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Statistics
What is Statistics?
What is statistical mean, median, mode, and range?
What are my hypotheses?
What is a p-value, really?
How do I know what analysis to do?
What is Statistics?
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

What is statistical mean, median, mode, and range?
Calculating the Mean, Median, Mode and Range for simple data
The table below shows how to calculate the mean, median, mode and range for two sets of data.
Set A contains the numbers 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 7, 8 and Set B contains the numbers 2, 3, 3, 4, 6, 7.

 Measure Set A2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 7, 8 Set B2, 3, 3, 4, 6, 7 The Mean To find the mean, you need to add up all the data, and then divide this total by the number of values in the data. Adding the numbers up gives: 2 + 2 + 3 + 5 + 5 + 7 + 8 = 32 There are 7 values, so you divide the total by 7:    32 ÷ 7 = 4.57... So the mean is 4.57 (2 d.p.) Adding the numbers up gives: 2 + 3 + 3 + 4 + 6 + 7 = 25 There are 6 values, so you divide the total by 6:    25 ÷ 6 = 4.166... So the mean is 4.17 (2 d.p.) The Median To find the median, you need to put the values in order, then find the middle value. If there are two values in the middle then you find the mean of these two values. The numbers in order: 2 , 2 , 3 , (5) , 5 , 7 , 8 The middle value is marked in brackets, and it is 5. So the median is 5 The numbers in order: 2 , 3 , (3 , 4) , 6 , 7 This time there are two values in the middle. They have been put in brackets. The median is found by calculating the mean of these two values:    (3 + 4) ÷ 2 = 3.5 So the median is 3.5 The Mode The mode is the value which appears the most often in the data. It is possible to have more than one mode if there is more than one value which appears the most. The data values: 2 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 5 , 7 , 8 The values which appear most often are 2 and 5. They both appear more time than any of the other data values. So the modes are 2 and 5 The data values: 2 , 3 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 This time there is only one value which appears most often - the number 3. It appears more times than any of the other data values. So the mode is 3 The Range To find the range, you first need to find the lowest and highest values in the data. The range is found by subtracting the lowest value from the highest value. The data values: 2 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 5 , 7 , 8 The lowest value is 2 and the highest value is 8. Subtracting the lowest from the highest gives:    8 - 2 = 6 So the range is 6 The data values: 2 , 3 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 The lowest value is 2 and the highest value is 7. Subtracting the lowest from the highest gives:    7 - 2 = 5 So the range is 5

1.Introduction
2.Different Types of Data

1.Primary and Secondary Data
2.Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Qualitative data
Qualitative data is a categorical measurement expressed not in terms of numbers, but rather by means of a natural language description.

Quantitative data
Quantitative data is a numerical measurement expressed not by means of a natural language description, but rather in terms of numbers.
3.Methods of Data Collection
4.Data Analysis
5.Summary Statistics
6.Displaying Data
1.Bar Charts
2.Comparative Bar Charts
3.Histograms
4.Scatter Plots
5.Box Plots
6.Pie Charts
7.Comparative Pie Charts
8.Pictograms
9.Line Graphs
10.Frequency Polygon
7.Probability
8.Distributions
9.Testing Statistical Hypothesis
10.Point Estimates
11.Practice Problems
12.Numerical Methods
13.Multivariate Data Analysis
14.Analysis of Specific Datasets

Analysis of Variance
Confidence Intervals
Calculation of Normal Probabilities
Correlation and Regression Analysis
Create scatter plots
Create Time Series plots
Descriptive Statistics
Hypothesis Testing
Linear Regression Tool
Mean & St. Dev. Calculator
Metric Conversions
Normal Probability Tool
Pie Chart Tool
Quadratic Equations Solver
Solved Statistics Problems
System of Equations Solver

What conclusions can be drawn from sample data?
What is the degree of certainty of these conclusions?
What actions should be taken on the basis of the conclusions drawn from these data?

Here are further guidelines.
What are examples of various states in various continents around the world?

North American States