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Who has established these guidelines?
Doctor Asif Qureshi





Where are the skills and knowledge of psychiatry applicable in the real world?
Annotation or definition of a psychiatrist
Abilities a doctor should have
Age-specific social skills (Social Sciences)
Addiction psychiatry
Alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints
Behavioral Health Unit/Psychiatry ward
Behavior Counseling
Behavioral Therapy
Biological psychiatry
Case management
Case Reports
Causes of psychiatric complaints
Coauthor
Counseling Services
Child and adolescent psychiatry
Community psychiatry
Controversies in psychiatry
Cross-cultural psychiatry
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV)
Doctor Consultation (Psychiatric Consultation)
Drug Screening
Emergency Psychiatry
Emergency medical record
    What should an emergency medical record look like?
Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (Children)
Forensic psychiatry
Food (Nutrition and Health)
Geriatric psychiatry
Glossary of psychiatry
Human Rights Violations
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Intentional enforced harms
Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility
License of doctor of medicine
Liaison psychiatry
Medical Doctor(Required skills for the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders in the general medical setting)
Mental status examination
Mini-mental state examination (MMSE)
Multi-Axial Diagnosis
Medications in psychiatry
Mental retardation (appearing before adulthood)
Neuropsychiatry
Personality disorders screening
Personality Disorders
Psychiatric disorders
Psychiatry, law and justice
Psychiatry and home office.
Psychiatry and family courses or counseling.
Psychiatry and duties of police.
    What should police know about psychiatry?
Psychiatry and home health care.
Psychiatry and the Internet.
Psychiatry and OPD.
Psychiatry and state department of health.
Psychiatry and duties of courts.
Psychiatry and Media.
Political abuse of psychiatry
Psychiatric hospital
Psychiatry and work-specific or occupational training.
Psychiatry and duties of counselors or social workers.
    What are the guidelines for counseling in psychiatry
Psychiatry and duties of schools or the state department of education.
Psychiatry and state or non-state legislators.
Psychiatry and education of quacks.
Psychiatry and complaints.
Psychiatry and new patient consultation.
Psychiatry and duties of psychiatric nurses.
Psychiatry and education of medical students.
Psychiatry and psychiatry research.
Psychiatry and continuing education of medical doctors.
Psychiatric disorders
Questions doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians needs to answer.
Questions you need to ask a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician in case medication is prescribed or recommended.
Rights of a patient
    What are the rights of a patient?
    What are the rights of a psychiatric patient or a person with developmental disabilities?
    Who should create and update the statute relevant to involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility in the state?
Reference resource for psychiatry
Referral request
Research
Sponsoring medical research
Stress (Life Stressors)
Social skills in alphabetical order (Good human character/Good human behavior)
Social psychiatry
Textbook of Hospital Psychiatry
Treatment
Workers in psychiatry
    What are various workers in psychiatry?
Psychiatry
Annotation or definition of a psychiatrist

Mental Health

What's the Job Description of a Clinical Psychiatrist?
Clinical psychiatrists use counseling, therapy, and medication to help people cope with various mental health problems.

Clinical psychiatrists are medical doctors who diagnose patients' mental health issues and treat them through medication and various forms of therapy.

What is mental health?

Why is there a need to elaborate on this question?
Nowadays, people tend to be champions of mental health care without knowing its definition.

There are advertisements like rally for mental health or funding for mental health, but these individuals do not know the definition of mental health.
Mental health exploitation has become a new trend for certain unscrupulous people to extract funding from the system for those who are not helped by it. Those who are getting funding do not know the definition of mental health.
Everyone knows that exploiters, opportunists, dishonest, incompetent people have infiltrated the system and are extracting resources intended for mental health while free resources are available at this resource.

What is mental health?
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being.

If a harmful, lying, badly behaved, incompetent individual and his or her associates are fraudulently placed in administration, what will happen to the emotional, psychological, and social well-being of an individual or individuals?
The emotional, psychological, and social well-being of an individual or individuals will get harmed.

A prerequisite for the emotional, psychological, and social well-being of an individual or individuals in the state or outside the state is to have truthful, well behaved, competent, public service-oriented administrators and associates in the state and outside the state.

How can we improve our mental health?
Associate with truthful, well behaved, public service-oriented people in the state and outside the state.
Anyone can get stressed. Fix the causes of stress.
Talk about or express your feelings.
Exercise regularly.
Eat healthful meals.
Get enough sleep.
Spend time with friends and loved ones.
Develop new skills.
Relax and enjoy your hobbies.
Set realistic goals.
Talk to your primary health professional.
Form and maintain healthy relationships.
Remember that it is better to be alone than to be in a sick relationship.
Use your abilities to reach your potential.
Deal with life’s challenges
Identify sources of harms and fix sources of harms on you and your surroundings.
Make sure that truthful, well behaved, competent, public service-oriented administrators and associates are in the state and outside the state for public services.
Here are further facts.

Mental health and role of primary care physician.

What should a primary care physician know about mental health?
A primary care physician should know everything about mental health.
A primary care physician should rarely refer a case that is a diagnostic puzzle.

Questions you need to answer in the referral.

What complaints, issues, and problems did the individual present to you that need referral?

What complaints, issues, and problems do not need a referral?
If an individual feels stressed, this does not need referral from primary care physician to another physician of different abilities.

Referral or Reference

What referral or reference of any department in the state or outside the state should you give?
Please see the examples of essential department in the state or outside the state.

Why was there need to elaborate on the issues?
If you give a referral or reference of any entity other than these departments in the state or outside the state, most of these agencies or entities have gang members that have inflicted harms and can inflict harms.

What is a Psychiatrist?
A psychiatrist is a medical doctor with additional experience and knowledge of psychiatric disorders and normal human behavior. If you know what is normal, then you can diagnose and manage abnormal medical conditions.

Psychiatrists are trained in the medical, psychological, and social components of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and utilize a broad range of treatment modalities, including diagnostic tests, prescribing medications, psychotherapy, and helping patients and their families cope with stress and crises. Psychiatrists increasingly work in integrated settings and often lead or participate on treatment teams and provide consultation to primary care physicians and other medical specialties.

What is the difference between a doctor of medicine and a psychiatrist?
A psychiatrist is a doctor of medicine with additional abilities of a psychiatrist.

You need to have abilities of doctor of medicine with additional abilities of a specific specialty to deserve to be called a specialist.

What is a doctor of medicine?
A doctor of medicine is a human being:
1. Able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being in various healthcare settings.
2. Able to answer relevant questions of human healthcare.
3. Able to offer Internet human healthcare.
4. Able to offer public health advice.
5. Able to offer patient education guidelines.
6. Able to offer administrative issues guidelines.

If a doctor of medicine can guide new medical students and postgraduates, he or she can be designated a professor or guide.

What additional abilities should a psychiatrist have compared to a doctor of medicine?
Ability to deal with stress and intentional enforced harms.
Human rights violations knowledge.
Psychiatric disorder knowledge.
Medicolegal cases knowledge.
Forensic psychiatry knowledge.
Vast knowledge of psychiatric medications.

Is there a difference between complaints due to stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others, and mental illness?
Yes.

What is the difference between complaints due to stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others, and mental illness?
Fixing the underlying causes of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others will make an individual far better and normal.

What is mental illness?
Mental illness is a term used for a group of psychiatric disorders.
You should not diagnose anyone with mental illness unless you verify that the person is not having stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others.

The boundary between mental distress and mental illness is clear if you know everything about stress, intentional enforced harms from others, human rights violations from others, and psychiatric disorders.

How difficult is it to get an appointment with a psychiatrist?
Take a look at this.
www.qureshiouniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html.
Everything is displayed at this location.
Guidelines for patients.
Guidelines for relatives, friends, and well-wishers of patients.
Education for doctor of medicine with additional abilities of a psychiatrist.
Continuing education for existing psychiatrists.
Guidelines for family doctors and local hospitals.

If you have any further issues, forward the patient’s profile or issues to Doctor Asif Qureshi.

Who seeks psychiatric consultation?
Civilized people seek psychiatry consultation.

What is a psychiatric Consultation?
A psychiatric consultation is a comprehensive evaluation of psychiatric complaints in a nonemergency setting that can have psychological, biological, medical, social, or any other causes.

What is Psychiatry?
Psychiatry is medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders and enhancing normal human behavior.

What are psychiatric disorders?
Pysciatric disorders include threatening behavior; violent behavior; psychotic disorder; infancy, childhood, and adolescence mental health or behavior disorders; cognitive disorders, substance-related disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; somatoform disorders; fictitious disorders; dissociative disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders; eating disorders; sleep disorders; impulse control disorders; adjustment disorders; personality disorders; and abuse and neglect medical conditions.

What isn't a psychiatric disorder?
What isn't a psychiatric disorder still may need psychiatric consultation?
What will a normal person do if subjected to harmful conditions?

This isn't a psychiatric disorder, but needs psychiatric consultation.

What will happen if you don't diagnose and manage a psychiatric emergency correctly?
Possibilities include homicides, suicides, assaults, harassments, harm to self, harm to others, disability, escalation of conflict and disputes, decreased productivity, and other harms.

Can a case be a psychiatric and legal emergency at the same time?
Yes.

What will happen if you diagnose a psychiatric emergency incorrectly?
The person diagnosed incorrectly could suffer emotional distress Or other harms.

What factors influence adherence to medical doctors? or psychiatrists? recommendations?
Confidence in the experience and knowledge of the medical doctors or psychiatrists.
Confidence that the diagnosis is correct.
Confidence in the standard of treatment as per preventive and curative concepts of medicine.
Compliance with environmental factors.

What factors influence the best outcome of medical doctors? or psychiatrists? recommendations?
Correct diagnosis.
Recommendations as per international standards and recent advances regarding preventive and curative concepts of medicine.
Compliance with environmental factors.

What should a psychiatric complaint look like?
He or she is getting anger bouts, is forgetful, abusive, provokes quarrels, is hostile, and misinterprets facts.

How do you file revision of diagnosis?
Based on the recent discovery of case scenario of deprivation of rights under the color of law, discrimination, abuse, neglect, harassments, physical torture, psychological torture, disruption, or exclusion.

What should you do before you act on any information?
You need to verify.

Can a psychologist or clinician reach a correct diagnosis without knowing about medical subjects and medical conditions?
No.

What is human behavior?
Human behavior is the sum of what people think, feel, and do. Normal and abnormal variations.

Who is more knowledgeable, a forensic psychiatrist or a judge without knowledge of forensic psychiatry?
A forensic psychiatrist is more knowledgeable than a judge without knowledge of forensic psychiatry.

Who is more knowledgeable, a forensic psychiatrist or a forensic psychologist without knowledge of forensic psychiatry?
A forensic psychiatrist is more knowledgeable than a forensic psychologist.
A forensic psychiatrist is basically a doctor of medicine with additional abilities of general psychiatry and forensic psychiatry.
Alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints
What is on the alphabetical listing of psychiatric complaints?

Emergency

  1. Abuse.

  2. Attempted homicide.

  3. Attempted suicide.

  4. Choking

  5. Environmental factors (hostile environment).

  6. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).

  7. Human rights violations from others.

  8. Intentional enforced harms from others.

  9. Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility

  10. Irritability

  11. Likely to be harmful to self or others.

  12. Loosening of social inhibitions.

  13. Neglect of responsibilities

  14. Other.

  15. Panic attacks.

  16. Personality disorders (harmful to others).

  17. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).

  18. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications. Substance abuse.

  19. Suicidal thoughts, homicidal thoughts.

  20. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.
Non-emergency
  1. Aggressive

  2. Anger

  3. Anxiety

  4. Avoidance of situations

  5. Being unable to limit the amount of alcohol you drink

  6. Blunted

  7. Building a tolerance so that you need an increasing number of drinks to feel the effects

  8. Carelessness about personal grooming

  9. Change in appetite

  10. Changed sleeping pattern

  11. Changes in Behavior – Sleep disturbance

  12. Changes in Emotion and Motivation

  13. Changes in Thinking and Perception

  14. Chronic fatigue, lack of energy

  15. Confusion

  16. Constipation

  17. Crying spells

  18. Decrease concentration and memory

  19. Decreased appetite

  20. Decreased coordination

  21. Delusions

  22. Depression

  23. Depression as the drug wears off

  24. Diarrhea, muscle aches

  25. Difficulties with concentration or attention

  26. Difficulty concentrating

  27. Distress in social situations

  28. Dizziness

  29. Drinking alone or in secret

  30. Drowsiness

  31. Dry mouth

  32. Elated mood

  33. Especially if alcohol isn't available

  34. Euphoria

  35. Experiencing physical withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating and shaking

  36. Feeling a need or compulsion to drink

  37. Feeling that self or others have changed or are acting different in some way

  38. Flashbacks, a re-experience of the hallucinations — even years later

  39. Flat or inappropriate emotion

  40. Flushing

  41. Frequent self-criticism

  42. Grandiose delusions

  43. Greatly impaired perception of reality, for example, interpreting input from one of your senses as another, such as hearing colors guilt

  44. Gulping drinks, ordering doubles, becoming intoxicated intentionally to feel good or drinking to feel "normal"

  45. Hallucinations

  46. Having legal problems

  47. Having problems with relationships

  48. Headache, sweating

  49. Heart palpitations

  50. Helplessness

  51. High blood pressure

  52. Hopelessness

  53. Hyperventilation

  54. Impaired memory and concentration

  55. Impaired motor function

  56. Impatience

  57. Increased appetite

  58. Increased blood pressure and heart rate

  59. Increased energy and overactivity

  60. Increased heart rate

  61. Increased heart rate, blood pressure and temperature

  62. Indecisiveness and confusion

  63. Indecisiveness, irritability

  64. Insomnia

  65. Irregular menstrual cycle

  66. Irritability when your usual drinking time nears

  67. Keeping alcohol in unlikely places at home

  68. Lack of coordination

  69. Lack of emotional responsiveness

  70. Lack of energy, overeating or loss of appetite

  71. Lack of inhibitions

  72. Lack of insight.

  73. Losing interest in activities and hobbies that used to bring pleasure

  74. Loss of appetite

  75. Loss of interest in hobbies, sports, and other favorite activities

  76. Loss of interest in personal appearance(Social grooming)

  77. Loss of memory

  78. Loss of motivation, chronic fatigue

  79. Loss of motivation, drug or alcohol use

  80. Loss of sexual desire

  81. Making a ritual of having drinks before, with or after dinner and becoming annoyed when this ritual is disturbed or questioned

  82. Memory impairment

  83. Mind racing or going blank

  84. Mood swings

  85. Nasal congestion and damage to the mucous membrane of the nose in users who Snort drugs

  86. Nausea and vomiting

  87. Nausea, vomiting

  88. Needing less sleep than usual

  89. Needle marks (if injecting drugs)

  90. Not remembering conversations or commitments, sometimes referred to as blacking out

  91. Numbness

  92. Obsessive or compulsive behavior

  93. Overeating or loss of appetite

  94. Panic

  95. Paranoia

  96. Paranoid thinking

  97. Permanent mental changes in perception

  98. Phobic behavior

  99. Poor memory

  100. Rapid heartbeat

  101. Rapid speech

  102. Rapid thinking and speech

  103. Red eyes

  104. Red or glassy eyes

  105. Reduced ability to carry out work or other roles.

  106. Reduced energy and motivation

  107. Reduced sense of pain

  108. Restlessness

  109. Restlessness or feeling “on edge” or nervousness

  110. Runny nose

  111. Sadness

  112. Sedation

  113. Self-blame, pessimism

  114. Self-criticism, self-blame, pessimism

  115. Sense of alteration of self

  116. Sensory Changes(A heightened sense of visual, auditory and taste perception. A reduction or greater intensity of smell, sound or color)

  117. Shortness of breath

  118. Sleep disturbance

  119. sleeping too much or too little

  120. Slowed breathing

  121. Slowed breathing and decreased blood pressure

  122. Slowed reaction time

  123. Slurred speech

  124. Social isolation or withdrawal

  125. Strange ideas

  126. Sudden change in behavior

  127. Sudden mood swings

  128. Suspiciousness

  129. Tendency to believe others see you in a negative light

  130. Thoughts of death and suicide

  131. Tingling and numbness

  132. Tiredness

  133. Tremors

  134. Tremors/shaking

  135. Unexplained aches and pains

  136. Unrealistic and/or excessive fear and worry

  137. Unusual perceptual experiences

  138. Vivid dreams

  139. Weight loss

  140. Weight loss or gain

  141. Withdrawal from family members and/or long-term friends

  142. Withdrawal from others

  143. Worrying
Here are further guidelines.
Behavioral Intensive Care Unit
Psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU)
Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility
How should police verify the findings in case they are called for involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?
What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness?
When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
Case management
What is case management?
Case management refers to the coordination of services on behalf of an individual who may be considered a case in different settings, such as health care, nursing, rehabilitation, social work, and law.

If diagnosis of an individual is wrong, case management is ineffective.
If professionals with case management are incompetent or not fit for duty, an individual can be harmed.

States that are deficient in case management services must enhance them.

What are the prerequisites of effective case management?
A doctor of medicine should be competent.
If an individual claims to be a medical specialist, he or she should have at least basic abilities of a doctor of medicine.
A case manager should be competent with legal abilities.
The state legal system should have insight of human rights and competent professionals, including lawyers and judges.

What are the parameters that determine the elements of effective case management with regard to a human being?
Here are further guidelines.

Questions you need to answer

What do you know about case management?
What should be the abilities of a case manager?


Case Manager
Human Services Case Manager
Resident Services Case Manager

Discussion and psychiatry

Does discussion help in psychiatric medical conditions?
Yes, it does.

How does discussion help in psychiatry medical conditions?
Discussion helps to identify harms.
Discussion helps in suggesting solutions or remedies for harms.
A discussion coordinator helps bringing solutions or remedies for harms. Healthy discussion keeps your mind active.
An inactive mind is susceptible to psychiatric disorders.

Storytelling is one form of discussion.

How will discussion or story telling help residents?
Most of the residents have psychiatric medical conditions.
Discussion will help them to identify the harms.
They can gain motivation from discussion.

What can be the context of discussion/storytelling?
Harms.
Ongoing struggles.
Achievements.

Harms should be the focus of storytelling/discussion.

If you discuss harms and bring solutions or remedies, then this activity/discussion is going to be helpful.

If you discuss harms and give suggestions to resolve the harms during meetings and e-mails than this is going to be helpful.

Questions for discussion or storytelling.

How have you been harmed?
What problems are you facing?
How would you like to resolve these harms?
What are your goals?

Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/discussion.html
Case Reports
What is a case report relevant to human healthcare?
In human healthcare, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.

These usually are findings that others do not know or findings and recommendations that need revision of diagnosis and treatment.

Who is circulating this case report?
Doctor Asif Qureshi

About the Founder
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/aboutthefounder.html

What is extraordinary about this case report?
It is valid, original, credible, and educational.

Case Report 1

On March 10, 2014 1PM at C4 Broadway 5710 North Broadway St. Chicago, IL 60660, I tried to evaluate with conversation a Caucasian man in his 40s who has lived in Chicago, Illinois, for more than 40 years.

What has he been told?
His diagnosis is schizophrenia.

What has he been told about what causes this medical condition?
Genetics.

What are the symptoms and signs of schizophrenia?
These are the prominent symptoms and signs.
Patient has lost touch with reality.
Lack of insight into the condition itself.
There can be other symptoms and signs less concerning.

What are my findings?
This individual had neither lost touch with reality nor had lack of insight into conditions based on the facts brought in front of him.

He could answer all my questions.
He was aware of the location at that point.
He had properly taken care of himself while bathing and putting on proper clothes.

What are my recommendations?
Revision of diagnosis

Wrong diagnosis is medical negligence.
Case Report 2

Why was there a need to establish this?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html psychiatric services? Take a look at this.
A simple consultation is approximately $800.
A comprehensive consultation is almost always less than $1,500.

Who has displayed these types of consultations?
Gateway Psychiatric Services
548 Market St # 18351
San Francisco, CA 94104-5401

On March 10, 2014, at 3.20 PM, this was verified.

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html
Have you look at this resource to verify if your questions and concerns have been answered?

If you go through this resource, you will realize there is no need for $800 consultation or $1,500 comprehensive psychiatric consultation.
Case Report 3

Harmful healthcare providers.

What are examples of harmful healthcare providers?
This is happening in America up to March 10, 2014.
An individual complaint that he feels stress after specific harms.
He displays all his profile to prove there are no other symptoms and signs.

The unethical healthcare provider makes self-styled symptoms and signs and records them in his medical records.
He makes self-styled diagnosis and records that he needs five various types of services at the healthcare provider. The individual clearly mentions that he does not have these symptoms and signs that you have recorded.
What was the location?
On March 10, 2014 1PM at C4 Broadway 5710 North Broadway St. Chicago, IL 60660,

How are such healthcare providers allowed to have public dealing?

How can these harms be prevented?
Ask them to answer relevant questions.
Ask them to displays their competence publicly through Internet.

The world’s medical doctors make sure that every individual has high quality of life up to 90 years.
More facts are at www.qureshiuniversity.com.
Coauthor
Can you be a coauthor for these resources?
Can you recommend another doctor of medicine or psychiatrist to be a coauthor for this resource?

If you would like to be associated with these resources as a doctor of medicine or psychiatrist, what do you have to do?

What is expected of a coauthor?

A coauthor will read through the facts, recommend any addition, deletion or modification, and recommend that others utilize this as a reference resource.

If you are a medical student or postgraduate, what do you have to do?
Learn from these resources.
Causes of psychiatric complaints
What are the most common causes of psychiatric complaints?
Stress.
Intentional enforced harms from others.
Human rights violations from others.

Other causes

Substandard education
Genetic
Biological
Systemic

Education is the most essential component of psychiatric treatment.
Controversies in psychiatry
What are some of the known controversies in psychiatry?
The NIMH has withdrawn support for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), circulated in 2013 and 2014.
What should a doctor know relevant to psychiatry?
Doctor Consultation


Psychiatry history essentials
Patient Profile
Individualized consultation nonemergency patient
Comprehensive patient assessment
How is a comprehensive patient assessment done?

Psychiatric Consultations
What should you know about evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric medical conditions in various healthcare settings?
Never diagnose a psychiatric medical condition unless you make sure the individual is not being harmed in any way.

Always get answers to these questions.

How do you know if the individual has any of these:
Stress without intentional enforced harms or without human rights violations. Intentional enforced harms from others. Human rights violations from others?


Ask questions relevant to the issues mentioned.
Verify the findings with questions relevant to issues mentioned.

Answers to these questions are essential.

Does the individual have any of this?
Stress.
Intentional enforced harms from others.
Human rights violations from others.

If yes, fix these issues immediately.

What is the profile of the patient who needs doctor consultation?

What best describes intentional or willful harms on you?

Deprivation of rights under the color of law.
Intentional harms.
Provocation.
Retaliation.
If the individual cannot answer himself or herself, ask an individual who is trustworthy, not harmful, and truthful to get answers to relevant questions.

If any one of these exists, what should be written in the diagnosis?
Intentional enforced harms.
Medicolegal case.

Why should every state have stress counseling resources?
At any point, an individual can have stress.

What will happen if stress on an individual is ignored?
Ignoring stress can cause an acute stress reaction.
Various complications of stress can occur.

Psychiatric Consultation

What is included in a comprehensive psychiatric consultation?
Questions relevant to stress.
Questions relevant to intentional enforced harms from others.
Questions relevant to human rights violations from others.
Questions relevant to major mental illnesses.
Questions relevant to personality disorders.
Questions relevant to mental retardation in children.
Questions relevant to dementia in elders.
Questions relevant to systemic medical conditions.
Evaluation relevant to specific symptoms, signs, and complaints.

Take a look at this.
Questions you need to answer.
JavaScript Form Validation
Question 1

What is your Email address?
Question 2

What is the name of the individual who needs doctor consultation?
Question 3

What is the date of birth of the individual who needs doctor consultation?
Question 4

What is your mailing address?
Question 5

What is your telephone number?
Question 6

Where is the patient now?
Question 7

How old is the patient?
Question 8

What is the gender of the patient?
Question 9

What are the sources of medical history?
Question 10

What best describes the patient?:
Question 11

In general, how is your physical and mental health?
Question 12

Do you have any appointments scheduled with doctors or other specialists?
Yes
No
Question 13

Have you been in the hospital in the last month?
Yes
No
Question 14

Do you have health problems that you need help with right away?
Yes
No
Question 15

Do you need extra help to access services, such as a wheelchair ramp, a computer screen reader or large print materials?
Yes
No
Question 16

Screening for survival needs

Do you have enough of these resources from the state?
Food
Clothing
Housing
Health care
Transportation
Security
Education
Consumer goods
Communication

Do you need any of these resources to be enhanced?
Question 17

What are the issues?
Question 18

Is your complete medical history ready?
Yes
No
Question 19

Can I get a copy of your photo identity card?
Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

Emergency Contact Name:______________

Relationship:________________________

Question 20

Your Height:_________________________

Your Weight:_________________________
Question 21

Referred by:_________________________
Question 22

What seems to be the problem?
Question 23

What is the reason for consultation?
Question 24

What best describes problem of the patient?
Sleep problems.
Anger.
Relationship problem.
Not taking care of self.
Not taking care of others.
Misinterpreting the facts.
Recent social withdrawal or loss of interest in others.
Illogical thinking typical of childhood but in an adult.
Repeatedly checking or doing activities that seem abnormal.
Restlessness.
Administrative abuse/harms from others.
Thoughts or threats to hurt oneself or others.
Social withdrawal after death of a person known to the patient.
Communication problem (speech, writing, reading, expression).
Not enough food, clothing, housing needs, transportation, health care, or education.
Other issues.
You need to give details of the issues or problems.

Life-threatening conditions.

Suicidal thoughts.
Homicidal thoughts.
Assault, violent actions or behavior.
Delirium or extreme agitation.
Feeling that harms have been inflicted or are being inflicted, and that harms are going to be inflicted that need to be prevented.
Question 25

Is the claim any one of these?
Psychological torture
Physical torture
Corruption in politics of regulations
Racism
Deprivations of rights under the color of law
Political abuse
Discrimination
Disruption
Exclusion
Question 26

Did anyone beat or torture you at any point since birth?
Question 27

Is there any incident or issue in past, present, or future that is causing distress to you?
Question 28

Did you experience any one of these that has troubled you since the day you were born?

Assault.
Accidents.
Child abuse or captivity.
Childbirth.
Death of a loved one.
Fire.
Rape.
Natural disaster (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis).
Road traffic crash.
Building collapse.
Fire.
Shooting.
Neglect of a child leading to a serious harms.
Domestic violence.
War.
Genocide.
Torture.

If yes, what are the details?

If any other traumatic, stressful, harmful, or horrifying event, give more details.
Question 29

What conditions require emergency psychiatry consultation?
1. Attempted suicide.
2. Attempted homicide.
3. Substance abuse.
4. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).
5. Suicidal thoughts, homicidal thoughts.
6. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.
7. Abuse.
8. Environmental factors (hostile environment).
9. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).
10. Personality disorders (harmful to others).
11. Panic attacks.
12. Loosening of social inhibitions.
13. Likely to be harmful to self or others.
14. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications.
15. Intentional enforced harms.
16. Other.
Here are further guidelines.

What best describes you?
Question 30

Is the individual on any medication?
Question 31

Intentional enforced harms

What are intentional enforced harms?
Question 32

Commons Signs and Symptoms of Major Mental Illnesses
Anxiety
Bi-Polar Disorder
Chemical Dependency
Depression
Psychotic Disorders

Take a look at this.
What best describes you?
Aggressive
Anger
Anxiety
Avoidance of situations
Being unable to limit the amount of alcohol you drink
Blunted
Building a tolerance so that you need an increasing number of drinks to feel the effects
Carelessness about personal grooming
Change in appetite
Changed sleeping pattern
Changes in Behavior – Sleep disturbance
Changes in Emotion and Motivation
Changes in Thinking and Perception
Chest pain
Choking
Chronic fatigue, lack of energy
Confusion
Constipation
Crying spells
Decrease concentration and memory
Decreased appetite
Decreased coordination
Delusions
Depression
Depression as the drug wears off
Diarrhea, muscle aches
Difficulties with concentration or attention
Difficulty concentrating
Distress in social situations
Dizziness
Drinking alone or in secret
Drowsiness
Dry mouth
Elated mood
Especially if alcohol isn't available
Euphoria
Experiencing physical withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating and shaking
Feeling a need or compulsion to drink
Feeling that self or others have changed or are acting different in some way
Flashbacks, a re-experience of the hallucinations — even years later
Flat or inappropriate emotion
Flushing
Frequent self-criticism
Grandiose delusions
Greatly impaired perception of reality, for example, interpreting input from one of your senses as another, such as hearing colors guilt
Gulping drinks, ordering doubles, becoming intoxicated intentionally to feel good or drinking to feel "normal"
Hallucinations
Having legal problems
Having problems with relationships
Headache, sweating
Heart palpitations
Helplessness
High blood pressure
Hopelessness
Hyperventilation
Impaired memory and concentration
Impaired motor function
Impatience
Increased appetite
Increased blood pressure and heart rate
Increased energy and overactivity
Increased heart rate
Increased heart rate, blood pressure and temperature
Indecisiveness and confusion
Indecisiveness, irritability
Insomnia
Irregular menstrual cycle
Irritability
Irritability when your usual drinking time nears
Keeping alcohol in unlikely places at home
Lack of coordination
Lack of emotional responsiveness
Lack of energy, overeating or loss of appetite
Lack of inhibitions
Lack of insight.
Losing interest in activities and hobbies that used to bring pleasure
Loss of appetite
Loss of interest in hobbies, sports, and other favorite activities
Loss of interest in personal appearance(Social grooming)
Loss of memory
Loss of motivation, chronic fatigue
Loss of motivation, drug or alcohol use
Loss of sexual desire
Making a ritual of having drinks before, with or after dinner and becoming annoyed when this ritual is disturbed or questioned
Memory impairment
Mind racing or going blank
Mood swings
Nasal congestion and damage to the mucous membrane of the nose in users who Snort drugs
Nausea and vomiting
Nausea, vomiting
Needing less sleep than usual
Needle marks (if injecting drugs)
Neglect of responsibilities
Not remembering conversations or commitments, sometimes referred to as blacking out
Numbness
Obsessive or compulsive behavior
Overeating or loss of appetite
Panic
Paranoia
Paranoid thinking
Permanent mental changes in perception
Phobic behavior
Poor memory
Rapid heartbeat
Rapid speech
Rapid thinking and speech
Red eyes
Red or glassy eyes
Reduced ability to carry out work or other roles.
Reduced energy and motivation
Reduced sense of pain
Restlessness
Restlessness or feeling “on edge” or nervousness
Runny nose
Sadness
Sedation
Self-blame, pessimism
Self-criticism, self-blame, pessimism
Sense of alteration of self
Sensory Changes(A heightened sense of visual, auditory and taste perception. A reduction or greater intensity of smell, sound or color)
Shortness of breath
Sleep disturbance
sleeping too much or too little
Slowed breathing
Slowed breathing and decreased blood pressure
Slowed reaction time
Slurred speech
Social isolation or withdrawal
Strange ideas
Sudden change in behavior
Sudden mood swings
Suspiciousness
Tendency to believe others see you in a negative light
Thoughts of death and suicide
Tingling and numbness
Tiredness
Tremors
Tremors/shaking
Unexplained aches and pains
Unrealistic and/or excessive fear and worry
Unusual perceptual experiences
Violent Behavior
Vivid dreams
Weight loss
Weight loss or gain
Withdrawal from family members and/or long-term friends
Withdrawal from others
Worrying
Question 33

Who is writing answers to these questions?
The patient.
Someone else on behalf of patient.

If someone else is answering these questions on behalf of the patient, how are you related to the patient?
Sister
Cousin
Brother
Mother
Father
Case manager
Relative
Primary care physician
Nurse
If other, specify.
Question 34

Does the individual have any of this?
Stress.
Intentional enforced harms from others.
Human rights violations from others.

If yes, fix these issues immediately.
Question 35

How do you know an individual has stress, intentional enforced harms from others, or human rights violations from others?
Here are further guidelines.

What best describes you?
Question 36

Questions relevant to stress.

What is troubling you at present?
Question 37

What is troubling you from the past or about the future?
Question 38

Questions relevant to intentional enforced harms from others.

Who has harmed you in the past or present or is likely to harm you in the future?
Question 39

Questions relevant to human rights violations from others.

Do you know what basic human rights are?
Question 40

What best describes your human rights violations from others?
Question 41

Oppressor screening

How do you know a person is harmful or a gang member?
He or she has disregard for human rights of others.
He or she has harmed others and is likely going to harm others.
He or she has prejudice toward good charactered, well-behaved individuals.
A harmful individual will not have proper answers to questions relevant to good character, good behavior, or human rights.

What type of individual goes to jail or has involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?
Is there an oppressor/harmful individual in the community?
How has/is this individual harming others?
How is this individual likely to continue to harm others?
Is he or she acting alone or is a gang member?
Who are among the other gang members?
I have read and agree to the Terms & Conditions.

Are you ready to get started, or do you have other questions about the Internet consultation?

Have you read the facts about the services you are getting?
Everything is displayed publicly.
There is no hidden agenda.
There is no professional damages for these services through www.qureshiuniversity due to the fact that everything is displayed publicly for scrutiny by any professional.
If any individual or professional feels any professional abilities need to be added, he or she can forward recommendations.

Where are you in the process?

I am trying to get information about the services via the Internet: how it works, whether it is right for me.
I have decided to get consultation, recommendations; I need to set up remuneration issues.
I have decided to get consultation and am in the process of answering questions.
I have a question about online questions and consultation. Other.
I have read and agree to the Terms & Conditions.

These are basic questions.
There are many more.

Once the above listed relevant questions about comprehensive patient assessment are answered and received, you will get another questions list relevant to age, gender, location, problems, or issues, if any.

This will be followed by specific recommendations.
What best describes the patient?
Child
Adolescent girl
Adolescent boy
Woman
Man
What do you have to do before a patient or individual from the public seeks individualized doctor consultation?

Has this issue been explained at the public health level?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html

Has this issue been explained in patient education?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html

If yes, you need to go through these facts.

If no, you need to seek individualized doctor consultation.

A doctor should first try to resolve health issues at the public health level or patient education.

If the public health level or patient education does not resolve your issues, individualized doctor consultation is required.

What should you expect from a doctor during individualized consultation?
1. Obtaining a complete medical history.
2. Verifying the obtained complete medical history.
3. Reviewing patient records.
4. Performing physical examinations.
5. Medical test recommendations.
6. Monitoring in various settings.
7. Treatment/recommendations.
What are the various methods of completing a medical history?
You need to complete the options listed.
You need to answer relevant questions.
Depending on the situation, more questions can be asked.

How healthy are you?
How can various emergencies be prevented in the state and outside the state?
Enhance various essential departments in the state.
Take all nonemergency complaints and issues seriously.
Resolve nonemergency complaints and issues immediately before they become an emergency.
If you ignore nonemergency complaints and issues, this can become an emergency.
What will happen if you don't resolve a conflict or dispute?
What is conflict?
What is a conflict of interest?
There are a number of examples that explain this situation.
When can a conflict of interest occur?
What are the types of conflict?
Are disagreement and conflict the same?
What are some examples?
What causes it?
How do people respond to conflict?

Don't reach self-styled conclusions.
Did anyone provoke this behavior?

What are the non-psychiatric causes of the symptoms?

What organizations have been found to be abusing a "petition for involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?"

How should they be disciplined?

What are the organizations whose staff has been found to be incompetent, leading to unjustified admission to a psychiatric facility?

What are various stages of conflict?
Pre-conflict, confrontation, crisis, and outcome.

How do you manage conflict?
You first need to understand the issues, problems, claims.

Are we facing a conflict or a dispute?
Understanding conflict.
Analyzing the conflict
Who is involved?
Education
Finding solutions
How do you manage retaliation?
Mutual understanding
Communication channels opened
Determine management strategy
What is the appropriate way to manage it?
Pre-negotiation
Negotiation
Post-negotiation
Post conflict management

Drug Screening
Do you use drugs or drink alcohol?

Are these substances harming your health or increasing your risk for other problems?

Have you used drugs other than those required for medical reasons?

Do you abuse more than one drug at a time?

Are you unable to stop using drugs when you want to?

Have you ever had blackouts or flashbacks as a result of drug use?

Do you ever feel bad or guilty about your drug use?

Does your spouse (or parents) ever complain about your involvement with drugs?

Have you neglected your family because of your use of drugs?

Have you engaged in illegal activities in order to obtain drugs?

Have you ever experienced withdrawal symptoms (felt sick) when you stopped taking drugs?

Have you had medical problems as a result of your drug use (e.g. memory loss, hepatitis, convulsions, bleeding)?

Do you inject drugs?

How often do you use drugs

Which recreational drugs you have used in the past year?

____ Alcohol
____ Amphetamines
____ Barbiturates (except phenobarbital)
____ Benzodiazepines
____ Cannabis (marijuana, pot)
____ Cocaine
____ Cotinine (a breakdown product of nicotine)
____ Hallucinogens (LSD, mushrooms)
____ Heroin
____ Inhalants (paint thinner, aerosol, glue)
____ Injection Drugs
____ LSD
____ MDMA (Ecstasy)
____ Methadone
____ Methamphetamine (speed, crystal)
____ Morphine
____ Narcotics (heroin, oxycodone, methadone, etc.)
____ Other Drugs
____ PCP
____ Phenobarbital
____ Prescription Medications
____ Rohypnol and GHB
____ Steroids
____ Tranquilizers (valium)
____ Tobacco
____ Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's)
____ other ______________________________

Have you used drugs other than those required for medical reasons?

Have you abused prescription drugs?

Do you abuse more than one drug at a time?

Can you get through the week without using drugs (other than those required for medical reasons)?
Are you always able to stop using drugs when you want to?

Do you abuse drugs on a continuous basis?

Do you try to limit your drug use to certain situations?

Have you had “blackouts” or “flashbacks” as a result of drug use?

Do you ever feel bad about your drug abuse?

Does your spouse (or parents) ever complain about your involvement with drugs?

Do your friends or relatives know or suspect you abuse drugs? Has drug abuse ever created problems between you and your spouse?

Has any family member ever sought help for problems related to your drug use?

Have you ever lost friends because of your use of drugs?

Have you ever neglected your family or missed work because of your use of drugs?

Have you ever been in trouble at work because of drug abuse?

Have you ever lost a job because of drug abuse?

Have you gotten into fights when under the influence of drugs?

Have you ever been arrested because of unusual behavior while under the influence of drugs?

Have you ever been arrested for driving while under the influence of drugs?

Have you engaged in illegal activities in order to obtain drug?

Have you ever been arrested for possession of illegal drugs?

Have you ever experienced withdrawal symptoms as a result of heavy drug intake?

Have you had medical problems as a result of your drug use (e.g., memory loss, hepatitis, convulsions, bleeding, etc.)?

Have you ever gone to anyone for help for a drug problem?

Have you ever been in a hospital for medical problems related to your drug use?

Have you ever been involved in a treatment program specifically related to drug use?

Have you been treated as an outpatient for problems related to drug abuse?

Urine drug screen

Drug test

Alcohol
Amphetamines
Barbiturates (except phenobarbital)
Benzodiazepines
Cannabis
Cannabis (marijuana)
Cocaine
Cotinine (a breakdown product of nicotine)
Hallucinogens (LSD)
Heroin
Inhalants
Injection Drugs
LSD
MDMA (Ecstasy)
Methadone
Methamphetamine
Morphine
Other Drugs
PCP
Phenobarbital
Prescription Medications
Rohypnol and GHB
Steroids
Tobacco
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's)

Normal Results

No drugs in the urine.

What Abnormal Results Mean

If the test result is positive, another test called gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) may be done to confirm the results. The GC-MS will help tell the difference between a false positive and a true positive.

In some cases, a test will register a false positive. This can result from interfering factors such as some foods, prescription medications, and other drugs.
Emergency Psychiatry
What is emergency psychiatry?
Emergency psychiatry is the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings.

What conditions require emergency psychiatry consultation?
    1. Attempted suicide.
    2. Attempted homicide.
    3. Substance abuse.
    4. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).
    5. Suicidal thoughts, homicidal thoughts.
    6. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.
    7. Abuse.
    8. Environmental factors (hostile environment).
    9. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).
    10. Personality disorders (harmful to others).
    11. Panic attacks.
    12. Loosening of social inhibitions.
    13. Likely to be harmful to self or others.
    14. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications.
    15. Intentional enforced harms.
    16. Other.

What should an emergency medical doctor or any psychiatrist exclude before diagnosing and treating any emergency medical condition relevant to psychiatry?
Exclude intentional enforced harms. Intention enforced harms are emergencies; however, they need solutions and remedies, not medications or hospitalizations.

How may individuals arrive for emergency psychiatric service?
1. Voluntarily.
2. Referral from another health professional.
3. Through involuntary commitment.

How should wrong referrals or abuse of involuntary commitment in emergency psychiatry be prevented?
1. Education of police officers.
2. Education of emergency medical doctors and psychiatrists.
3. Public awareness that sending anyone for psychiatric referral or involuntary commitment through trickery or malice is a Class A misdemeanor.

What should patients expect from emergency psychiatry?
1. Medications.
2. Counseling.
3. Involuntary hospital admission.
4. Voluntary hospital admission.
5. Outpatient facilities.
6. Partial hospitalization.
7. Residential treatment centers.
8. E-mail or telephone counseling.
9. In case of intentional enforced harms, solutions, remedies, or adjudication.

What is the essential requirement of a psychiatric behavioral unit or ward?
Provide a protected environment.
Other.
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html

What is the future of psychiatry?
Demand for psychiatric services is going to increase as people tend to be more civilized.

Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencypsychiatry.html

Forensic psychiatry
What is forensic psychiatry?
What is a forensic psychiatrist?
What kinds of determinations do forensic psychiatrists make in civil proceedings?
What about criminal cases?
Can there be civil proceedings and criminal proceedings at the same time?
How does a forensic psychiatrist go about conducting an evaluation?
Is a forensic psychiatrist the same thing as a forensic psychologist?
How is forensic psychiatry useful to the legal process?
Are forensic psychiatrists "advocates" for one side or the other in legal matters?
What is a forensic pathologist?
Where do forensic pathologists work?
What does a forensic pathologist do?
Why is knowledge of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others essential for a doctor or healthcare provider?
What is the profile of the individual for whom forensic psychiatrist consultation has been sought?
Who has sought forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?
What has led to seeking forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?
How should a lawyer select a forensic expert for a specific case?
How has Internet human health care changed the public service of forensic psychiatry?
What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
What best describes the individual whose fitness for duty required forensic psychiatric consultation?
Have previous doctors, psychiatrists, or clinicians made any wrong diagnosis and wrong recommendations relevant to the individual?
What is the actual genuine diagnosis and treatment of the individual?
What is a forensic psychiatrist?
A forensic psychiatrist is a medical doctor with, first, the additional training of a psychiatrist, and then with special training and experience (forensic) in the application of psychiatric knowledge to questions posed by the legal system. A forensic psychiatrist may also have a clinical practice. However, when acting in the capacity of a forensic specialist, he or she is not providing therapy to alleviate the patient's suffering or to help the patient be free and healthy, but an objective evaluation for use by the retaining institution, attorney, or court.

Forensic pathologists (one kind at least) are the physicians who perform autopsies, a different medical specialty altogether.

What is a forensic psychiatrist?
A forensic psychiatrist is a medical doctor with, first, the additional training of a psychiatrist, and then with special training and experience (forensic) in the application of psychiatric knowledge to questions posed by the legal system. A forensic psychiatrist may also have a clinical practice.

In addition to the highly visible role of expert witness, the forensic psychiatrist performs numerous consultative services out of the public eye. These include client management, witness evaluation, witness preparation, jury selection, and establishing witness credibility. You can decide in each individual case which of these services will be most helpful to your client. But it helps to engage in an ongoing dialogue with the consulting expert.

What is an expert witness and what is the role of a psychiatrist as an expert witness?
First let's define a witness as a person with knowledge not normally possessed by the average person concerning the topic that he is to testify about. An expert witness is a witness who has knowledge beyond that of the ordinary layperson such that he or she could give testimony regarding an issue that requires expertise to understand.

What is the difference between a forensic psychologist and a forensic psychiatrist?
A forensic psychologist is initially qualified as a psychologist (PhD), and then trained at postgraduate level to practice in the forensic field. A forensic psychiatrist is first qualified as a doctor of medicine, and then taken further training to qualify as a psychiatrist. After training in general psychiatry, one pursues further fellowship to develop skills as a forensic psychiatrist.

How does a forensic psychiatrist go about conducting an evaluation?
A properly conducted forensic evaluation is an extended, in-depth process. It entails multiple interviews, detailed review and comparison of what the examinee has communicated on different occasions, microanalysis of the data (with consideration of sequence, tone, and nonverbal behavior), and cross-checking with corroborative evidence (interviews with relevant others, police and medical records, other expert witness reports, and psychological testing).

This evaluation must be conducted with subtlety and delicacy. The examinee not only may falsify or misattribute, but also may minimize or deny symptoms of traumatic stress or exhibit amnesia or denial of past events whose remembrance evokes such stress. Thus, people under stress may forget details that subsequently emerge, or they may embellish their memories and engage in wishful thinking. Neither of these distortions ipso facto constitutes malingering or perjury.

The essence of forensic psychiatry lies in creating a working alliance with the person being examined for the limited purposes of the examination. It is to have the person be a collaborator (albeit sometimes a reluctant, conflicted, or inhibited one) in reconstructing the mental, emotional, and physical states in question.

What is the difference between treatment-related clinical evaluation and forensic evaluation?
The most important difference lies in the purpose of the evaluation. In treatment-related clinical evaluation, the psychiatrist typically performs an initial psychiatric evaluation for an hour or so, primarily focusing on the patient's presenting problems with an ultimate goal of formulating a diagnostic impression and treatment plan. The assumption is that there will be ongoing therapeutic relationship such that diagnosis and treatment becomes a continuous process; many times, there is no urgent need to know "everything" you can possibly know about the patient since there will be follow-up interviews. The psychiatrist is an advocate for the patient's welfare and what matters is what the patient feels or believes, whether it's the truth or not.. On the other hand, a forensic evaluation (or any independent psychiatric evaluation for that matter) is requested by a third-party rather than the individual being evaluated. The purpose of evaluation is to answer specific questions posed by the requesting third-party or agency. Although these questions typically involve diagnostic impressions, the forensic psychiatrist usually gives opinions transcending beyond a diagnosis of the mental condition. In fact, most of the opinions sought by the requesting agency can only be helpful if the psychiatrist is able to explain the link between the mental disorder and the psychiatric-legal issue in question. Obviously, in evaluation settings like this, the psychiatrist is not an advocate for the individual's welfare and the evaluation does not create a patient-doctor relationship. I would like to believe that the forensic psychiatrist is an advocate for truth rather than an advocate for the hiring agency either. Most of these evaluations are a "one-time" evaluation and thus it is crucial to get all necessary and obtainable information in order to arrive at expert opinions.

What is a forensic pathologist?
They specialize in determining the causes of sudden, unexpected or violent deaths.

What does a forensic pathologist do?
According to the College of American Pathologists, forensic pathologists are experts in investigating and evaluating cases of sudden, unexpected, suspicious and violent death, as well as other specific classes of death defined by state laws.

Where do forensic pathologists work?
Most serve the public as a coroner or a medical examiner, or by performing autopsies for those officials.

Why is knowledge of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others essential for a doctor or healthcare provider?
If you do not have knowledge of stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others. you are likely going to reach a wrong diagnosis and treatment for a human being.

Questions that need to be answered.

What is the profile of the individual for whom forensic psychiatrist consultation has been sought?

Who has sought forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?

What has led to seeking forensic psychiatrist consultation for a specific individual?

How should a lawyer select a forensic expert for a specific case?

Get honest answers from a forensic psychiatry expert or an Internet human healthcare resource.
Display this resource www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html in front of him or her and get his or her response.
There is no better psychiatry resource around at this point.
Do not be swayed by a board certified psychiatrist or licensed psychiatrist, without getting answers to relevant questions.

How has Internet human health care changed the public service of forensic psychiatry?
Previously, forensic psychiatrist had to testifying in court.
Nowadays, a lawyer can give reference of this resource on behalf of a forensic psychiatrist.

Fitness for duty

What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
Illiterate.
Personality disorder (liar, etc).
Harmful to self or others.
Lack of knowledge of specific profession.
Insufficient knowledge of specific profession.
Criminal traits.
Disability; after reasonable adjustment an individual cannot fulfill expected standard of service/profession.
Lack of desire for public service.

What best describes the individual whose fitness for duty required forensic psychiatric consultation?
Having a license does not mean an individual has knowledge of a specific profession.

Wrong diagnosis and treatment from others.

Have previous doctors, psychiatrists, or clinicians made any wrong diagnosis and wrong recommendations relevant to the individual?
If the previous doctors, psychiatrists, or clinicians have not focused on stress, intentional enforced harms from others, and human rights violations from others, the diagnosis and treatment is wrong.

What is the actual genuine diagnosis and treatment of the individual?
First possibilities in psychiatry diagnosis: stress, intentional enforced harms from others, or human rights violations from others.

Here are further guidelines.
Food (Nutrition and Health)
Age and Lifestyle

What is his/her age?
Are you vegetarian or vegan? ¡ Yes ¡ No
Do you take nutritional supplements?
Yes
No
If yes, what kind?

When the weather is nice, how often do you spend at least 10 minutes a day in full sun without sunscreen?
Daily
3-5 times a week
1-3 times a week
Not on a regular basis
Never

General Nutrition

1. How often do you buy food from the outer aisles of the grocery store?
(i.e., fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables, fresh meat or seafood, dairy, grains, and nuts from the bulk bins)
All the time ¡Often ¡Sometimes ¡Not at all*

2. How often do you buy food from the center aisles of the grocery store?
(i.e., foods that come in cans, bags, or boxes, such as crackers, canned soups, cereals, and frozen dinners)
Not at all ¡Sometimes
Often
All the time

3. How often do you eat out at restaurants or fast-food restaurants?
Not at all
Sometimes
Often
All the time

4. What do you eat when you snack?

Fruits and Vegetables

1. How often do you eat fresh or frozen green vegetables, such as kale, collard greens, chard, or spinach?
All the time
Often
Sometimes
Not at all

2. How often do you eat fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables from at least 3 different color groups
(e.g., red berries, purple eggplant, orange sweet potatoes, and green broccoli) all in one day?
All the time
Often
Sometimes
Not at all

3. What are your favorite fruits and vegetables?

Dairy, Seafood, and Meat

1. How often do you eat low-fat dairy products such as yogurt or cheese, soy, or rice-milk products?
All the time
Often
Sometimes
Not at all

2. How often do you eat fish, such as sardines, salmon, trout, and tilapia?
All the time
Often
Sometimes
Not at all

3. How often do you eat red meat, such as beef, mutton, lamb, goat, and game meats (e.g., rabbit, venison, buffalo)?
Not at all
Sometimes
Often
All the time

4. How often do you eat other meats, such as chicken, turkey, pork, and game birds (e.g., pheasant, quail)?
All the time
Often ¡Sometimes
Not at all

5. How often do you eat processed meats, such as bacon, sausage, hot dogs, and bologna?
Not at all
Sometimes
Often
All the time

6. How often do you eat fried, canned, or smoked meats?
Not at all
Sometimes
Often
All the time

Here are further guidelines.
Glossary of psychiatry

Glossary of Mental Health/Mental Illness Terminology
A

Addiction

An organism's psychological or physical dependence on a drug, characterised by tolerance and withdrawal.

Adjustment disorder

A pathological psychological reaction to trauma, loss or severe stress. Usually these last less than six months, but may be prolonged if the stressor e.g. pain or scarring is enduring.

Affect

A person's affect is their immediate emotional state which the person can recognise subjectively and which can also be recognised objectively by others. A person's mood is their predominant current affect.

Agnosia

An inability to organise sensory information so as to recognise objects (e.g. visual agnosia) or sometimes even parts of the body, (e.g. hemisomatoagnosia).

Agoraphobia

Fear of the marketplace literally; taken now to be a fear of public of public places associated with panic disorder.

Akathisia

An inner feeling of excessive restlessness which provokes the sufferer to fidget in their seat or pace about.

Amnesia

A partial of complete loss of memory. Anterograde amnesia is a loss of memory subsequent to any cause e.g. brain trauma. Retrograde amnesia is a loss of memory for a period of time prior to any cause.

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by excess control - a morbid fear of obesity leads the sufferer to try and limit or reduce their weight by excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Sufferers are typically more than 15% below the average weight for their height/sex/age. Typically they have amenorrhoea (if female) or low libido (if male). 1-2% of female teenagers are anorexic.

Anxiety

Anxiety is provoked by fear or apprehension and also results from a tension caused by conflicting ideas or motivations. Anxiety manifests through mental and somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, hyperventilation, and faintness.

Asthenia

Asthenia is a weakness or debility of some form, hence neurasthenia, a term for an illness seen by dctors around the turn of the century, a probable precursor to chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME).

Agoraphobia

A panic disorder that involves intense fear and avoidance of any place or situation where it is perceived that escape might be difficult or help unavailable in the event of developing sudden panic-like symptoms. The fear can especially be directed towards situations in which feelings of panic have occurred before. These situations may include driving, shopping, crowded places, traveling, standing in line, meetings, social gatherings and even being alone.

Alzheimer’s Disease

A progressive disorder that gradually destroys a person’s memory and ability to learn, reason, make judgments, communicate and carry out daily activities. Individuals with more advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease may also experience changes in personality and behavior such as anxiety, suspiciousness or agitation, as well as delusions or hallucinations. The disease usually starts in middle or old age, beginning with memory loss concerning recent events and spreading to memory loss concerning events that are more distant.

Anxiety Disorders

Chronic feelings of overwhelming anxiety and fear, unattached to any obvious source, that can grow progressively worse if not treated. The anxiety is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as sweating, cardiac disturbances, diarrhea or dizziness. Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessivecompulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder are considered anxiety disorders (all defined individually in Glossary).

Asperger’s Syndrome

A Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) characterized by normal language and intelligence development, but impaired social and communication skills as well as difficulty with transitions or changes. Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome often have obsessive routines and may be preoccupied with one particular field of interest. Although they may be low functioning in many areas, they often have above-average performance in a narrow field.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

A biologically-based disorder that includes distractibility and impulsiveness. Recent research suggests that ADD can be inherited and may be due to an imbalance of neurotransmitters (chemicals used by the brain to control behavior) or abnormal glucose metabolism in the central nervous system. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A form of ADD that includes hyperactivity. Children with ADHD are unable to sit still. They may walk, run or climb around when others are seated, and often talk when others are talking.

Autism

A Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) that affects a person’s ability to communicate, form normal social relationships and respond appropriately to the external world. Autism typically appears in the first three years of life, although there may be signs in infancy such as avoiding eye contact and abruptly stopping language development. Children with autism may stare into space for hours, throw uncontrollable tantrums and show no interest in people including their parents. They may pursue strange, repetitive activities with no apparent purpose. Some people with autism can function at a relatively high level, with speech and intelligence intact. Others, however, have serious learning problems and language delays, and some never speak.

B

Bipolar Disorder

Also known as manic-depressive illness. A serious illness that causes shifts in a person’s mood, energy and ability to function. Dramatic mood swings can move from “high” feelings of extreme euphoria or irritability to depression, sometimes with periods of normal moods in between. Manic episodes may include such behaviors as prolonged periods without sleep or uncontrolled shopping. Each episode of mania or depression can last for hours, weeks or several months. Borderline Personality Disorder A mental illness marked by a pattern of unstable personal relationships and self image, as well as marked impulsivity. Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder often have a strong fear of abandonment and may exhibit recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures or threats or self-mutilating behavior. They also may have inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger. Brain Disorder Any abnormality in the brain that results in impaired functioning or thinking.

Bulimia nervosa

Described by Russell in 1979, bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by lack of control. Abnormal eating behaviour including dieting, vomiting, purging and particularly bingeing may be associated with normal weight or obesity. The syndrome is associated with guilt, depressed mood, low self-esteem and sometimes with childhood sexual abuse, alcoholism and promiscuity. May be asociated with oesophageal ulceration and parotid swelling (Green's chubby chops sign).

C

Case Management

Case management focuses on accelerating the use of available services to restore or maintain independent functioning to the fullest extent possible. In pursuing this goal, case management helps people connect to needed services and supports within the community.

Catatonic

A marked psychomotor disturbance that may involve stupor or mutism, negativism, rigidity, purposeless excitement and inappropriate or bizarre posturing. Catatonic schizophrenia is a form of the illness characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods. This catatonia may give way to short periods of extreme excitement.

Community Solutions

Continuum of Care

A complete range of programs for children and adolescents with mental illness. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, a seamless continuum of care includes, from least to most intensive:
• Office or outpatient clinic, with visits usually under one hour.
• Intensive case management, with specially trained individuals coordinating or providing psychiatric, _______, legal and medical services to help the child or adolescent live successfully at home and in the community.
• Home-based treatment services, with a team of specially trained staff members who go into a home and develop a treatment program to help the child and family.
• Family support services, which help families care for their children, possibly including parent training and support groups.
• Day treatment program, an intensive combination of psychiatric treatment with special education, which the child or adolescent usually attends five days a week.
• Partial hospitalization (day hospital), which provides all the treatment services of a psychiatric hospital; however, the patients go home each evening.
• Emergency/crisis services, providing 24-hour support for emergencies. May include hospital emergency departments and mobile crisis teams.
• Respite care services, which provide a brief period in which the patient stays away from home with specially trained individuals.
• Therapeutic group home or community residence, which usually includes six to 10 children or adolescents in each home. This may be linked with a day treatment program or specialized educational program.
• Crisis residence, which provides short-term (usually fewer than 15 days) crisis intervention and treatment. Patients receive 24-hour supervision.
• Residential treatment facility, where seriously disturbed patients receive intensive and comprehensive psychiatric treatment in a campus-like setting on a longer-term basis.
Hospital treatment, where patients receive comprehensive psychiatric treatment in a hospital. The length of treatment depends on each situation.

Co-occurring/Comorbidity

In general, the existence of two or more illnesses – whether physical or mental – at the same time in a single individual. With SAMHSA, the term usually means the coexistence of mental illness and substance abuse.

Coordinated Network

In referring to mental health, communication and coordination among mental health, public and private agencies that may be working with the same individual. The goal is to benefit the individual with seamless care across the system.

CRCG (Community Resource Coordination Group)

A local group composed of public and private providers that come together to develop individual service plans for children, youth and adults whose needs can be met only through interagency coordination and cooperation.

Cultural Competence

A group of skills, attitudes and knowledge that allows persons, organizations and systems to work effectively with diverse racial, ethnic and social groups.

Compulsion

The behavioural component of an obsession. The individual feels compelled to repeat a behaviour which has no immediate benefit beyond reducing the anxiety associated with the obsessional idea. For instance for a person obsessed by the idea that they are dirty, repeated ritual handwashing may serve to reduce anxiety.

Confabulation

Changing, loosely held and false memories created to fill in organically-derived amnesia

Cyclothymia

A variability of mood over days or weeks, cycling from positive to negative mood states. The variability is not as severe in amplitude or duration as to be classified as a major affective disorder.

D

Delusion

A belief that is false, fanciful or derived from deception. In psychiatry, a false belief strongly held in spite of evidence that it is not true, especially as a symptom of a mental illness.

Dementia

A condition of declining mental abilities, especially memory. Individuals with dementia may have trouble doing things they used to do such as keeping the checkbook, driving a car safely or planning a meal. They often have trouble finding the right word and may become confused when given too many things to do at one time. Individuals with dementia may also experience changes in personality, becoming aggressive, paranoid or depressed. Department of Aging and Disability Services (DADS) Created in September 2004, this department consolidates the mental retardation services and state school programs of the Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation; community care, nursing facility, and long-term care regulatory services of the Department of Human Services; and aging services and programs of the Department on Aging.

Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services.

Depression

In psychiatry, a disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness and sometimes suicidal thoughts or attempts to commit suicide. While standing alone as a mental illness, depression also can be experienced in other disorders such as bipolar disorder. Depression can range from mild to severe, and is very treatable with today’s medications and/or therapy.

Diagnosable Mental Illness

Any mental illness or mental disorder, including those that have not yet received a formal diagnosis from a medical or mental health professional. Sometimes referred to as a “brain disorder.”

Dejà vu

Haven't you been here before? An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a particular or unique event has happened before in exactly the same way.

Delirium

An acute organic brain syndrome secondary to physical causes in which consciousness is affected and disorientation results often associated with illusions, visual hallucinations and persecutory ideation.

Delusion

An incorrect belief which is out of keeping with the person's cultural context, intelligence and social background and which is held with unshakeable conviction.

Delusional mood

Also known as wahnstimmung, a feeling that something unusual is about to happen of special significance for that person.

Delusional perception

A normal perception which has become highly invested with significance and which has become incorporated into a delusional system, e.g. 'when I saw the traffic lights turn red I knew that the dog I was walking was a Nazi and a lesbian Nazi at that'.

Dementia

An chronic organic mental illness which produces a global deterioration in cognitive abilities and which usually runs a deteriorating course.

Depersonalisation

An experience where the self is felt to be unreal, detached from reality or different in some way. Depersonalisation can be triggered by tiredness, dissociative episodes or partial epileptic seizures.

Depression

An affective disorder characterised by a profound and persistent sadness. Derealisation An experience where the person perceives the world around them to be unreal. The experience is linked to depersonalisation.

Dyskinesia

Abnormal movements as in tardive dyskinesia a late onset onet of abnormal involuntary movements. Tardive dyskinesia is conventionally thought a late side effect of first generation antipsychotics, but some abnormal movements were seen in schizophrenia before the introduction of antipsychotics.

Dyspraxia

A dyspraxia is a difficulty with a previously learnt or acquired movement or skill. An example might be a dressing dyspraxia or a constructional dyspraxia. Dyspraxias tend to indicate cortical damage, particularly in the parietal lobe region. Dissociative Disorder

A disorder marked by a separation from or interruption of a person’s fundamental aspects of waking consciousness, such as personal identity or personal history. The dissociative aspect in any form is thought to be a coping mechanism stemming from trauma of some kind. The individual literally dissociates or separates from a situation or experience that is too traumatic to integrate with the conscious self. There are many forms of dissociative disorders: Dissociative amnesia: Characterized by blocking out critical information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature. The amnesia may be localized to a specific window of time; selective, allowing the patient to remember only small parts of events that took place in a defined period of time; generalized to the patient’s entire life; or systematized, in which the loss of memory is related to a specific category of information. Dissociative fugue: A rare disorder in which an individual suddenly and unexpectedly takes physical leave of his or her surroundings and sets off on a journey of some kind. Individuals in a fugue state are unaware of or confused about their identities. Rarely, these individuals will assume a new identity. Dissociative identity disorder: Previously known as multiple personality disorder. Individuals with DID have more than one distinct identity or personality state that surfaces on a recurring basis. The disorder is also marked by differences in memory, which vary with the individual’s “alters” or other personalities. Depersonalization disorder – Marked by recurrent feelings of detachment or distance from one’s own experience, body or self. When severe, individuals with this disorder may believe the external world is unreal or distorted.

DSM-IV

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

E

Early Intervention

In mental health, diagnosing and treating mental illnesses early in their development. Studies have shown early intervention can result in higher recovery rates. However, many individuals do not have the advantage of early intervention because the stigma of mental illness and other factors keep them from pursuing help until later in the illness’ development.

Eating Disorder

A serious disturbance in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating. Usually accompanied by feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Eating disorders, which are treatable, usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood and frequently co-occur with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Eating disorders can lead to serious physical health complications including heart conditions and kidney failure, which may lead to death. The main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

Echolalia

A speech disorder in which the person inappropriately and automatically repeats the last words he or she has heard. Palilalia is a form of echolalia in which the last syllable heard is repeated endlessly.

Echopraxia

A movement disorder in which the person automatically and inappropriately imitates or mirrors the movements of another.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (Electroshock Therapy)

A treatment for some severe mental illnesses in which a brief application of electrical stimulus is used to generate a generalized seizure. According to the National Institutes of Health, this therapy has been highly successful in treating certain types of depression, especially when followed with anti-depressant medication. It has not been effective with individuals who have less severe forms of depression.

Evidence-Based Practice

Refers to treatment guidelines that can be supported by quality clinical research.

Family-Driven Care

In mental health, a model in which families have a primary decision-making role in the care of their own children. Families also have a primary role in the policies and procedures governing care for all children in their community. Family involvement includes choosing supports, services and providers; setting goals; designing and implementing programs; monitoring outcomes; and determining the effectiveness of all efforts to promote the mental health of children and youth.

Family Resource Centers

First rank symptoms

Schneider classified the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia as first-rank features of schizophrenia. These included third person auditory hallucinations, thought echo, thought interference (insertion, withdrawal, and broadcasting), delusional perception and passivity phenomena.

Flight of ideas

In mania and hypomania thoughts become pressured and ideas may race from topic to topic, guided sometimes only by rhymes or puns. Ideas are associated though, unlike thought disorder.

Frontal lobe syndrome

This follows frontal lobe damage or may be consequent upon a lesion such as a tumour of infarction. There is a lack judgement, a coarsening of personality, disinhibition, pressure of speech, lack of planning ability, and sometimes apathy. Perseveration and a return of the grasp reflex may occur.

G

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by excessive uncontrollable worry about everyday things. The chronic worrying can affect daily functioning and cause physical symptoms, filling an individual’s days with tension even though there is little or nothing to provoke it. Unlike a phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder is not triggered by a specific object or situation. Individuals with this disorder are always anticipating disaster, often worrying excessively about health, money, family or work. In addition to chronic worry, symptoms may include trembling, muscular aches, insomnia, abdominal upsets, dizziness and irritability.

H

Hallucination

An abnormal sensory experience that arises in the absence of a direct external stimulus, and which has the qualities of a normal percept and is experienced as real and usually in external space. Hallucinations may occur in any sensory modality.

Hypomania

An affective disorder characterised by elation, overactivity, an insomnia.

I

Illusion

An abnormal perception caused by a sensory misinterpretation of and actual stimulus, sometimes precipitated by strong emotion, e.g. fear provoking a person to imagine they have seen an intruder in the shadows.

Insight

In psychotic mental disorders and organic brain syndromes a patient's insight into whether or not they are ill and therefore requiring treatment may be affected. In depression a person may lack insight into their best qualities and in mania a person may overestimate their wealth and abilities.

J

Jamais vu

An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a routine or familiar event has never happened before. (See Dejà vu).

Juvenile Justice Facility

Encompasses detention centers, shelters, reception or diagnostic centers, training schools, ranches, forestry camps or farms, halfway houses, group homes and residential treatment centers for young offenders.

Korsakoff's Syndrome

A syndrome of amnesia and confabulation following chronic alcoholism. Short-term memory is particularly affected.Named after the Russian psychiatrist Korsakoff.

M

Mania

An affective disorder characterised by intense euphoria, overactivity and loss of insight.

Managed Care

Managed Health Care Plan

Manic-Depressive Disorder
See Bipolar Disorder
Mental Disorder

A health condition characterized by alterations in thinking, mood or behavior (or a combination of the three). Mental disorders are mediated by the brain and associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. They can be the result of family history, genetics or other biological, environmental, social or behavioral factors that occur alone or in combination.

Mental Health

The condition of being mentally and emotionally sound and well adjusted, characterized by the absence of mental disorder and by adequate adjustment. Individuals with mental health feel comfortable about themselves, have positive feelings about others and exhibit an ability to meet the demands of life.

Mental Health Services

Diagnostic, treatment and preventive services that help improve the way individuals with mental illness feel, both physically and emotionally, as well as the way they interact with others. These services also intervene on behalf of those who have a strong risk of developing a mental illness.

Mental Illness

Refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders.

Mental Retardation

Below normal intellectual ability that originates during the developmental period. Mental retardation is associated with impairment in maturation, learning and/or social adjustment. In general with mental retardation, the IQ is equivalent to or less than 70 and the condition is present from birth or infancy. Individuals with mental retardation have abnormal development, learning difficulties and problems in social adjustment.

Multiple Personality Disorder See Dissociative Disorder

N



Neologism

A novel word often invented and used in schizophrenic thought disorder.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

A syndrome ascribed to neuroleptics. The syndrome includes hyperpyrexia (temperature over 39 degrees Celsius), autonomic instability and muscular rigidity. The syndrom is not dose related and appears to be related to a very wide variety of substances including antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium. There is a significant risk of mortality. Whether the syndrome is a variant of the lethal catatonia syndrome (described before the advent of modern neuroleptics) is a debated point.

Neurobiology

A branch of the life sciences that deals with the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nervous system. The term refers especially to the biology of the brain when used in conjunction with learning disorders, some mental illnesses, Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases that may be caused or impacted by the central nervous system.

Neuropsychiatry

A branch of medicine concerned with both neurology (the scientific study of the nervous system) and psychiatry (a branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional and behavioral disorders).

Nonverbal Learning Disorder

A neurological disorder originating in the right hemisphere of the brain. Because reception of information is impaired in the right brain, those with nonverbal learning disorder may experience a lack of psychomotor coordination and an inability to recognize nonverbal social cues such as body language, facial expressions, personal space, touch and tone of voice. It can also affect organizational and evaluative skills.

O

Obsession

An unpleasant or nonsensical thought which intrudes into a person's mind, despite a degree of resistance by the person who recognises the thought as pointless or senseless, but nevertheless a product of their own mind. Obsessions may be accompanied by compulsive behaviours which serve to reduce the associated anxiety.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

A disorder in which individuals are plagued by persistent, recurring thoughts or obsessions that reflect exaggerated anxiety or fears. Typical obsessions include worry about being contaminated or fears of behaving improperly or acting violently. The obsessions may lead to the performance of ritual or routine compulsions such as washing hands, repeating phrases or hoarding. Oppositional Defiant Disorder A disruptive behavior pattern of childhood and adolescence characterized by defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior, especially toward adults in positions of authority.

P

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder in which individuals have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. Individuals cannot predict when an attack will occur and may develop intense anxiety between episodes, worrying when the next one will strike. Symptoms can include heart palpitations, chest pain or discomfort, sweating, trembling, tingling sensations, a feeling of choking, fear of dying, fear of losing control and feelings of unreality.

Parietal Lobe signs

Parietal lobe signs include various agnosias (such as visual agnosias, sensory neglect, and tactile agnosias), dyspraxias (such as dressing dyspraxia), body image disturbance, and hemipareses or hemiplegias.

Passivity phenomena

In these phenomena the individual feels that some aspect of themselves is under the external control of another or others. These may therefore include 'made acts and impulses' where the individual feels they are being made to do something by another, 'made movements' where their arms or legs feel as if they are moving under another's control, 'made emotions' where they are experiencing someone else's emotions, and 'made thoughts' which are categorised elsewhere as thought insertion and withdrawal.

Perseveration

Describes an inappropriate repetition of some behaviour or thought or speech. Echolalia is an example of perseverative speech. Talking exclusively on one subject might be described as perseveration on a theme. Perseveration of thought indicates an inability to switch ideas, so that in an interview a patient may continue to give the same responses to later questions as he did to earlier ones. Perseveration is sometimes a feature of frontal lobe lesions.

Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)

A class of neurological disorders usually evident by age 3. They are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in social interaction skills, communication skills and possibly by stereotyped behavior, interests and activities. Pervasive Developmental Disorders include autism, Asperger’s syndrome and nonverbal learning disorder.

Personality Disorders

An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from expectations. A personality disorder is pervasive and inflexible, beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. Individuals with a personality disorder tend to be stable over time, but the disorder leads to distress or impairment. There are currently 10 personality disorders identified in DSM-IV:
• Antisocial Personality Disorder: Lack of regard for the moral or legal standards in the local culture, along with a marked inability to get along with others or abide by societal rules. Sometimes called psychopaths or sociopaths.
• Avoidant Personality Disorder: Marked social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and extremely sensitive to criticism.
• Borderline Personality Disorder: Lack of one's own identity, with rapid changes in mood, intense unstable interpersonal relationships, marked impulsivity, instability in affect and in self-image.
• Dependent Personality Disorder: Extreme need of other people, to a point where the person is unable to make any decisions or take an independent stand on his or her own. Submissive behavior and fear of separation. Marked lack of decisiveness and self-confidence.
• Histrionic Personality Disorder: Exaggerated and often inappropriate displays of emotional reactions, approaching theatricality, in everyday behavior. Sudden and rapidly shifting expressions of emotion.
• Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Behavior or a fantasy of grandiosity, a lack of empathy, a need to be admired by others, an inability to see the viewpoints of others and hypersensitivity to the opinions of others.
• Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Characterized by perfectionism and inflexibility as well as preoccupation with uncontrollable patterns of thought and action.
• Paranoid Personality Disorder: Marked distrust of others, including the belief, without reason, that others are exploiting, harming or trying to deceive him or her; lack of trust; belief of others' betrayal; belief in hidden meanings; unforgiving and grudge holding.
• Schizoid Personality Disorder: Primarily characterized by a very limited range of expressing and experiencing emotion. Indifferent to social relationships.
• Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Peculiarities of thinking, odd beliefs and eccentricities of appearance, behavior, interpersonal style and thought (e.g., belief in psychic phenomena and having magical powers).

Phobia

An intense and sometimes disabling fear reaction to a specific object or situation that poses little or no actual danger. The level of fear is usually recognized by the individual as being irrational.

Postpartum Depression

A potentially serious condition that occurs within six months after childbirth in which a woman feels extreme sensations of sadness, despair, anxiety and/or irritability. Differs from “baby blues” in intensity and duration. Postpartum often keeps a woman from doing the things she needs to do every day. Some symptoms include:
• Loss of interest or pleasure in life
• Loss of appetite
• Less energy and motivation to do things
• A hard time falling asleep or staying asleep
• Sleeping more than usual
• Increased crying or tearfulness
• Feeling worthless, hopeless or overly guilty
• Feeling restless, irritable or anxious
• Unexplained weight loss or gain
• Feeling like life isn't worth living
• Having thoughts about hurting herself
• Worrying about hurting her baby

Postpartum Psychosis

A rare but very serious mental illness that can affect new mothers within the first six months after childbirth. Women lose touch with reality, often having hallucinations and delusions focused on the baby. Other symptoms include severe insomnia, paranoia, agitation and restlessness. Homicidal and suicidal thoughts are not uncommon. This condition poses significant danger to the baby's safety and should be managed as a medical emergency requiring hospitalization of the mother.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

A psychological reaction that occurs after experiencing a highly stressing event, such as wartime combat, physical violence or a natural disaster. It is usually characterized by depression, anxiety, flashbacks, recurrent nightmares and avoidance of reminders of the event. Individuals can feel emotionally numb, especially with people who were once close to them. Also called delayed-stress disorder or posttraumatic stress syndrome.

Psychiatry

The branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional or behavioral disorders.

Psychosis

A serious mental disorder characterized by defective or lost contact with reality, often with hallucinations or delusions, causing deterioration of normal social functioning.

Psychotropic

In mental illness, a medication prescribed to treat the illness or symptoms of that illness.

R

Recovery

According to the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Illness, a process by which people who have a mental illness are able to work, learn and participate fully in their communities. For some individuals, recovery is the ability to live a fulfilling and productive life despite a disability. For others, recovery implies the reduction or complete remission of symptoms.

Residential Treatment

Intensive and comprehensive psychiatric treatment in a campus-like setting, usually for a minimum of several months.

Resilience

An ability to recover from or adjust easily to significant challenges such as misfortune or change.

S

Schizoid

A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships, social isolation and a restricted range of expressing emotions in interpersonal settings. Pattern begins in early adulthood. Does not occur exclusively with schizophrenia, but may also appear with another psychotic disorder or a pervasive developmental disorder. Schizoid behavior is indicated by four or more of the following:
• neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
• almost always chooses solitary activities
• has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
• takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
• lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
• appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
• shows emotional coldness, detachment or flattened affectivity

Schizophrenia

A psychotic disorder characterized by loss of contact with the environment, noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life and disintegration of feeling, thought and conduct. Individuals with schizophrenia often hear internal voices not heard by others (hallucinations) or believe things that other people find absurd (delusions). The symptoms also may include disorganized speech and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. Individuals with schizophrenia have marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

A form of depressive illness only occurring during winter months, associated with overeating and sleepiness. Responsive to antidepressants and phototherapy. Little researched and scientifically controversial.

Screening

In mental health, a brief formal or informal assessment to identify individuals who have mental health problems or are likely to develop such problems. If a problem is detected, the screening can also determine the most appropriate mental health services for the individual.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)

A class of antidepressants that act within the brain to increase the amount of serotonin, a chemical nerves use to send messages to one another (neurotransmitter). Neurotransmitters are released by one nerve and taken up by other nerves. Those that are not taken up by other nerves are taken up by the same nerve that released them, a process called reuptake. By inhibiting reuptake, SSRIs allow more serotonin to be taken up by other nerves. Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED) A diagnosable mental disorder found in individuals from birth to 18 years of age. The disorder is so severe and long lasting it seriously interferes with functioning in family, school, community or other major life activities.

Serious Mental Illness

A diagnosable mental disorder found in individuals aged 18 years and older. The disorder is so severe and long lasting, it seriously interferes with a person’s ability to take part in major life activities.

Social Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by extreme anxiety about being judged by others or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or ridicule. Individuals experience excessive selfconsciousness in everyday social situations. Physical symptoms may include heart palpitations, faintness, blushing and profuse sweating. Individuals often worry for days or weeks in advance of a dreaded situation. Symptoms may be limited to only one type of situation, such as fear of speaking in formal or informal situations or eating, drinking or writing in front of others. In its most severe form, individuals may experience symptoms anytime they are around other people.

Special Education

In _______, education that ensures all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for ________ and independent living. Services may be available to students with a physical disability, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, learning disability, autism, speech disability or traumatic brain injury.

State Hospitals

Stigma

A mark of shame or discredit. A sign of social unacceptability.

Strength-Based Treatment

In mental health, a process that builds upon an individual’s strengths to work towards recovery.

Substance Abuse

The inappropriate use of and possibly addiction to illegal and legal substances including alcohol and prescription and non-prescription drugs.

System of Care

A partnership of mental health, education, child welfare and juvenile justice agencies as well as teachers, children with serious emotional disturbances and their families and other caregivers. These agencies and individuals work together to ensure children with mental, emotional and behavioral problems and their families have access to the services and supports they need to succeed. Together, this team creates an individualized service plan that builds on the unique strengths of each child and each family. The plan is then implemented in a way that is consistent with the family’s culture and language.

T

Tardive dyskinesia

An abnormal involuntary movement disorder which may manifest as lipsmacking bucco-lingual movements or grimacing, truncal movements or athetoid limb movements.

Thought blocking

The unpleasant experience of having one's train of thought curtailed absolutely, often more a sign than a symptom.

Thought broadcasting

The experience that one's thoughts are being transmitted from one's mind and broadcast to everyone.

Thought disorder

A disorder of the form of thought, where associations between ideas are lost or loosened.

Thought echo

Where thoughts are heard as if spoken aloud, when there is some delay these are known as echo de la pensée and when heard simultaneously, Gedankenlautwerden.

Thought insertion

The experience of alien thoughts being inserted into the mind.

Thought withdrawal

The experience of thoughts being removed or extracted from one's mind. Therapy

Treatment of physical, mental or behavioral problems that is meant to cure or rehabilitate. Psychotherapy emphasizes substituting desirable responses and behavior patterns for undesirable ones.

W

Wraparound

A process in which families with children who have severe emotional disturbance are able to address their needs through a strengths-based, family-driven team approach. A “wraparound facilitator” helps link families of children with severe emotional disturbances with needed services and supports. All members of the family are served through a partnership with the facilitator and other service professionals. The family can choose others they want to have as a part of the team, including friends, ______ members and relatives. Wraparound helps develop creative strategies to meet the needs of each person that may include both traditional and non-traditional approaches and supports.
Human Rights
Human Rights Violations


What are examples of various human rights?
Are human rights laws state laws, international laws, or both?
What is a state?
What are other names of human rights laws?
Where are human rights applicable on planet Earth?
What state has the duty to take care of basic human rights of an individual?
What do you know about human rights?
What should you know about human rights?
What are the basic human rights?


Human Rights Violations

What do you know about human rights violations?
What are examples of various human rights violations?
How do you classify criminal offenses?
Where do you place human rights violations in the classification of criminal offenses?


Right to life

What should you know about human right of right to life?
Does a civilized human being have a right to live in the community?
What are examples of human rights violations by violating one’s right to be heard by a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal or judiciary in the state?


Human rights violations investigations

What is the location of this human rights violation?
Who is the victim of human rights violations at this location?
What needs to be done to prevent these human rights violations?


Questions you need to answer about human rights.

What needs to be done to protect human rights in the state and outside the state?
Who has the duty to monitor human rights violations in the state and outside the state?
What should be the role of the world military in protecting human rights?
Is the world military ready to protect human rights?
What should be the role of international police in protecting human rights?
Are international police ready to protect human rights?
What are examples of various human rights?
Right to life.
Right to food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, security, and education are basic human rights.
Right to freedom from torture.
Right to live without abuse.
Right to freedom from slavery.
Right to housing.
Right to be heard by a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal.
Right to a public hearing.
Right to be heard within a reasonable time.
Right to file complaint/complaints.
Right to counsel.
Right to interpretation.
Right to family life.
Right to an adequate standard of living.
Right to human health care.
Right to free education .
Right to participation in cultural life.
Right to freedom of speech.
Right to freedom from fear,
Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.
Right to freedom of movement.
Right to restoration of rights.
Right to debate.
Right to refuse to kill a human.
Right to live in the community.
Right to participate in the human/political life of the state without discrimination or repression.
Rights of persons with special needs.

Each right has further details.

Are human rights laws state laws, international laws, or both?
Human rights laws are both state laws and international laws.

What is a state?
A state is a land area of at least 360,000 square miles with proper human survival products and services.

State means state of Illinois, California, New York, Yukon, in North America.
State means Kashmir, Karnataka, Jiangsu, Magadan Oblast, Germany, France, in Asia.
States in Latin America, Africa, and Australia have been listed. Oceans.
Individual continents.

Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/state.html

What are other names of human rights laws?
Human rights act.

Where are human rights applicable on planet Earth?
Human rights are universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone).

What state has the duty to take care of basic human rights of an individual?
The state an individual is resident of at this point and plans to live in for at least the next five years has the duty to take care of the basic human rights of that individual.

The state in which an individual lived for first 18 years of his or her life has the duty to supervise and monitor, as well.

Are basic human rights violations criminal or civil cases?
Basic human rights violations are criminal cases.

What should you do if you detect basic human rights violations?
In case of basic human rights violations, immediate solutions and remedies are required.
The case you are dealing is an extreme human rights violation.
Alert everyone that this is an extreme case of human rights violations.
The victim suffers from extreme human rights violations.

Human Rights violations

What do police know about human rights violations in the state and outside the state?
What should police know about human rights violations in the state and outside the state?
What should you do as a police officer if you detect an individual without survival needs including food and housing, or an individual indicates to you that he/she does not have survival needs including food, housing, communication resources, or other survival needs?
How does the world’s military monitor human rights violations around the planet earth?


Complaints of human rights violations can be filed from within the state or outside the state from any individual based on truth and genuine harms.

An administrator or judge cannot violate basic human rights of an individual even if a lawyer or any other individual tries to persuade the administrator or judge to do so.
Here are further guidelines.

Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
What is intellectual disability?
What are the signs of intellectual disability in children?
What causes intellectual disability?
How is intellectual disability diagnosed?
What services are available for people with intellectual disability?
What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child?
What is intellectual disability?
Is intellectual disability the same as mental retardation? Why do some programs and regulations still say mental retardation?
Is intellectual disability the same as developmental disabilities?
Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test?
What causes intellectual disability?
What is the most modern thinking about how to help people with intellectual disability?
What role has AAIDD played in defining intellectual disabilty?
Can intellectual disability be prevented?
How is intellectual disability diagnosed?
What services are available for people with intellectual disability?
What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child?
Intellectual disability (ID), once called mental retardation, is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. People with intellectual disabilities can and do learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. There are varying degrees of intellectual disability, from mild to profound.

What is intellectual disability?
Someone with intellectual disability has limitations in two areas. These areas are:

Intellectual functioning. Also known as IQ, this refers to a person’s ability to learn, reason, make decisions, and solve problems. Adaptive behaviors. These are skills necessary for day-to-day life, such as being able to communicate effectively, interact with others, and take care of oneself.

IQ (intelligence quotient) is measured by an IQ test. The average IQ is 100. A person is considered intellectually disabled if he or she has an IQ of less than 70 to 75.

To measure a child’s adaptive behaviors, a specialist will observe the child’s skills and compare them to other children of the same age. Things that may be observed include how well the child can feed or dress himself or herself; how well the child is able to communicate with and understand others; and how the child interacts with family, friends, and other children of the same age.

Intellectual disability is thought to affect about 1% of the population. Of those affected, 85% have mild intellectual disability. This means they are just a little slower than average to learn new information or skills. With the right support, most will be able to live independently as adults.

What are the signs of intellectual disability in children?
There are many different signs of intellectual disability in children. Signs may appear during infancy, or they may not be noticeable until a child reaches school age. It often depends on the severity of the disability. Some of the most common signs of intellectual disability are:

Rolling over, sitting up, crawling, or walking late Talking late or having trouble with talking Slow to master things like potty training, dressing, and feeding himself or herself Difficulty remembering things Inability to connect actions with consequences Behavior problems such as explosive tantrums Difficulty with problem-solving or logical thinking In children with severe or profound intellectual disability, there may be other health problems as well. These problems may include seizures, mental disorders, motor handicaps, vision problems, or hearing problems.

What causes intellectual disability?
Anytime something interferes with normal brain development, intellectual disability can result. However, a specific cause for intellectual disability can only be pinpointed about a third of the time.

The most common causes of intellectual disability are:

Genetic conditions. These include things like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
Problems during pregnancy. Things that can interfere with fetal brain development include alcohol or drug use, malnutrition, certain infections, or preeclampsia.
Problems during childbirth. Intellectual disability may result if a baby is deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
Illness or injury. Infections like meningitis, whooping cough, or the measles can lead to intellectual disability. Severe head injury, near-drowning, extreme malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe neglect or abuse can also cause it.

How is intellectual disability diagnosed?
Intellectual disability may be suspected for many different reasons. If a baby has physical abnormalities that suggest a genetic or metabolic disorder, a variety of tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis. These include blood tests, urine tests, imaging tests to look for structural problems in the brain, or electroencephalogram (EEG) to look for evidence of seizures.

In children with developmental delays, the doctor will perform tests to rule out other problems, including hearing problems and certain neurological disorders. If no other cause can be found for the delays, the child will be referred for formal testing.

Three things factor into the diagnosis of intellectual disability: interviews with the parents, observation of the child, and testing of intelligence and adaptive behaviors. A child is considered intellectually disabled if he or she has deficits in both IQ and adaptive behaviors. If only one or the other is present, the child is not considered intellectually disabled.

After a diagnosis of intellectual disability is made, a team of professionals will assess the child’s particular strengths and weaknesses. This helps them determine how much and what kind of support the child will need to succeed at home, in school, and in the community.

What services are available for people with intellectual disability?
For babies and toddlers, early intervention programs are available. A team of professionals works with parents to write an Individualized Family Service Plan, or IFSP. This document outlines the child’s specific needs and what services will help the child thrive. Early intervention may include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, family counseling, training with special assistive devices, or nutrition services.

School-aged children with intellectual disabilities (including preschoolers) are eligible for special education for free through the public school system. This is mandated by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Parents and educators work together to create an Individualized Education Program, or IEP, which outlines the child’s needs and the services the child will receive at school. The point of special education is to make adaptations, accommodations, and modifications that allow a child with an intellectual disability to succeed in the classroom.

What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child?
Steps to help your intellectually disabled child include:

Learn everything you can about intellectual disabilities. The more you know, the better advocate you can be for your child. Encourage your child’s independence. Let your child try new things and encourage your child to do things by himself or herself. Provide guidance when it’s needed and give positive feedback when your child does something well or masters something new.

Get your child involved in group activities. Taking an art class or participating in Scouts will help your child build social skills. Stay involved. By keeping in touch with your child’s teachers, you’ll be able to follow his or her progress and reinforce what your child is learning at school through practice at home. Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children. They can be a great source of advice and emotional support.

What is intellectual disability?
Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Is intellectual disability the same as mental retardation? Why do some programs and regulations still say mental retardation?
The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, duration of disability, and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Furthermore, every individual who is or was eligible for a diagnosis of mental retardation is eligible for a diagnosis of intellectual disability.

While intellectual disability is the preferred term, it takes time for language that is used in legislation, regulation, and even for the names of organizations, to change.

Is intellectual disability the same as developmental disabilities?
"Developmental Disabilities" is an umbrella term that includes intellectual disability but also includes other disabilities that are apparent during childhood.

Developmental disabilities are severe chronic disabilities that can be cognitive or physical or both. The disabilities appear before the age of 22 and are likely to be lifelong.Some developmental disabilities are largely physical issues, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy. Some individuals may have a condition that includes a physical and intellectual disability, for example Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome.

Intellectual disability encompasses the “cognitive” part of this definition, that is, a disability that is broadly related to thought processes. Because intellectual and other developmental disabilities often co-occur, intellectual disability professionals often work with people who have both types of disabilities.

Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test?
No. The evaluation and classification intellectual disability is a complex issue. There are three major criteria for intellectual disability: significant limitations in intellectual functioning, significant limitations in adaptive behavior, and onset before the age of 18.

The IQ test is a major tool in measuring intellectual functioning, which is the mental capacity for learning, reasoning, problem solving, and so on. A test score below or around 70—or as high as 75—indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning.

Other tests determine limitations in adaptive behavior, which covers three types of skills:
•Conceptual skills—language and literacy; money, time, and number concepts; and self-direction
•Social skills—interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naïveté (i.e., wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules, obey laws, and avoid being victimized
•Practical skills—activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone
AAIDD publishes the most advanced scientific thinking on this matter in the 11th edition of its manual, Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. In defining and assessing intellectual disability, AAIDD stresses that, in addtion to an assessement of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, professionals must consider such factors as
•community environment typical of the individual’s peers and culture •linguistic diversity
•cultural differences in the way people communicate, move, and behavior

What causes intellectual disability?
There are a number of causes. Our understanding of the causes of intellectual disability focuses on the types of risk factors (biomedical, social, behavioral, and educational) and the timing of exposure (prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal) to those factors.

What is the most modern thinking about how to help people with intellectual disability?
The overarching reason for evaluating and classifying individuals with intellectual disabilities is to tailor supports for each individual, in the form of a set of strategies and services provided over a sustained period.

Our goal is to enhance people’s functioning within their own environment in order to lead a more successful and satisfying life. Some of this enhancement is thought of in terms of self-worth, subjective well being, pride, engagement in political action, and other principles of self-identity.

What role has AAIDD played in defining intellectual disabilty?
AAIDD, the world’s largest and oldest organization of intellectual disability professionals, has played a major role in evolving ideas about and approaches to intellectual disability. In fact, the Association, founded in 1876, has published 11 editions of its definitional manual between 1908 and 2010, each edition containing the latest scientific understanding of the condition.

The first definitions of the condition focused on a failure to adapt socially to the environment. Later definitions added a medical approach that considered heredity and pathology and called for individuals with intellectual disability to be segregated. Then the rise of the cognitive testing movement brought an emphasis on measuring intellectual functioning by IQ test. The IQ test became the way to define the group and classify the people within it.

In its 1959 definition and classification manual, AAIDD first attempted a dual-criterion approach: a definition that mentioned both intellectual functioning and “impairments in maturation, learning, and social adjustment.” In its 1961 manual, AAIDD folded the “impairments” description into the phrase “adaptive behavior,” a term still used today. The definition was refocused in 1992 to reflect a new way of understanding and responding to the condition.. AAIDD moved away from a diagnostic process that identified deficits solely on the basis of an IQ score, and began considering social, environmental, and other elements as well. Most crucially, the emphasis shifted from providing programs to people with intellectual disability to designing and delivering support tailored to each individual to help them reach their highest level of functioning.

The third element of the definition involves age of onset. Early definitions mentioned “the developmental period.” AAIDD’s 2002 definition clarified that the disability originates "before the age of 18.”

The mainstay of MR/ID treatment is the development of a comprehensive management plan for the condition. The complex habilitation plan for the individual requires input from care providers from multiple disciplines, including special educators, language therapists, behavioral therapists, occupational therapists, and community services that provide social support and respite care for families affected by MR/ID.

No specific pharmacologic treatment is available for cognitive impairment in the developing child or adult with MR/ID. Medications, when prescribed, are targeted to specific comorbid psychiatric disease or behavioral disturbances.

What do we know about parenting by people who have an intellectual disability?

Health Guidelines for Adults with an Intellectual Disability.

Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions.

Here are further guidelines.


Intentional enforced harms

What are intentional enforced harms?
What are examples of intentional enforced harms?

Deprivation of food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, security, education, consumer goods, and communication are intentional, willful harms.

Willful violations of human rights are intentional harms.

Who has the duty to prevent intentional enforced harms?
Who authors and updates ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders?
What does ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders reveal about intentional enforced harms?
Who authors and updates the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
What does the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders reveal about intentional enforced harms?
What are your rights as a civilized human being?
Who is a civilized human being?
How do you define a civilized human being?
What are provoke and crush techniques?
What techniques induce stress, harass, entrap?
How have these techniques been maliciously used for involuntary, judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
What is been done to protect victims of these malicious techniques?
How is retaliation detected, prevented, and managed?
How are police educated to handle such situations?
How are counselors trained to screen such abuse?
How are petitioners given counseling to know the consequences of such misuse?
How many such incidents and admissions happen every year in each county?
What are the duties and responsibilities of administrators to prevent and manage abuse in this situation?
Who has the duty and responsibility to fund such research?
What are the duties and responsibilities of medical doctors and psychiatrists to detect, prevent, report, and manage such abuse?
How can incompetent, racist, medical doctors and psychiatrists be detected?
Are there pecuniary and punitive damages for these harms?
Yes, there are.

Here are further guidelines.

Mental status examination
What questions should a doctor answer in a mental status examination?
Who needs a mental status examination?
Every patient needs a mental status examination.
In certain situations, an individual may be specifically recommended for mental status examination.

What is a mental status examination?
Specific conversation questioning.
Observations relevant to the individual.
Physical examination in case required (When is physical examination of a patient required? See the guidelines for physical examination).

The Mental Status Examination (MSE) is a standardized procedure used to evaluate the client’s mental and emotional functioning at the time the client is seen by the mental health professional. It involves a precise series of observations as well as some specific questions.

Each of the topics listed below is included in the MSE because it provides valuable information about the client’s function.

What is the best method for a doctor of medicine to do a mental status examination?
Start a conversation with the patient and ask these questions:
What is your name?
What is your date of birth?
What is your mailing address?
How long have you lived at this location?
How are you feeling now?


If the individual cannot understand, read, write, or speak the English language, arrange an interpreter for the time being and recommend education for English language abilities.

If the individual can understand, read, write, and speak the English language, here are further conversation questions.

What is today's date and time? (This gets an answer to orientation.)
How would you describe your mood: happy, sad, miserable, frightened, angry? (This gets an answer to mood.)
What is on your mind that you would like to discuss now? (This gets an answer to thought content.)
Can you count down from one hundred by sevens? (This gets an answer to calculating test/serial sevens.)
What has happened in your past that I should know? (This gets an answer to memory.)
What do you recall of your remote past experiences? (This gets answer to memory.)
What has happened in the past 24 hours in your life that I should know? (This gets an answer to recent memory.)
Do you feel you are normal or Ill? (This gets an answer to insight.)


Observations relevant to the patient.

What have you observed in this individual relevant to the parameters enumerated?
Appearance
Affect
Attitude
Behavior
Consciousness
Concentration
Insight
Language
Judgment
Motor activity
Memory
Mood
Orientation
Patient hygiene
Perceptions
Speech
Thought form
Thought process
Thought content
Further evaluation and referral

What best describes your observation/findings for the patient?
Agitated: Yes/No
Blocking, or a sudden interruption in thought processes (like anxious, depressed, dysphoric, euphoric, angry): Yes/No
Cooperative/not cooperative
Eye contact: Normal/abnormal
Hostile/polite
Irritable/withdrawn
Unpleasant/pleasant
Restless/calm
Self-care abilities: Normal/abnormal
Speech (Appropriate/inappropriate)
Stress/intentional enforced harms/human rights violations from others
Unable to provide reliable information/able to provide reliable information
Answer relevant questions from those listed.

Appearance

How does the patient look?
Emaciated (extremely thin because of serious illness or lack of food).
Obese (extremely fat).
Healthy.
Age appropriate height, weight.
Clothes relevant to particular subculture (explain).
Unkempt, dirty clothes/washed, clean clothes.
Neatly dressed.
Well groomed.
Cleanliness with proper bath.
Obvious physical signs such as tremor, goiter, ptosis.

Are the facial expressions like smiles/cries appropriate to the situation?

General appearance and behavior

Does the patient appear his/her stated age?
What is his/her facial expression, dress, and grooming?
Is the patient unkempt or malnourished?
Does he/she smell?
If yes, ask these questions.
How often do you take a bath, brush your teeth, change clothes?
Are there any scars, lacerations, tattoos?
Does the patient use a wheelchair, cane, eyeglasses, or a hearing aid?
Is there any motor overactivity, underactivity, or rigidity?
Is the patient cooperative, calm, or agitated?
Does he/she regard the examiner during the interview?
Does he she avoid eye contact?
Does his/her mouth move when he/she is not talking?

DSM criteria, according to diagnostic and statistical manual .
State your assessment in the format (Axis 1-V)
When was it last updated?
Affect

Is the patient's affect appropriate to the conversation?

Sensorium and intellect

What language does the patient speak?
Can the patient name objects and repeat words, questions, or phrases?
Can the patient multiply 7 x 8 and divide 75 by 3?
Is the patient aware of current events and past history?
Can the patient compare and contrast properly?
How are an apple and an orange alike?
What is the difference between a cow and a pig?
What is the difference between a human being and a cow? How does the patient appear to you?
Does the patient make eye contact?
Does the tone of the patient’s voice change?
Attitude (Politeness)

Is the individual polite or hostile?
If the individual is polite in front of you, is the individual always polite in normal conditions and environment without provocations or duress?
If yes, his/her attitude is normal.

Politeness means your words and gestures should be pleasant to others. Being polite is a matter of etiquette, manners, being considerate of people's feelings.

Hostile means rude or boorish.

Attitude (Politeness)
How to Be Polite

Is the person cooperative, irritable, belligerent etc.?
Is there any indication of malingering or factitious behavior? Explain.
Ability to perform calculations:

Can the patient perform simple addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division?
Are the responses appropriate for the patient’s level of education?
Are there any problems in calculations?
Behavior

Is the individual cooperative?
Is the person suicidal, homicidal, or both? What leads you do this conclusion?


Behavior

Rapport. Degree of cooperation. Motility, gestures, disinhibition.
Consciousness
Level of alertness:

Is the patient conscious?
If not, can the patient be awakened?
Can the patient remain focused on your questions and conversation?
What is attention span of the patient?


In case of altered sensorium, get answers to these questions.

How would you rate Glasgow Coma Scale of this patient in the range of 3—15, with a score of 3 indicating brain death (the lowest defined level of consciousness), and 15 indicating full consciousness?

Cognition: level of consciousness, memory (immediate, recent, remote), orientation (time, place, person), concentration: serial 7s, abstract thinking.

If nothing else, apparent level of consciousness. Orientation. Concentration, attention (digit span, serial sevens). Short term memory (name and address, recent events). Further testing when indicated for: naming/comprehension difficulties, constructional apraxia, dysgraphia, left-right orientation, verbal fluency, sensory/visual inattention, perseveration, astereognosis. May include subjective estimate of approximate intelligence.
Cultural considerations
Content of thought: delusions, suicidal thoughts, amount of thought and rate of production, continuity of ideas.
Fund of Knowledge

Can the person answer simple geography questions, such as naming bordering states?
Insight and judgment

What kind of problems are you having currently?
Do you need help?
What would you like to do next?
What do you plan to do when you leave?

Do you reach any diagnosis under these harmful conditions or remove harmful conditions for the person who has been oppressed and transferred to a psychiatric facility?
If theory isn't clear, there will be conflict and disputes. Problems won't be solved.
Simple negligence or wrong planning can lead to conflicts, disputes, and harms.

How could this have been prevented?
We should focus on expected outcome.

Insight: extent of the individual's awareness of the problem.

Hospitalized Patient

Why were you brought here? or
What brings you to the hospital?

Judgment: If you found a letter on the ground in front of a mailbox, what would you do with it?").
Language

How are English language understanding, reading, writing, and speaking abilities of the individual?
The individual can understand, read, write, and speak the English language.
The individual is unable to understand, read, write, and speak the English language.
Memory: Short term memory is assessed by listing three objects, asking the patient to repeat them to you to insure that they were heard correctly, and then checking recall at 5 minutes. Long term memory can be evaluated by asking about the patients job history, where they were born and raised, family history, etc.

QUESTIONS TO ASK

Long-term memory:

Where did you live when you were growing up?
What was the name of the school you went to?
Short-term memory:

What did you have for breakfast?
What did you do yesterday?

Remote—can person remember past events?
· Recent—can person remember 3/3 objects after 5 min?
Immediate—how well can the person do digit span back and forward?
Mood

Do you get angry, sad, depressed, or happy without any reason?
How would you rate your mood on a scale of 1-10?

How does the person describe his or her mood?
Is the person’s affect congruent with the stated mood? Explain.

Subjective mood over last days/weeks. Variability of mood. Energy, enjoyment, interest, anhedonia? Reports being tearful? Recent and current suicidal intent. Biological features of affective disorder: appetite, weight, sleep (initial/middle/terminal insomnia), diurnal mood variation, libido, constipation.

Questions to ask about mood

How do you generally feel most of the time?
What's your mood like?
How would you say you feel generally - happy, sad, frightened, angry?

Mood words

Happy
Very happy
Fine
OK
Fed up
Sad
Low
Miserable
Depressed
Cross
Angry
Worried
Afraid
Down
Cheerful
Bad
Excited
Bright

Questions to ask about low or high mood

Do you feel miserable all the time?
Do you ever cheer up, even a little bit?
Do you ever enjoy anything?
If something nice happens, do you cheer up a bit?
Do you cry?
Would you say that you're more cheerful than usual?

Questions about suicidal intent

Do you ever feel really desperate?
Do you ever feel life is not worth living?
Do you ever feel it would be better if you were dead?
Do you ever feel that it wouldn't matter if you didn't wake up in the morning?
Do you ever wish you were dead?
Have you thought seriously about killing yourself?
Have you thought about how you might kill yourself?
Have you done anything about getting ready to kill yourself? (E.g. paying bills, hoarding tablets.)
Do you think that you might actually kill yourself?
Do you really want to die?
Would you say that you were determined to kill yourself?

Questions about biological features of affective disorder

Is there any pattern to how your mood changes through the day?
Is there any time of day when you tend to feel better or worse?
Do you tend to feel worse in the evening?
What's your appetite like?
How are you eating?
Is there any change in your weight?
How are you sleeping?
What time do you get to sleep and what time do you wake?
Do you sleep right through or wake in the night?
After you've woken do you get back to sleep?
What time do you eventually wake in the morning?
Is there any change in your interest in sex?
Are you less interested in sex than usual?
Is there any change in how often you defecate / have your bowels open?
Do you experience constipation?
Is there any change in your energy levels?
Do you have more or less energy than usual?

Questions about thought form

Do your thoughts seem faster than normal?
Do you find you have lots and lots of different thoughts?
Does your mind seem to be slowed down?
Do you ever have the experience when your thoughts suddenly stop?
Do you ever feel that your mind is suddenly wiped blank and you have no thoughts at all?

Questions about delusions

Do you ever feel that people are following you?
Do you ever feel that people are seeking to harm you in some way?
Do people spy on you?
Has anything strange or unusual been going on?
Is there anything special about yourself which makes you different from other people?
Is there anything you can do which other people can't?
Is there anything which particularly bothers you?
How did you find out this was happening?
When did you realise this?
How do you know about this?
Are you sure this is happening or might you be imagining it?
Are you absolutely certain this is what's going on?
Do you think that somebody has put a spell on you?
Is a spirit/djinn/demon causing problems for you?

Questions about thought insertion

Do you ever have thoughts in your mind which are not your own?
Does anything else use your mind to think with?
Does anything put thoughts into your mind from outside?
Where do those thoughts come from?

Questions about thought withdrawal

Does anything ever take your thoughts away?
Do you ever have your mind wiped blank?
Does anything take thoughts out of your mind so that they're not there any more?

Questions about thought broadcast

Can other people tell what you are thinking?
Do your thoughts ever go out of your own mind?
Do your thoughts go out of your mind to other people?
Are your thoughts ever put on the television or radio?
Do your thoughts go out of your mind to somewhere else?

Questions about passivity

Do you ever feel that somebody else controls your body?
Do you ever have something else moving your arms or legs?
Can anybody else move your body without you being able to stop them?
Do you ever find that a spirit/djinn/demon controls your body?
Has anything inside your body or brain been changed?
Is there anything strange inside your body?

Questions about depressive cognitions

What's your opinion of yourself?
Do you think you're better than most people, worse, or about the same?
Are you a good or bad person?
Are there things you feel guilty about?
Do you feel more guilty about things than most people?
Do you feel guilty about things which other people wouldn't feel guilty about?
What's your view of the future?
Do you think things will get better or worse?
Do you hope things might get better?
Is there any possibility that things might get better?
Do you see any possibility at all that things might get better, even a little bit?

Questions about panic attacks

Do you get panic attacks?
Do you get times when you feel very frightened?
Do you feel anxious?
Do you feel afraid?
Does your heart beat fast?
Do you feel your heart beating hard?
Do you feel dizzy?
Do you feel faint?
Do you feel sick?
Do you feel shaky?
Do you have an uncomfortable feeling in your stomach?
Do you feel breathless?
What do you think is going to happen?
Do you think you're going to die?
Do you think you're going to faint?
Does this happen in particular places?
Can this happen when you're at home?

Questions about compulsions

How often do you wash?
Do you wash your hands a lot?
Do you always do it in a particular way?
Do you feel that you have to do it?
Do you try to resist but find that you can't?
What would happen if you didn't do it?
Do you have to check you've locked the door properly?
Do you check locks, windows, switches, electrical appliances?
How many times would you check?
Do you do the checking in a particular order?
How much time does it take you?

Questions about perceptual abnormalities

Do you hear voices?
Do you see visions?
Do you hear people talking when there's nobody there?
Do you hear things other people don't hear?
Do you ever hear anything strange?
Where do the voices come from?
Are the voices in your head or outside?
Are these thoughts in your mind or sounds that you would hear with your ears?
How many voices are there?
Do they talk to you or do they talk to each other about you?
Do they ever talk about what you are doing?
Do they repeat your thoughts or comment on your thoughts?
Do your thoughts ever sound loud, as if somebody next to you could hear them?
Do the voices tell you to do things?
Do you ever hear angels talking?
Do you ever hear spirits/djinns/demons talking?
Do you see strange things?
Do you see things other people don't see?
Do things ever smell strange or taste strange?
Do you feel things touching you?
Do you feel things changing inside your body?
Orientation (Awareness of environment)

Orientation in terms of time, place, person, and self is assessed to determine the presence of confusion or clouding of consciousness. This is important information for determining whether the person has organic mental impairment.

QUESTIONS TO ASK

Can you tell me today’s date?
Do you know the day of the week?
What month is it?
What year is it?
Do you know where you are?
Do you know who I am?
Do you remember your name?
Patient Hygiene (Appearance/Social grooming/hygiene)
Perceptions

Hallucinations, illusions. Describe modality and nature, taking particular care in relation to possible first-rank symptoms, other perceptual disturbances (derealisation; depersonalisation; heightened/dulled perception).
Speech
What is the rate and volume?
Is it monotone?
What is the rhythm?
Is there dysarthria?
Is there an increase in latency (normal time to respond is 3-5 seconds)?
Is the amount of speech increased or decreased?
Is it spontaneous or does the patient talk only when a questions is asked?
Is the speech stilted?
What is the level of the vocabulary?
Are there neologisms, word approximations, phonemic or semantic paraphasias?

Flow of thought
Content of thought
Is patient suicidal or homicidal?
Do you plan to get involved in any kind of violence?
Did you ever get arrested?
Do you think it was justified?
Do you hear any voices?
Do you see things that aren't there?
Do you hear, see, smell, taste, or feel things that aren't there?
Do you feel someone is hearing your thoughts?
Do you feel someone is inserting thoughts in you?
Do you have beliefs that no other person had or is having up to now?

Speech: Is it normal in tone, volume and quantity? Behavior: Pleasant? Cooperative? Agitated? Appropriate for the particular situation?

Rate, volume, quantity, fluency. Any accent, dysarthria, problems with language. Use of obscenities. Mention briefly gross thought disorder, neologisms, obvious dysphasia. Uninterruptible.

Is speech normal or tangential or circumstantial? Give Examples.

Can the patient stop talking, if requested?
Thought form

(Abnormalities of stream usually included here.) Loosening of associations, derailment, neologisms, punning, clang associations, etc. Appropriateness of answers. Subjective rate, quantity, experience of thought block. ______ of content.
Thought Process: This is a description of the way in which they think. Are their comments logical and presented in an organized fashion? If not, how off base are they? Do they tend to stray quickly to related topics? Are their thoughts appropriately linked or simply all over the map?
Thought Content: A description of what the patient is thinking about. Are they paranoid? Delusional (i.e. hold beliefs that are untrue)? If so, about what? Phobic? Hallucinating (you need to ask if they see or hear things that others do not)? Fixated on a single idea? If so, about what. Is the thought content consistent with their affect? If there is any concern regarding possible interest in committing suicide or homicide, the patient should be asked this directly, including a search for details (e.g. specific plan, time etc.). Note: These questions have never been shown to plant the seeds for an otherwise unplanned event and may provide critical information, so they should be asked!

Thought content

Include passivity experiences and thought insertion, broadcasting, withdrawal. Delusions, over-valued ideas. Depressive cognitions consisting of low self-esteem, guilt, hopelessness. Grandiosity. Preoccupations, obsessions. Traditionally compulsive behaviours, panic attacks and anxiety-related symptoms are often described here.

Are there any delusions?
Is the person suicidal? Homicidal? What leads you do this conclusion?
Mini-mental state examination (MMSE)
The MSE is not to be confused with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), which is a brief neuro-psychological screening test for dementia.

Multi-Axial Diagnosis
Axis I: All psychological diagnostic categories except mental retardation and personality disorder

Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation

Axis III: General medical condition; acute medical conditions and physical disorders

Axis IV: Psychosocial stressors

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning or Children’s Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18
License of doctor of medicine
Have there been scandals in America about issuance of professional licenses, including that of a doctor of medicine?
Yes.

What should be the focus of a doctor of medicine?
Abilities to be a doctor of medicine are essential.
This takes many years of desire to learn and desire for public service.
Issuing a license of doctor of medicine nowadays takes just a few minutes.
Do not claim to be a specialist without having minimum abilities required of a doctor. This is how a specialist is interpreted.
A psychiatrist is a medical doctor with additional abilities of a psychiatrist.
A surgeon is a medical doctor with additional abilities of a surgeon.
A doctor who performs medical operations is called a surgeon.
An individual who can do an eight-inch incision and close in three layers is not a surgeon.
A surgeon is basically a doctor of medicine.
Being a doctor of medicine means a human being is able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being in various healthcare settings, able to offer Internet human healthcare, public health advice, patient education guidelines, and administrative issues guidelines.
Being a licensed doctor of medicine does not mean the individual has minimum abilities of a doctor of medicine.
Being a board-certified member does not mean the individual has the minimum abilities of a doctor of medicine.

In case you display or circulate your abilities as a doctor of medicine, the system will recognize you.
The system will come forward to offer you a license of doctor of medicine.
In situations where the system maintains silence or does not reply to your issues, You have the right to complaint and contest this exclusion provided you have competence and abilities of a doctor of medicine.

What should various professional boards, certification resources, or licensing resources advise professionals, including doctor of medicine?
You real-world performance is essential.
You should be able to answer relevant questions in the real world from time to time relevant to your profession.
There should be no complaints.
You should resolve complaints immediately before they become a big scandal.
You should have general abilities.
You should have profession-specific abilities.
You have to prove your performance in the real world.

Here are further guidelines.

Abilities a doctor should have
Medical Doctor(Required skills for the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders in the general medical setting)
1.Ability to take a medical-psychiatric history
2.Ability to recognize and categorize symptoms
3.Ability to assess neurological dysfunction
4.Ability to assess the risk of ________
5.Ability to assess medication effects and drug–drug interactions
6.Ability to know when to order and how to interpret psychological testing
7.Ability to assess interpersonal and family issues
8.Ability to recognize and manage hospital stressors
9.Ability to place the course of hospitalization and treatment in perspective
10.Ability to formulate multiaxial diagnoses
11.Ability to perform psychotherapy
12.Ability to prescribe and manage psychopharmacological agents
13.Ability to assess and manage agitation
14.Ability to assess and manage pain
15.Ability to administer drug detoxification protocols
16.Ability to make medicolegal determinations
17.Ability to apply ethical decisions
18.Ability to apply systems theory and resolve conflicts
19.Ability to initiate transfers to a psychiatry service
20.Ability to assist with disposition planning
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/doctorworld.html


Medications in psychiatry
List of psychiatric medications by condition treated
What should a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician verify before prescribing or recommending psychiatric medication?
Correct diagnosis is essential.
Wrong diagnosis is medical negligence and is subject to punishments or disciplinary action with relief to the victim.
No question can remain unanswered while reaching a correct diagnosis.
Up to April 11, 2014, a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician in America did not know anything about stress, intentional enforced harms, or human rights violations from others. Such individuals have been placed at prestigious healthcare establishments in America. This shows the quality of healthcare in the system.

Take a look at case reports. See how wrong diagnoses and misinterpretation of facts are harming residents.

What medication has been elaborated at this resource?
  1. Antianxiety medications (benzodiazepines)

  2. Antidepressants

  3. Antipsychotic medications

  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication

  5. Atypical antipsychotic medications

  6. Autism medication

  7. Depressants

  8. Drug dependence therapy

  9. Drugs to treat insomnia (sleeping pills)

  10. Hallucinogens (not prescribed now)

  11. Mood stabilizers

  12. Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome medication

  13. Stimulants
Here is a preferred drug list that Illinois revised effective April 7, 2014.
Here are further guidelines.

Medication that is available through the state (Preferred drug list).
Medication that exists but may not be available through the state.

Depressants that are used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anesthetics.

Stimulants that treat disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, and to suppress the appetite.

What are psychiatric medications?
Psychiatric medications treat mental disorders. Sometimes called psychotropic or psychotherapeutic medications, they have changed the lives of people with mental disorders for the better. Many people with mental disorders live fulfilling lives with the help of these medications. Without them, people with mental disorders might suffer serious and disabling symptoms.

Psychiatric Medications:
The Six Main Classes

Anxiolytics – If you suffer from nervousness, anxiety related disorders, or panic attacks this class of psychiatric medication is the one you are looking for.

Anti-depressants – These compounds treat the various types of mood disorders which leave a patient feeling depressed. These disorders include clinical depression itself, as well as related problems like anxiety, BPD, dysthymia, or even eating disorders. There are different types of antidepressants, including:

?MAOIs - Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
?SARI - Serotonin Antagonist and Reuptake Inhibitors
?NDRI - Norepinephrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors
?TCAs - Tricyclic Antidepressants
?SNRI - Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
?SSRI - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Anti-psychotics – These powerful psychiatric medications are prescription only and only given under supervised care by licensed psychiatrists. This is because they have serious side effects in and of themselves, and are therefore only used on the most serious of conditions, such as mania, psychosis, or schizophrenia.

Depressants – Our final class of psychiatric medication is the depressants. These find their usage as sedatives (these help a person sleep), and in applications like anesthesiology.

Mood stabilizers – Another potent class of drug, these are intended for the treatment of conditions like bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder. Though not as severe as psychosis, these disorders are still quite serious themselves.

Stimulants – This class of drug is designed to treat those who suffer from things like attention deficit disorder (or ADHD as well), narcolepsy, or as appetite control or suppression enhancements. Because stimulant medications are Schedule II controlled substances, the doctor must give the patient a written prescription each time and refills are not allowed (by law).

How are medications used to treat mental disorders?
Medications treat the symptoms of mental disorders. They cannot cure the disorder, but they make people feel better so they can function.

Medications work differently for different people. Some people get great results from medications and only need them for a short time. For example, a person with depression may feel much better after taking a medication for a few months, and may never need it again. People with disorders like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, or people who have long-term or severe depression or anxiety may need to take medication for a much longer time.

Some people get side effects from medications and other people don't. Doses can be small or large, depending on the medication and the person. Factors that can affect how medications work in people include:

Type of mental disorder, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia
Age, sex, and body size
Physical illnesses
Habits like smoking and drinking
Liver and kidney function
Genetics
Other medications and herbal/vitamin supplements
Diet
Whether medications are taken as prescribed.

Antianxiety medications (benzodiazepines)

What medications are used to treat anxiety disorders?
Antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, and beta-blockers are the most common medications used for anxiety disorders.

Anxiety disorders include:

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Panic disorder
Social phobia.

Antidepressants

Antidepressants were developed to treat depression, but they also help people with anxiety disorders. SSRIs such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), escitalopram (Lexapro), paroxetine (Paxil), and citalopram (Celexa) are commonly prescribed for panic disorder, OCD, PTSD, and social phobia. The SNRI venlafaxine (Effexor) is commonly used to treat GAD. The antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin) is also sometimes used. When treating anxiety disorders, antidepressants generally are started at low doses and increased over time.

Some tricyclic antidepressants work well for anxiety. For example, imipramine (Tofranil) is prescribed for panic disorder and GAD. Clomipramine (Anafranil) is used to treat OCD. Tricyclics are also started at low doses and increased over time.

MAOIs are also used for anxiety disorders. Doctors sometimes prescribe phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and isocarboxazid (Marplan). People who take MAOIs must avoid certain food and medicines that can interact with their medicine and cause dangerous increases in blood pressure. For more information, see the section on medications used to treat depression.

Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications)

The anti-anxiety medications called benzodiazepines can start working more quickly than antidepressants. The ones used to treat anxiety disorders include:

Clonazepam (Klonopin), which is used for social phobia and GAD
Lorazepam (Ativan), which is used for panic disorder
Alprazolam (Xanax), which is used for panic disorder and GAD.
Buspirone (Buspar) is an anti-anxiety medication used to treat GAD. Unlike benzodiazepines, however, it takes at least two weeks for buspirone to begin working.

Clonazepam, listed above, is an anticonvulsant medication. See FDA warning on anticonvulsants under the bipolar disorder section.

Beta-blockers

Beta-blockers control some of the physical symptoms of anxiety, such as trembling and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is a beta-blocker usually used to treat heart conditions and high blood pressure. The medicine also helps people who have physical problems related to anxiety. For example, when a person with social phobia must face a stressful situation, such as giving a speech, or attending an important meeting, a doctor may prescribe a beta-blocker. Taking the medicine for a short period of time can help the person keep physical symptoms under control.

What are the side effects?

See the section on antidepressants for a discussion on side effects. The most common side effects for benzodiazepines are drowsiness and dizziness. Other possible side effects include:

Upset stomach
Blurred vision
Headache
Confusion
Grogginess
Nightmares.
Possible side effects from buspirone (BuSpar) include:
Dizziness
Headaches
Nausea
Nervousness
Lightheadedness
Excitement
Trouble sleeping.

Common side effects from beta-blockers include:

Fatigue
Cold hands
Dizziness
Weakness.

In addition, beta-blockers generally are not recommended for people with asthma or diabetes because they may worsen symptoms.

How should medications for anxiety disorders be taken?
People can build a tolerance to benzodiazepines if they are taken over a long period of time and may need higher and higher doses to get the same effect. Some people may become dependent on them. To avoid these problems, doctors usually prescribe the medication for short periods, a practice that is especially helpful for people who have substance abuse problems or who become dependent on medication easily. If people suddenly stop taking benzodiazepines, they may get withdrawal symptoms, or their anxiety may return. Therefore, they should be tapered off slowly.

Buspirone and beta-blockers are similar. They are usually taken on a short-term basis for anxiety. Both should be tapered off slowly. Talk to the doctor before stopping any anti-anxiety medication.

Antidepressants

What medications are used to treat depression?
Depression is commonly treated with antidepressant medications. Antidepressants work to balance some of the natural chemicals in our brains. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters, and they affect our mood and emotional responses. Antidepressants work on neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

The most popular types of antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include:
Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Citalopram (Celexa)
Sertraline (Zoloft)
Paroxetine (Paxil)
Escitalopram (Lexapro).
Other types of antidepressants are serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). SNRIs are similar to SSRIs and include venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta). Another antidepressant that is commonly used is bupropion (Wellbutrin). Bupropion, which works on the neurotransmitter dopamine, is unique in that it does not fit into any specific drug type.

SSRIs and SNRIs are popular because they do not cause as many side effects as older classes of antidepressants. Older antidepressant medications include tricyclics, tetracyclics, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). For some people, tricyclics, tetracyclics, or MAOIs may be the best medications.

What are the side effects?
Antidepressants may cause mild side effects that usually do not last long. Any unusual reactions or side effects should be reported to a doctor immediately.
The most common side effects associated with SSRIs and SNRIs include:

Headache, which usually goes away within a few days.
Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach), which usually goes away within a few days.
Sleeplessness or drowsiness, which may happen during the first few weeks but then goes away.
Sometimes the medication dose needs to be reduced or the time of day it is taken needs to be adjusted to help lessen these side effects.
Agitation (feeling jittery).
Sexual problems, which can affect both men and women and may include reduced sex drive, and problems having and enjoying sex.
Tricyclic antidepressants can cause side effects, including:

Dry mouth.
Constipation.
Bladder problems. It may be hard to empty the bladder, or the urine stream may not be as strong as usual. Older men with enlarged prostate conditions may be more affected.
Sexual problems, which can affect both men and women and may include reduced sex drive, and problems having and enjoying sex.
Blurred vision, which usually goes away quickly.
Drowsiness. Usually, antidepressants that make you drowsy are taken at bedtime.
People taking MAOIs need to be careful about the foods they eat and the medicines they take. Foods and medicines that contain high levels of a chemical called tyramine are dangerous for people taking MAOIs. Tyramine is found in some cheeses, wines, and pickles. The chemical is also in some medications, including decongestants and over-the-counter cold medicine.

Mixing MAOIs and tyramine can cause a sharp increase in blood pressure, which can lead to stroke. People taking MAOIs should ask their doctors for a complete list of foods, medicines, and other substances to avoid. An MAOI skin patch has recently been developed and may help reduce some of these risks. A doctor can help a person figure out if a patch or a pill will work for him or her.

How should antidepressants be taken?
People taking antidepressants need to follow their doctors' directions. The medication should be taken in the right dose for the right amount of time. It can take three or four weeks until the medicine takes effect. Some people take the medications for a short time, and some people take them for much longer periods. People with long-term or severe depression may need to take medication for a long time.

Once a person is taking antidepressants, it is important not to stop taking them without the help of a doctor. Sometimes people taking antidepressants feel better and stop taking the medication too soon, and the depression may return. When it is time to stop the medication, the doctor will help the person slowly and safely decrease the dose. It's important to give the body time to adjust to the change. People don't get addicted, or "hooked," on the medications, but stopping them abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms.

If a medication does not work, it is helpful to be open to trying another one. A study funded by NIMH found that if a person with difficult-to-treat depression did not get better with a first medication, chances of getting better increased when the person tried a new one or added a second medication to his or her treatment. The study was called STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression).

What is an Alternative Therapy?
A health treatment that is not classified as standard Western medical practice is referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM encompasses a variety of approaches. They include everything from diet and exercise to mental conditioning and lifestyle changes. Examples of CAM therapies include:
Acupuncture
Aromatherapy
Biofeedback
Chiropractic treatments
Dietary supplements
Guided imagery
Hypnosis
Massage therapy
Meditation
Relaxation

Are herbal medicines used to treat depression?
Which Herbal Supplements Can Help Depression?
Here are further guidelines.

FDA warning on antidepressants

Antidepressants are safe and popular, but some studies have suggested that they may have unintentional effects, especially in young people. In 2004, the FDA looked at published and unpublished data on trials of antidepressants that involved nearly 4,400 children and adolescents. They found that 4 percent of those taking antidepressants thought about or tried suicide (although no suicides occurred), compared to 2 percent of those receiving placebos (sugar pill).

In 2005, the FDA decided to adopt a "black box" warning label—the most serious type of warning—on all antidepressant medications. The warning says there is an increased risk of suicidal thinking or attempts in children and adolescents taking antidepressants. In 2007, the FDA proposed that makers of all antidepressant medications extend the warning to include young adults up through age 24.

The warning also says that patients of all ages taking antidepressants should be watched closely, especially during the first few weeks of treatment. Possible side effects to look for are depression that gets worse, suicidal thinking or behavior, or any unusual changes in behavior such as trouble sleeping, agitation, or withdrawal from normal social situations. Families and caregivers should report any changes to the doctor.

Finally, the FDA has warned that combining the newer SSRI or SNRI antidepressants with one of the commonly-used "triptan" medications used to treat migraine headaches could cause a life-threatening illness called "serotonin syndrome." A person with serotonin syndrome may be agitated, have hallucinations (see or hear things that are not real), have a high temperature, or have unusual blood pressure changes. Serotonin syndrome is usually associated with the older antidepressants called MAOIs, but it can happen with the newer antidepressants as well, if they are mixed with the wrong medications.

Antipsychotic medications

What medications are used to treat schizophrenia?
Antipsychotic medications are used to treat schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some of these medications have been available since the mid-1950's. They are also called conventional "typical" antipsychotics. Some of the more commonly used medications include:
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
Haloperidol (Haldol)
Perphenazine (generic only)
Fluphenazine (generic only).
In the 1990's, new antipsychotic medications were developed. These new medications are called second generation, or "atypical" antipsychotics.

One of these medications was clozapine (Clozaril). It is a very effective medication that treats psychotic symptoms, hallucinations, and breaks with reality, such as when a person believes he or she is the president. But clozapine can sometimes cause a serious problem called agranulocytosis, which is a loss of the white blood cells that help a person fight infection. Therefore, people who take clozapine must get their white blood cell counts checked every week or two. This problem and the cost of blood tests make treatment with clozapine difficult for many people. Still, clozapine is potentially helpful for people who do not respond to other antipsychotic medications.

Other atypical antipsychotics were developed. All of them are effective. Agranulocytosis is less likely to occur with these medications than with clozapine, but it has been reported. These include:

Risperidone (Risperdal)
Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
Quetiapine (Seroquel)
Ziprasidone (Geodon)
Aripiprazole (Abilify)
Paliperidone (Invega)
Lurasidone (Latuda)
The antipsychotics listed here are some of the medications used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia. Additional antipsychotics and other medications used for schizophrenia are listed in the chart at the end.

Note: The FDA issued a Public Health Advisory for atypical antipsychotic medications. The FDA determined that death rates are higher for elderly people with dementia when taking this medication. A review of data has found a risk with conventional antipsychotics as well. Antipsychotic medications are not FDA-approved for the treatment of behavioral disorders in patients with dementia.

What are the side effects?
Some people have side effects when they start taking these medications. Most side effects go away after a few days and often can be managed successfully. People who are taking antipsychotics should not drive until they adjust to their new medication. Side effects of many antipsychotics include:
•Drowsiness
•Dizziness when changing positions
•Blurred vision
•Rapid heartbeat
•Sensitivity to the sun
•Skin rashes
•Menstrual problems for women.
Atypical antipsychotic medications can cause major weight gain and changes in a person's metabolism. This may increase a person's risk of getting diabetes and high cholesterol.1 A person's weight, glucose levels, and lipid levels should be monitored regularly by a doctor while taking an atypical antipsychotic medication.

Typical antipsychotic medications can cause side effects related to physical movement, such as:
Rigidity
Persistent muscle spasms
Tremors
Restlessness.
Long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications may lead to a condition called tardive dyskinesia (TD). TD causes muscle movements a person can't control. The movements commonly happen around the mouth. TD can range from mild to severe, and in some people the problem cannot be cured. Sometimes people with TD recover partially or fully after they stop taking the medication.

Every year, an estimated 5 percent of people taking typical antipsychotics get TD. The condition happens to fewer people who take the new, atypical antipsychotics, but some people may still get TD. People who think that they might have TD should check with their doctor before stopping their medication.

How are antipsychotics taken and how do people respond to them?
Antipsychotics are usually pills that people swallow, or liquid they can drink. Some antipsychotics are shots that are given once or twice a month.

Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as feeling agitated and having hallucinations, usually go away within days. Symptoms like delusions usually go away within a few weeks. After about six weeks, many people will see a lot of improvement.

However, people respond in different ways to antipsychotic medications, and no one can tell beforehand how a person will respond. Sometimes a person needs to try several medications before finding the right one. Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication or medication combination, and dose.

Some people may have a relapse—their symptoms come back or get worse. Usually, relapses happen when people stop taking their medication, or when they only take it sometimes. Some people stop taking the medication because they feel better or they may feel they don't need it anymore. But no one should stop taking an antipsychotic medication without talking to his or her doctor. When a doctor says it is okay to stop taking a medication, it should be gradually tapered off, never stopped suddenly.

How do antipsychotics interact with other medications?
Antipsychotics can produce unpleasant or dangerous side effects when taken with certain medications. For this reason, all doctors treating a patient need to be aware of all the medications that person is taking. Doctors need to know about prescription and over-the-counter medicine, vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. People also need to discuss any alcohol or other drug use with their doctor.

To find out more about how antipsychotics work, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) funded a study called CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness). This study compared the effectiveness and side effects of five antipsychotics used to treat people with schizophrenia. In general, the study found that the older medication perphenazine worked as well as the newer, atypical medications. But because people respond differently to different medications, it is important that treatments be designed carefully for each person. You can find more information on CATIE here.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication

What medications are used to treat ADHD?
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs in both children and adults. ADHD is commonly treated with stimulants, such as:

Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Daytrana)
Amphetamine (Adderall)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat).
In 2002, the FDA approved the nonstimulant medication atomoxetine (Strattera) for use as a treatment for ADHD. In February 2007, the FDA approved the use of the stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse) for the treatment of ADHD in children ages 6 to 12 years.

What are the side effects?
Most side effects are minor and disappear when dosage levels are lowered. The most common side effects include:

Decreased appetite. Children seem to be less hungry during the middle of the day, but they are often hungry by dinnertime as the medication wears off.
Sleep problems. If a child cannot fall asleep, the doctor may prescribe a lower dose. The doctor might also suggest that parents give the medication to their child earlier in the day, or stop the afternoon or evening dose. To help ease sleeping problems, a doctor may add a prescription for a low dose of an antidepressant or a medication called clonidine.
Stomachaches and headaches.
Less common side effects. A few children develop sudden, repetitive movements or sounds called tics. These tics may or may not be noticeable. Changing the medication dosage may make tics go away. Some children also may appear to have a personality change, such as appearing "flat" or without emotion. Talk with your child's doctor if you see any of these side effects.How are ADHD medications taken?
Stimulant medications can be short-acting or long-acting, and can be taken in different forms such as a pill, patch, or powder. Long-acting, sustained and extended release forms allow children to take the medication just once a day before school. Parents and doctors should decide together which medication is best for the child and whether the child needs medication only for school hours or for evenings and weekends too.

ADHD medications help many children and adults who are hyperactive and impulsive. They help people focus, work, and learn. Stimulant medication also may improve physical coordination. However, different people respond differently to medications, so children taking ADHD medications should be watched closely.

Are ADHD medications safe?
Stimulant medications are safe when given under a doctor's supervision. Some children taking them may feel slightly different or "funny."

Some parents worry that stimulant medications may lead to drug abuse or dependence, but there is little evidence of this. Research shows that teens with ADHD who took stimulant medications were less likely to abuse drugs than those who did not take stimulant medications.

FDA warning on possible rare side effects

In 2007, the FDA required that all makers of ADHD medications develop Patient Medication Guides. The guides must alert patients to possible heart and psychiatric problems related to ADHD medicine. The FDA required the Patient Medication Guides because a review of data found that ADHD patients with heart conditions had a slightly higher risk of strokes, heart attacks, and sudden death when taking the medications. The review also found a slightly higher risk (about 1 in 1,000) for medication-related psychiatric problems, such as hearing voices, having hallucinations, becoming suspicious for no reason, or becoming manic. This happened to patients who had no history of psychiatric problems.

The FDA recommends that any treatment plan for ADHD include an initial health and family history examination. This exam should look for existing heart and psychiatric problems.

The non-stimulant ADHD medication called atomoxetine (Strattera) carries another warning. Studies show that children and teenagers with ADHD who take atomoxetine are more likely to have suicidal thoughts than children and teenagers with ADHD who do not take atomoxetine. If your child is taking atomoxetine, watch his or her behavior carefully. A child may develop serious symptoms suddenly, so it is important to pay attention to your child's behavior every day. Ask other people who spend a lot of time with your child, such as brothers, sisters, and teachers, to tell you if they notice changes in your child's behavior. Call a doctor right away if your child shows any of the following symptoms:

Acting more subdued or withdrawn than usual
Feeling helpless, hopeless, or worthless
New or worsening depression
Thinking or talking about hurting himself or herself
Extreme worry
Agitation
Panic attacks
Trouble sleeping
Irritability
Aggressive or violent behavior
Acting without thinking
Extreme increase in activity or talking
Frenzied, abnormal excitement
Any sudden or unusual changes in behavior.

While taking atomoxetine, your child should see a doctor often, especially at the beginning of treatment. Be sure that your child keeps all appointments with his or her doctor.

Which groups have special needs when taking psychiatric medications? Psychiatric medications are taken by all types of people, but some groups have special needs, including:

Children and adolescents
Older adults
Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant.

Children and adolescents

Most medications used to treat young people with mental illness are safe and effective. However, many medications have not been studied or approved for use with children. Researchers are not sure how these medications affect a child's growing body. Still, a doctor can give a young person an FDA-approved medication on an "off-label" basis. This means that the doctor prescribes the medication to help the patient even though the medicine is not approved for the specific mental disorder or age.

For these reasons, it is important to watch young people who take these medications. Young people may have different reactions and side effects than adults. Also, some medications, including antidepressants and ADHD medications, carry FDA warnings about potentially dangerous side effects for young people. See the sections on antidepressants and ADHD medications for more information about these warnings.

More research is needed on how these medications affect children and adolescents. NIMH has funded studies on this topic. For example, NIMH funded the Preschoolers with ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), which involved 300 preschoolers (3 to 5 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. The study found that low doses of the stimulant methylphenidate are safe and effective for preschoolers. However, children of this age are more sensitive to the side effects of the medication, including slower growth rates. Children taking methylphenidate should be watched closely.15,16,17

In addition to medications, other treatments for young people with mental disorders should be considered. Psychotherapy, family therapy, educational courses, and behavior management techniques can help everyone involved cope with the disorder. Click here for more information on child and adolescent mental health research.

Older adults

Because older people often have more medical problems than other groups, they tend to take more medications than younger people, including prescribed, over-the-counter, and herbal medications. As a result, older people have a higher risk for experiencing bad drug interactions, missing doses, or overdosing.

Older people also tend to be more sensitive to medications. Even healthy older people react to medications differently than younger people because their bodies process it more slowly. Therefore, lower or less frequent doses may be needed.

Sometimes memory problems affect older people who take medications for mental disorders. An older adult may forget his or her regular dose and take too much or not enough. A good way to keep track of medicine is to use a seven-day pill box, which can be bought at any pharmacy. At the beginning of each week, older adults and their caregivers fill the box so that it is easy to remember what medicine to take. Many pharmacies also have pillboxes with sections for medications that must be taken more than once a day.

Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant

The research on the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy is limited. The risks are different depending on what medication is taken, and at what point during the pregnancy the medication is taken. Research has shown that antidepressants, especially SSRIs, are safe during pregnancy. Birth defects or other problems are possible, but they are very rare.

However, antidepressant medications do cross the placental barrier and may reach the fetus. Some research suggests the use of SSRIs during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage or birth defects, but other studies do not support this.20 Studies have also found that fetuses exposed to SSRIs during the third trimester may be born with "withdrawal" symptoms such as breathing problems, jitteriness, irritability, trouble feeding, or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

Most studies have found that these symptoms in babies are generally mild and short-lived, and no deaths have been reported. On the flip side, women who stop taking their antidepressant medication during pregnancy may get depression again and may put both themselves and their infant at risk.20,21

In 2004, the FDA issued a warning against the use of certain antidepressants in the late third trimester. The warning said that doctors may want to gradually taper pregnant women off antidepressants in the third trimester so that the baby is not affected.22 After a woman delivers, she should consult with her doctor to decide whether to return to a full dose during the period when she is most vulnerable to postpartum depression.

Some medications should not be taken during pregnancy. Benzodiazepines may cause birth defects or other infant problems, especially if taken during the first trimester. Mood stabilizers are known to cause birth defects. Benzodiazepines and lithium have been shown to cause "floppy baby syndrome," which is when a baby is drowsy and limp, and cannot breathe or feed well.

Research suggests that taking antipsychotic medications during pregnancy can lead to birth defects, especially if they are taken during the first trimester. But results vary widely depending on the type of antipsychotic. The conventional antipsychotic haloperidol has been studied more than others, and has been found not to cause birth defects.23,24

After the baby is born, women and their doctors should watch for postpartum depression, especially if they stopped taking their medication during pregnancy. In addition, women who nurse while taking psychiatric medications should know that a small amount of the medication passes into the breast milk. However, the medication may or may not affect the baby. It depends on the medication and when it is taken. Women taking psychiatric medications and who intend to breastfeed should discuss the potential risks and benefits with their doctors.

Decisions on medication should be based on each woman's needs and circumstances. Medications should be selected based on available scientific research, and they should be taken at the lowest possible dose. Pregnant women should be watched closely throughout their pregnancy and after delivery.

Autism medication

SSRIs

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly known as anti-depressants, or drugs that are used to treat anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some of the FDA approved SSRI drugs used to treat symptoms of autism that can be administered to children above the age of seven include fluoxetine (Prozac™), fluvoxamine (Luvox™), sertraline (Zoloft™), and clomipramine (Anafranil™).

Anti psychotic (old)

Older anti-psychotic drugs like Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, and Fluphenazine help in the treatment of behavioral disorders by controlling the intensity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, some of these drugs are known to have side effects like sedation, muscle stiffness, and abnormal movements.

Anti psychotic (new) - Risperidone

Recent studies have developed newer anti-psychotic drugs like Risperidone, which have proven effective in the treatment of aggression and self-injury among autistic children with fewer side effects. The maximum side effect of Risperidone has been increased appetite and weight gain. Other effective antipsychotic drugs include Zyprexa and Geodon. Another moderately prescribed drug for controlling hypertensive behavior is Clonidine.

Anti-convulsants

Anti-convulsants are drugs that control seizures. Since one in every four autistic patients has seizures, the use of anti-convulsants sometimes becomes imperative in managing symptoms. Drugs such as carbamazepine (Tegretol), lamotrigine (Lamictal), topiramate (Topamax), or valproic acid (Depakote) are some of the most used anti-convulsants. However, these drugs can only reduce the amount of seizures, not eliminate their occurrence completely.

Stimulants – Ritalin

Stimulants are drugs that are used for the treatment of autism symptoms to control and treat the autistic tendencies of inattention and hyperactivity. Drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (ADHD) and have proven sufficiently competent in treating the similar symptoms of autism.

Depressants

Alcohol

For instance, in North America a blood alcohol content of 0.10 (0.10% or one tenth of one percent) means that there are 0.10 g of alcohol for every dL of blood.

Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Opioids
    Morphine
    Heroin
    Codeine
    Hydrocodone
    Oxycodone
    Methadone

Miscellaneous[edit]Alpha and beta blockers (Carvedilol, Propanolol, atenolol, etc.)
Anticholinergics (Atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, etc.)
Anticonvulsants (Valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.)
Antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, doxylamine, promethazine, etc.)
Antipsychotics (Haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, etc.)
Dissociatives (Dextromethorphan, ketamine, phencyclidine, nitrous oxide, etc.)
Hypnotics (Zolpidem, zopiclone, chloral hydrate, chloroform, etc.)
Muscle relaxants (Baclofen, carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, etc.)
Sedatives (Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, etc.)

Drug dependence therapy

Used in the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence

INN Common brand name(s)
Acamprosate Campral
Baclofen Baclosan, Kemstro, Lioresal
Buprenorphine Subutex
Buprenorphine/naloxone Suboxone
Disulfiram Antabuse
Methadone Dolophine
Naltrexone Depade, ReVia, Vivitrol
Ondansetron Zofran

Used for smoking cessation

Generic name Brand names
Bupropion Voxra, Zyban
Cytisine Tabex
Varenicline Champix, Chantix

Drugs to treat insomnia (sleeping pills)

Benzodiazepines
Z-drugs
Melatonergic agents
Barbiturates
Sedating antidepressants
Antihistamines
Others

Benzodiazepines
INN Common brand name(s)
Brotizolam Lendormin
Estazolam Eurodin, ProSom
Flunitrazepam Hipnosedon, Hypnodorm, Rohypnol, Vulbegal
Flurazepam Dalmadorm, Dalmane
Loprazolam Dormonoct
Lormetazepam Noctamid
Midazolam Dormicum, Hypnofast
Nimetazepam Erimin
Nitrazepam Alodorm, Dumolid, Mogadon, Pacisyn, Radedorm 5
Phenazepam Phenazepam, Phenorelaxan, Phezipam
Quazepam Doral, Dormalin
Temazepam Normison, Restoril
Triazolam Halcion
Z-drugs

INN Common brand name(s)
Eszopiclone Lunesta
Zaleplon Andante, Sonata, Starnoc
Zolpidem Ambien CR, Hypnogen, Intermezzo, Ivadal, Sanval, Snovitel, Stilnoct, Stilnox, Sublinox
Zopiclone Imovane, Imrest, Piclodorm, Somnol, Zimovane
Melatonergic agents
INN Common brand name(s)
Agomelatine Melitor, Thymanax, Valdoxan
Melatonin Circadin, Melaxen
Ramelteon Rozerem
Barbiturates

INN Common brand name(s)
Amobarbital Amytal Sodium
Amobarbital/secobarbital Tuinal
Butobarbital Neonal, Soneryl
Cyclobarbital/diazepam Reladorm
Pentobarbital Nembutal Sodium
Phenobarbital Luminal
Secobarbital Seconal Sodium
Sedating antidepressants
INN Common brand name(s)
Amitriptyline Elavil, Endep, Laroxyl, Lentizol, Saroten, Sarotex, Tryptizol, Tryptomer
Doxepin Silenor
Mianserin Bolvidon, Depnon, Lerivon, Tolvon
Mirtazapine Avanza, Remeron, Zispin
Trimipramine Rhotrimine, Stangyl, Surmontil
Trazodone Deprax, Desyrel, Oleptro, Trittico
Trimipramine Rhotrimine, Stangyl, Surmontil
Antihistamines

INN Common brand name(s)
Alimemazine Nedeltran, Theralen, Theralene, Theraligene
Cyproheptadine Periactin, Peritol
Diphenhydramine Benadryl, Dimedrol, Daedalon, Nytol
Doxylamine Donormyl, Dormidina, Dozile, NyQuil, Restavit, Somnil, Unisom SleepTab
Hydroxyzine Atarax, Vistaril
Promethazine Avomine, Fargan, Phenergan, Pipolphen, Promethegan, Prothiazine, Romergan, Sominex
Others

INN Common brand name(s)
Chloral hydrate Chloraldurat, Somnote
Clomethiazole Distraneurin, Heminevrin
Glutethimide Doriden
Motherwort
Niaprazine Nopron
Sodium oxybate Alcover, Xyrem
Tizanidine Sirdalud, Zanaflex
Valerian
Melatonin Circadin


Listed below are some drugs that can be used to treat insomnia.

Ambien (zolpidem): The original version of Ambien works well at helping you get to sleep, but some people tended to wake up in the middle of the night. Ambien CR is an extended release version. It helps you get to sleep within 15 to 30 minutes, and the new extended release portion helps you stay asleep. You should not take Ambien or Ambien CR unless you are able to get a full night's sleep -- at least 7 to 8 hours. The FDA has approved a prescription oral spray called Zolpimist, which contains Ambien's active ingredient, for the short-term treatment of insomnia brought on by difficulty falling asleep. The FDA requires that these drugs are offered in lower doses for women. Women clear the drugs from their systems more slowly than men and the agency says blood levels of the drugs could still be high enough the following morning to affect activities that require alertness, such as driving. The FDA says doctors should consider the lower dose for men too.

Lunesta (eszopiclone): Lunesta also helps you fall asleep quickly, and studies show people sleep an average of seven to eight hours. Don't take Lunesta unless you are able to get a full night's sleep as it could cause grogginess. Rozerem (ramelteon): This is a sleep medication that works differently than the others. It works by targeting the sleep-wake cycle, not by depressing the central nervous system. It is prescribed for people who have difficulty falling asleep. Rozerem can be prescribed for long-term use and the drug has shown no evidence of abuse and dependence.

Sonata (zaleplon): Of all the new sleeping pills, Sonata stays active in the body for the shortest amount of time. That means you can try to fall asleep on your own. Then, if you're still staring at the clock at 2 a.m., you can take it without feeling drowsy in the morning. However, if you tend to wake during the night, this might not be the best choice for you.

Silenor (doxepine): In 2010, this sleep drug was approved for use in people who have trouble staying asleep. Silenor may help with sleep maintenance by blocking histamine receptors. Do not take this drug unless you are able to get a full seven or eight hours of sleep. Dosage is based on your health, age, and response to therapy.

Benzodiazepines: These older sleeping pills (Halcion, Restoril, Xanax, and others) are useful when you want an insomnia medication that stays in the system longer. For instance, they have been effectively used to treat sleep problems such as sleepwalking and night terrors. However, these drugs may cause you to feel sleepy during the day and can also cause dependence, meaning you may always need to be on the drug to be able to sleep.

Antidepressants : Some antidepressant drugs, such as Desyrel ( trazodone ) and Remeron (mirtazapine) are particularly effective in treating sleeplessness and anxiety.

Over-the-Counter Sleep Aids: Most of these sleeping pills are antihistamines. They generally work well but can cause some drowsiness the next day.

Over-the-counter sleep aids are available in nearly any pharmacy. Here's a listing of common choices and the potential side effects:

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Unisom sleep). Diphenhydramine is a sedating antihistamine. Side effects might include daytime drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and memory problems.

Doxylamine (Unisom SleepTabs). Doxylamine is also a sedating antihistamine. Side effects are similar to diphenhydramine, including daytime drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness and memory problems.

Melatonin. The hormone melatonin helps control your natural sleep-wake cycle. Some research suggests that melatonin supplements might be helpful in treating jet lag or reducing the time it takes to fall asleep — although the effect is typically mild. The most common melatonin side effects include daytime sleepiness, dizziness and headaches. Other, less common melatonin side effects might include abdominal discomfort, mild anxiety, irritability, confusion and short-lasting feelings of depression.

Valerian. Supplements made from this plant might reduce the amount of time it takes to fall asleep as well as promote better sleep overall. However, the active ingredient isn't clear and potency can vary. Side effects of valerian supplements might include headache, abdominal discomfort, excitability or uneasiness, and heart disturbances.

Store brands containing the same active ingredients as brand-name sleep aids are commonly available.

If you decide to use over-the-counter sleep aids
If you think you'd benefit from over-the-counter sleep aids, follow these steps:

Start with your doctor. You don't need your doctor's OK to take an over-the-counter sleep aid, but it's a good idea to check with him or her anyway. Your doctor can make sure the sleep aid won't interact with other medications or underlying conditions, as well as determine the best dosage.

Keep precautions in mind. Diphenhydramine and doxylamine aren't recommended for people who have closed-angle glaucoma, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe liver disease or urinary retention — which can be preceded by a weak urine stream or trouble starting urination. In addition, most sleep aids aren't recommended for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Take it one day at a time. Over-the-counter sleep aids are a temporary solution for insomnia. Generally, they're not intended to be used for longer than two weeks.

Avoid alcohol. Never mix alcohol and sleep aids. Alcohol can increase the sedative effects of the medication. Beware of side effects. Don't drive or attempt other activities that require alertness while taking sleep aids.

Mood stabilizers

What medications are used to treat bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is commonly treated with mood stabilizers. Sometimes, antipsychotics and antidepressants are used along with a mood stabilizer.

Mood stabilizers
People with bipolar disorder usually try mood stabilizers first. In general, people continue treatment with mood stabilizers for years. Lithium is a very effective mood stabilizer. It was the first mood stabilizer approved by the FDA in the 1970's for treating both manic and depressive episodes.

Anticonvulsant medications also are used as mood stabilizers. They were originally developed to treat seizures, but they were found to help control moods as well. One anticonvulsant commonly used as a mood stabilizer is valproic acid, also called divalproex sodium (Depakote). For some people, it may work better than lithium.6 Other anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers are carbamazepine (Tegretol), lamotrigine (Lamictal) and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal).

Atypical antipsychotics

Atypical antipsychotic medications are sometimes used to treat symptoms of bipolar disorder. Often, antipsychotics are used along with other medications.

Antipsychotics used to treat people with bipolar disorder include:
Olanzapine (Zyprexa), which helps people with severe or psychotic depression, which often is accompanied by a break with reality, hallucinations, or delusions7 Aripiprazole (Abilify), which can be taken as a pill or as a shot
Risperidone (Risperdal)
Ziprasidone (Geodon)
Clozapine (Clorazil), which is often used for people who do not respond to lithium or anticonvulsants.8 Lurasidone (Latuda)

Antidepressants

Antidepressants are sometimes used to treat symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder. Fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), or sertraline (Zoloft) are a few that are used. However, people with bipolar disorder should not take an antidepressant on its own. Doing so can cause the person to rapidly switch from depression to mania, which can be dangerous.9 To prevent this problem, doctors give patients a mood stabilizer or an antipsychotic along with an antidepressant.

Research on whether antidepressants help people with bipolar depression is mixed. An NIMH-funded study found that antidepressants were no more effective than a placebo to help treat depression in people with bipolar disorder. The people were taking mood stabilizers along with the antidepressants. You can find out more about this study, called STEP-BD (Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder), here.

What are the side effects?
Treatments for bipolar disorder have improved over the last 10 years. But everyone responds differently to medications. If you have any side effects, tell your doctor right away. He or she may change the dose or prescribe a different medication.

Different medications for treating bipolar disorder may cause different side effects. Some medications used for treating bipolar disorder have been linked to unique and serious symptoms, which are described below.

Lithium can cause several side effects, and some of them may become serious. They include:

Loss of coordination
Excessive thirst
Frequent urination
Blackouts
Seizures
Slurred speech
Fast, slow, irregular, or pounding heartbeat
Hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
Changes in vision
Itching, rash
Swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs. If a person with bipolar disorder is being treated with lithium, he or she should visit the doctor regularly to check the levels of lithium in the blood, and make sure the kidneys and the thyroid are working normally.

Some possible side effects linked with valproic acid/divalproex sodium include:

Changes in weight
Nausea
Stomach pain
Vomiting
Anorexia
Loss of appetite.

Valproic acid may cause damage to the liver or pancreas, so people taking it should see their doctors regularly.

Valproic acid may affect young girls and women in unique ways. Sometimes, valproic acid may increase testosterone (a male hormone) levels in teenage girls and lead to a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).11,12 PCOS is a disease that can affect fertility and make the menstrual cycle become irregular, but symptoms tend to go away after valproic acid is stopped.13 It also may cause birth defects in women who are pregnant.

Lamotrigine can cause a rare but serious skin rash that needs to be treated in a hospital. In some cases, this rash can cause permanent disability or be life-threatening.

In addition, valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and other anticonvulsant medications (listed in the chart at the end of this document) have an FDA warning. The warning states that their use may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. People taking anticonvulsant medications for bipolar or other illnesses should be closely monitored for new or worsening symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. People taking these medications should not make any changes without talking to their health care professional.

Other medications for bipolar disorder may also be linked with rare but serious side effects. Always talk with the doctor or pharmacist about any potential side effects before taking the medication.

For information on side effects of antipsychotics, see the section on medications for treating schizophrenia.

For information on side effects and FDA warnings of antidepressants, see the section on medications for treating depression.

How should medications for bipolar disorder be taken?
Medications should be taken as directed by a doctor. Sometimes a person's treatment plan needs to be changed. When changes in medicine are needed, the doctor will guide the change. A person should never stop taking a medication without asking a doctor for help.

There is no cure for bipolar disorder, but treatment works for many people. Treatment works best when it is continuous, rather than on and off. However, mood changes can happen even when there are no breaks in treatment. Patients should be open with their doctors about treatment. Talking about how treatment is working can help it be more effective.

It may be helpful for people or their family members to keep a daily chart of mood symptoms, treatments, sleep patterns, and life events. This chart can help patients and doctors track the illness. Doctors can use the chart to treat the illness most effectively.

Because medications for bipolar disorder can have serious side effects, it is important for anyone taking them to see the doctor regularly to check for possibly dangerous changes in the body.

Parkinson's disease and Restless legs syndrome

INN Common brand name(s)
Cabergoline Cabaser, Dostinex
Gabapentin enacarbil Horizant
Pergolide Permax
Piribedil Pronoran, Trivastal
Pramipexole Daquiran, Mirapex, Mirapexin, Oprymea, Sifrol, Vasiprax
Ropinirole Adartrel, Requip, Ropark
Rotigotine Neupro
Tramadol Tramal, Troxal, Ultram

Stimulants

INN Common brand name(s)
Amphetamine mixed salts Adderall
Dexmethylphenidate Attenade, Focalin
Dextroamphetamine Dexedrine, Dextrostat
Lisdexamfetamine Vyvanse
Methamphetamine Desoxyn
Methylphenidate Concerta, Daytrana, Methylin, Ritalin

What should I ask my doctor if I am prescribed a psychiatric medication?
You and your family can help your doctor find the right medications for you. The doctor needs to know your medical history; family history; information about allergies; other medications, supplements or herbal remedies you take; and other details about your overall health. You or a family member should ask the following questions when a medication is prescribed:

How will this medication help me?
How will I be better off after taking this medication?
What is the name of the medication?
What is the medication supposed to do?
How and when should I take it?
How much should I take?
What should I do if I miss a dose?
When and how should I stop taking it?
Will it interact with other medications I take?
Do I need to avoid any types of food or drink while taking the medication? What should I avoid? Should it be taken with or without food?
Is it safe to drink alcohol while taking this medication?
What are the side effects? What should I do if I experience them?
Is the Patient Package Insert for the medication available?

After taking the medication for a short time, tell your doctor how you feel, if you are having side effects, and any concerns you have about the medicine.

Psychiatry, law and justice
Who may utilize this program for education and reference?

1. Emergency medical doctor
2. Consultant in emergency medicine
3. Psychiatrist
4. Attending physician
5. Head of the department of psychiatry
6. Heads of other departments
7. Registrar in psychiatry
8. Postgraduate emergency medicine doctor
9. Postgraduate psychiatry doctor
10. Court worker
11. Administrator
12. Police
13. Security officer
14. Lawyer
15. Judge
16. Hospital worker
17. Legislator
18. Maintenance worker
19. Community counseling center worker
20. Media
21. Health department worker
22. Medical student
23. Social work student
24. Medical student intern
25. Social work student
26. Social work Intern
27. Social worker
28. Social work master's worker
29. Social work PhD worker
30. Parents
31. Teacher
32. Principal
33. Patient
34. State Department of Health
35. Nurse
36. Therapist
37. General public

If you identify yourself with anyone on the list, this program is for you.
What best describes you in the list?
Do you think anyone else needs this program for education and reference?
Here are further guidelines.
Psychiatry, law and justice
Why was there a need to establish this education and reference resource?
What led to writing of this book?
Why was there need to write this book?
Take a look at this.
Involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility
I researched and monitored involuntary and judicial admission to a psychiatric facility for a specific time period.

Every week lawsuits were filed in a specific court:
Involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility; victim seeks damages; victim seeks injunction; victim seeks punishment of oppressors.

As a matter of fact, abuse of involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility has been recognized.

When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?

When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?

Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility if someone else lies?
No.

Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility if his rights are violated, and if he genuinely protests because his rights are violated?
No.

Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility if there is a dispute and the other party failed to resolve it?
No.

Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility because of a politically motivated or monopoly motivated malicious scheme?
No.

Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatry facility if due to lies or due to incompetence of medical doctor there is wrong diagnosis?
No.

Can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility because he/she belongs to a different religion?
No.

Who has the duty and responsibility to educate those oppressing others and subjecting them to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility due to bias, prejudice, or hate?

Who has the duty and responsibility to punish those abusing and oppressing people this way due to incompetence, being members of a monopoly, bias, prejudice, or hate?

What reward or compensation should there be for those who were subject to this type of unfair intentional harm due to incompetence, bias, prejudice or hate?

How should those who were subject to this type of unfair intentional harm due to incompetence, bias, prejudice, or hate be compensated or rewarded?

What have you done to prevent such abuse and intentional harm and compensate those who were subject to this type of harms due to incompetence, bias, prejudice, or hate?

Have you come across any such incident or case?
Take a look at this.

2009.
The University of Illinois was marred by scams and scandals, and all trustees were replaced. Now, there are scams and scandals of selecting and placing incompetent medical doctors and the rest of the staff.

Michael J. Schrift
University of Illinois at Chicago
Department of Psychiatry
Chicago, IL 60612
Michael J. Schrift, D.O., is the Director of Neuropsychiatry and Medical Director of the Neurobehavior Program.
Does he deserve to be there?

Eric Gausche
University of Illinois Medical Center
Department of Psychiatry.
They have no answer to these questions.
What is the most important duty and responsibility of a medical doctor?
What is good human character?
What is good human behavior?
What are the rights of a civilized human being?
Who is a civilized human being?
Should they be permitted to handle cases?
They have no correct answers to many more questions.

How will you handle Carl Brakman, LCSW at the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, who gives his self-styled conclusions?

How will you handle a non-medico clinician at Chicago Lakeshore Hospital, Illinois, who accepts not being a medical doctor and still writes diagnoses and further referrals without having experience in various hospital medical settings or having studied relevant medical books, putting others into harm because of unfair placement?

What is the budget of University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago?
How much is spent on training medical doctors?
Is the training of good quality, good standard?
No.
Who should be held responsible for this substandard training?

How will you protect the public from medical and legal professionals who display the license number without being able to answer questions?

Is their remuneration far more than their competence and quality of service they provide?
Yes.

Do they deserve such remuneration?
No.

What is being done regularly to audit their competence and medical malpractice, case by case?
Here are further guidelines.
Take a look at this.

What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness?

1. Misinterpretation of facts, written or verbal.
2. Misinterpretation of facts due to prejudice, bias, incompetence, or grouping with gang members.
3. Malicious discovery.
4. Lies.
5. Provocation to elicit malicious discovery.
6. Instigating and inducing statements under duress.
7. Deprivation of rights to elicit malicious discovery.
8. Smear campaign with misinterpretation of facts to defame.
9. Defamation with statements like 'do not tell him/her,' 'do not tell him/her I told you.'
10. Politically motivated malicious harmful tricks.

Are there pecuniary and punitive damages for these harms?
Yes, there are.
How should police verify the findings in case they are called for involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?
What are the harmful tricks that oppressors and their harmful associates use to label a normal person while depriving him/her of rights and inflicting intentional harms as mentally challenged person or with mental illness?
When can a person be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
When can a person not be subject to involuntary judicial admission to a psychiatric facility?
Here are further guidelines.
Psychiatric disorders
Disorder Category
Disorder Name
DSM-IV Code

Adult behavioral health problems
What are psychiatric disorders?
Proposed DSM-5 Organizational Structure and Disorder Names

1. Adjustment Disorders
2. Anxiety Disorders
3. Cognitive Disorders
4. Developmental Disorders
5. Dissociative Disorders
6. Eating Disorders
7. Factitious Disorders
8. Intentional Enforced Harms
9. Impulse-Control Disorders
10. Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition
11. Mood Disorders
12. Psychiatric Medical Emergencies
13. Personality Disorders
14. Psychotic Disorders
15. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
16. Sleep Disorders
17. Somatoform Disorders
18. Substance Related Disorders
  1. Acute stress reactions (Acute stress disorder)

  2. Academic Problem (Study Skills, Time Management)

  3. Acculturation Problem

  4. Adjustment disorder

  5. Adjustment Disorder Unspecified

  6. Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety

  7. Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood

  8. Adjustment Disorder With Disturbance of Conduct

  9. Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood

  10. Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct

  11. Adolescent antisocial behavior

  12. Adult antisocial behavior

  13. Adult Antisocial Behavior

  14. Adverse Effects of Medication NOS

  15. Adverse effects of medication-not otherwise specified

  16. Age-Related Cognitive Decline

  17. Aggression or impulsivity

  18. Agitation

  19. Agoraphobia

  20. Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder

  21. Alcohol Abuse

  22. Alcohol and drug abuse

  23. Alcohol Dependence

  24. Alcohol Intoxication

  25. Alcohol Intoxication Delirium

  26. Alcohol Withdrawal

  27. Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium

  28. Alcoholic hallucinosis

  29. Alcohol-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  30. Alcohol-Induced Mood Disorder

  31. Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder

  32. Alcohol-Induced Persisting Dementia

  33. Alcohol-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  34. Alcohol-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  35. Alcohol-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

  36. Alcohol-Induced Sleep Disorder

  37. Alcohol-Related Disorder NOS

  38. Alzheimer's disease

  39. Amnestic disorder

  40. Amnestic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  41. Amnestic Disorder NOS

  42. Amphetamine Abuse

  43. Amphetamine Dependence

  44. Amphetamine Intoxication

  45. Amphetamine Intoxication Delirium

  46. Amphetamine Withdrawal

  47. Amphetamine withdrawal psychosis

  48. Amphetamine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  49. Amphetamine-Induced Mood Disorder

  50. Amphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  51. Amphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  52. Amphetamine-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

  53. Amphetamine-Induced Sleep Disorder

  54. Amphetamine-Related Disorder NOS

  55. Anorexia Nervosa

  56. Anterograde amnesia

  57. Antisocial Personality Disorder

  58. Anxiety disorder

  59. Anxiety Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  60. Anxiety Disorder NOS

  61. Anxiety or panic

  62. Anxiolytic-related disorders

  63. Asperger syndrome

  64. Asperger's Disorder

  65. Attention deficit disorder

  66. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  67. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder NOS

  68. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

  69. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type

  70. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type

  71. Autism

  72. Autistic Disorder

  73. Autophagia

  74. Avoidant Personality Disorder

  75. Barbiturate dependence

  76. Benzodiazepine dependence

  77. Benzodiazepine misuse

  78. Benzodiazepine withdrawal

  79. Bereavement

  80. Bibliomania

  81. Binge eating disorder

  82. Bipolar disorder

  83. Bipolar Disorder NOS

  84. Bipolar I disorder

  85. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, In Full Remission

  86. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, In Partial Remission

  87. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Mild

  88. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Moderate

  89. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Severe With Psychotic Features

  90. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Severe Without Psychotic Features

  91. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Depressed, Unspecified

  92. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Hypomanic

  93. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, In Full Remission

  94. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, In Partial Remission

  95. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Mild

  96. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Moderate

  97. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Severe With Psychotic Features

  98. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Severe Without Psychotic Features

  99. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Manic, Unspecified

  100. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, In Full Remission

  101. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, In Partial Remission

  102. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Mild

  103. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Moderate

  104. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Severe With Psychotic Features

  105. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Severe Without Psychotic Features

  106. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Mixed, Unspecified

  107. Bipolar I Disorder, Most Recent Episode Unspecified

  108. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, In Full Remission

  109. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, In Partial Remission

  110. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Mild

  111. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Moderate

  112. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Severe With Psychotic Features

  113. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features

  114. Bipolar I Disorder, Single Manic Episode, Unspecified

  115. Bipolar II Disorder

  116. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

  117. Borderline Intellectual Functioning

  118. Borderline Personality Disorder

  119. Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder

  120. Brief Psychotic Disorder

  121. Bulimia Nervosa

  122. Burn sequelae

  123. Caffeine Intoxication

  124. Caffeine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  125. Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disorder

  126. Caffeine-related disorder

  127. Caffeine-Related Disorder NOS

  128. Cannabis Abuse

  129. Cannabis Dependence

  130. Cannabis Intoxication

  131. Cannabis Intoxication Delirium

  132. Cannabis-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  133. Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  134. Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  135. Cannabis-Related Disorder NOS

  136. Catatonic disorder

  137. Catatonic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  138. Catatonic schizophrenia

  139. Change of mental status

  140. Child abuse

  141. Child or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

  142. Childhood amnesia

  143. Childhood antisocial behavior

  144. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

  145. Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder

  146. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder

  147. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Delayed Sleep Phase Type

  148. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Jet Lag Type

  149. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Shift Work Type

  150. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Unspecified Type

  151. Claustrophobia

  152. Cocaine Abuse

  153. Cocaine Dependence

  154. Cocaine Intoxication

  155. Cocaine Intoxication Delirium

  156. Cocaine Withdrawal

  157. Cocaine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  158. Cocaine-Induced Mood Disorder

  159. Cocaine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  160. Cocaine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  161. Cocaine-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

  162. Cocaine-Induced Sleep Disorder

  163. Cocaine-Related Disorder NOS

  164. Cognitive disorder

  165. Cognitive Disorder NOS

  166. Communication disorder

  167. Communication Disorder NOS

  168. Conduct disorder

  169. Conduct Disorder, Adolescent Onset Type

  170. Conduct Disorder, Childhood Onset Type

  171. Conversion Disorder

  172. Coping with illness

  173. Cotard delusion

  174. Cyclothymia

  175. Cyclothymic Disorder

  176. Death, dying, and bereavement

  177. Delirium

  178. Delirium Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  179. Delirium NOS

  180. Delirium tremens

  181. Delusional Disorder

  182. Dementia

  183. Dementia Due to ______ Disease

  184. Dementia Due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

  185. Dementia Due to Head Trauma

  186. Dementia Due to Huntington's Disease

  187. Dementia Due to Parkinson's Disease

  188. Dementia Due to Pick's Disease

  189. Dementia Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  190. Dementia NOS

  191. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, Uncomplicated

  192. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, With Delirium

  193. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, With Delusions

  194. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Early Onset, With Depressed Mood

  195. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, Uncomplicated

  196. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, With Delirium

  197. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, With Delusions

  198. Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type, With Late Onset, With Depressed Mood

  199. Dependent Personality Disorder

  200. Depersonalization disorder

  201. Depression

  202. Depressive disorder

  203. Depressive Disorder NOS

  204. Derealization disorder

  205. Desynchronosis

  206. Determination of capacity and other forensic issues

  207. Developmental coordination disorder

  208. Diagnosis Deferred on Axis II

  209. Diagnosis or Condition Deferred on Axis I

  210. Diogenes Syndrome

  211. Disorder of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence NOS

  212. Disorder of Written Expression

  213. Dispareunia

  214. Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOS

  215. Dissociative Amnesia

  216. Dissociative Disorder NOS

  217. Dissociative Fugue

  218. Dissociative Identity Disorder

  219. Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)

  220. Dyslexia

  221. Dyspareunia (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)

  222. Dyssomnia NOS

  223. Dysthymia

  224. Dysthymic Disorder

  225. Eating Disorder NOS

  226. Eating disorders

  227. EDNOS

  228. Ekbom's Syndrome (Delusional Parasitosis)

  229. Encopresis

  230. Encopresis, With Constipation and Overflow Incontinence

  231. Encopresis, Without Constipation and Overflow Incontinence

  232. Enuresis (not due to a general medical condition)

  233. Erotomania

  234. Ethical issues

  235. Exhibitionism

  236. Expressive Language Disorder

  237. Factitious disorder

  238. Factitious Disorder NOS

  239. Factitious Disorder With Combined Psychological and Physical Signs and Symptoms

  240. Factitious Disorder With Predominantly Physical Signs and Symptoms

  241. Factitious Disorder With Predominantly Psychological Signs and Symptoms

  242. Family problems

  243. Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood

  244. Female Dyspareunia Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  245. Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  246. Female Orgasmic Disorder

  247. Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

  248. Fetishism

  249. Fregoli delusion

  250. Frotteurism

  251. Fugue

  252. Ganser syndrome (due to a mental disorder)

  253. Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults

  254. Gender Identity Disorder in Children

  255. Gender Identity Disorder NOS

  256. General adaptation syndrome

  257. Generalized anxiety disorder

  258. Geriatric abuse

  259. Grandiose delusions

  260. Hallucinogen Abuse

  261. Hallucinogen Dependence

  262. Hallucinogen Intoxication

  263. Hallucinogen Intoxication Delirium

  264. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder

  265. Hallucinogen-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  266. Hallucinogen-Induced Mood Disorder

  267. Hallucinogen-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  268. Hallucinogen-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  269. Hallucinogen-related disorder

  270. Hallucinogen-Related Disorder NOS

  271. Histrionic personality disorder

  272. Human rights violations from others

  273. Huntington's disease

  274. Hypersomnia Related to ... [Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder]

  275. Hypnosis

  276. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

  277. Hypochondriasis

  278. Hypomanic episode

  279. Identity Problem

  280. Impulse control disorder

  281. Impulse-Control Disorder NOS

  282. Impulse-control disorder not elsewhere classified

  283. Inhalant abuse

  284. Inhalant Dependence

  285. Inhalant Intoxication

  286. Inhalant Intoxication Delirium

  287. Inhalant-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  288. Inhalant-Induced Mood Disorder

  289. Inhalant-Induced Persisting Dementia

  290. Inhalant-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  291. Inhalant-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  292. Inhalant-Related Disorder NOS

  293. Insomnia due to a general medical condition

  294. Insomnia Related to ... [Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder]

  295. Intellectual disability

  296. Intentional enforced harms from others

  297. Intermittent explosive disorder

  298. Kleptomania

  299. Korsakoff's syndrome

  300. Lacunar amnesia

  301. Learning Disorder NOS

  302. Major depressive disorder

  303. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, In Full Remission

  304. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, In Partial Remission

  305. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Mild

  306. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Moderate

  307. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe With Psychotic Features

  308. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe Without Psychotic Features

  309. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Unspecified

  310. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, In Full Remission

  311. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, In Partial Remission

  312. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Mild

  313. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Moderate

  314. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe With Psychotic Features

  315. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Severe Without Psychotic Features

  316. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Unspecified

  317. Major depressive episode

  318. Male Dyspareunia Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  319. Male erectile disorder

  320. Male Erectile Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  321. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to...[Indicate the Medical Condition]

  322. Male Orgasmic Disorder

  323. Malingering

  324. Manic episode

  325. Mathematics disorder

  326. Medication-Induced Movement Disorder NOS

  327. Medication-Induced Postural Tremor

  328. Medication-related disorder

  329. Melancholia

  330. Mental Disorder NOS Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  331. Mental Retardation, Severity Unspecified

  332. Mild Mental Retardation

  333. Minor depressive episode

  334. Misophonia

  335. Mixed episode

  336. Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

  337. Moderate Mental Retardation

  338. Mood disorder

  339. Mood Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  340. Mood Disorder NOS

  341. Mood episode

  342. Morbid jealousy

  343. Munchausen's syndrome

  344. Munchausen's syndrome by proxy

  345. Narcissistic personality disorder

  346. Narcolepsy

  347. Neglect of child

  348. Neglect of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)

  349. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

  350. Neuroleptic-Induced Acute Akathisia

  351. Neuroleptic-Induced Acute Dystonia

  352. Neuroleptic-Induced Parkinsonism

  353. Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia

  354. Neuroleptic-related disorder

  355. Nicotine Dependence

  356. Nicotine withdrawal

  357. Nicotine-Related Disorder NOS

  358. Night eating syndrome

  359. Nightmare disorder

  360. No Diagnosis on Axis II

  361. No Diagnosis or Condition on Axis I

  362. Noncompliance With Treatment

  363. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  364. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

  365. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

  366. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)

  367. Occupational Problem

  368. Oneirophrenia

  369. Opioid Abuse

  370. Opioid dependence

  371. Opioid Intoxication

  372. Opioid Intoxication Delirium

  373. Opioid Withdrawal

  374. Opioid-Induced Mood Disorder

  375. Opioid-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  376. Opioid-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  377. Opioid-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

  378. Opioid-Induced Sleep Disorder

  379. Opioid-related disorder

  380. Opioid-Related Disorder NOS

  381. Oppositional Defiant Disorder

  382. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

  383. Other (or Unknown) Substance Abuse

  384. Other (or Unknown) Substance Dependence

  385. Other (or Unknown) Substance Intoxication

  386. Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal

  387. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  388. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Delirium

  389. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Mood Disorder

  390. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder

  391. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia

  392. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  393. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  394. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

  395. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder

  396. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorder NOS

  397. Other Conduct Disorder

  398. Other Female Sexual Dysfunction Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  399. Other Male Sexual Dysfunction Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  400. Pain

  401. Pain disorder

  402. Pain Disorder Associated With Both Psychological Factors and a General Medical Condition

  403. Pain Disorder Associated With Psychological Factors

  404. Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia

  405. Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia

  406. Paranoid personality disorder

  407. Paraphilia NOS

  408. Parasomnia

  409. Parasomnia NOS

  410. Parent-Child Relational Problem

  411. Parkinson's Disease

  412. Partner Relational Problem

  413. Pathological gambling

  414. Pediatric psychiatric illness

  415. Pedophilia

  416. Perfectionism

  417. Persecutory delusion

  418. Personality change due to a general medical condition

  419. Personality Change Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition]

  420. Personality disorder

  421. Personality Disorder NOS

  422. Personality disorders

  423. Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)

  424. Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

  425. Phase of Life Problem

  426. Phencyclidine (or phencyclidine-like)-related disorder

  427. Phencyclidine Abuse

  428. Phencyclidine Dependence

  429. Phencyclidine Intoxication

  430. Phencyclidine Intoxication Delirium

  431. Phencyclidine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  432. Phencyclidine-Induced Mood Disorder

  433. Phencyclidine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  434. Phencyclidine-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  435. Phencyclidine-Related Disorder NOS

  436. Phobic disorder

  437. Phonological disorder

  438. Physical abuse

  439. Physical Abuse of Adult (if by partner)

  440. Physical Abuse of Adult (if by person other than partner)

  441. Physical Abuse of Adult (if focus of attention is on victim)

  442. Physical Abuse of Child

  443. Physical Abuse of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)

  444. Pica

  445. Polysubstance Dependence

  446. Polysubstance-related disorder

  447. Post-traumatic embitterment disorder (PTED)

  448. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  449. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

  450. Pregnancy-related care

  451. Premature ejaculation

  452. Primary hypersomnia

  453. Primary insomnia

  454. Profound Mental Retardation

  455. Psychiatric care in the intensive care unit

  456. Psychiatric manifestations of medical and neurological illness

  457. Psychogenic amnesia

  458. Psychological and neuropsychological testing

  459. Psychological factor affecting medical condition

  460. Psychological factors affecting medical illness

  461. Psycho-oncology

  462. Psychopharmacology of the medically ill

  463. Psychosis

  464. Psychotic disorder

  465. Psychotic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition], With Delusions

  466. Psychotic Disorder Due to...[Indicate the General Medical Condition], With Hallucinations

  467. Psychotic Disorder NOS

  468. Pyromania

  469. Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

  470. Reading disorder

  471. Recurrent brief depression

  472. Relational disorder

  473. Relational Problem NOS

  474. Relational Problem Related to a Mental Disorder or General Medical Condition

  475. Relational Problems

  476. Religious or Spiritual Problem

  477. Residual schizophrenia

  478. Restraints

  479. Retrograde amnesia

  480. Rett's disorder

  481. Rumination Disorder

  482. Rumination syndrome

  483. Sadomasochism

  484. Schizoaffective disorder

  485. Schizoid personality disorder

  486. Schizophrenia

  487. Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type

  488. Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type

  489. Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type

  490. Schizophrenia, Residual Type

  491. Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Type

  492. Schizophreniform disorder

  493. Schizotypal personality disorder

  494. Seasonal affective disorder

  495. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Abuse

  496. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Dependence

  497. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication

  498. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication Delirium

  499. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal

  500. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal Delirium

  501. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Anxiety Disorder

  502. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Mood Disorder

  503. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder

  504. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Persisting Dementia

  505. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions

  506. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations

  507. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction

  508. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Sleep Disorder

  509. Sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-related disorder

  510. Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorder NOS

  511. Selective mutism

  512. Separation anxiety disorder

  513. Severe mental retardation

  514. Sexual abuse

  515. Sexual Abuse of Adult (if by partner)

  516. Sexual Abuse of Adult (if by person other than partner)

  517. Sexual Abuse of Adult (if focus of attention is on victim)

  518. Sexual Abuse of Child

  519. Sexual Abuse of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)

  520. Sexual Aversion Disorder

  521. Sexual Disorder NOS

  522. Sexual Dysfunction NOS

  523. Sexual Masochism

  524. Sexual Sadism

  525. Shared psychotic disorder

  526. Sibling Relational Problem

  527. Sleep disorder

  528. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Hypersomnia Type

  529. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Insomnia Type

  530. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Mixed Type

  531. Sleep Disorder Due to ... [Indicate the General Medical Condition], Parasomnia Type

  532. Sleep disorders

  533. Sleep terror disorder

  534. Sleepwalking disorder

  535. Social anxiety disorder

  536. Social phobia

  537. Somatization disorder

  538. Somatoform disorder

  539. Somatoform Disorder NOS

  540. Specific phobia

  541. Stendhal syndrome

  542. Stereotypic movement disorder

  543. Stress

  544. Stuttering

  545. Substance-related disorder

  546. Tardive dyskinesia

  547. Terminal illness

  548. Tic Disorder NOS

  549. Tourette syndrome

  550. Tourette's Disorder

  551. Transient global amnesia

  552. Transient Tic Disorder

  553. Transvestic Fetishism

  554. Trichotillomania

  555. Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder

  556. Unspecified Mental Disorder (nonpsychotic)

  557. Vaginismus (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)

  558. Vascular Dementia, Uncomplicated

  559. Vascular Dementia, With Delirium

  560. Vascular Dementia, With Delusions

  561. Vascular Dementia, With Depressed Mood

  562. Voyeurism
Academic Problem (Study Skills, Time Management)

What recommendations should you expect?
You should expect at least one of these recommendations.
The student is being educated with a substandard curriculum.
The student is being educated with a curriculum that is not going to help in real world.
The student has incompetent teacher or teachers.
The student needs to be surrounded by academically advanced intelligent students.
The student is facing a harmful environment leading to failure to thrive and learn.
A harmful environment can be inadequate food, verbal or physical abuse, inhabitable living conditions, inadequate survival needs compared to others, negligence of parents or guardian, and inadequate resources for learning.
In rare situations, the student has a congenital or developmental disability.

What is mental illness?
What is a psychotic disorder?
Mental illness and behavioral disorder: Is there a difference?
What is being paranoid?
What isn't being paranoid?
What isn't mental illness?
What symptoms or signs will a normal person manifest subject to harmful conditions?
What is a diagnostic and statistical manual?
How often is a diagnostic and statistical manual updated?
Who is in charge of updating this manual?
Are there any controversies associated with it?
What is it called when a person sees and hears one thing and says and writes something else?
What in included in taking care of oneself?
What are the indications a person is taking care of others?
What is the difference between taking care of others with and without having accepted such duty and responsibility?

This is a broad term.

If you don't have the correct answer to this question, you need to do further research.

A person asks for Muslim medical doctor at Swedish covenant hospital after seeing the doctors there to be incompetent or harmful. Where should you look for Muslim medical doctors?

Harmful incidents

How do you feel about it?
What comes to your mind after you recall this incident?
Do you get good or bad feelings?

Who creates a mental health legal statute?
Who should create a mental health legal statute?
What should be taken into consideration before creating a mental health statute?
How often should this be updated?

Can a person reach a correct diagnosis and manage cases without knowing about the medical condition or disorder, its symptoms, signs, relevant underlying pathogenesis, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and related knowledge?

No.

What are intentional enforced harms?
Who authors and updates ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders?
What does ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral Disorders say about intentional enforced harms?
Who authors and updates the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
What does the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders say about intentional enforced harms?


Personality disorder

What are personality disorders?
What is not a personality disorder?

What are the symptoms, signs, and issues that should alert mandatory psychiatrist consultation?
What questions should you ask a psychiatrist to determine his or her competence?

What should a psychiatrist or medical doctor know to prevent wrong diagnosis and treatment?


If you're not sure what the problem might be, review the common symptoms to see if any of them sound like you or your loved one.

•Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
•Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
•Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
•Postpartum Depression
Common symptoms of adult behavioral health problems
If you aren't sure what the problem might be, review this list of typical symptoms to see if any of them seem familiar. This is not an accurate diagnostic tool, but can provide a rough indication of where you should see a behavioral health care professional.

You might have Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, also known as ADHD for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) if you:
•Are easily distracted by sights and sounds
•Don't pay attention to detail
•Don't seem to listen when spoken to
•Make careless mistakes
•Don't follow through on instructions or tasks
•Avoid or dislike activities that require longer periods of mental effort
•Lose or forget items necessary for tasks
•Forgetful in day-to-day activities
•Restless, fidget and squirm
•Talk excessively
•Interrupt others
Try our online screening tool | Providers who can help

Your may have an anxiety disorder if you experience:

•Worry or dread
•Obsessive or intrusive thoughts
•Sense of imminent danger or catastrophe
•Fear or panic
•Restlessness
•Irritability
•Impatience
•Ambivalence
•Trouble concentrating
•Rapid or irregular heartbeat
•Sweating, especially the palms
•Dry mouth
•Flushing or blushing
•Muscle tension
•Shortness of breath
•Lightheadedness or faintness
•Difficulty sleeping
•Shaking
•Choking sensation
•Frequent urination
•Nausea or vomiting
•Diarrhea
•Constipation
•Feeling of "butterflies" in the stomach
•Tingling sensations
•Nail biting or other habitual behavior

Bipolar Disorder often includes:

•Dramatic mood swings ranging from elated excitability to hopeless despondency
•Extreme changes in energy and behavior
•Periods of highs that include:
•Persistent and inexplicable elevation in mood
•Increased energy and effort toward goal-directed activities
•Restlessness and agitation
•Racing thoughts, jumping from one idea to another
•Rapid speech or pressure to keep talking
•Trouble concentrating
•Decreased need for sleep
•Overconfidence or inflated self-esteem
•Poor judgment, often involving spending sprees and sexual indiscretions

•Periods of lows that include:
•Prolonged sad, hopeless, or empty mood
•Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
•Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed
•Decreased energy or fatigue
•Trouble concentrating, remembering, making decisions
•Restlessness or diminished movements, agitation
•Sleeping too much or too little
•Unintended weight loss or gain
•Thoughts of death or suicide with or without suicide attempts
These same symptoms might be a sign of depression.

Symptoms of depression include:

Symptoms can change over time and may include:

•Persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, or emptiness
•Hopelessness
•Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless
•Loss of interest in hobbies and activities
•Loss of interest in sex
•Feeling tired
•Trouble concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
•Trouble sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
•Eating more or less than usual
•Weight gain or weight loss
•Thoughts of death or suicide with or without suicide attempts
•Restlessness or irritability
•Physical symptoms that defy standard diagnosis and do not respond well to medical treatments

Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are:

•Obsessions – unwanted, repetitive and intrusive ideas, impulses or images
•Compulsions – repetitive behaviors or mental acts usually performed to reduce the distress associated with obsessions

Common obsessions include:

•Persistent fears that harm may come to self or a loved one
•Unreasonable concern with being contaminated
•Unacceptable religious, violent, or sexual thoughts
•Excessive need to do things correctly or perfectly

Common compulsions include:

•Excessive checking of door locks, stoves, water faucets, light switches, etc.
•Repeatedly making lists, counting, arranging, or aligning things
•Collecting and hoarding useless objects
•Repeating routine actions a certain number of times until it feels just right
•Unnecessary re-reading and re-writing
•Mentally repeating phrases

Those with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) show negative, angry, and defiant behaviors much more often than most people of the same age.

The cause of ODD is unknown. Like other psychiatric disorders, ODD results from a combination of genetic, family, and social factors. Children with ODD may inherit chemical imbalances in the brain that predispose them to the disorder.

Risk factors include:

•Sex: Male
•Age: Childhood and teen years
•A parent with a mood, conduct, attention deficit, or substance abuse disorder
•Marital conflict
•Child abuse
•Inconsistent parental attention
View more information on ODD

If you have experienced some kind of trauma, you might experience Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Symptoms fall into three categories:

•Re-experiencing of the event
•Dreams/nightmares
•Flashbacks
•Anxious reactions to reminders of the event
•Hallucinations
•Avoidance
•Avoiding close emotional contact with family and friends
•Avoiding people or places that are reminders of the event
•Loss of memory about the event
•Feelings of detachment, numbness
•Arousal
•Difficulty falling or staying asleep
•Anger and irritability
•Difficulty concentrating
•Being easily startled
Physical symptoms may also occur such as:

•Stomach and digestive problems
•Chest pain
•Headaches
•Dizziness
People with PTSD may also abuse alcohol or drugs.

Beware of Postpartum Depression:

Symptoms usually occur within 6 months after childbirth, and may last from a few weeks to a few months. Symptoms range from mild depression to severe psychosis. Postpartum depression is different than "baby blues", which is a mild form of depression that occurs within a few days after childbirth, and lasts up to a week.

Symptoms may include:

•Loss of interest or pleasure in life
•Loss of appetite
•Rapid mood swings
•Episodes of crying or tearfulness
•Poor concentration, memory loss, difficulty making decisions
•Difficulty falling or staying asleep
•Feelings of irritability, anxiety, or panic
•Restlessness
•Fear of hurting or killing oneself or one's child
•Feelings of hopelessness or guilt
•Obsessive thoughts, especially unreasonable, repetitive fears about your child's health and welfare
•Lack of energy or motivation
•Unexplained weight loss or gain
More serious symptoms associated with postpartum depression that may require immediate medical attention include:

•Lack of interest in your infant
•Suicidal or homicidal thoughts
•Hallucinations or delusions
•Loss of contact with reality

Schizophrenia could be the problem if:

Symptoms usually start in adolescence or early adulthood. They often appear slowly and become more disturbing and bizarre over time.

Symptoms include:

•Hallucinations – seeing or hearing things/voices that are not there
•Delusions – strong but false personal beliefs that are not based in reality •Disorganized thinking
•Disorganized speech – lack of ability to speak in a way that makes sense or carry on a conversation
•Catatonic behavior – slow movement, repeating rhythmic gestures, pacing, walking in circles
•Emotional flatness – flat speech, lack of facial expression, and general disinterest and withdrawal
•Inappropriate laughter
•Poor hygiene and self-care

Associated conditions include:
•Obsessive-compulsive disorder
•Substance abuse
What is threatening behavior?
Words or gestures that create a reasonable fear of harm or injury.
Words or gestures that cause emotional distress.
Direct or indirect threats of harm or injury.
Prolonged or frequent shouting that creates a reasonable fear of harm or injury.

What is violent behavior?
Violent behavior is defined as the use of physical force or violence to inflict harm on others, to endanger the health or safety of another person or property, or restrict the freedom of action or movement of another person. These include slapping, punching, striking, pushing, or otherwise physically attacking a person; unwelcome physical contact; throwing, punching, or otherwise handling objects in an aggressive manner; or stalking an individual.



What are some psychotic disorders? Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder.

What characteristics are associated with psychotic disorder?
Characteristics associated with psychotic disorders include delusion, hallucination, bizarre behavior, incoherent or disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior.

What are delusions?
Delusions are described as false, inaccurate beliefs a person holds onto even when he/she is presented with accurate information.

What is not delusion?
If someone else misinterprets a fact or facts about an individual, that does not mean the individual has delusion.

If an individual has been updated about certain facts and he or she answers questions based on facts best known to the individual, this is not delusion.

What should you be able to answer if you interpret anyone having delusions?

What did he or she say that you interpret as delusion or delusions?
Once this question is answered, further questions need to be answered.

What are hallucinations?
Hallucinations are internal sensory perceptions, such as sights or sounds, which are not actually present.

What isn't a psychotic disorder?
A person is documented with fresh torture marks in 2006, after having been beaten. Is it persecutory ideation, psychotic disorder, or real torture? What is the correct answer?
Real torture.

What isn't delusion?
How many Muslims are in the world?
Do all Muslims have delusions?
How many agree the elections in 2009 were a fraud?
Do all of them have delusions?
No. This isn't a delusion.

What are infancy, childhood, and adolescence mental health or behavior disorders?
Learning disorders
Communication disorders
Motor skills disorders
Pervasive developmental disorders
Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders.
Feeding and eating disorders of infancy or early childhood
Tic disorders
Elimination disorders
Mental retardation
Other disorders of infancy, childhood, adolescence.

How could this be prevented?
Encourage children to build their speech skills every day.
Encourage children to communicate as much as possible.
Encourage children to exercise daily.
Teach children social skills every day.
Select a language for children that is universally in use, for example the English language.

What are cognitive disorders?
Delirium
Dementia
Amnesia
Other cognitive disorders

What substances cause substance-related disorders?
Alcohol
Amphetamines
Caffeine
Cannabis
Cocaine
Hallucinogens
Inhalants
Nicotine
Opoids
Phencyclidine

What are sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic-related disorders? Polysubstance-related disorder?

What are mood disorders?
Major depressive disorder
Dysthymic disorder
Bipolar disorders, including hypomanic, mixed, and depressed.

What are anxiety disorders?
Panic attack
Phobias
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Acute stress disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder

What are some somatoform disorders?
Somatization disorder
Conversion disorder
Pain disorder
Hypochondriasis

What are fictitious disorders?
Fictitious disorder with mostly psychological symptoms
Fictitious disorder with mostly physical symptoms
Fictitious disorder with both psychological and physical symptoms
Fictitious disorder not otherwise specified

What are some dissociative disorders?
Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative identity disorder
Dissociative fugue
Depersonalization disorder

What should you not do?
Don't provoke, don't misinterpret the facts, don't prolong the issues and settlement, don't complicate the problems further.

How often does this occur?
If the incident occurs due to provocation and oppression, we don't treat the oppressed. We treat the oppressors.

How do you define oppressor or oppressors?
One who violates others? rights, provokes intentionally, puts others into intentional problems, deprives others of their rights.

What are the types of individualized harms?
What are some of the harmful conditions?
Deprivation of rights under the color of law, discrimination, provocation, abuse, physical torture, psychological torture, neglect, disruption, exclusion.

Who designs training materials for medical doctors at this hospital?
You need further training in this subject.



Personality disorders screening
Who specifically should have yearly screening for personality disorders?
Leaders.
Managers.
Individuals in public service.
Harms can occur if such individual gets involved in public service.

Here is an example.
Personality Disorder:
Patient is conscious, oriented in time, space, and person.
Vitals are normal and there are no other complaints.
Does that mean the person is normal?
The patient can have personality disorder.

How do you screen personality disorders in yearly health assessment?
Ask others if he or she lies.
Lying is a criminal offense.
Lying can be due to personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or other personality disorders.

Patient must nominate at least two people to comment about his or her personality.

Questions you need to ask.

Do you know this person?
How do you know this person?
How would you describe this person’s character, behavior, and competence?
How would you describe the personality of this person?

How would you describe your personality?
I am always truthful.
I answer questions truthfully to the best of my ability and knowledge.
I feel that I have a personality disorder or disorders.
Others have mentioned that I have personality disorder or disorders.
Others say that I lie (quote incidents).
Various incidents make me think I have personality disorder or disorders.

How would 100 of your neighbors within walking distance describe you?
Alcoholic.
Cheating traits.
Civilized/uncivilized.
Deaf and mute.
Drug addict.
Mute.
Fraudulently placed.
Good charactered/bad charactered
Gang association/civilized association.
Harmful/helpful.
Hostile/polite.
Illiterate/highly educated.
Leadership qualities.
Liar/truthful.
Mentally retarded/intelligent.
Not a good person to know/good person to know.
Opportunist.
Oppressor/oppressed.
Personality disorder/expected behavior.
Predictable/unpredictable.
Unskilled/highly skilled.
Violent.
Well behaved.

What are the specific issues, symptoms, signs, or complaints the day, date, and time you are answering these questions?

What is the day, date, time, and location you are answering these questions?

What is profile of the individual helping you answer these questions, including assistance with computer and Internet?

Here are further guidelines.
Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder
Dependent Personality Disorder
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Multiple Personality Disorder, see Dissociative Identity Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality Disorder
Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Symptoms

General symptoms of a personality disorder
Personality disorder symptoms include:

  • Frequent mood swings
  • Stormy relationships
  • Social isolation
  • Angry outbursts
  • Suspicion and mistrust of others
  • Difficulty making friends
  • A need for instant gratification
  • Poor impulse control
  • Alcohol or substance abuse

Specific types of personality disorders
The specific types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters based on similar characteristics and symptoms. Many people with one diagnosed personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one additional personality disorder.

Cluster A personality disorders
These are personality disorders characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior and include:

Paranoid personality disorder

  • Distrust and suspicion of others
  • Believing that others are trying to harm you
  • Emotional detachment
  • Hostility

Schizoid personality disorder

  • Lack of interest in social relationships
  • Limited range of emotional expression
  • Inability to pick up normal social cues
  • Appearing dull or indifferent to others

Schizotypal personality disorder

  • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs or behavior
  • Perceptual alterations, such as those affecting touch
  • Discomfort in close relationships
  • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
  • Indifference to others
  • "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
  • Believing that messages are hidden for you in public speeches or displays

Cluster B personality disorders
These are personality disorders characterized by dramatic, overly emotional thinking or behavior and include:

Antisocial (formerly called sociopathic) personality disorder

  • Disregard for others
  • Persistent lying or stealing
  • Recurring difficulties with the law
  • Repeatedly violating the rights of others
  • Aggressive, often violent behavior
  • Disregard for the safety of self or others

Borderline personality disorder

  • Impulsive and risky behavior
  • Volatile relationships
  • Unstable mood
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Fear of being alone

Histrionic personality disorder

  • Constantly seeking attention
  • Excessively emotional
  • Extreme sensitivity to others' approval
  • Unstable mood
  • Excessive concern with physical appearance

Narcissistic personality disorder
Believing that you're better than others

  • Fantasizing about power, success and attractiveness
  • Exaggerating your achievements or talents
  • Expecting constant praise and admiration
  • Failing to recognize other people's emotions and feelings

Cluster C personality disorders
These are personality disorders characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior and include:

Avoidant personality disorder

  • Hypersensitivity to criticism or rejection
  • Feeling inadequate
  • Social isolation
  • Extreme shyness in social situations
  • Timidity

Dependent personality disorder

  • Excessive dependence on others
  • Submissiveness toward others
  • A desire to be taken care of
  • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment
  • Urgent need to start a new relationship when one has ended

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

  • Preoccupation with orderliness and rules
  • Extreme perfectionism
  • Desire to be in control of situations
  • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
  • Inflexibility

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder isn't the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder, a type of anxiety disorder.

When to see a doctor
If you have any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder, see your doctor, mental health provider or other health care professional. Untreated, personality disorders can cause significant problems in your life, and they may get worse without treatment.

Helping a loved one
If you have a loved one who you think may have symptoms of a personality disorder, have an open and honest discussion about your concerns. You may not be able to force someone to seek professional care, but you can offer encouragement and support. You can also help your loved one find a qualified doctor or mental health provider and make an appointment. You may even be able to go to an appointment with him or her.


Complications

Complications and problems that personality disorders may cause or be associated with include:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Eating disorders
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Self-injury
  • Reckless behavior
  • Risky sexual behavior
  • Child abuse
  • Alcohol or substance abuse
  • Aggression or violence
  • Incarceration
  • Relationship difficulties
  • Social isolation
  • School and work problems

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of a disregard for other people's rights, often crossing the line and violating those rights. It usually begins in childhood or as a teen and continues into their adult lives.

Antisocial personality disorder is often referred to as psychopathy or sociopathy in popular culture.

Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder frequently lack empathy and tend to be callous, cynical, and contemptuous of the feelings, rights, and sufferings of others. They may have an inflated and arrogant self-appraisal (e.g., feel that ordinary work is beneath them or lack a realistic concern about their current problems or their future) and may be excessively opinionated, self-assured, or cocky. They may display a glib, superficial charm and can be quite voluble and verbally facile (e.g., using technical terms or jargon that might impress someone who is unfamiliar with the topic). Lack of empathy, inflated self-appraisal, and superficial charm are features that have been commonly included in traditional conceptions of psychopathy and may be particularly distinguishing of Antisocial Personality Disorder in prison or forensic settings where criminal, delinquent, or aggressive acts are likely to be nonspecific. These individuals may also be irresponsible and exploitative in their sexual relationships.

Symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder is diagnosed when a person's pattern of antisocial behavior has occurred since age 15 (although only adults 18 years or older can be diagnosed with this disorder) and consists of the majority of these symptoms:

  • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
  • Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
  • Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
  • Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
  • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others
  • Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
  • Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it. There should also be evidence of Conduct Disorder in the individual as a child, whether or not it was ever formally diagnosed by a professional.

Antisocial personality disorder is more prevalent in males (3 percent) versus females (1 percent) in the general population.

Like most personality disorders, antisocial personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Antisocial Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as antisocial personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose antisocial personality disorder.

Many people with antisocial personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for antisocial personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes antisocial personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of antisocial personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder

Treatment of antisocial personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see antisocial personality disorder treatment.

Avoidant Personality Disorder

People with avoidant personality disorder experience a long-standing feeling of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. This leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of inadequacy and inhibition, the person with avoidant personality disorder will seek to avoid work, school and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others.

Individuals with Avoidant Personality Disorder often vigilantly appraise the movements and expressions of those with whom they come into contact. Their fearful and tense demeanor may elicit ridicule from others, which in turn confirms their self-doubts. They are very anxious about the possibility that they will react to criticism with blushing or crying. They are described by others as being "shy," "timid," "lonely," and "isolated."

The major problems associated with this disorder occur in social and occupational functioning. The low self-esteem and hypersensitivity to rejection are associated with restricted interpersonal contacts. These individuals may become relatively isolated and usually do not have a large social support network that can help them weather crises. They desire affection and acceptance and may fantasize about idealized relationships with others. The avoidant behaviors can also adversely affect occupational functioning because these individuals try to avoid the types of social situations that may be important for meeting the basic demands of the job or for advancement.

Symptoms of Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to what other people think about them, and social inhibition. It typically manifests itself by early adulthood and includes a majority of the following symptoms:

  • Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection
  • Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
  • Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed
  • Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations
  • Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy
  • Views themself as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others
  • Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Avoidant personality disorder appears to occur between 0.5 and 1.0 percent in the general population.

Like most personality disorders, avoidant personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Avoidant Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as avoidant personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose avoidant personality disorder.

Many people with avoidant personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for avoidant personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Avoidant Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes avoidant personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of avoidant personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Avoidant Personality Disorder

Treatment of avoidant personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. avoidant personality disorder treatment.

Borderline Personality Disorder


The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive.

This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood. The unstable pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self-image and early social interactions. The pattern is present in a variety of settings (e.g., not just at work or home) and often is accompanied by a similar lability (fluctuating back and forth, sometimes in a quick manner) in a person’s emotions and feelings. Relationships and the person’s emotion may often be characterized as being shallow.

A person with this disorder will also often exhibit impulsive behaviors and have a majority of the following symptoms:

  • Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
  • A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation
  • Identity disturbance, such as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of self
  • Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
  • Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
  • Emotional instability due to significant reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)
  • Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Borderline personality disorder is more prevalent in females (75 percent of diagnoses made are in females). It is thought that borderline personality disorder affects approximately 2 percent of the general population.

Like most personality disorders, borderline personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

Details about Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.

The perception of impending separation or rejection, or the loss of external structure, can lead to profound changes in self-image, emotion, thinking and behavior. Someone with borderline personality disorder will be very sensitive to things happening around them in their environment. They experience intense abandonment fears and inappropriate anger, even when faced with a realistic separation or when there are unavoidable changes in plans. For instance, becoming very angry with someone for being a few minutes late or having to cancel a lunch date. People with borderline personality disorder may believe that this abandonment implies that they are “bad.” These abandonment fears are related to an intolerance of being alone and a need to have other people with them. Their frantic efforts to avoid abandonment may include impulsive actions such as self-mutilating or suicidal behaviors.

Unstable and intense relationships.

People with borderline personality disorder may idealize potential caregivers or lovers at the first or second meeting, demand to spend a lot of time together, and share the most intimate details early in a relationship. However, they may switch quickly from idealizing other people to devaluing them, feeling that the other person does not care enough, does not give enough, is not “there” enough. These individuals can empathize with and nurture other people, but only with the expectation that the other person will “be there” in return to meet their own needs on demand. These individuals are prone to sudden and dramatic shifts in their view of others, who may alternately be seen as beneficient supports or as cruelly punitive. Such shifts other reflect disillusionment with a caregiver whose nurturing qualities had been idealized or whose rejection or abandonment is expected.

Identity disturbance.

There are sudden and dramatic shifts in self-image, characterized by shifting goals, values and vocational aspirations. There may be sudden changes in opinions and plans about career, sexual identity, values and types of friends. These individuals may suddenly change from the role of a needy supplicant for help to a righteous avenger of past mistreatment. Although they usually have a self-image that is based on being bad or evil, individuals with borderline personality disorder may at times have feelings that they do not exist at all. Such experiences usually occur in situations in which the individual feels a lack of a meaningful relationship, nurturing and support. These individuals may show worse performance in unstructured work or school situations.

You can also learn more about the detailed characteristics of borderline personality disorder.

How is Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose borderline personality disorder.

Many people with borderline personality disorder don’t seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person’s life. This most often happens when a person’s coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for borderline personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

Researchers today don’t know what causes borderline personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of borderline personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible — rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be “passed down” to their children.

Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

Treatment of borderline personality disorder typically involves long-term sychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see borderline personality disorder treatment.

Dependent Personality Disorder

Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing need for the person to be taken care of and a fear of being abandoned or separated from important individuals in his or her life. This leads the person to engage in dependent and submissive behaviors that are designed to elicit care-giving behaviors in others. The dependent behavior may be see as being "clingy" or "clinging on" to others, because the person fears they can't live their lives without the help of others.

Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder are often characterized by pessimism and self-doubt, tend to belittle their abilities and assets, and may constantly refer to themselves as "stupid." They take criticism and disapproval as proof of their worthlessness and lose faith in themselves. They may seek overprotection and dominance from others. Occupational functioning may be impaired if independent initiative is required. They may avoid positions of responsibility and become anxious when faced with decisions. Social relations tend to be limited to those few people on whom the individual is dependent.

Chronic physical illness or Separation Anxiety Disorder in childhood or adolescence may predispose an individual to the development of dependent personality disorder.

Symptoms of Dependent Personality Disorder

Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive fear that leads to "clinging behavior" and usually manifests itself by early adulthood. It includes a majority of the following symptoms:

  • Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others
  • Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life
  • Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval
  • Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy)
  • Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant
  • Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
  • Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends
  • Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of himself or herself

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Dependent personality disorder is the most commonly diagnosed personality disorder in mental health clinics.

Like most personality disorders, dependent personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Dependent Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as dependent personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose dependent personality disorder.

Many people with dependent personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for dependent personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Dependent Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes dependent personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of dependent personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Dependent Personality Disorder

Treatment of dependent personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see dependent personality disorder treatment.

Symptoms of
Histrionic Personality Disorder

Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and feel uncomfortable when they are not. While often lively, interesting and sometimes dramatic, they have difficulty when people aren't focused exclusively on them. People with this disorder may be perceived as being shallow, and may engage in sexually seductive or provocating behavior to draw attention to themselves.

Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder may have difficulty achieving emotional intimacy in romantic or sexual relationships. Without being aware of it, they often act out a role (e.g., "victim" or "princess") in their relationships to others. They may seek to control their partner through emotional manipulation or seductiveness on one level, whereas displaying a marked dependency on them at another level.

Individuals with this disorder often have impaired relationships with same-sex friends because their sexually provocative interpersonal style may seem a threat to their friends' relationships. These individuals may also alienate friends with demands for constant attention. They often become depressed and upset when they are not the center of attention.

People with histrionic personality disorder may crave novelty, stimulation, and excitement and have a tendency to become bored with their usual routine. These individuals are often intolerant of, or frustrated by, situations that involve delayed gratification, and their actions are often directed at obtaining immediate satisfaction. Although they often initiate a job or project with great enthusiasm, their interest may lag quickly.

Longer-term relationships may be neglected to make way for the excitement of new relationships.

Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder

A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

  • Is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention
  • Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior
  • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
  • Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to themself
  • Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
  • Shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion
  • Is highly suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances
  • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Histrionic personality disorder is more prevalent in females than males. It occurs about 2 to 3 percent in the general population.

Like most personality disorders, histrionic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Histrionic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as histrionic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose histrionic personality disorder.

Many people with histrionic personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for histrionic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Histrionic Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes histrionic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of histrionic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Histrionic Personality Disorder

Treatment of histrionic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see histrionic personality disorder treatment.

Symptoms of
Dissociative Identity Disorder

Also Known as Multiple Personality Disorder

The presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self). At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. Inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts or chaotic behavior during Alcohol Intoxication) or a general medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures). Note: In children, the symptoms are not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play. •What is Dissociation? Do people really have multiple personalities? •The Differences Between Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia and Multiple Personality Disorder •General Treatment Guidelines for Multiple Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others. People with this disorder often believe they are of primary importance in everybody's life or to anyone they meet. While this pattern of behavior may be appropriate for a king in 16th Century England, it is generally considered inappropriate for most ordinary people today.

People with narcissistic personality disorder often display snobbish, disdainful, or patronizing attitudes. For example, an individual with this disorder may complain about a clumsy waiter's "rudeness" or "stupidity" or conclude a medical evaluation with a condescending evaluation of the physician.

In laypeople terms, someone with this disorder may be described simply as a "narcissist" or as someone with "narcissism." Both of these terms generally refer to someone with narcissistic personality disorder.

Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

In order for a person to be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) they must meet five or more of the following symptoms:

  • Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
  • Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
  • Believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
  • Requires excessive admiration
  • Has a very strong sense of entitlement, e.g., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
  • Is exploitative of others, e.g., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends
  • Lacks empathy, e.g., is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
  • Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
  • Regularly shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Narcissistic personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and is thought to occur in less than 1 percent in the general population.

Like most personality disorders, narcissistic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

Learn more about the symptoms and characteristics of someone with narcissitic personality disorder.

How is Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as narcissistic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose personality disorder.

Many people with narcissistic personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for narcissistic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes narcissistic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of narcissistic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. This

When rules and established procedures do not dictate the correct answer, decision making may become a time-consuming, often painful process. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder may have such difficulty deciding which tasks take priority or what is the best way of doing some particular task that they may never get started on anything.

They are prone to become upset or angry in situations in which they are not able to maintain control of their physical or interpersonal environment, although the anger is typically not expressed directly. For example, a person may be angry when service in a restaurant is poor, but instead of complaining to the management, the individual ruminates about how much to leave as a tip. On other occasions, anger may be expressed with righteous indignation over a seemingly minor matter.

People with this disorder may be especially attentive to their relative status in dominance-submission relationships and may display excessive deference to an authority they respect and excessive resistance to authority that they do not respect.

Individuals with this disorder usually express affection in a highly controlled or stilted fashion and may be very uncomfortable in the presence of others who are emotionally expressive. Their everyday relationships have a formal and serious quality, and they may be stiff in situations in which others would smile and be happy (e.g., greeting a lover at the airport). They carefully hold themselves back until they are sure that whatever they say will be perfect. They may be preoccupied with logic and intellect.

Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

  • Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
  • Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
  • Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
  • Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
  • Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
  • Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
  • Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
  • Shows significant rigidity and stubbornness

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder is approximately twice as prevalent in males than females, and occurs in about 1 percent of the general population.

Like most personality disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Many people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

Treatment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

People with paranoid personality disorder are generally characterized by having a long-standing pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. A person with paranoid personality disorder will nearly always believe that other people's motives are suspect or even malevolent. Individuals with this disorder assume that other people will exploit, harm, or deceive them, even if no evidence exists to support this expectation. While it is fairly normal for everyone to have some degree of paranoia about certain situations in their lives (such as worry about an impending set of layoffs at work), people with paranoid personality disorder take this to an extreme -- it pervades virtually every professional and personal relationship they have.

Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder are generally difficult to get along with and often have problems with close relationships. Their excessive suspiciousness and hostility may be expressed in overt argumentativeness, in recurrent complaining, or by quiet, apparently hostile aloofness. Because they are hypervigilant for potential threats, they may act in a guarded, secretive, or devious manner and appear to be "cold" and lacking in tender feelings. Although they may appear to be objective, rational, and unemotional, they more often display a labile range of affect, with hostile, stubborn, and sarcastic expressions predominating. Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations.

Because individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder lack trust in others, they have an excessive need to be self-sufficient and a strong sense of autonomy. They also need to have a high degree of control over those around them. They are often rigid, critical of others, and unable to collaborate, and they have great difficulty accepting criticism.

Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder

A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

  • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
  • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates
  • Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her
  • Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
  • Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
  • Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack
  • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Paranoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and occurs somewhere between 0.5 and 2.5 percent in the general population.

Like most personality disorders, paranoid personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Paranoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as paranoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose paranoid personality disorder.

Many people with paranoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for paranoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Paranoid Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes paranoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of paranoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder

Treatment of paranoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships. A person with schizoid personality disorder often has difficulty expression emotions and does so typically in very restricted range, especially when communicating with others.

A person with this disorder may appear to lack a desire for intimacy, and will avoid close relationships with others. They may often prefer to spend time with themselves rather than socialize or be in a group of people. In laypeople terms, a person with schizoid personality disorder might be thought of as the typical "loner."

Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder may have particular difficulty expressing anger, even in response to direct provocation, which contributes to the impression that they lack emotion. Their lives sometimes seem directionless, and they may appear to "drift" in their goals. Such individuals often react passively to adverse circumstances and have difficulty responding appropriately to important life events. Because of their lack of social skills and lack of desire for sexual experiences, individuals with this disorder have few friendships, date infrequently, and often do not marry. Employment or work functioning may be impaired, particularly if interpersonal involvement is required, but individuals with this disorder may do well when they work under conditions of social isolation.

Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

  • Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
  • Almost always chooses solitary activities
  • Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
  • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
  • Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
  • Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
  • Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Schizoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females. Its prevalence in the general population is not known.

Like most personality disorders, schizoid personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as schizoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizoid personality disorder.

Many people with schizoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for schizoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Schizoid Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes schizoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Schizoid Personality Disorder

Treatment of schizoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others. A person with schizotypal personality disorder may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior.

Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often have ideas of reference (e.g., they have incorrect interpretations of casual incidents and external events as having a particular and unusual meaning specifically for the person). People with this disorder may be unusually superstitious or preoccupied with paranormal phenomena that are outside the norms of their subculture.

Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often seek treatment for the associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other dysphoric affects rather than for the personality disorder features per se.

Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

  • Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)
  • Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)
  • Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions
  • Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)
  • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
  • Inappropriate or constricted affect
  • Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar
  • Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
  • Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self

As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

Schizotypal personality disorder appears in less than 3 percent of the general population.

Like most personality disorders, schizotypal personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Schizotypal Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as schizotypal personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizotypal personality disorder.

Many people with schizotypal personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for schizotypal personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Researchers today don't know what causes schizotypal personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizotypal personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

Treatment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Treatment of schizotypal personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.
Here are further guidelines.

Psychiatry and Media.

Should the media get involved in an awareness campaign from medical doctors associated with psychiatry and mental health care?
Yes.

How should the media handle articles and an awareness campaign from medical doctors associated with psychiatry and mental health care?

Ask them these questions.
What is good human character?
What is good human behavior?
What's normal?
What is enforced suffering?
What are the rights of a civilized human being?
Who is a civilized human being?
How do you define a civilized human being?

If they are able to answer correctly, reinforce them.
If they aren't able to answer correctly, counsel them to upgrade their skills and knowledge as they may mislead individuals and communities, even if they claim to be award winners.
Here are further guidelines.

Psychiatric hospital
Assisted living
Crisis stabilization
Involuntary nature of psychiatric hospitalization
Juvenile wards
Long-term care facilities
Political imprisonment
Medium-term
Open units
Secure units

What should you monitor in a psychiatric hospital?
Behavior, vitals, character.

How should you monitor a psychiatric hospital?
Let's examine this.
Threat to self, threat to others, harmful to self, harmful to others, assault on self, assault on others, not taking care of self, not taking care of others who have accepted the duty and responsibility. Vitals, character evaluation, behavior in various settings.

Can a person be confined involuntarily to a psychiatric facility because someone else misinterpreted the facts?
No.

How could this have been prevented?
Proper understanding of the issues, proper training of the staff, fulfilling genuine rights.

What is the duty and responsibility of a nurse?
A nurse is responsible to take vital signs, collect human samples, administer medication, monitor patients? behavior, take history under the supervision of a medical doctor.

What history should a nurse ask?
As directed by the medical doctor.

Why were you brought here? or
What brings you to the hospital?

What kind of problems are you having currently?
Do you need help?
What would you like to do next?
What do you plan to do when you leave?

Do you reach any diagnosis under these harmful conditions or remove harmful conditions for the person who has been oppressed and transferred to a psychiatric facility?
If theory isn't clear, there will be conflict and disputes. Problems won't be solved.
Simple negligence or wrong planning can lead to conflicts, disputes, and harms.

How could this have been prevented?
We should focus on expected outcome.

How do you monitor blood pressure?
Random, early morning before breakfast, after walking.

Is specific size cuff of blood pressure machine necessary for accurate blood pressure monotoring?
Yes.

What needs to be done to educate counselors?
All social work counselors should be taught legal and psychological expertise.

Can you reach a diagnosis from reporting a frivolous incident under controlled conditions?
No.

How do you reach correct psychiatric diagnosis?
A medical history is very important.
Psychiatric history is part of medical history.
Without correct medical history, diagnosis can be wrong.
Without correct diagnosis, treatment can be ineffective, even harmful.

Do you include misinterpretation of incidents to reach a correct diagnosis?
No.

How do you investigate an incident for psychiatric evaluation?
Case history and incident report are two different things.

What were the date, time, place, circumstances, and relevant background?
What is the relevant background to this case?
Is this background relevant to this case?
Did this happen in a planned meeting?
Did this happen outside the meeting?
Was it a planned meeting?
Who initially provoked it?
Do we include incidents under controlled and harmful conditions as relevant to reach a correct diagnosis?


Psychiatric History

What should you ask in a psychiatric history?

This is in addition to routine medical history.

Outpatient consultations.

Online and telephone consultations.
Hospital setting.
What brings you to the hospital?
How old are you?
What is the date today?
What is your date of birth?
Where are you now?
Do you have a family in Chicago, Illinois?
Who else lives with you?

Did anyone persuade you to answer this way?
Who persuaded you to answer this way?
How is their character and behavior?

What are the problems?
What seems to be the problem?
What was running through your mind at the time?
What were you afraid might happen?
How did that make you feel?
What did you do then?
When did you last feel well - your usual self?
What was happening around that time?
What do you like doing?
When did you last do something you really enjoyed?
Do you like watching TV, books, and socializing?
Do you ever feel life is not worth living?
Have you ever had thoughts of ending your life?
How are you coping at work? How are things at home?
Are you still seeing your friends?
How is this affecting the other members of the family?
How are your children getting on at school?
How does your spouse respond to your problems?
How are you getting on with him/her?
Can I speak to him/her about it?
Have you ever felt this way before?
What did you do about it?
What really helped?
Do you have enough food, clothes, housing, transportation, health care, and resources?


Who are parents, caretaker, or guardian of the patient?
Please answer the following questions.
How often does he or she take a bath, brush his/her teeth, exercise, clean the bed, floor, kitchen, sink, and put out garbage?
What is the difference between protest and abusive language?
Does he or she utter abusive language?
What type of behavior has he or she demonstrated? What was the situation?
How often does he or she speak to his/her parents, brothers, sisters, and relatives?
How often doe he or she speak to friends?
What does he or she speak about to his or her classmates?
How long does he or she speak every day?
What type of food does he or she consume everyday?
How many meals does he or she consume everyday?
How long does he or she wait between meals?
How long does he or she walk every day?
How long does he or she sleep every day?
When does he or she sleep and get up?
Is he or she a member of a monopoly?
Does he or she have a fixed time for bathing, brushing his/her teeth, exercising, cleaning his/her living place, speaking, eating, changing clothes? Does he or she often start a quarrel?
Does he or she have often unreasonable anger outbursts?
Does he or she often misinterpret facts?
Does he or she unreasonably call police to harass others?
Does he or she forget things?
Does he or she assault others?
Does he or she attempt suicide?

If the answer to any of these questions is yes, it is a psychiatric emergency.

What should not be available in psychiatry hospital to those admitted?
Sharp objects, razors, blades, and other harmful objects.

Can those who dispute issues ranging from political to other claims be sent to a psychiatric facility?
No.

What is restraint?
In a psychiatric hospital, intervention to prevent an excited or violent patient from harming him/herself or others. Medical restraints also are used to prevent falls

Can restraint cause aggravation of a problem?
Yes.

Can restraining materials cause more harms than preventing harms?
Yes.

How can restraint harm?
Restraint can cause aggravation of the underlying problem; restraint materials also can cause problem.

How do you know what type of restraint to get?
This depends on availability of materials and type of conditions.
Nylon or leather. The majority of restraints are machine washable. In the case of leather medical restraints, sterilization can be achieved through the use of at least 70% isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol. Methods of sterilization such as autoclaving, steam, and BTO gas are not recommended.

When should you use restraint?
When the person can cause harm to him/herself or others.

When should you not use restraint?
With normal or wrong diagnosis, prejudice, or biased directive.

What should be consequences of unjustified restraint?
Disciplinary action against all involved.

Who should decide about restraint?
Psychiatrist or medical doctor, social worker, family members, community members, legal experts, and others. This has to be decided in a team.

What should you know about medical restraints?
What type of medical restraint is needed (hand, ankle, seating, etc.) What type of material should the medical restraint be made of (leather, nylon, etc.)?
Does it need a lock?
No, a lock can cause more problem if an unlocking problem arise. Not all restraints come with a lock.
Restaints need 24-hour supervision by a nurse or a medical doctor, and security.

What kind of restrictions are there on selling medical restraints?
They can be sold only to health care facilities.
Most medical restraints are adjustable.

What are restraint alternatives?

How exactly will you place the cuff of the blood pressure machine?

Hospital and Healthcare Products

Patient Hygiene Solutions

A range of wipes, foams and bodywashes for effective patient cleansing.

What are the different types of human thermometers?

What are the best and latest thermometers available?

How is accuracy of products verified before being utilized?

Who verifies the accuracy of these products?

What standards and criteria do they utilize?

Who sets these standards and criteria?

How did they reach this standards and criteria?

How often are patients with psychiatric emergencies needlessly hospitalized because of the admitting physician's inexperience, fatigue, or lack of knowledge about alternative resources?

Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.
Questions doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians needs to answer.
What is the diagnosis?
How did you reach this diagnosis?
What did the individual say or do that led to this diagnosis?
How did you verify your findings?
If you verified the findings, how did you verify that the findings are consistent?
How often do these symptoms, signs, and findings occur?
Do you know everything about stress, intentional enforced harms, and human rights violations from others?
How did you verify that the individual is not victim of stress or intentional enforced harms or human rights violations from others?


Medical Negligence

Who has the duty to adjudicate wrong diagnosis of a human being in the state and outside the state?

If all questions are answered by the doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician, then go ahead with these questions.

Questions you need to ask a doctor, psychiatrist, or clinician in case medication is prescribed or recommended.

How will this medication help me?
How will I be better off after taking this medication?
What is the name of the medication?
Is it known by other names?
What is known about its helpfulness with others who have a similar condition?
How will the medication help me?
How long before I see improvement?
When will it work?
What are the side effects which commonly occur with this medication?
What are the less common or serious side effects which can occur?
Is this medication addictive? Can it be abused?
What is the recommended dosage?
How often will the medication be taken?
Are there any laboratory tests that need to be completed before I begin this medication?
Will any tests need to be done while I am taking this medication?
Are there any medications or food I should avoid while taking this medication?
How long will I be taking this medication?
How will the decision be made to stop this medication?
What is the medication supposed to do?
How and when should I take it?
How much should I take?
What should I do if I miss a dose?
When and how should I stop taking it?
Will it interact with other medications I take?
Do I need to avoid any types of food or drink while taking the medication? What should I avoid?
Should it be taken with or without food?
Is it safe to drink alcohol while taking this medication?
What are the side effects? What should I do if I experience them?
Is the Patient Package Insert for the medication available?

After taking the medication for a short time, tell your doctor how you feel, if you are having side effects, and any concerns you have about the medicine.
Reference resource for psychiatry
Where is reference resource for psychiatry?
Courts should place this reference resource —www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html — for cases that involve psychiatry and courts.

Do you know any reference resource for psychiatry better than this resource with open access through the Internet?

How is this resource better than any other resource?
Referral request.

How should you write a referral for medical evaluation?
Dear Medical Colleague:

This referral is sent to Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Profile elaborated at this resource
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/aboutthefounder.html
We need your individualized consultation for patients.
The profile of the patient has been enclosed.
This is in addition to Internet questions We have answered: www.qureshiouniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html
Please evaluate this patient and provide correct diagnosis and various treatment options for this individual.
We have answered all relevant questions displayed from your side.

We went through public health and patient education guidelines from your side. Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html

We feel individualized doctor consultation from you is essential for this individual.

Moreover, our doctors are not able to reach to correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare setting.
Please teach them through Internet and in person. We are nominating five doctors for this training from you.

Doctors nominated to you have a desire to learn.
Doctors nominated to you are dedicated to public service.
Doctors nominated to you know that psychiatry is not the only medical specialty. A doctor should have knowledge of all specialties.
Doctors nominated desire to get involved in Internet human healthcare, public health, patient education, and then individualized healthcare.
The profile of the doctor forwarding the referral has been enclosed.

Thank you for your public service.
Research

What have been various significant findings in psychiatry research?
Up to March 27, 2014 doctors, psychiatrists, and clinicians in America did not know that stress, intentional enforced harms, and human rights violations are medical diagnosis.

These conditions do not need medication.
These conditions need their underlying cause fixed with solutions and remedies.

As per the international classification of diseases, "Stress" is a diagnosis.
As per the American Psychiatric Association DMS 5, a response is awaited.
Continuing education of staff is required.

Sponsoring medical research

Who has the duty to sponsor and pay for such medical research?
At the minimum, the state department of health, in coordination with other departments worldwide, must sponsor such medical research.

Why should they sponsor this medical research?
There is no other resource that has done medical research in questions and answers the way it is displayed at
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html

What do you have to do to sponsor this research?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/moneytransfer.html

Stress (Life Stressors)

Does the individual have any of this?
Stress.
Intentional enforced harms from others.
Human rights violations from others.


If yes, fix these issues immediately.

How do you know if the individual has stress, intentional enforced harms, or both?
Ask questions relevant to stress and intentional enforced harms.
Verify the findings with questions relevant to stress and questions relevant to intentional enforced harms.

Why should every state have stress counseling resources?
At any point, an individual can have stress.

What will happen if stress on an individual is ignored?
Ignoring stress can cause an acute stress reaction.
Various complications of stress can occur.

Why is knowledge about stress essential for doctors?
Multi-axial diagnosis
Axis IV: Psychosocial stressors are an essential component of multi-axial diagnosis.
Within stressors, there can be intentional enforced harms and human rights violations.

Stress has more than 180 causes.
Some of the causes of stress are intentional enforced harms and human rights violations.
Not all causes of stress are intentional enforced harms or human rights violations.
Intentional enforced harms can be civil and criminal issues.
Basic human rights violations are criminal issues.

What are other names of stress?
Life stressors.
Human stress.

What does the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5) reveal about these topics: stress, intentional enforced harms, and human rights violations?
An answer from the American Psychiatric Association is awaited.

How is this resource — www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html – better than resources from the American Psychiatric Association?
The resource www.qureshiuniversity.com/psychiatryworld.html is updated as soon as new verified research findings are available.

Reading about stress will decrease stress.
Discussing stress will decrease stress.
In case of intentional enforced harms or human rights violations, fix the underlying cause immediately.

What will happen to lab parameters of a normal human being subjected to repeated stress and harmful conditions?
How do stress and harm affect adrenaline?
How does adrenaline affect glucose, hematocrit, osmolality, and other metabolisms?


Here are further guidelines.
You are required to maintain these documents and enclosures for future reference.
Last Updated: May 9, 2015