolol, etc.)
    Anticholinergics (Atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, etc.)
    Anticonvulsants (Valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.)
    Antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, doxylamine, promethazine, etc.)
    Antipsychotics (Haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, etc.)
    Dissociatives (Dextromethorphan, ketamine, phencyclidine, nitrous oxide, etc.)
    Hypnotics (Zolpidem, zopiclone, chloral hydrate, chloroform, etc.)
    Muscle relaxants (Baclofen, carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, etc.)
    Sedatives (Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, etc.)

    Drug dependence therapy

    Used in the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Acamprosate Campral
    Baclofen Baclosan, Kemstro, Lioresal
    Buprenorphine Subutex
    Buprenorphine/naloxone Suboxone
    Disulfiram Antabuse
    Methadone Dolophine
    Naltrexone Depade, ReVia, Vivitrol
    Ondansetron Zofran

    Used for smoking cessation

    Generic name Brand names
    Bupropion Voxra, Zyban
    Cytisine Tabex
    Varenicline Champix, Chantix

    Drugs to treat insomnia (sleeping pills)

    Benzodiazepines
    Z-drugs
    Melatonergic agents
    Barbiturates
    Sedating antidepressants
    Antihistamines
    Others

    Benzodiazepines
    INN Common brand name(s)
    Brotizolam Lendormin
    Estazolam Eurodin, ProSom
    Flunitrazepam Hipnosedon, Hypnodorm, Rohypnol, Vulbegal
    Flurazepam Dalmadorm, Dalmane
    Loprazolam Dormonoct
    Lormetazepam Noctamid
    Midazolam Dormicum, Hypnofast
    Nimetazepam Erimin
    Nitrazepam Alodorm, Dumolid, Mogadon, Pacisyn, Radedorm 5
    Phenazepam Phenazepam, Phenorelaxan, Phezipam
    Quazepam Doral, Dormalin
    Temazepam Normison, Restoril
    Triazolam Halcion
    Z-drugs

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Eszopiclone Lunesta
    Zaleplon Andante, Sonata, Starnoc
    Zolpidem Ambien CR, Hypnogen, Intermezzo, Ivadal, Sanval, Snovitel, Stilnoct, Stilnox, Sublinox
    Zopiclone Imovane, Imrest, Piclodorm, Somnol, Zimovane
    Melatonergic agents
    INN Common brand name(s)
    Agomelatine Melitor, Thymanax, Valdoxan
    Melatonin Circadin, Melaxen
    Ramelteon Rozerem
    Barbiturates

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Amobarbital Amytal Sodium
    Amobarbital/secobarbital Tuinal
    Butobarbital Neonal, Soneryl
    Cyclobarbital/diazepam Reladorm
    Pentobarbital Nembutal Sodium
    Phenobarbital Luminal
    Secobarbital Seconal Sodium
    Sedating antidepressants
    INN Common brand name(s)
    Amitriptyline Elavil, Endep, Laroxyl, Lentizol, Saroten, Sarotex, Tryptizol, Tryptomer
    Doxepin Silenor
    Mianserin Bolvidon, Depnon, Lerivon, Tolvon
    Mirtazapine Avanza, Remeron, Zispin
    Trimipramine Rhotrimine, Stangyl, Surmontil
    Trazodone Deprax, Desyrel, Oleptro, Trittico
    Trimipramine Rhotrimine, Stangyl, Surmontil
    Antihistamines

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Alimemazine Nedeltran, Theralen, Theralene, Theraligene
    Cyproheptadine Periactin, Peritol
    Diphenhydramine Benadryl, Dimedrol, Daedalon, Nytol
    Doxylamine Donormyl, Dormidina, Dozile, NyQuil, Restavit, Somnil, Unisom SleepTab
    Hydroxyzine Atarax, Vistaril
    Promethazine Avomine, Fargan, Phenergan, Pipolphen, Promethegan, Prothiazine, Romergan, Sominex
    Others

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Chloral hydrate Chloraldurat, Somnote
    Clomethiazole Distraneurin, Heminevrin
    Glutethimide Doriden
    Motherwort
    Niaprazine Nopron
    Sodium oxybate Alcover, Xyrem
    Tizanidine Sirdalud, Zanaflex
    Valerian
    Melatonin Circadin


    Listed below are some drugs that can be used to treat insomnia.

    Ambien (zolpidem): The original version of Ambien works well at helping you get to sleep, but some people tended to wake up in the middle of the night. Ambien CR is an extended release version. It helps you get to sleep within 15 to 30 minutes, and the new extended release portion helps you stay asleep. You should not take Ambien or Ambien CR unless you are able to get a full night's sleep -- at least 7 to 8 hours. The FDA has approved a prescription oral spray called Zolpimist, which contains Ambien's active ingredient, for the short-term treatment of insomnia brought on by difficulty falling asleep. The FDA requires that these drugs are offered in lower doses for women. Women clear the drugs from their systems more slowly than men and the agency says blood levels of the drugs could still be high enough the following morning to affect activities that require alertness, such as driving. The FDA says doctors should consider the lower dose for men too.

    Lunesta (eszopiclone): Lunesta also helps you fall asleep quickly, and studies show people sleep an average of seven to eight hours. Don't take Lunesta unless you are able to get a full night's sleep as it could cause grogginess. Rozerem (ramelteon): This is a sleep medication that works differently than the others. It works by targeting the sleep-wake cycle, not by depressing the central nervous system. It is prescribed for people who have difficulty falling asleep. Rozerem can be prescribed for long-term use and the drug has shown no evidence of abuse and dependence.

    Sonata (zaleplon): Of all the new sleeping pills, Sonata stays active in the body for the shortest amount of time. That means you can try to fall asleep on your own. Then, if you're still staring at the clock at 2 a.m., you can take it without feeling drowsy in the morning. However, if you tend to wake during the night, this might not be the best choice for you.

    Silenor (doxepine): In 2010, this sleep drug was approved for use in people who have trouble staying asleep. Silenor may help with sleep maintenance by blocking histamine receptors. Do not take this drug unless you are able to get a full seven or eight hours of sleep. Dosage is based on your health, age, and response to therapy.

    Benzodiazepines: These older sleeping pills (Halcion, Restoril, Xanax, and others) are useful when you want an insomnia medication that stays in the system longer. For instance, they have been effectively used to treat sleep problems such as sleepwalking and night terrors. However, these drugs may cause you to feel sleepy during the day and can also cause dependence, meaning you may always need to be on the drug to be able to sleep.

    Antidepressants : Some antidepressant drugs, such as Desyrel ( trazodone ) and Remeron (mirtazapine) are particularly effective in treating sleeplessness and anxiety.

    Over-the-Counter Sleep Aids: Most of these sleeping pills are antihistamines. They generally work well but can cause some drowsiness the next day.

    Over-the-counter sleep aids are available in nearly any pharmacy. Here's a listing of common choices and the potential side effects:

    Diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Unisom sleep). Diphenhydramine is a sedating antihistamine. Side effects might include daytime drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and memory problems.

    Doxylamine (Unisom SleepTabs). Doxylamine is also a sedating antihistamine. Side effects are similar to diphenhydramine, including daytime drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and memory problems.

    Melatonin. The hormone melatonin helps control your natural sleep-wake cycle. Some research suggests that melatonin supplements might be helpful in treating jet lag or reducing the time it takes to fall asleep — although the effect is typically mild. The most common melatonin side effects include daytime sleepiness, dizziness and headaches. Other, less common melatonin side effects might include abdominal discomfort, mild anxiety, irritability, confusion and short-lasting feelings of depression.

    Valerian. Supplements made from this plant might reduce the amount of time it takes to fall asleep as well as promote better sleep overall. However, the active ingredient isn't clear and potency can vary. Side effects of valerian supplements might include headache, abdominal discomfort, excitability or uneasiness, and heart disturbances.

    Store brands containing the same active ingredients as brand-name sleep aids are commonly available.

    If you decide to use over-the-counter sleep aids
    If you think you'd benefit from over-the-counter sleep aids, follow these steps:

    Start with your doctor. You don't need your doctor's OK to take an over-the-counter sleep aid, but it's a good idea to check with him or her anyway. Your doctor can make sure the sleep aid won't interact with other medications or underlying conditions, as well as determine the best dosage.

    Keep precautions in mind. Diphenhydramine and doxylamine aren't recommended for people who have closed-angle glaucoma, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe liver disease or urinary retention — which can be preceded by a weak urine stream or trouble starting urination. In addition, most sleep aids aren't recommended for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

    Take it one day at a time. Over-the-counter sleep aids are a temporary solution for insomnia. Generally, they're not intended to be used for longer than two weeks.

    Avoid alcohol. Never mix alcohol and sleep aids. Alcohol can increase the sedative effects of the medication. Beware of side effects. Don't drive or attempt other activities that require alertness while taking sleep aids.

    Mood stabilizers

    What medications are used to treat bipolar disorder?
    Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is commonly treated with mood stabilizers. Sometimes, antipsychotics and antidepressants are used along with a mood stabilizer.

    Mood stabilizers
    People with bipolar disorder usually try mood stabilizers first. In general, people continue treatment with mood stabilizers for years. Lithium is a very effective mood stabilizer. It was the first mood stabilizer approved by the FDA in the 1970's for treating both manic and depressive episodes.

    Anticonvulsant medications also are used as mood stabilizers. They were originally developed to treat seizures, but they were found to help control moods as well. One anticonvulsant commonly used as a mood stabilizer is valproic acid, also called divalproex sodium (Depakote). For some people, it may work better than lithium.6 Other anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers are carbamazepine (Tegretol), lamotrigine (Lamictal) and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal).

    Atypical antipsychotics

    Atypical antipsychotic medications are sometimes used to treat symptoms of bipolar disorder. Often, antipsychotics are used along with other medications.

    Antipsychotics used to treat people with bipolar disorder include:
    Olanzapine (Zyprexa), which helps people with severe or psychotic depression, which often is accompanied by a break with reality, hallucinations, or delusions7 Aripiprazole (Abilify), which can be taken as a pill or as a shot
    Risperidone (Risperdal)
    Ziprasidone (Geodon)
    Clozapine (Clorazil), which is often used for people who do not respond to lithium or anticonvulsants.8 Lurasidone (Latuda)

    Antidepressants

    Antidepressants are sometimes used to treat symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder. Fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), or sertraline (Zoloft) are a few that are used. However, people with bipolar disorder should not take an antidepressant on its own. Doing so can cause the person to rapidly switch from depression to mania, which can be dangerous.9 To prevent this problem, doctors give patients a mood stabilizer or an antipsychotic along with an antidepressant.

    Research on whether antidepressants help people with bipolar depression is mixed. An NIMH-funded study found that antidepressants were no more effective than a placebo to help treat depression in people with bipolar disorder. The people were taking mood stabilizers along with the antidepressants. You can find out more about this study, called STEP-BD (Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder), here.

    What are the side effects?
    Treatments for bipolar disorder have improved over the last 10 years. But everyone responds differently to medications. If you have any side effects, tell your doctor right away. He or she may change the dose or prescribe a different medication.

    Different medications for treating bipolar disorder may cause different side effects. Some medications used for treating bipolar disorder have been linked to unique and serious symptoms, which are described below.

    Lithium can cause several side effects, and some of them may become serious. They include:

    Loss of coordination
    Excessive thirst
    Frequent urination
    Blackouts
    Seizures
    Slurred speech
    Fast, slow, irregular, or pounding heartbeat
    Hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
    Changes in vision
    Itching, rash
    Swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs. If a person with bipolar disorder is being treated with lithium, he or she should visit the doctor regularly to check the levels of lithium in the blood, and make sure the kidneys and the thyroid are working normally.

    Some possible side effects linked with valproic acid/divalproex sodium include:

    Changes in weight
    Nausea
    Stomach pain
    Vomiting
    Anorexia
    Loss of appetite.

    Valproic acid may cause damage to the liver or pancreas, so people taking it should see their doctors regularly.

    Valproic acid may affect young girls and women in unique ways. Sometimes, valproic acid may increase testosterone (a male hormone) levels in teenage girls and lead to a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).11,12 PCOS is a disease that can affect fertility and make the menstrual cycle become irregular, but symptoms tend to go away after valproic acid is stopped.13 It also may cause birth defects in women who are pregnant.

    Lamotrigine can cause a rare but serious skin rash that needs to be treated in a hospital. In some cases, this rash can cause permanent disability or be life-threatening.

    In addition, valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and other anticonvulsant medications (listed in the chart at the end of this document) have an FDA warning. The warning states that their use may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. People taking anticonvulsant medications for bipolar or other illnesses should be closely monitored for new or worsening symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. People taking these medications should not make any changes without talking to their health care professional.

    Other medications for bipolar disorder may also be linked with rare but serious side effects. Always talk with the doctor or pharmacist about any potential side effects before taking the medication.

    For information on side effects of antipsychotics, see the section on medications for treating schizophrenia.

    For information on side effects and FDA warnings of antidepressants, see the section on medications for treating depression.

    How should medications for bipolar disorder be taken?
    Medications should be taken as directed by a doctor. Sometimes a person's treatment plan needs to be changed. When changes in medicine are needed, the doctor will guide the change. A person should never stop taking a medication without asking a doctor for help.

    There is no cure for bipolar disorder, but treatment works for many people. Treatment works best when it is continuous, rather than on and off. However, mood changes can happen even when there are no breaks in treatment. Patients should be open with their doctors about treatment. Talking about how treatment is working can help it be more effective.

    It may be helpful for people or their family members to keep a daily chart of mood symptoms, treatments, sleep patterns, and life events. This chart can help patients and doctors track the illness. Doctors can use the chart to treat the illness most effectively.

    Because medications for bipolar disorder can have serious side effects, it is important for anyone taking them to see the doctor regularly to check for possibly dangerous changes in the body.

    Parkinson's disease and Restless legs syndrome

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Cabergoline Cabaser, Dostinex
    Gabapentin enacarbil Horizant
    Pergolide Permax
    Piribedil Pronoran, Trivastal
    Pramipexole Daquiran, Mirapex, Mirapexin, Oprymea, Sifrol, Vasiprax
    Ropinirole Adartrel, Requip, Ropark
    Rotigotine Neupro
    Tramadol Tramal, Troxal, Ultram

    Stimulants

    INN Common brand name(s)
    Amphetamine mixed salts Adderall
    Dexmethylphenidate Attenade, Focalin
    Dextroamphetamine Dexedrine, Dextrostat
    Lisdexamfetamine Vyvanse
    Methamphetamine Desoxyn
    Methylphenidate Concerta, Daytrana, Methylin, Ritalin

    What should I ask my doctor if I am prescribed a psychiatric medication?
    You and your family can help your doctor find the right medications for you. The doctor needs to know your medical history; family history; information about allergies; other medications, supplements or herbal remedies you take; and other details about your overall health. You or a family member should ask the following questions when a medication is prescribed:

    How will this medication help me?
    How will I be better off after taking this medication?
    What is the name of the medication?
    What is the medication supposed to do?
    How and when should I take it?
    How much should I take?
    What should I do if I miss a dose?
    When and how should I stop taking it?
    Will it interact with other medications I take?
    Do I need to avoid any types of food or drink while taking the medication? What should I avoid? Should it be taken with or without food?
    Is it safe to drink alcohol while taking this medication?
    What are the side effects? What should I do if I experience them?
    Is the Patient Package Insert for the medication available?

    After taking the medication for a short time, tell your doctor how you feel, if you are having side effects, and any concerns you have about the medicine.

    Psychiatry, law and justice
    Who may utilize this program for education and reference?

    1. Emergency medical doctor
    2. Consultant in emergency medicine
    3. Psychiatrist
    4. Attending physician
    5. Head of the department of psychiatry
    6. Heads of other departments
    7. Registrar in psychiatry
    8. Postgraduate emergency medicine doctor
    9. Postgraduate psychiatry doctor
    10. Court worker
    11. Administrator
    12. Police
    13. Security officer
    14. Lawyer
    15. Judge
    16. Hospital worker
    17. Legislator
    18. Maintenance worker
    19. Community counseling center worker
    20. Media
    21. Health department worker
    22. Medical student
    23. Social work student
    24. Medical student intern
    25. Social work student
    26. Social work Intern
    27. Social worker
    28. Social work master's worker
    29. Social work PhD worker
    30. Parents
    31. Teacher
    32. Principal
    33. Patient
    34. State Department of Health
    35. Nurse
    36. Therapist
    37. General public

    If you identify yourself with anyone on the list, this program is for you.
    What best describes you in the list?
    Do you think anyone else needs this program for education and reference?
    Here are further guidelines.
    Psychiatry, law and justice
    Why was there a need to establish this education and reference resource?
    What led to writing of this book?
    Why was there need to write this book?
    Take a look at this.
    Involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility
    I researched and monitored involuntary and judicial admission to a psychiatric facility for a specific time period.

    Every week lawsuits were filed in a specific court:
    Involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility; victim seeks damages; victim seeks injunction; victim seeks punishment of oppressors.

    As a matter of fact, abuse of involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility has been recognized.

    When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?

    When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?

    Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility if someone else lies?
    No.

    Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility if his rights are violated, and if he genuinely protests because his rights are violated?
    No.

    Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility if there is a dispute and the other party failed to resolve it?
    No.

    Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility because of a politically motivated or monopoly motivated malicious scheme?
    No.

    Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatry facility if due to lies or due to incompetence of medical doctor there is wrong diagnosis?
    No.

    Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility because he/she belongs to a different religion?
    No.

    Who has the duty and responsibility to educate those oppressing others and subjecting them to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility due to bias, prejudice, or hate?

    Who has the duty and responsibility to punish those abusing and oppressing people this way due to incompetence, being members of a monopoly, bias, prejudice, or hate?

    What reward or compensation should there be for those who were subject to this type of unfair intentional harm due to incompetence, bias, prejudice or hate?

    How should those who were subject to this type of unfair intentional harm due to incompetence, bias, prejudice, or hate be compensated or rewarded?

    What have you done to prevent such abuse and intentional harm and compensate those who were subject to this type of harms due to incompetence, bias, prejudice, or hate?

    Have you come across any such incident or case?
    Take a look at this.

    2009.
    The University of Illinois was marred by scams and scandals, and all trustees were replaced. Now, there are scams and scandals of selecting and placing incompetent medical doctors and the rest of the staff.

    Michael J. Schrift
    University of Illinois at Chicago
    Department of Psychiatry
    Chicago, IL 60612
    Michael J. Schrift, D.O., is the Director of Neuropsychiatry and Medical Director of the Neurobehavior Program.
    Does he deserve to be there?

    Eric Gausche
    University of Illinois Medical Center
    Department of Psychiatry.
    They have no answer to these questions.
    What is the most important duty and responsibility of a medical doctor?
    What is good human character?
    What is good human behavior?
    What are the rights of a civilized human being?
    Who is a civilized human being?
    Should they be permitted to handle cases?
    They have no correct answers to many more questions.

    How will you handle Carl Brakman, LCSW at the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, who gives his self-styled conclusions?

    How will you handle a non-medico clinician at Chicago Lakeshore Hospital, Illinois, who accepts not being a medical doctor and still writes diagnoses and further referrals without having experience in various hospital medical settings or having studied relevant medical books, putting others into harm because of unfair placement?

    What is the budget of University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago?
    How much is spent on training medical doctors?
    Is the training of good quality, good standard?
    No.
    Who should be held responsible for this substandard training?

    How will you protect the public from medical and legal professionals who display the license number without being able to answer questions?

    Is their remuneration far more than their competence and quality of service they provide?
    Yes.

    Do they deserve such remuneration?
    No.

    What is being done regularly to audit their competence and medical malpractice, case by case?
    Here are further guidelines.
    Take a look at this.

    What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness?

    1. Misinterpretation of facts, written or verbal.
    2. Misinterpretation of facts due to prejudice, bias, incompetence, or grouping with gang members.
    3. Malicious discovery.
    4. Lies.
    5. Provocation to elicit malicious discovery.
    6. Instigating and inducing statements under duress.
    7. Deprivation of rights to elicit malicious discovery.
    8. Smear campaign with misinterpretation of facts to defame.
    9. Defamation with statements like 'do not tell him/her,' 'do not tell him/her I told you.'
    10. Politically motivated malicious harmful tricks.

    Are there pecuniary and punitive damages for these harms?
    Yes, there are.
    How should police verify the findings in case they are called for involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?
    What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness?
    When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
    When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
    Here are further guidelines.
    Psychiatric disorders
    Disorder Category
    Disorder Name
    DSM- 5 CODE/ ICD 10 CODE

    Adult behavioral health problems
    What are psychiatric disorders?
    Proposed DSM-5 Organizational Structure and Disorder Names

    1. Adjustment Disorders
    2. Anxiety Disorders
    3. Cognitive Disorders
    4. Developmental Disorders
    5. Dissociative Disorders
    6. Eating Disorders
    7. Factitious Disorders
    8. Intentional Enforced Harms
    9. Impulse-Control Disorders
    10. Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition
    11. Mood Disorders
    12. Psychiatric Medical Emergencies
    13. Personality Disorders
    14. Psychotic Disorders
    15. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
    16. Sleep Disorders
    17. Somatoform Disorders
    18. Substance Related Disorders

    Psychiatric Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index
    1. Acute stress reactions (Acute stress disorder)

    2. Academic Problem (Study Skills, Time Management)

    3. Acculturation Problem

    4. Adjustment disorder

    5. Adjustment Disorder Unspecified

    6. Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety

    7. Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood

    8. Adjustment Disorder With Disturbance of Conduct

    9. Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood

    10. Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct

    11. Adolescent antisocial behavior

    12. Adult antisocial behavior

    13. Adult Antisocial Behavior

    14. Adverse Effects of Medication NOS

    15. Adverse effects of medication-not otherwise specified

    16. Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    17. Aggression or impulsivity

    18. Agitation

    19. Agoraphobia

    20. Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder

    21. Alcohol Abuse

    22. Alcohol and drug abuse

    23. Alcohol Dependence

    24. Alcohol Intoxication

    25. Alcohol Intoxication Delirium

    26. Alcohol Withdrawal

    27. Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium

    28. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    29. Alcohol-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    30. Alcohol-Induced Mood Disorder

    31. Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder

    32. Alcohol-Induced Persisting Dementia

    33. Alcohol-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    34. Alcohol-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    35. Alcohol-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

    36. Alcohol-Induced Sleep Disorder

    37. Alcohol-Related Disorder NOS

    38. Alzheimer's disease

    39. Amnestic disorder

    40. Amnestic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    41. Amnestic Disorder NOS

    42. Amphetamine Abuse

    43. Amphetamine Dependence

    44. Amphetamine Intoxication

    45. Amphetamine Intoxication Delirium

    46. Amphetamine Withdrawal

    47. Amphetamine withdrawal psychosis

    48. Amphetamine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    49. Amphetamine-Induced Mood Disorder

    50. Amphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    51. Amphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    52. Amphetamine-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

    53. Amphetamine-Induced Sleep Disorder

    54. Amphetamine-Related Disorder NOS

    55. Anorexia Nervosa

    56. Anterograde amnesia

    57. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    58. Anxiety disorder

    59. Anxiety Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    60. Anxiety Disorder NOS

    61. Anxiety or panic

    62. Anxiolytic-related disorders

    63. Asperger syndrome

    64. Asperger's Disorder

    65. Attention deficit disorder

    66. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    67. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder NOS

    68. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    69. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type

    70. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type

    71. Autism

    72. Autistic Disorder

    73. Autophagia

    74. Avoidant Personality Disorder

    75. Barbiturate dependence

    76. Benzodiazepine dependence

    77. Benzodiazepine misuse

    78. Benzodiazepine withdrawal

    79. Bereavement

    80. Bibliomania

    81. Binge eating disorder

    82. Bipolar disorder

    83. Bipolar Disorder NOS

    84. Bipolar I disorder

    85. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, In Full Remission

    86. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, In Partial Remission

    87. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Mild

    88. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Moderate

    89. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Severe With Psychotic Features

    90. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Severe Without Psychotic Features

    91. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Unspecified

    92. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Hypomanic

    93. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, In Full Remission

    94. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, In Partial Remission

    95. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Mild

    96. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Moderate

    97. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Severe With Psychotic Features

    98. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Severe Without Psychotic Features

    99. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Unspecified

    100. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, In Full Remission

    101. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, In Partial Remission

    102. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Mild

    103. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Moderate

    104. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Severe With Psychotic Features

    105. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Severe Without Psychotic Features

    106. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Unspecified

    107. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Unspecified

    108. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, In Full Remission

    109. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, In Partial Remission

    110. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Mild

    111. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Moderate

    112. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Severe With Psychotic Features

    113. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features

    114. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Unspecified

    115. Bipolar II Disorder

    116. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    117. Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    118. Borderline Personality Disorder

    119. Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder

    120. Brief Psychotic Disorder

    121. Bulimia Nervosa

    122. Burn sequelae

    123. Caffeine Intoxication

    124. Caffeine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    125. Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disorder

    126. Caffeine-related disorder

    127. Caffeine-Related Disorder NOS

    128. Cannabis Abuse

    129. Cannabis Dependence

    130. Cannabis Intoxication

    131. Cannabis Intoxication Delirium

    132. Cannabis-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    133. Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    134. Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    135. Cannabis-Related Disorder NOS

    136. Catatonic disorder

    137. Catatonic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    138. Catatonic schizophrenia

    139. Change of mental status

    140. Child abuse

    141. Child or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    142. Childhood amnesia

    143. Childhood antisocial behavior

    144. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    145. Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder

    146. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder

    147. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Delayed Sleep Phase Type

    148. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Jet Lag Type

    149. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Shift Work Type

    150. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Unspecified Type

    151. Claustrophobia

    152. Cocaine Abuse

    153. Cocaine Dependence

    154. Cocaine Intoxication

    155. Cocaine Intoxication Delirium

    156. Cocaine Withdrawal

    157. Cocaine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    158. Cocaine-Induced Mood Disorder

    159. Cocaine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    160. Cocaine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    161. Cocaine-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

    162. Cocaine-Induced Sleep Disorder

    163. Cocaine-Related Disorder NOS

    164. Cognitive disorder

    165. Cognitive Disorder NOS

    166. Communication disorder

    167. Communication Disorder NOS

    168. Conduct disorder

    169. Conduct Disorder, Adolescent Onset Type

    170. Conduct Disorder, Childhood Onset Type

    171. Conversion Disorder

    172. Coping with illness

    173. Cotard delusion

    174. Cyclothymia

    175. Cyclothymic Disorder

    176. Death, dying, and bereavement

    177. Delirium

    178. Delirium Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    179. Delirium NOS

    180. Delirium tremens

    181. Delusional Disorder

    182. Dementia

    183. Dementia Due to ______ Disease

    184. Dementia Due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    185. Dementia Due to Head Trauma

    186. Dementia Due to Huntington's Disease

    187. Dementia Due to Parkinson's Disease

    188. Dementia Due to Pick's Disease

    189. Dementia Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    190. Dementia NOS

    191. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, Uncomplicated

    192. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, With Delirium

    193. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, With Delusions

    194. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, With Depressed Mood

    195. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, Uncomplicated

    196. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, With Delirium

    197. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, With Delusions

    198. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, With Depressed Mood

    199. Dependent Personality Disorder

    200. Depersonalization disorder

    201. Depression

    202. Depressive disorder

    203. Depressive Disorder NOS

    204. Derealization disorder

    205. Desynchronosis

    206. Determination of capacity and other forensic issues

    207. Developmental coordination disorder

    208. Diagnosis Deferred on Axis II

    209. Diagnosis or Condition Deferred on Axis I

    210. Diogenes Syndrome

    211. Disorder of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence NOS

    212. Disorder of Written Expression

    213. Dispareunia

    214. Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOS

    215. Dissociative Amnesia

    216. Dissociative Disorder NOS

    217. Dissociative Fugue

    218. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    219. Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)

    220. Dyslexia

    221. Dyspareunia (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)

    222. Dyssomnia NOS

    223. Dysthymia

    224. Dysthymic Disorder

    225. Eating Disorder NOS

    226. Eating disorders

    227. EDNOS

    228. Ekbom's Syndrome (Delusional Parasitosis)

    229. Encopresis

    230. Encopresis, With Constipation and Overflow Incontinence

    231. Encopresis, Without Constipation and Overflow Incontinence

    232. Enuresis (not due to a general medical condition)

    233. Erotomania

    234. Ethical issues

    235. Exhibitionism

    236. Expressive Language Disorder

    237. Factitious disorder

    238. Factitious Disorder NOS

    239. Factitious Disorder With Combined Psychological and Physical Signs and Symptoms

    240. Factitious Disorder With Predominantly Physical Signs and Symptoms

    241. Factitious Disorder With Predominantly Psychological Signs and Symptoms

    242. Family problems

    243. Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood

    244. Female Dyspareunia Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    245. Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    246. Female Orgasmic Disorder

    247. Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

    248. Fetishism

    249. Fregoli delusion

    250. Frotteurism

    251. Fugue

    252. Ganser syndrome (due to a mental disorder)

    253. Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults

    254. Gender Identity Disorder in Children

    255. Gender Identity Disorder NOS

    256. General adaptation syndrome

    257. Generalized anxiety disorder

    258. Geriatric abuse

    259. Grandiose delusions

    260. Hallucinogen Abuse

    261. Hallucinogen Dependence

    262. Hallucinogen Intoxication

    263. Hallucinogen Intoxication Delirium

    264. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder

    265. Hallucinogen-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    266. Hallucinogen-Induced Mood Disorder

    267. Hallucinogen-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    268. Hallucinogen-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    269. Hallucinogen-related disorder

    270. Hallucinogen-Related Disorder NOS

    271. Histrionic personality disorder

    272. Human rights violations from others

    273. Huntington's disease

    274. Hypersomnia Related to ... [Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder]

    275. Hypnosis

    276. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    277. Hypochondriasis

    278. Hypomanic episode

    279. Identity Problem

    280. Impulse control disorder

    281. Impulse-Control Disorder NOS

    282. Impulse-control disorder not elsewhere classified

    283. Inhalant abuse

    284. Inhalant Dependence

    285. Inhalant Intoxication

    286. Inhalant Intoxication Delirium

    287. Inhalant-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    288. Inhalant-Induced Mood Disorder

    289. Inhalant-Induced Persisting Dementia

    290. Inhalant-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    291. Inhalant-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    292. Inhalant-Related Disorder NOS

    293. Insomnia due to a general medical condition

    294. Insomnia Related to ... [Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder]

    295. Intellectual disability

    296. Intentional enforced harms from others

    297. Intermittent explosive disorder

    298. Kleptomania

    299. Korsakoff's syndrome

    300. Lacunar amnesia

    301. Learning Disorder NOS

    302. Major depressive disorder

    303. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, In Full Remission

    304. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, In Partial Remission

    305. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Mild

    306. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Moderate

    307. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe With Psychotic Features

    308. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe Without Psychotic Features

    309. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified

    310. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, In Full Remission

    311. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, In Partial Remission

    312. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Mild

    313. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Moderate

    314. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe With Psychotic Features

    315. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features

    316. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified

    317. Major depressive episode

    318. Male Dyspareunia Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    319. Male erectile disorder

    320. Male Erectile Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    321. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to...[Indicate the Medical Condition]

    322. Male Orgasmic Disorder

    323. Malingering

    324. Manic episode

    325. Mathematics disorder

    326. Medication-Induced Movement Disorder NOS

    327. Medication-Induced Postural Tremor

    328. Medication-related disorder

    329. Melancholia

    330. Mental Disorder NOS Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    331. Mental Retardation, Severity Unspecified

    332. Mild Mental Retardation

    333. Minor depressive episode

    334. Misophonia

    335. Mixed episode

    336. Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

    337. Moderate Mental Retardation

    338. Mood disorder

    339. Mood Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    340. Mood Disorder NOS

    341. Mood episode

    342. Morbid jealousy

    343. Munchausen's syndrome

    344. Munchausen's syndrome by proxy

    345. Narcissistic personality disorder

    346. Narcolepsy

    347. Neglect of child

    348. Neglect of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)

    349. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    350. Neuroleptic-Induced Acute Akathisia

    351. Neuroleptic-Induced Acute Dystonia

    352. Neuroleptic-Induced Parkinsonism

    353. Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia

    354. Neuroleptic-related disorder

    355. Nicotine Dependence

    356. Nicotine withdrawal

    357. Nicotine-Related Disorder NOS

    358. Night eating syndrome

    359. Nightmare disorder

    360. No Diagnosis on Axis II

    361. No Diagnosis or Condition on Axis I

    362. Noncompliance With Treatment

    363. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    364. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

    365. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    366. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)

    367. Occupational Problem

    368. Oneirophrenia

    369. Opioid Abuse

    370. Opioid dependence

    371. Opioid Intoxication

    372. Opioid Intoxication Delirium

    373. Opioid Withdrawal

    374. Opioid-Induced Mood Disorder

    375. Opioid-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    376. Opioid-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    377. Opioid-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

    378. Opioid-Induced Sleep Disorder

    379. Opioid-related disorder

    380. Opioid-Related Disorder NOS

    381. Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    382. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

    383. Other (or Unknown) Substance Abuse

    384. Other (or Unknown) Substance Dependence

    385. Other (or Unknown) Substance Intoxication

    386. Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal

    387. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    388. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Delirium

    389. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Mood Disorder

    390. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder

    391. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia

    392. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    393. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    394. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

    395. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder

    396. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorder NOS

    397. Other Conduct Disorder

    398. Other Female Sexual Dysfunction Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    399. Other Male Sexual Dysfunction Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    400. Pain

    401. Pain disorder

    402. Pain Disorder Associated With Both Psychological Factors and a General Medical Condition

    403. Pain Disorder Associated With Psychological Factors

    404. Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia

    405. Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia

    406. Paranoid personality disorder

    407. Paraphilia NOS

    408. Parasomnia

    409. Parasomnia NOS

    410. Parent-Child Relational Problem

    411. Parkinson's Disease

    412. Partner Relational Problem

    413. Pathological gambling

    414. Pediatric psychiatric illness

    415. Pedophilia

    416. Perfectionism

    417. Persecutory delusion

    418. Personality change due to a general medical condition

    419. Personality Change Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

    420. Personality disorder

    421. Personality Disorder NOS

    422. Personality disorders

    423. Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)

    424. Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

    425. Phase of Life Problem

    426. Phencyclidine (or phencyclidine-like)-related disorder

    427. Phencyclidine Abuse

    428. Phencyclidine Dependence

    429. Phencyclidine Intoxication

    430. Phencyclidine Intoxication Delirium

    431. Phencyclidine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    432. Phencyclidine-Induced Mood Disorder

    433. Phencyclidine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    434. Phencyclidine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    435. Phencyclidine-Related Disorder NOS

    436. Phobic disorder

    437. Phonological disorder

    438. Physical abuse

    439. Physical Abuse of Adult (if by partner)

    440. Physical Abuse of Adult (if by person other than partner)

    441. Physical Abuse of Adult (if focus of attention is on victim)

    442. Physical Abuse of Child

    443. Physical Abuse of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)

    444. Pica

    445. Polysubstance Dependence

    446. Polysubstance-related disorder

    447. Post-traumatic embitterment disorder (PTED)

    448. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    449. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    450. Pregnancy-related care

    451. Premature ejaculation

    452. Primary hypersomnia

    453. Primary insomnia

    454. Profound Mental Retardation

    455. Psychiatric care in the intensive care unit

    456. Psychiatric manifestations of medical and neurological illness

    457. Psychogenic amnesia

    458. Psychological and neuropsychological testing

    459. Psychological factor affecting medical condition

    460. Psychological factors affecting medical illness

    461. Psycho-oncology

    462. Psychopharmacology of the medically ill

    463. Psychosis

    464. Psychotic disorder

    465. Psychotic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition], With Delusions

    466. Psychotic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition], With Hallucinations

    467. Psychotic Disorder NOS

    468. Pyromania

    469. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

    470. Reading disorder

    471. Recurrent brief depression

    472. Relational disorder

    473. Relational Problem NOS

    474. Relational Problem Related to a Mental Disorder or General Medical Condition

    475. Relational Problems

    476. Religious or Spiritual Problem

    477. Residual schizophrenia

    478. Restraints

    479. Retrograde amnesia

    480. Rett's disorder

    481. Rumination Disorder

    482. Rumination syndrome

    483. Sadomasochism

    484. Schizoaffective disorder

    485. Schizoid personality disorder

    486. Schizophrenia

    487. Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type

    488. Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type

    489. Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type

    490. Schizophrenia, Residual Type

    491. Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type

    492. Schizophreniform disorder

    493. Schizotypal personality disorder

    494. Seasonal affective disorder

    495. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Abuse

    496. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Dependence

    497. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication

    498. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication Delirium

    499. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal

    500. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal Delirium

    501. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Anxiety Disorder

    502. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Mood Disorder

    503. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder

    504. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Persisting Dementia

    505. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

    506. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

    507. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

    508. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Sleep Disorder

    509. Sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-related disorder

    510. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorder NOS

    511. Selective mutism

    512. Separation anxiety disorder

    513. Severe mental retardation

    514. Sexual abuse

    515. Sexual Abuse of Adult (if by partner)

    516. Sexual Abuse of Adult (if by person other than partner)

    517. Sexual Abuse of Adult (if focus of attention is on victim)

    518. Sexual Abuse of Child

    519. Sexual Abuse of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)

    520. Sexual Aversion Disorder

    521. Sexual Disorder NOS

    522. Sexual Dysfunction NOS

    523. Sexual Masochism

    524. Sexual Sadism

    525. Shared psychotic disorder

    526. Sibling Relational Problem

    527. Sleep disorder

    528. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Hypersomnia Type

    529. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Insomnia Type

    530. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Mixed Type

    531. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Parasomnia Type

    532. Sleep disorders

    533. Sleep terror disorder

    534. Sleepwalking disorder

    535. Social anxiety disorder

    536. Social phobia

    537. Somatization disorder

    538. Somatoform disorder

    539. Somatoform Disorder NOS

    540. Specific phobia

    541. Stendhal syndrome

    542. Stereotypic movement disorder

    543. Stress

    544. Stuttering

    545. Substance-related disorder

    546. Tardive dyskinesia

    547. Terminal illness

    548. Tic Disorder NOS

    549. Tourette syndrome

    550. Tourette's Disorder

    551. Transient global amnesia

    552. Transient Tic Disorder

    553. Transvestic Fetishism

    554. Trichotillomania

    555. Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder

    556. Unspecified Mental Disorder (nonpsychotic)

    557. Vaginismus (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)

    558. Vascular Dementia, Uncomplicated

    559. Vascular Dementia, With Delirium

    560. Vascular Dementia, With Delusions

    561. Vascular Dementia, With Depressed Mood

    562. Voyeurism
    What are psychiatric disorders?
    Pysciatric disorders include threatening behavior; violent behavior; psychotic disorder; infancy, childhood, and adolescence mental health or behavior disorders; cognitive disorders, substance-related disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; somatoform disorders; fictitious disorders; dissociative disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders; eating disorders; sleep disorders; impulse control disorders; adjustment disorders; personality disorders; and abuse and neglect medical conditions.

    What isn't a psychiatric disorder?
    What isn't a psychiatric disorder still may need psychiatric consultation?
    What will a normal person do if subjected to harmful conditions?

    This isn't a psychiatric disorder, but needs psychiatric consultation.

    What will happen if you don't diagnose and manage a psychiatric emergency correctly?
    Possibilities include homicides, suicides, assaults, harassments, harm to self, harm to others, disability, escalation of conflict and disputes, decreased productivity, and other harms.

    Can a case be a psychiatric and legal emergency at the same time?
    Yes.

    Academic Problem (Study Skills, Time Management)
    What recommendations should you expect?
    You should expect at least one of these recommendations.
    The student is being educated with a substandard curriculum.
    The student is being educated with a curriculum that is not going to help in real world.
    The student has incompetent teacher or teachers.
    The student needs to be surrounded by academically advanced intelligent students.
    The student is facing a harmful environment leading to failure to thrive and learn.
    A harmful environment can be inadequate food, verbal or physical abuse, inhabitable living conditions, inadequate survival needs compared to others, negligence of parents or guardian, and inadequate resources for learning.
    In rare situations, the student has a congenital or developmental disability.

    What is mental illness?
    What is a psychotic disorder?
    Mental illness and behavioral disorder: Is there a difference?
    What is being paranoid?
    What isn't being paranoid?
    What isn't mental illness?
    What symptoms or signs will a normal person manifest subject to harmful conditions?
    What is a diagnostic and statistical manual?
    How often is a diagnostic and statistical manual updated?
    Who is in charge of updating this manual?
    Are there any controversies associated with it?
    What is it called when a person sees and hears one thing and says and writes something else?
    What in included in taking care of oneself?
    What are the indications a person is taking care of others?
    What is the difference between taking care of others with and without having accepted such duty and responsibility?

    This is a broad term.

    If you don't have the correct answer to this question, you need to do further research.

    A person asks for Muslim medical doctor at Swedish covenant hospital after seeing the doctors there to be incompetent or harmful. Where should you look for Muslim medical doctors?

    Harmful incidents

    How do you feel about it?
    What comes to your mind after you recall this incident?
    Do you get good or bad feelings?

    Who creates a mental health legal statute?
    Who should create a mental health legal statute?
    What should be taken into consideration before creating a mental health statute?
    How often should this be updated?

    Can a person reach a correct diagnosis and manage cases without knowing about the medical condition or disorder, its symptoms, signs, relevant underlying pathogenesis, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and related knowledge?

    No.
    Personality disorder

    What are personality disorders?
    What is not a personality disorder?

    What are the symptoms, signs, and issues that should alert mandatory psychiatrist consultation?
    What questions should you ask a psychiatrist to determine his or her competence?

    What should a psychiatrist or medical doctor know to prevent wrong diagnosis and treatment?


    If you're not sure what the problem might be, review the common symptoms to see if any of them sound like you or your loved one.

    •Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    •Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    •Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    •Postpartum Depression
    Common symptoms of adult behavioral health problems
    If you aren't sure what the problem might be, review this list of typical symptoms to see if any of them seem familiar. This is not an accurate diagnostic tool, but can provide a rough indication of where you should see a behavioral health care professional.

    You might have Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, also known as ADHD for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) if you:
    •Are easily distracted by sights and sounds
    •Don't pay attention to detail
    •Don't seem to listen when spoken to
    •Make careless mistakes
    •Don't follow through on instructions or tasks
    •Avoid or dislike activities that require longer periods of mental effort
    •Lose or forget items necessary for tasks
    •Forgetful in day-to-day activities
    •Restless, fidget and squirm
    •Talk excessively
    •Interrupt others
    Try our online screening tool | Providers who can help

    Your may have an anxiety disorder if you experience:

    •Worry or dread
    •Obsessive or intrusive thoughts
    •Sense of imminent danger or catastrophe
    •Fear or panic
    •Restlessness
    •Irritability
    •Impatience
    •Ambivalence
    •Trouble concentrating
    •Rapid or irregular heartbeat
    •Sweating, especially the palms
    •Dry mouth
    •Flushing or blushing
    •Muscle tension
    •Shortness of breath
    •Lightheadedness or faintness
    •Difficulty sleeping
    •Shaking
    •Choking sensation
    •Frequent urination
    •Nausea or vomiting
    •Diarrhea
    •Constipation
    •Feeling of "butterflies" in the stomach
    •Tingling sensations
    •Nail biting or other habitual behavior

    Bipolar Disorder often includes:

    •Dramatic mood swings ranging from elated excitability to hopeless despondency
    •Extreme changes in energy and behavior
    •Periods of highs that include:
    •Persistent and inexplicable elevation in mood
    •Increased energy and effort toward goal-directed activities
    •Restlessness and agitation
    •Racing thoughts, jumping from one idea to another
    •Rapid speech or pressure to keep talking
    •Trouble concentrating
    •Decreased need for sleep
    •Overconfidence or inflated self-esteem
    •Poor judgment, often involving spending sprees and sexual indiscretions

    •Periods of lows that include:
    •Prolonged sad, hopeless, or empty mood
    •Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
    •Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed
    •Decreased energy or fatigue
    •Trouble concentrating, remembering, making decisions
    •Restlessness or diminished movements, agitation
    •Sleeping too much or too little
    •Unintended weight loss or gain
    •Thoughts of death or suicide with or without suicide attempts
    These same symptoms might be a sign of depression.

    Symptoms of depression include:

    Symptoms can change over time and may include:

    •Persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, or emptiness
    •Hopelessness
    •Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless
    •Loss of interest in hobbies and activities
    •Loss of interest in sex
    •Feeling tired
    •Trouble concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
    •Trouble sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
    •Eating more or less than usual
    •Weight gain or weight loss
    •Thoughts of death or suicide with or without suicide attempts
    •Restlessness or irritability
    •Physical symptoms that defy standard diagnosis and do not respond well to medical treatments

    Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are:

    •Obsessions – unwanted, repetitive and intrusive ideas, impulses or images
    •Compulsions – repetitive behaviors or mental acts usually performed to reduce the distress associated with obsessions

    Common obsessions include:

    •Persistent fears that harm may come to self or a loved one
    •Unreasonable concern with being contaminated
    •Unacceptable religious, violent, or sexual thoughts
    •Excessive need to do things correctly or perfectly

    Common compulsions include:

    •Excessive checking of door locks, stoves, water faucets, light switches, etc.
    •Repeatedly making lists, counting, arranging, or aligning things
    •Collecting and hoarding useless objects
    •Repeating routine actions a certain number of times until it feels just right
    •Unnecessary re-reading and re-writing
    •Mentally repeating phrases

    Those with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) show negative, angry, and defiant behaviors much more often than most people of the same age.

    The cause of ODD is unknown. Like other psychiatric disorders, ODD results from a combination of genetic, family, and social factors. Children with ODD may inherit chemical imbalances in the brain that predispose them to the disorder.

    Risk factors include:

    •Sex: Male
    •Age: Childhood and teen years
    •A parent with a mood, conduct, attention deficit, or substance abuse disorder
    •Marital conflict
    •Child abuse
    •Inconsistent parental attention
    View more information on ODD

    If you have experienced some kind of trauma, you might experience Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Symptoms fall into three categories:

    •Re-experiencing of the event
    •Dreams/nightmares
    •Flashbacks
    •Anxious reactions to reminders of the event
    •Hallucinations
    •Avoidance
    •Avoiding close emotional contact with family and friends
    •Avoiding people or places that are reminders of the event
    •Loss of memory about the event
    •Feelings of detachment, numbness
    •Arousal
    •Difficulty falling or staying asleep
    •Anger and irritability
    •Difficulty concentrating
    •Being easily startled
    Physical symptoms may also occur such as:

    •Stomach and digestive problems
    •Chest pain
    •Headaches
    •Dizziness
    People with PTSD may also abuse alcohol or drugs.

    Beware of Postpartum Depression:

    Symptoms usually occur within 6 months after childbirth, and may last from a few weeks to a few months. Symptoms range from mild depression to severe psychosis. Postpartum depression is different than "baby blues", which is a mild form of depression that occurs within a few days after childbirth, and lasts up to a week.

    Symptoms may include:

    •Loss of interest or pleasure in life
    •Loss of appetite
    •Rapid mood swings
    •Episodes of crying or tearfulness
    •Poor concentration, memory loss, difficulty making decisions
    •Difficulty falling or staying asleep
    •Feelings of irritability, anxiety, or panic
    •Restlessness
    •Fear of hurting or killing oneself or one's child
    •Feelings of hopelessness or guilt
    •Obsessive thoughts, especially unreasonable, repetitive fears about your child's health and welfare
    •Lack of energy or motivation
    •Unexplained weight loss or gain
    More serious symptoms associated with postpartum depression that may require immediate medical attention include:

    •Lack of interest in your infant
    •Suicidal or homicidal thoughts
    •Hallucinations or delusions
    •Loss of contact with reality

    Schizophrenia could be the problem if:

    Symptoms usually start in adolescence or early adulthood. They often appear slowly and become more disturbing and bizarre over time.

    Symptoms include:

    •Hallucinations – seeing or hearing things/voices that are not there
    •Delusions – strong but false personal beliefs that are not based in reality •Disorganized thinking
    •Disorganized speech – lack of ability to speak in a way that makes sense or carry on a conversation
    •Catatonic behavior – slow movement, repeating rhythmic gestures, pacing, walking in circles
    •Emotional flatness – flat speech, lack of facial expression, and general disinterest and withdrawal
    •Inappropriate laughter
    •Poor hygiene and self-care

    Associated conditions include:
    •Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    •Substance abuse

    What are some psychotic disorders? Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder.

    What characteristics are associated with psychotic disorder?
    Characteristics associated with psychotic disorders include delusion, hallucination, bizarre behavior, incoherent or disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior.

    What are delusions?
    Delusions are described as false, inaccurate beliefs a person holds onto even when he/she is presented with accurate information.

    What is not delusion?
    If someone else misinterprets a fact or facts about an individual, that does not mean the individual has delusion.

    If an individual has been updated about certain facts and he or she answers questions based on facts best known to the individual, this is not delusion.

    What should you be able to answer if you interpret anyone having delusions?

    What did he or she say that you interpret as delusion or delusions?
    Once this question is answered, further questions need to be answered.

    What are hallucinations?
    Hallucinations are internal sensory perceptions, such as sights or sounds, which are not actually present.

    What isn't a psychotic disorder?
    A person is documented with fresh torture marks in 2006, after having been beaten. Is it persecutory ideation, psychotic disorder, or real torture? What is the correct answer?
    Real torture.

    What isn't delusion?
    How many Muslims are in the world?
    Do all Muslims have delusions?
    How many agree the elections in 2009 were a fraud?
    Do all of them have delusions?
    No. This isn't a delusion.

    What are infancy, childhood, and adolescence mental health or behavior disorders?
    Learning disorders
    Communication disorders
    Motor skills disorders
    Pervasive developmental disorders
    Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders.
    Feeding and eating disorders of infancy or early childhood
    Tic disorders
    Elimination disorders
    Mental retardation
    Other disorders of infancy, childhood, adolescence.

    How could this be prevented?
    Encourage children to build their speech skills every day.
    Encourage children to communicate as much as possible.
    Encourage children to exercise daily.
    Teach children social skills every day.
    Select a language for children that is universally in use, for example the English language.

    What are cognitive disorders?
    Delirium
    Dementia
    Amnesia
    Other cognitive disorders

    What substances cause substance-related disorders?
    Alcohol
    Amphetamines
    Caffeine
    Cannabis
    Cocaine
    Hallucinogens
    Inhalants
    Nicotine
    Opoids
    Phencyclidine

    What are sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic-related disorders? Polysubstance-related disorder?

    What are mood disorders?
    Major depressive disorder
    Dysthymic disorder
    Bipolar disorders, including hypomanic, mixed, and depressed.

    What are anxiety disorders?
    Panic attack
    Phobias
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Post-traumatic stress disorder
    Acute stress disorder
    Generalized anxiety disorder

    What are some somatoform disorders?
    Somatization disorder
    Conversion disorder
    Pain disorder
    Hypochondriasis

    What are fictitious disorders?
    Fictitious disorder with mostly psychological symptoms
    Fictitious disorder with mostly physical symptoms
    Fictitious disorder with both psychological and physical symptoms
    Fictitious disorder not otherwise specified

    What are some dissociative disorders?
    Dissociative amnesia
    Dissociative identity disorder
    Dissociative fugue
    Depersonalization disorder

    What should you not do?
    Don't provoke, don't misinterpret the facts, don't prolong the issues and settlement, don't complicate the problems further.

    How often does this occur?
    If the incident occurs due to provocation and oppression, we don't treat the oppressed. We treat the oppressors.

    How do you define oppressor or oppressors?
    One who violates others? rights, provokes intentionally, puts others into intentional problems, deprives others of their rights.

    What are the types of individualized harms?
    What are some of the harmful conditions?
    Deprivation of rights under the color of law, discrimination, provocation, abuse, physical torture, psychological torture, neglect, disruption, exclusion.

    Who designs training materials for medical doctors at this hospital?
    You need further training in this subject.



    Personality disorders screening
    Who specifically should have yearly screening for personality disorders?
    Leaders.
    Managers.
    Individuals in public service.
    Harms can occur if such individual gets involved in public service.

    Here is an example.
    Personality Disorder:
    Patient is conscious, oriented in time, space, and person.
    Vitals are normal and there are no other complaints.
    Does that mean the person is normal?
    The patient can have personality disorder.

    How do you screen personality disorders in yearly health assessment?
    Ask others if he or she lies.
    Lying is a criminal offense.
    Lying can be due to personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or other personality disorders.

    Patient must nominate at least two people to comment about his or her personality.

    Questions you need to ask.

    Do you know this person?
    How do you know this person?
    How would you describe this person’s character, behavior, and competence?
    How would you describe the personality of this person?

    How would you describe your personality?
    I am always truthful.
    I answer questions truthfully to the best of my ability and knowledge.
    I feel that I have a personality disorder or disorders.
    Others have mentioned that I have personality disorder or disorders.
    Others say that I lie (quote incidents).
    Various incidents make me think I have personality disorder or disorders.

    How would 100 of your neighbors within walking distance describe you?
    Alcoholic.
    Cheating traits.
    Civilized/uncivilized.
    Deaf and mute.
    Drug addict.
    Mute.
    Fraudulently placed.
    Good charactered/bad charactered
    Gang association/civilized association.
    Harmful/helpful.
    Hostile/polite.
    Illiterate/highly educated.
    Leadership qualities.
    Liar/truthful.
    Mentally retarded/intelligent.
    Not a good person to know/good person to know.
    Opportunist.
    Oppressor/oppressed.
    Personality disorder/expected behavior.
    Predictable/unpredictable.
    Unskilled/highly skilled.
    Violent.
    Well behaved.

    What are the specific issues, symptoms, signs, or complaints the day, date, and time you are answering these questions?

    What is the day, date, time, and location you are answering these questions?

    What is profile of the individual helping you answer these questions, including assistance with computer and Internet?

    Here are further guidelines.
    Personality Disorders
    Antisocial Personality Disorder
    Avoidant Personality Disorder
    Borderline Personality Disorder
    Dependent Personality Disorder
    Histrionic Personality Disorder
    Multiple Personality Disorder, see Dissociative Identity Disorder
    Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
    Paranoid Personality Disorder
    Schizoid Personality Disorder
    Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Symptoms

    General symptoms of a personality disorder
    Personality disorder symptoms include:

    • Frequent mood swings
    • Stormy relationships
    • Social isolation
    • Angry outbursts
    • Suspicion and mistrust of others
    • Difficulty making friends
    • A need for instant gratification
    • Poor impulse control
    • Alcohol or substance abuse

    Specific types of personality disorders
    The specific types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters based on similar characteristics and symptoms. Many people with one diagnosed personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one additional personality disorder.

    Cluster A personality disorders
    These are personality disorders characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior and include:

    Paranoid personality disorder

    • Distrust and suspicion of others
    • Believing that others are trying to harm you
    • Emotional detachment
    • Hostility

    Schizoid personality disorder

    • Lack of interest in social relationships
    • Limited range of emotional expression
    • Inability to pick up normal social cues
    • Appearing dull or indifferent to others

    Schizotypal personality disorder

    • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs or behavior
    • Perceptual alterations, such as those affecting touch
    • Discomfort in close relationships
    • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
    • Indifference to others
    • "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
    • Believing that messages are hidden for you in public speeches or displays

    Cluster B personality disorders
    These are personality disorders characterized by dramatic, overly emotional thinking or behavior and include:

    Antisocial (formerly called sociopathic) personality disorder

    • Disregard for others
    • Persistent lying or stealing
    • Recurring difficulties with the law
    • Repeatedly violating the rights of others
    • Aggressive, often violent behavior
    • Disregard for the safety of self or others

    Borderline personality disorder

    • Impulsive and risky behavior
    • Volatile relationships
    • Unstable mood
    • Suicidal behavior
    • Fear of being alone

    Histrionic personality disorder

    • Constantly seeking attention
    • Excessively emotional
    • Extreme sensitivity to others' approval
    • Unstable mood
    • Excessive concern with physical appearance

    Narcissistic personality disorder
    Believing that you're better than others

    • Fantasizing about power, success and attractiveness
    • Exaggerating your achievements or talents
    • Expecting constant praise and admiration
    • Failing to recognize other people's emotions and feelings

    Cluster C personality disorders
    These are personality disorders characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior and include:

    Avoidant personality disorder

    • Hypersensitivity to criticism or rejection
    • Feeling inadequate
    • Social isolation
    • Extreme shyness in social situations
    • Timidity

    Dependent personality disorder

    • Excessive dependence on others
    • Submissiveness toward others
    • A desire to be taken care of
    • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment
    • Urgent need to start a new relationship when one has ended

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    • Preoccupation with orderliness and rules
    • Extreme perfectionism
    • Desire to be in control of situations
    • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
    • Inflexibility

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder isn't the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder, a type of anxiety disorder.

    When to see a doctor
    If you have any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder, see your doctor, mental health provider or other health care professional. Untreated, personality disorders can cause significant problems in your life, and they may get worse without treatment.

    Helping a loved one
    If you have a loved one who you think may have symptoms of a personality disorder, have an open and honest discussion about your concerns. You may not be able to force someone to seek professional care, but you can offer encouragement and support. You can also help your loved one find a qualified doctor or mental health provider and make an appointment. You may even be able to go to an appointment with him or her.


    Complications

    Complications and problems that personality disorders may cause or be associated with include:

    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Eating disorders
    • Suicidal behavior
    • Self-injury
    • Reckless behavior
    • Risky sexual behavior
    • Child abuse
    • Alcohol or substance abuse
    • Aggression or violence
    • Incarceration
    • Relationship difficulties
    • Social isolation
    • School and work problems

    Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of a disregard for other people's rights, often crossing the line and violating those rights. It usually begins in childhood or as a teen and continues into their adult lives.

    Antisocial personality disorder is often referred to as psychopathy or sociopathy in popular culture.

    Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder frequently lack empathy and tend to be callous, cynical, and contemptuous of the feelings, rights, and sufferings of others. They may have an inflated and arrogant self-appraisal (e.g., feel that ordinary work is beneath them or lack a realistic concern about their current problems or their future) and may be excessively opinionated, self-assured, or cocky. They may display a glib, superficial charm and can be quite voluble and verbally facile (e.g., using technical terms or jargon that might impress someone who is unfamiliar with the topic). Lack of empathy, inflated self-appraisal, and superficial charm are features that have been commonly included in traditional conceptions of psychopathy and may be particularly distinguishing of Antisocial Personality Disorder in prison or forensic settings where criminal, delinquent, or aggressive acts are likely to be nonspecific. These individuals may also be irresponsible and exploitative in their sexual relationships.

    Symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Antisocial personality disorder is diagnosed when a person's pattern of antisocial behavior has occurred since age 15 (although only adults 18 years or older can be diagnosed with this disorder) and consists of the majority of these symptoms:

    • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
    • Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
    • Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
    • Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
    • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others
    • Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
    • Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it. There should also be evidence of Conduct Disorder in the individual as a child, whether or not it was ever formally diagnosed by a professional.

    Antisocial personality disorder is more prevalent in males (3 percent) versus females (1 percent) in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, antisocial personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Antisocial Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as antisocial personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose antisocial personality disorder.

    Many people with antisocial personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for antisocial personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes antisocial personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of antisocial personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Treatment of antisocial personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see antisocial personality disorder treatment.

    Avoidant Personality Disorder

    People with avoidant personality disorder experience a long-standing feeling of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. This leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of inadequacy and inhibition, the person with avoidant personality disorder will seek to avoid work, school and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others.

    Individuals with Avoidant Personality Disorder often vigilantly appraise the movements and expressions of those with whom they come into contact. Their fearful and tense demeanor may elicit ridicule from others, which in turn confirms their self-doubts. They are very anxious about the possibility that they will react to criticism with blushing or crying. They are described by others as being "shy," "timid," "lonely," and "isolated."

    The major problems associated with this disorder occur in social and occupational functioning. The low self-esteem and hypersensitivity to rejection are associated with restricted interpersonal contacts. These individuals may become relatively isolated and usually do not have a large social support network that can help them weather crises. They desire affection and acceptance and may fantasize about idealized relationships with others. The avoidant behaviors can also adversely affect occupational functioning because these individuals try to avoid the types of social situations that may be important for meeting the basic demands of the job or for advancement.

    Symptoms of Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to what other people think about them, and social inhibition. It typically manifests itself by early adulthood and includes a majority of the following symptoms:

    • Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection
    • Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
    • Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed
    • Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations
    • Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy
    • Views themself as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others
    • Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Avoidant personality disorder appears to occur between 0.5 and 1.0 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, avoidant personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Avoidant Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as avoidant personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose avoidant personality disorder.

    Many people with avoidant personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for avoidant personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes avoidant personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of avoidant personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Treatment of avoidant personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. avoidant personality disorder treatment.

    Borderline Personality Disorder


    The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive.

    This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood. The unstable pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self-image and early social interactions. The pattern is present in a variety of settings (e.g., not just at work or home) and often is accompanied by a similar lability (fluctuating back and forth, sometimes in a quick manner) in a person’s emotions and feelings. Relationships and the person’s emotion may often be characterized as being shallow.

    A person with this disorder will also often exhibit impulsive behaviors and have a majority of the following symptoms:

    • Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
    • A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation
    • Identity disturbance, such as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of self
    • Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
    • Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
    • Emotional instability due to significant reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)
    • Chronic feelings of emptiness
    • Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)
    • Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Borderline personality disorder is more prevalent in females (75 percent of diagnoses made are in females). It is thought that borderline personality disorder affects approximately 2 percent of the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, borderline personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    Details about Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.

    The perception of impending separation or rejection, or the loss of external structure, can lead to profound changes in self-image, emotion, thinking and behavior. Someone with borderline personality disorder will be very sensitive to things happening around them in their environment. They experience intense abandonment fears and inappropriate anger, even when faced with a realistic separation or when there are unavoidable changes in plans. For instance, becoming very angry with someone for being a few minutes late or having to cancel a lunch date. People with borderline personality disorder may believe that this abandonment implies that they are “bad.” These abandonment fears are related to an intolerance of being alone and a need to have other people with them. Their frantic efforts to avoid abandonment may include impulsive actions such as self-mutilating or suicidal behaviors.

    Unstable and intense relationships.

    People with borderline personality disorder may idealize potential caregivers or lovers at the first or second meeting, demand to spend a lot of time together, and share the most intimate details early in a relationship. However, they may switch quickly from idealizing other people to devaluing them, feeling that the other person does not care enough, does not give enough, is not “there” enough. These individuals can empathize with and nurture other people, but only with the expectation that the other person will “be there” in return to meet their own needs on demand. These individuals are prone to sudden and dramatic shifts in their view of others, who may alternately be seen as beneficient supports or as cruelly punitive. Such shifts other reflect disillusionment with a caregiver whose nurturing qualities had been idealized or whose rejection or abandonment is expected.

    Identity disturbance.

    There are sudden and dramatic shifts in self-image, characterized by shifting goals, values and vocational aspirations. There may be sudden changes in opinions and plans about career, sexual identity, values and types of friends. These individuals may suddenly change from the role of a needy supplicant for help to a righteous avenger of past mistreatment. Although they usually have a self-image that is based on being bad or evil, individuals with borderline personality disorder may at times have feelings that they do not exist at all. Such experiences usually occur in situations in which the individual feels a lack of a meaningful relationship, nurturing and support. These individuals may show worse performance in unstructured work or school situations.

    You can also learn more about the detailed characteristics of borderline personality disorder.

    How is Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose borderline personality disorder.

    Many people with borderline personality disorder don’t seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person’s life. This most often happens when a person’s coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for borderline personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don’t know what causes borderline personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of borderline personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible — rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be “passed down” to their children.

    Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Treatment of borderline personality disorder typically involves long-term sychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see borderline personality disorder treatment.

    Dependent Personality Disorder

    Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing need for the person to be taken care of and a fear of being abandoned or separated from important individuals in his or her life. This leads the person to engage in dependent and submissive behaviors that are designed to elicit care-giving behaviors in others. The dependent behavior may be see as being "clingy" or "clinging on" to others, because the person fears they can't live their lives without the help of others.

    Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder are often characterized by pessimism and self-doubt, tend to belittle their abilities and assets, and may constantly refer to themselves as "stupid." They take criticism and disapproval as proof of their worthlessness and lose faith in themselves. They may seek overprotection and dominance from others. Occupational functioning may be impaired if independent initiative is required. They may avoid positions of responsibility and become anxious when faced with decisions. Social relations tend to be limited to those few people on whom the individual is dependent.

    Chronic physical illness or Separation Anxiety Disorder in childhood or adolescence may predispose an individual to the development of dependent personality disorder.

    Symptoms of Dependent Personality Disorder

    Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive fear that leads to "clinging behavior" and usually manifests itself by early adulthood. It includes a majority of the following symptoms:

    • Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others
    • Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life
    • Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval
    • Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy)
    • Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant
    • Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
    • Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends
    • Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of himself or herself

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Dependent personality disorder is the most commonly diagnosed personality disorder in mental health clinics.

    Like most personality disorders, dependent personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Dependent Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as dependent personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose dependent personality disorder.

    Many people with dependent personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for dependent personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Dependent Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes dependent personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of dependent personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Dependent Personality Disorder

    Treatment of dependent personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see dependent personality disorder treatment.

    Symptoms of
    Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and feel uncomfortable when they are not. While often lively, interesting and sometimes dramatic, they have difficulty when people aren't focused exclusively on them. People with this disorder may be perceived as being shallow, and may engage in sexually seductive or provocating behavior to draw attention to themselves.

    Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder may have difficulty achieving emotional intimacy in romantic or sexual relationships. Without being aware of it, they often act out a role (e.g., "victim" or "princess") in their relationships to others. They may seek to control their partner through emotional manipulation or seductiveness on one level, whereas displaying a marked dependency on them at another level.

    Individuals with this disorder often have impaired relationships with same-sex friends because their sexually provocative interpersonal style may seem a threat to their friends' relationships. These individuals may also alienate friends with demands for constant attention. They often become depressed and upset when they are not the center of attention.

    People with histrionic personality disorder may crave novelty, stimulation, and excitement and have a tendency to become bored with their usual routine. These individuals are often intolerant of, or frustrated by, situations that involve delayed gratification, and their actions are often directed at obtaining immediate satisfaction. Although they often initiate a job or project with great enthusiasm, their interest may lag quickly.

    Longer-term relationships may be neglected to make way for the excitement of new relationships.

    Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

    • Is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention
    • Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior
    • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
    • Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to themself
    • Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
    • Shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion
    • Is highly suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances
    • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Histrionic personality disorder is more prevalent in females than males. It occurs about 2 to 3 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, histrionic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Histrionic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as histrionic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose histrionic personality disorder.

    Many people with histrionic personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for histrionic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes histrionic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of histrionic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Treatment of histrionic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see histrionic personality disorder treatment.

    Symptoms of
    Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Also Known as Multiple Personality Disorder

    The presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self). At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. Inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts or chaotic behavior during Alcohol Intoxication) or a general medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures). Note: In children, the symptoms are not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play. •What is Dissociation? Do people really have multiple personalities? •The Differences Between Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia and Multiple Personality Disorder •General Treatment Guidelines for Multiple Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others. People with this disorder often believe they are of primary importance in everybody's life or to anyone they meet. While this pattern of behavior may be appropriate for a king in 16th Century England, it is generally considered inappropriate for most ordinary people today.

    People with narcissistic personality disorder often display snobbish, disdainful, or patronizing attitudes. For example, an individual with this disorder may complain about a clumsy waiter's "rudeness" or "stupidity" or conclude a medical evaluation with a condescending evaluation of the physician.

    In laypeople terms, someone with this disorder may be described simply as a "narcissist" or as someone with "narcissism." Both of these terms generally refer to someone with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    In order for a person to be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) they must meet five or more of the following symptoms:

    • Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
    • Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
    • Believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
    • Requires excessive admiration
    • Has a very strong sense of entitlement, e.g., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
    • Is exploitative of others, e.g., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends
    • Lacks empathy, e.g., is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
    • Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
    • Regularly shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Narcissistic personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and is thought to occur in less than 1 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, narcissistic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    Learn more about the symptoms and characteristics of someone with narcissitic personality disorder.

    How is Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as narcissistic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose personality disorder.

    Many people with narcissistic personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for narcissistic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes narcissistic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of narcissistic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. This

    When rules and established procedures do not dictate the correct answer, decision making may become a time-consuming, often painful process. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder may have such difficulty deciding which tasks take priority or what is the best way of doing some particular task that they may never get started on anything.

    They are prone to become upset or angry in situations in which they are not able to maintain control of their physical or interpersonal environment, although the anger is typically not expressed directly. For example, a person may be angry when service in a restaurant is poor, but instead of complaining to the management, the individual ruminates about how much to leave as a tip. On other occasions, anger may be expressed with righteous indignation over a seemingly minor matter.

    People with this disorder may be especially attentive to their relative status in dominance-submission relationships and may display excessive deference to an authority they respect and excessive resistance to authority that they do not respect.

    Individuals with this disorder usually express affection in a highly controlled or stilted fashion and may be very uncomfortable in the presence of others who are emotionally expressive. Their everyday relationships have a formal and serious quality, and they may be stiff in situations in which others would smile and be happy (e.g., greeting a lover at the airport). They carefully hold themselves back until they are sure that whatever they say will be perfect. They may be preoccupied with logic and intellect.

    Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

    • Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
    • Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
    • Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
    • Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
    • Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
    • Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
    • Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
    • Shows significant rigidity and stubbornness

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder is approximately twice as prevalent in males than females, and occurs in about 1 percent of the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Many people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

    Treatment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Paranoid Personality Disorder

    People with paranoid personality disorder are generally characterized by having a long-standing pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. A person with paranoid personality disorder will nearly always believe that other people's motives are suspect or even malevolent. Individuals with this disorder assume that other people will exploit, harm, or deceive them, even if no evidence exists to support this expectation. While it is fairly normal for everyone to have some degree of paranoia about certain situations in their lives (such as worry about an impending set of layoffs at work), people with paranoid personality disorder take this to an extreme -- it pervades virtually every professional and personal relationship they have.

    Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder are generally difficult to get along with and often have problems with close relationships. Their excessive suspiciousness and hostility may be expressed in overt argumentativeness, in recurrent complaining, or by quiet, apparently hostile aloofness. Because they are hypervigilant for potential threats, they may act in a guarded, secretive, or devious manner and appear to be "cold" and lacking in tender feelings. Although they may appear to be objective, rational, and unemotional, they more often display a labile range of affect, with hostile, stubborn, and sarcastic expressions predominating. Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations.

    Because individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder lack trust in others, they have an excessive need to be self-sufficient and a strong sense of autonomy. They also need to have a high degree of control over those around them. They are often rigid, critical of others, and unable to collaborate, and they have great difficulty accepting criticism.

    Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

    • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
    • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates
    • Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her
    • Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
    • Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
    • Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack
    • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Paranoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and occurs somewhere between 0.5 and 2.5 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, paranoid personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Paranoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as paranoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose paranoid personality disorder.

    Many people with paranoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for paranoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes paranoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of paranoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Treatment of paranoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships. A person with schizoid personality disorder often has difficulty expression emotions and does so typically in very restricted range, especially when communicating with others.

    A person with this disorder may appear to lack a desire for intimacy, and will avoid close relationships with others. They may often prefer to spend time with themselves rather than socialize or be in a group of people. In laypeople terms, a person with schizoid personality disorder might be thought of as the typical "loner."

    Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder may have particular difficulty expressing anger, even in response to direct provocation, which contributes to the impression that they lack emotion. Their lives sometimes seem directionless, and they may appear to "drift" in their goals. Such individuals often react passively to adverse circumstances and have difficulty responding appropriately to important life events. Because of their lack of social skills and lack of desire for sexual experiences, individuals with this disorder have few friendships, date infrequently, and often do not marry. Employment or work functioning may be impaired, particularly if interpersonal involvement is required, but individuals with this disorder may do well when they work under conditions of social isolation.

    Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

    • Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
    • Almost always chooses solitary activities
    • Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
    • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
    • Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
    • Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
    • Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Schizoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females. Its prevalence in the general population is not known.

    Like most personality disorders, schizoid personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as schizoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizoid personality disorder.

    Many people with schizoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for schizoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes schizoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Treatment of schizoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others. A person with schizotypal personality disorder may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior.

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often have ideas of reference (e.g., they have incorrect interpretations of casual incidents and external events as having a particular and unusual meaning specifically for the person). People with this disorder may be unusually superstitious or preoccupied with paranormal phenomena that are outside the norms of their subculture.

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often seek treatment for the associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other dysphoric affects rather than for the personality disorder features per se.

    Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

    • Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)
    • Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)
    • Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions
    • Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)
    • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
    • Inappropriate or constricted affect
    • Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar
    • Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
    • Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Schizotypal personality disorder appears in less than 3 percent of the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, schizotypal personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Schizotypal Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as schizotypal personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizotypal personality disorder.

    Many people with schizotypal personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for schizotypal personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes schizotypal personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizotypal personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Treatment of schizotypal personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.
    Here are further guidelines.

    Psychiatry and Media.

    Should the media get involved in an awareness campaign from medical doctors associated with psychiatry and mental health care?
    Yes.

    How should the media handle articles and an awareness campaign from medical doctors associated with psychiatry and mental health care?

    Ask them these questions.
    What is good human character?
    What is good human behavior?
    What's normal?
    What is enforced suffering?
    What are the rights of a civilized human being?
    Who is a civilized human being?
    How do you define a civilized human being?

    If they are able to answer correctly, reinforce them.
    If they aren't able to answer correctly, counsel them to upgrade their skills and knowledge as they may mislead individuals and communities, even if they claim to be award winners.
    Here are further guidelines.

    Psychiatric hospital
    Assisted living
    Crisis stabilization
    Involuntary nature of psychiatric hospitalization
    Juvenile wards
    Long-term care facilities
    Political imprisonment
    Medium-term
    Open units
    Secure units

    What should you monitor in a psychiatric hospital?
    Behavior, vitals, character.

    How should you monitor a psychiatric hospital?
    Let's examine this.
    Threat to self, threat to others, harmful to self, harmful to others, assault on self, assault on others, not taking care of self, not taking care of others who have accepted the duty and responsibility. Vitals, character evaluation, behavior in various settings.

    Can a person be confined involuntarily to a psychiatric facility because someone else misinterpreted the facts?
    No.

    How could this have been prevented?
    Proper understanding of the issues, proper training of the staff, fulfilling genuine rights.

    What is the duty and responsibility of a nurse?
    A nurse is responsible to take vital signs, collect human samples, administer medication, monitor patients? behavior, take history under the supervision of a medical doctor.

    What history should a nurse ask?
    As directed by the medical doctor.

    Why were you brought here? or
    What brings you to the hospital?

    What kind of problems are you having currently?
    Do you need help?
    What would you like to do next?
    What do you plan to do when you leave?

    Do you reach any diagnosis under these harmful conditions or remove harmful conditions for the person who has been oppressed and transferred to a psychiatric facility?
    If theory isn't clear, there will be conflict and disputes. Problems won't be solved.
    Simple negligence or wrong planning can lead to conflicts, disputes, and harms.

    How could this have been prevented?
    We should focus on expected outcome.

    How do you monitor blood pressure?
    Random, early morning before breakfast, after walking.

    Is specific size cuff of blood pressure machine necessary for accurate blood pressure monotoring?
    Yes.

    What needs to be done to educate counselors?
    All social work counselors should be taught legal and psychological expertise.

    Can you reach a diagnosis from reporting a frivolous incident under controlled conditions?
    No.

    How do you reach correct psychiatric diagnosis?
    A medical history is very important.
    Psychiatric history is part of medical history.
    Without correct medical history, diagnosis can be wrong.
    Without correct diagnosis, treatment can be ineffective, even harmful.

    Do you include misinterpretation of incidents to reach a correct diagnosis?
    No.

    How do you investigate an incident for psychiatric evaluation?
    Case history and incident report are two different things.

    What were the date, time, place, circumstances, and relevant background?
    What is the relevant background to this case?
    Is this background relevant to this case?
    Did this happen in a planned meeting?
    Did this happen outside the meeting?
    Was it a planned meeting?
    Who initially provoked it?
    Do we include incidents under controlled and harmful conditions as relevant to reach a correct diagnosis?


    Psychiatric History

    What should you ask in a psychiatric history?

    This is in addition to routine medical history.

    Outpatient consultations.

    Online and telephone consultations.
    Hospital setting.
    What brings you to the hospital?
    How old are you?
    What is the date today?
    What is your date of birth?
    Where are you now?
    Do you have a family in Chicago, Illinois?
    Who else lives with you?

    Did anyone persuade you to answer this way?
    Who persuaded you to answer this way?
    How is their character and behavior?

    What are the problems?
    What seems to be the problem?
    What was running through your mind at the time?
    What were you afraid might happen?
    How did that make you feel?
    What did you do then?
    When did you last feel well - your usual self?
    What was happening around that time?
    What do you like doing?
    When did you last do something you really enjoyed?
    Do you like watching TV, books, and socializing?
    Do you ever feel life is not worth living?
    Have you ever had thoughts of ending your life?
    How are you coping at work? How are things at home?
    Are you still seeing your friends?
    How is this affecting the other members of the family?
    How are your children getting on at school?
    How does your spouse respond to your problems?
    How are you getting on with him/her?
    Can I speak to him/her about it?
    Have you ever felt this way before?
    What did you do about it?
    What really helped?
    Do you have enough food, clothes, housing, transportation, health care, and resources?


    Who are parents, caretaker, or guardian of the patient?
    Please answer the following questions.
    How often does he or she take a bath, brush his/her teeth, exercise, clean the bed, floor, kitchen, sink, and put out garbage?
    What is the difference between protest and abusive language?
    Does he or she utter abusive language?
    What type of behavior has he or she demonstrated? What was the situation?
    How often does he or she speak to his/her parents, brothers, sisters, and relatives?
    How often doe he or she speak to friends?
    What does he or she speak about to his or her classmates?
    How long does he or she speak every day?
    What type of food does he or she consume everyday?
    How many meals does he or she consume everyday?
    How long does he or she wait between meals?
    How long does he or she walk every day?
    How long does he or she sleep every day?
    When does he or she sleep and get up?
    Is he or she a member of a monopoly?
    Does he or she have a fixed time for bathing, brushing his/her teeth, exercising, cleaning his/her living place, speaking, eating, changing clothes? Does he or she often start a quarrel?
    Does he or she have often unreasonable anger outbursts?
    Does he or she often misinterpret facts?
    Does he or she unreasonably call police to harass others?
    Does he or she forget things?
    Does he or she assault others?
    Does he or she attempt suicide?

    If the answer to any of these questions is yes, it is a psychiatric emergency.

    What should not be available in psychiatry hospital to those admitted?
    Sharp objects, razors, blades, and other harmful objects.

    Can those who dispute issues ranging from political to other claims be sent to a psychiatric facility?
    No.

    What is restraint?
    In a psychiatric hospital, intervention to prevent an excited or violent patient from harming him/herself or others. Medical restraints also are used to prevent falls

    Can restraint cause aggravation of a problem?
    Yes.

    Can restraining materials cause more harms than preventing harms?
    Yes.

    How can restraint harm?
    Restraint can cause aggravation of the underlying problem; restraint materials also can cause problem.

    How do you know what type of restraint to get?
    This depends on availability of materials and type of conditions.
    Nylon or leather. The majority of restraints are machine washable. In the case of leather medical restraints, sterilization can be achieved through the use of at least 70% isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol. Methods of sterilization such as autoclaving, steam, and BTO gas are not recommended.

    When should you use restraint?
    When the person can cause harm to him/herself or others.

    When should you not use restraint?
    With normal or wrong diagnosis, prejudice, or biased directive.

    What should be consequences of unjustified restraint?
    Disciplinary action against all involved.

    Who should decide about restraint?
    Psychiatrist or medical doctor, social worker, family members, community members, legal experts, and others. This has to be decided in a team.

    What should you know about medical restraints?
    What type of medical restraint is needed (hand, ankle, seating, etc.) What type of material should the medical restraint be made of (leather, nylon, etc.)?
    Does it need a lock?
    No, a lock can cause more problem if an unlocking problem arise. Not all restraints come with a lock.
    Restaints need 24-hour supervision by a nurse or a medical doctor, and security.

    What kind of restrictions are there on selling medical restraints?
    They can be sold only to health care facilities.
    Most medical restraints are adjustable.

    What are restraint alternatives?

    How exactly will you place the cuff of the blood pressure machine?

    Hospital and Healthcare Products

    Patient Hygiene Solutions

    A range of wipes, foams and bodywashes for effective patient cleansing.

    What are the different types of human thermometers?

    What are the best and latest thermometers available?

    How is accuracy of products verified before being utilized?

    Who verifies the accuracy of these products?

    What standards and criteria do they utilize?

    Who sets these standards and criteria?

    How did they reach this standards and criteria?

    How often are patients with psychiatric emergencies needlessly hospitalized because of the admitting physician's inexperience, fatigue, or lack of knowledge about alternative resources?

    Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.
    Questions doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians needs to answer.
    What is the diagnosis?
    How did you reach this diagnosis?
    What did the individual say or do that led to this diagnosis?
    How did you verify your findings?
    If you verified the findings, how did you verify that the findings are consistent?
    How often do these symptoms, signs, and findings occur?
    Do you know everything about stress, intentional enforced harms, and human rights violations from others?
    How did you verify that the individual is not victim of stress or intentional enforced harms or human rights violations from others?


    Medical Negligence

    Who has the duty to adjudicate wrong diagnosis of a human being in the state and outside the state?

    If all questions are answered by the doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician, then go ahead with these questions.

    Questions you need to ask a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician in case medication is prescribed or recommended.

    How will this medication help me?
    How will I be better off after taking this medication?
    What is the name of the medication?
    Is it known by other names?
    What is known about its helpfulness with others who have a similar condition?
    How will the medication help me?
    How long before I see improvement?
    When will it work?
    What are the side effects which commonly occur with this medication?
    What are the less common or serious side effects which can occur?
    Is this medication addictive? Can it be abused?
    What is the recommended dosage?
    How often will the medication be taken?
    Are there any laboratory tests that need to be completed before I begin this medication?
    Will any tests need to be done while I am taking this medication?
    Are there any medications or food I should avoid while taking this medication?
    How long will I be taking this medication?
    How will the decision be made to stop this medication?
    What is the medication supposed to do?
    How and when should I take it?
    How much should I take?
    What should I do if I miss a dose?
    When and how should I stop taking it?
    Will it interact with other medications I take?
    Do I need to avoid any types of food or drink while taking the medication? What should I avoid?
    Should it be taken with or without food?
    Is it safe to drink alcohol while taking this medication?
    What are the side effects? What should I do if I experience them?
    Is the Patient Package Insert for the medication available?

    After taking the medication for a short time, tell your doctor how you feel, if you are having side effects, and any concerns you have about the medicine.
    Reference resource for psychiatry
    Where is reference resource for psychiatry?
    Courts should place this reference resource —www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html — for cases that involve psychiatry and courts.

    Do you know any reference resource for psychiatry better than this resource with open access through the Internet?

    How is this resource better than any other resource?
    Referral request.

    How should you write a referral for medical evaluation?
    Dear Medical Colleague:

    This referral is sent to Doctor Asif Qureshi.
    Profile elaborated at this resource
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/aboutthefounder.html
    We need your individualized consultation for patients.
    The profile of the patient has been enclosed.
    This is in addition to Internet questions We have answered: www.qureshiouniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html
    Please evaluate this patient and provide correct diagnosis and various treatment options for this individual.
    We have answered all relevant questions displayed from your side.

    We went through public health and patient education guidelines from your side. Take a look at this.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html

    Take a look at this.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html

    We feel individualized doctor consultation from you is essential for this individual.

    Moreover, our doctors are not able to reach to correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare setting.
    Please teach them through Internet and in person. We are nominating five doctors for this training from you.

    Doctors nominated to you have a desire to learn.
    Doctors nominated to you are dedicated to public service.
    Doctors nominated to you know that psychiatry is not the only medical specialty. A doctor should have knowledge of all specialties.
    Doctors nominated desire to get involved in Internet human healthcare, public health, patient education, and then individualized healthcare.
    The profile of the doctor forwarding the referral has been enclosed.

    Thank you for your public service.
    Stress (Life Stressors)

    Does the individual have any of this?
    Stress.
    Intentional enforced harms from others.
    Human rights violations from others.


    If yes, fix these issues immediately.

    How do you know if the individual has stress, intentional enforced harms, or both?
    Ask questions relevant to stress and intentional enforced harms.
    Verify the findings with questions relevant to stress and questions relevant to intentional enforced harms.

    Why should every state have stress counseling resources?
    At any point, an individual can have stress.

    What will happen if stress on an individual is ignored?
    Ignoring stress can cause an acute stress reaction.
    Various complications of stress can occur.

    Why is knowledge about stress essential for doctors?
    Multi-axial diagnosis
    Axis IV: Psychosocial stressors are an essential component of multi-axial diagnosis.
    Within stressors, there can be intentional enforced harms and human rights violations.

    Stress has more than 180 causes.
    Some of the causes of stress are intentional enforced harms and human rights violations.
    Not all causes of stress are intentional enforced harms or human rights violations.
    Intentional enforced harms can be civil and criminal issues.
    Basic human rights violations are criminal issues.

    What are other names of stress?
    Life stressors.
    Human stress.

    What does the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5) reveal about these topics: stress, intentional enforced harms, and human rights violations?
    An answer from the American Psychiatric Association is awaited.

    How is this resource — www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html – better than resources from the American Psychiatric Association?
    The resource www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html is updated as soon as new verified research findings are available.

    Reading about stress will decrease stress.
    Discussing stress will decrease stress.
    In case of intentional enforced harms or human rights violations, fix the underlying cause immediately.

    What will happen to lab parameters of a normal human being subjected to repeated stress and harmful conditions?
    How do stress and harm affect adrenaline?
    How does adrenaline affect glucose, hematocrit, osmolality, and other metabolisms?


    Here are further guidelines.
    You are required to maintain these documents and enclosures for future reference.
    Research
    Issues
    At the minimum, the state department of health, in coordination with other departments worldwide, must sponsor such medical research.

    Why should they sponsor this medical research?
    There is no other resource that has done medical research in questions and answers the way it is displayed at http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html

    What have been various significant findings in psychiatry research?
    Up to March 27, 2020 doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians in America did not know that stress, intentional enforced harms, and human rights violations are medical diagnosis.
    These conditions do not need medication.
    These conditions need their underlying cause fixed with solutions and remedies.

    As per the international classification of diseases, "Stress" is a diagnosis.
    As per the American Psychiatric Association DMS 5, a response is awaited.
    A letter has been enclosed.
    I will appreciate it if you remind them of this letter and get answers to relevant questions.
    Continuing education of staff is required.

    Deprivation of rights under the color of law.
    Discrimination.
    Exclusion.

    Discuss how to fix the deprivation of rights under the color of law and his discrimination exclusion.

    What is my experience relevant to these issues?
    Take a look at the facts.

    Psychiatric symptoms: What causes them?
    Most of the time the causes are intentional harms from others.

    Intentional harms from others: What are various examples?
    Abuse
    Deprivation of rights under the color of law
    Discrimination
    Exclusion
    Harmful environment
    Harmful influence from others
    Neglect
    Physical torture
    Psychological torture
    Sabotage of rights
    Gross misconduct of others
    Other similar harms

    What do you have to do?
    Screen the person for various harms from others.
    Fix the underlying cause.

    What should Doctor Asif Qureshi get for the issues detailed at www.qureshiuniversity.com/departments.html?
    Federal reimbursement
    State reimbursement
    International reimbursement
    Last Updated: April 11, 2021