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Human Communication
State Department of Communication
What should the head of state know about communication?
Annotation or definition of communication.
Categories of human communications.
Communication careers within and outside the state.
Communication Abilities
Communication methods and teaching methods.
Communication studies.
Communication Satellites
Departments of communication in various states.
English Language Resources
English language is the official language.
English grammar relevant to word communication.
Glossary of communication
Mass Communication
Methods of human communication.
Occupations relevant to this department in the state.
Questions the head of the state department of communication should be able to answer.
Questions for the Illinois State Department of Communication.
Types of human communication.
Teaching methods.
Vocabulary relevant to communication.

Annotation or definition of communication.
Annotation or definition of Human Communication skills.
What is Communication?
Following the basic concept, communication is the process of sending and receiving messages or transferring information from one part (sender) to another (receiver).

Communication is the act of transferring information through verbal messages, the written word, or more subtle, non-verbal signals.

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another.

Communication in biology often occurs through visual, auditory, or biochemical means. Human communication is unique for its extensive use of language. Non-human communication is studied in the field of biosemiotics.

What is the study of communication?
"Communication studies" is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting.
Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.<

What is human communication?
Human communication is the process of sending and receiving messages or transferring information from one party (sender) to another (receiver).
Human communication can be a message such as a letter, phone call, e-mail, or other method of communications.

Why is there a need to elaborate on human communications compared to animals?
Humans communicate through spoken and written English or other languages, and non verbal types of communication.
Animals do not learn types of communications compared to humans.

Are there differences in types and methods of human communication?

What are the types of human communication?
English language speaking communication abilities.
English language writing communication abilities.
Face-to-face in-person conversation (interpersonal communication)
Non-English language Human communication (Arabic, kashmiri, Spanish, Mandarin, Japanese, French, etc.)
Nonverbal communication (eye contact, body movements and posture, facial expressions, gestures, etc.)

English language speaking and writing abilities are dependent on English language understanding and reading abilities.

What are human communication skills?
Human Communications skills are one category of skills.
Many skills are included in this category.

What is the difference between one skill and categories of skills?
English language speaking is one skill.
Communications skills are is one category of skills.

Why are English language understanding, reading, speaking, and writing abilities essential communication abilities/skills?
English language is the most popular language.
English language is official language.
Learning other abilities is dependent on English language abilities.

How should you develop good communication skills, including English language speaking, reading, understanding, writing, and proper presentation skills?

What is on the alphabetical Listing of Human Abilities?
There are 650 human abilities.
There are 650 human abilities an 18-year-old human should know.
Take a look at list and let me know how many human abilities you have.
Each human ability has been further elaborated separately.

What human abilities would you like to improve?

What are examples of human abilities?
Brushing your teeth is a learned human ability.
Dressing and undressing are learned human abilities.
English language telephone conversation is an ability.
Managing skills are learned human abilities.
Questioning in the English language is an ability.
Truthfulness is a human ability.

Interpersonal skills are the skills we use when engaged in face-to-face communication with one or more other people.

What are examples of nonessential skills?
Sports activities are nonessential skills.
Physical education and sports activities are two different issues.

Non-English language abilities (Spanish, French, Arabic, Japanese, Kashmiri, etc.)

Non-English language abilities are plus point after having English language abilities.

What should you keep in mind while communicating?
Clarity and Conciseness
Picking the right medium
Purpose of communication

Categories of human communications.
How do you establish categories of human-to-human communication?
Matching types of human communication with methods of human-to-human communication makes categories of human communication.

What are the categories of human-to-human communication?
Types of human communication Methods of human communication.
1. English language speaking: face-to-face, telephone, radio, or television and other media.
2. English language writing: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet, or via other media.
3. Face-to-face in-person conversation in the English language (interpersonal communication).
4. Non-English language human communication (Arabic, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, French, etc.)
5. Visualizations: graphs, charts, maps, logos, and other visualizations can communicate messages.
6. Nonverbal communication: eye contact, body movements, body posture, facial expressions, gestures, etc.)

The different categories of communication are:
Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television and other media.
Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our scent.
Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or via other media.
Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can communicate messages.
Face-to-face in-person conversation (interpersonal communication)

Mass Communication
What is mass communication?
How is mass communication accomplished?
What is the difference between mass communication and personal communication?
What is the difference between mass communication and media communication?
What are examples or types of mass communication?
What are examples of equipment relevant to mass communication at this point?
What are media?
Media, medium, and mediums: What is the difference?
What is media education?
Is there a difference between teaching, learning about media, and teaching through media?
What is the difference between teaching, learning about media, and teaching through media? Here are further guidelines.

Types of human communications.
\ What are the types of human-to-human communication?
1. English language speaking.
2. English language writing.
3. Face-to-face in-person conversation in English language (interpersonal communication).
4. Non-English language human communication (Arabic, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, French, etc.)
5. Nonverbal human communication (eye contact, body movements, body posture, facial expressions, gestures, etc.)
6. Visualizations

What are examples of English language speaking situations?
Academic meeting with discussion.
Classroom lecture.
Complaint resolving meeting.
Complaint resolving and problem solving meeting.
Public speaking in English language.
Small talk speaking situations in English language.

Here are further guidelines.

What are examples of English language written documents?

Methods of human communications.
How many methods of human-to-human communications are there?
There are more than 45 methods of human communications.

What are the methods of human communications?
  1. Aircraft communications

  2. Audio public address systems

  3. Beepers

  4. Building announcement systems (voice alerts and sirens)

  5. Combination audio/visual public address devices

  6. Communication access for people with limited speech broadcast technologies

  7. Cellular/mobile phones

  8. Conference calling

  9. Digital signage

  10. Electronic mail communication

  11. Emergency-oriented instant messengers and computer screen pop-ups

  12. Faxes

  13. Face-to-face in-person meeting.

  14. Giant voice systems

  15. Hand-held devices

  16. Hosting a web cast

  17. Hotlines with toll-free numbers can be set up with prerecorded information.

  18. HR help desk

  19. Internet communication

  20. Intranet/Internet site

  21. Internet relay chat (IRC)

  22. Instant messaging is a tool that permits two-way conversation in a chat room on the Internet.

  23. L.E.D. electronic signs

  24. Letter writing

  25. Line-based phones

  26. Mail/snail, mail/overnight systems

  27. Mass communication

  28. Outdoor warning system (voice alerts and sirens)

  29. Patrol car announcements

  30. Postal mail communications

  31. Public-address systems

  32. Radio communication

  33. Shortwave radio

  34. Siren system

  35. Social media

  36. SMS/text messaging

  37. Two-way radios

  38. Teleconferencing

  39. Telephone communication

  40. Television communication

  41. Vehicle communications

  42. Videoconferencing

  43. Voice mail

  44. VoIP

  45. Writing

  46. Weather radio

  47. World wide web presentation
What methods of communication do you prefer?

What are other terms for methods of communication?
Medium of communication.
TV and newspaper are methods or mediums of communication.
Internet is a method or medium of communication.
Internet communication, a method or medium of communication, can be relayed through local TV method or medium of communication. The word media is plural of medium.

Face-to-face in-person meeting.

What should happen before face-to-face in-person meeting?

How did you try to resolve the issue/issues?
World wide web presentation.
Postal mail
Please give further details if other methods.

What can be types of meeting?
Complaint, problem solving meeting.
Complaint, problem solving, decision making meeting.
Condolence Meeting. Report and information oriented.
Creative and brainstorming
Feed forward (status reporting and new information presentation).
Training and skill building (This is where presentation comes in)
Feedback meeting (reacting and evaluating)
Consulting meetings
    Review a current situation
    Identify deficiencies
    Suggest changes
    Stress the advantages of such change
    Admit any weaknesses
    Invite comments
Combination meeting (There is more than one purpose of meeting).

What type of meeting is this?
Here are further guidelines.

What are included in the category of human communications abilities?
  1. Emergency communication

  2. English language understanding abilities.

  3. English language reading abilities.

  4. English language speaking abilities.

  5. English language writing abilities.

  6. English language documents.

  7. Face-to-face in-person conversation

  8. Internet communication

  9. Interview skills

  10. Job Skills Examples

  11. Lecture

  12. Listening

  13. Meeting and Event Communications

  14. Non-English language abilities (French, Spanish, Japanese, Arabic, Kashmiri, etc.)

  15. Nonverbal communication

  16. Presentation skills

  17. Public speaking

  18. Questioning skills

  19. Questions you should know about human communications skills.

  20. Sign language (for deaf and mute)

  21. Skills relevant to answering questions

  22. Teaching Methods

  23. Telephone conversation

Emergency communication
Emergency communication system
An Emergency communication system (ECS) is any system (typically, computer-based) that is organized for the primary purpose of supporting one-way and two-way communication of emergency messages between both individuals and groups of individuals.

An emergency notification system refers to a collection of methods that facilitate the one-way dissemination or broadcast of messages to one or many groups of people with the details of an occurring or pending emergency situation.[1]

Emergency communication systems often provide or integrate those same notification services but will also include two-way communications typically to facilitate communications between emergency communications staff, affected people and first responders in the field.

Emergency Communication Tools
Emergency Communication Methods

What method of communication do you prefer?

Building warning systems (voice alerts and sirens)
Broadcast technologies

    Short-wave Radio
    Two-way Radio
    Weather Radio


    Audio Public Address Systems
    L.E.D. Electronic Signs
    Combination Audio/Visual Public Address Devices
    Digital Signage
    Giant Voice Systems
Communication devices
    Public-address systems
    Mobile phones
    Line-based phones
    SMS/Text messaging
    Social Media
    Electronic mail
    Emergency-oriented instant messengers and computer screen pop-ups
Cellular/Mobile Phones
Conference Calling
Letter Writing
VoIP Writing
E-Mail Communication
Hand-held device
Hosting a web cast
Hotlines with toll-free numbers can be set up with prerecorded information.
HR help desk
Intranet/Internet Site
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Instant messaging is a tool that permits two-way conversation in a chat room on the Internet.
Mail/Snail Mail/Overnight Systems
Two-way Radios
Outdoor warning system (voice alerts and sirens)
Patrol Car Announcements
Radio Communication
Siren System
Voice Mail
Telephone Communication
Television Communication
Video Conferencing

Communication Access for People with Limited Speech Broadcast technologies Here are further guidelines.

Departments of communication in various states.
What states should have a state department of communication?
Take a look at this.

Departments of communication in various states.

What are examples of state departments of communication?
Illinois Department of Communication

What is the internet address of a similar department, such as the California Department of Communication?

Communication careers within and outside the state.

What are examples of communication careers within and outside the state?
There are certain justified job titles and some unjustified job titles relevant to these services within and outside the state.
Justified job titles.
Unjustified job titles.
Here are various examples.

What are examples of various communication abilities, starting with English language?
These communication abilities, including English language, are relevant to the age of a person.

Vocabulary relevant to communication

What vocabulary relevant to communication should a communication professional know?


Questions for the Illinois State Department of Communication.

Who must answer these questions?
Professor Pat Gill
Department of Communication
University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign
244 Lincoln Hall, MC #456
702 South Wright Street
Urbana, IL 61801

What are the duties of the state department of communication?
What is the difference between the state department of communication and the state department of media?
Has the Illinois Department of Communication established any print newspapers in the state of Illinois?
Who has the duties relevant to establishing printed government newspapers in the state of Illinois?

Communication Abilities
Communications Abilities in English language.
Communication skills
Human Communication
What should you know about communication?
What is Communication?
What is human communication?
Why is there a need to elaborate on human communications compared to animals?
Are there differences in types and methods of human communication?
What are the types of human communication?
What are the methods of human communications?
What methods of communication do you prefer?
What are examples of English language speaking situations?
What are examples of English language written documents?
What should happen before face-to-face in-person meeting?
How did you try to resolve the issue/issues?
What can be types of meeting?
What type of meeting is this?
What are examples of active learning?
Who all are required to enhance English communication skills of residents in the state and outside the state?
What are other terms for training and skill building?
What are examples of training and skill building?
What do you know about teaching methods?
What should you know about teaching methods?
What is the difference between classroom English language lecture and active learning?
What should you know about teaching methods?
What will happen to residents of the state who will not go ahead with English language as the official language?
What are included in the category of human communications abilities?
What are human communication skills?
What is the difference between one skill and categories of skills?
Why are English language understanding, reading, speaking, and writing abilities essential communication abilities/skills?
How should you develop good communication skills, including English language speaking, reading, understanding, writing, and proper presentation skills?
What is on the alphabetical Listing of Human Abilities?
What human abilities would you like to improve?
What are examples of human abilities?
What are examples of nonessential skills?
What should you keep in mind while communicating?
What method of communication do you prefer?
What do you have to do to improve your English language abilities relevant to your age?
Who should know everyday English language speaking situations?
Why should you know everyday English language speaking situations?
What should you know about everyday English language speaking situations?
What is a lecture?
What are the types of meetings?
How can communication skills be improved?
Why are some young people not so good at communicating?
Why are communication skills important?
What is Internet communication?
Is there a difference between Internet communications and world wide web presentation?
What is the difference between Internet communications and world wide web presentation?
What are the categories of Internet communication?
What is an example of world wide web presentation?
How should you improve your presentation skills?
How should you plan an effective presentation?
How many participants are expected to attend?
What should you do before face-to-face in-person presentation?
What is a Presentation?
What are the types of presentations? What is the meaning of the word communication?
What is another word for communication?
What is the plural of communication?
What is the opposite of communication?
What is the adjective for communication?
What rhymes with communication?
How do you pronounce the word communication?
What is the noun for communicate?
What is another word for communicate?

What should you know about communication?
  1. Annotation or definition of communication.

  2. Categories of human communications.

  3. Types of human communications.

  4. Methods of human communications.

  5. English grammar relevant to word communication.

  6. Communication methods and teaching methods.

  7. Communication studies.

  8. Teaching methods

English language books
How long has it taken to author these books?
It has taken the author of these books, Asif Qureshi, more than 10 years to author these books.
Up to January 1, 2015, there was no such book in schools, colleges, universities, libraries, or various departments in various states.
You are required to facilitate circulation of these books and other books authored by me with remuneration.
Sample biodata
Here are further facts.
My Name: Asif Qureshi
Attached photograph:
Title Cover Image Format Price ISBN
English language documents. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-0-2
English language dictionary. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-1-9
English language glossary Book. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-2-6
English language grammar Book. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-3-3
English language human resources. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-4-0
English language reading guidelines. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-5-7
English language speaking guidelines. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-6-4
English language translation from other languages. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-7-1
English language word Book. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-8-8
English language writing guidelines. Hardcover $100.00 978-0-9906983-9-5

English language understanding abilities.
What are examples of various abilities?
English language understanding abilities.
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language writing abilities.
These are examples of abilities.
Human beings learn abilities.
Nonhumans do not learn abilities.

What do you have to do to improve your English language abilities relevant to your age?
Age-specific English language guidelines should be sought.
Associate with individual or individuals who understand, read, write, and speak the English language.
Associate with good charactered, well behaved English language speaking individuals.
Listen to English language programs every day.
Maintain an English language glossary with yourself.
Make specific Internet resource like www.qureshiuniversity.com your favorite internet resource.
Read English language materials every day.
Speak in English language every day.
Verify with others if there are any errors in your English language usage.
Write an English language page every day, preferably in question-and-answer format.
You should speak in the English language.
You need to practice every day.
Make it a habit to have English language discussions with good charactered, well behaved individuals every day.
Read English documents every day.
Write an English language page every day.
You will learn slowly.
Listen to songs in English
Watch films and TV in English
Work on your pronunciation
Use audio books
Expand your vocabulary
Confidence matters
Take English conversation classes online with a native teacher

Understanding comes first, so be patient

Imagine a newly-born baby. In the beginning, the young child does not understand language as such but communicates through body language, crying and so on. Then it starts to engage more actively with its parents, who speak to it constantly. The baby is a great listener but lacks the ability to speak properly for several years. Work on improving your understanding of English by exposing yourself to the language as often as possible. Great listeners and observers make great speakers!
Parenting Advice
Here are further guidelines.
Do not wait for a child to begin elementary education on his or her 5th birthday in elementary school. Elementary school education of a child starts at home.
Here are further guidelines.

English language speaking abilities.
Everyday English speaking situations.
Everyday English language expressions.
Who should know everyday English language speaking situations?

Why should you know everyday English language speaking situations?
Every day, in various situations, you will need these guidelines.

What should you know about everyday English language speaking situations?
Here are further guidelines.
English language speaking guidelines.
Speaking Situations
English language accent

What is a lecture?
What makes a good lecturer?
What is a seminar?
What is a tutorial?
What is the first lesson I give to teachers?
When is a lecture required?
What questions do you need answered prior to the lecture?
What is the topic?
What is the venue?
What is the seating arrangement?
How do you start a lecture?
What questions will be addressed during the lecture?
How do you continue a lecture?
How do you close a lecture?
How can I record my class/lectures/recitations/sessions and make them available to my students? How can I play a video in my class?
Here are further guidelines.

Meeting and Event Communications
What are the types of meetings?
Combination meetings
Commitment building
Emergency Meeting
Evaluative Meetings
Feedforward (status reporting and new information presentations)
Feedback (reacting and evaluating )
Generative Meetings
Giving Effective Feedback
Informative Meetings
Information sharing and feedback
Making Decisions that Work
Net Meeting step by step guide
Problem solving
Public speaking
Report- and Information-oriented.
Training and Skill Building
Combination meetings
If you insist on combination meetings, I suggest your break them into segments of different meeting types. Despite segmentation, time management for a combination meeting is more difficult than a single type of meeting because you have more than one purpose to achieve.

Evaluative Meetings
Evaluative Meetings are about making decisions, setting direction and long-term planning. These are usually small and have fewer than 20 participants. These meetings require intense engagement and benefit from governance and protocols. Large, information-rich displays are helpful to these meetings. Projectors, flip charts and conference lines should also be provided. As the content of these meetings is often highly confidential, special care should be taken to provide acoustical and visual privacy and a minimum of disruptions. Providing the right tools, furniture and space design for a specific meeting type are key elements in achieving your meeting goals. Paying attention to every detail can make a meaningful difference to the end result.

Generative Meetings
Generative Meetings are about creating new content together. They usually occur in small groups of 2-8 people. The work can go on for long periods of time or be a short breakout from a larger informative meeting. The work requires strong focus from the participants and the ability to capture, manipulate, retrieve and preserve the content they have created. Resource allocation for this meeting type includes lots of whiteboards and flip charts, mobile chairs and tables, and intimate/private space. In addition to collaborative technologies, it is important to provide a generous supply of paper-based tools such as Post-it® Notes, tape, pins and markers.

Informative Meetings
Informative Meetings are about the sharing or broadcasting of predetermined information.

Emergency Meeting

Form of Meeting. Emergency meetings may be held by any of the following methods:
•In Person. Directors can gather together at a physical location and convene a meeting to address the emergency.

•Email. Email may be used as a method of conducting emergency meetings ________ .

•Telephone-Video Conference.

Components of Meetings

A meeting can be divided into the following three main components:
Content is the knowledge, information, experience, expertise, opinions, ideas, attitudes and expectations that each individual brings to a meeting.
Interaction is the way in which the participants work together to deal with the content of a meeting. This includes the feelings, attitudes and expectations of the participants which have a direct bearing on co-operation, listening, participation and trust.
Structure is the way in which both the information and the participants are organised to achieve the purpose/objectives of the meeting.

Before any meeting, the chairperson should ask and resolve the following questions:

What is the purpose of the meeting?
Is a meeting appropriate?
How should the meeting be planned?
Who should attend the meeting?
What preparation is required for the meeting?
What is the Purpose of the Meeting?
All meetings must have a purpose or aim and the chairperson must ask questions, questions as:

What is to be achieved by this meeting?
Is advice required on a particular issue?
Has a problem arisen that needs prompt discussion?
Is this a regular meeting to keep members 'in touch'?
Is a Meeting Appropriate?
The chairperson should always consider whether a meeting is necessary or if some other means of communication is more appropriate,for example memos or emails targeted to individuals inviting comment. Unnecessary meetings may waste time, lead to frustration and negativity and may lower motivation to participate in future meetings.

How Should the Meeting be Planned?
This will very much depend on the type of meeting to be held. There should be some rationale behind every meeting, no matter how low-level or informal, and this will largely dictate the content and indicate how planning should proceed.

Who Will Attend the Meeting?
This is often decided by the nature of the meeting itself. In a small organisation, a meeting could well include all members of staff, whereas a working party or committee meeting will already have its members pre-determined. In a large organisation or department, staff attending might well be representing others. It is important that the full implications of such representation are realised by the individuals concerned as they are not merely speaking for themselves. Meetings outside the workplace may include members of the board of directors or other interested parties.

What Preparations are Needed for the Meeting?
If maximum contribution is to be forthcoming from all participants, the purpose of the meeting should be recognised by all. The most tangible expression of this is the agenda which should be circulated beforehand to all those invited to the meeting. The agenda should:

Give the time and place of the meeting.
List the topics to be covered, indicating who will introduce them.
Have any relevant papers attached.
Give the time the meeting will close.
The Agenda: This is the outline plan for the meeting. In most formal meetings it is drawn up by the secretary in consultation with the chairperson. The secretary must circulate the agenda well in advance of the meeting, including any accompanying papers. The secretary also requests items for inclusion in the agenda.

Regular meetings often start with the minutes from the last meeting followed by 'matters arising' which forms a link with what has happened in the previous meeting. Most meetings conclude with 'any other business' (AOB) which gives everyone the opportunity for any genuine last minute items to be raised; though more formal meetings may have AOB items listed on the agenda.

Running Effective Meetings: Types of Meetings

Managing meetings effectively is a core skill every manager should develop. Although there's no mystery to what makes a meeting productive, it can take practice and attention to detail to become an effective leader of meetings. It all starts with knowing when to call a meeting, and why.

Is It a Meeting?
How do you know it's time to call a meeting?
What type of meeting is it? What's the purpose of the meeting? Here are some typical situations when a meeting may be called for:

•You're Managing a Project
Projects tend to require meetings at various stages: at the beginning, as the project plan is coming together, and at regular intervals while the work is being done. Toward the end of the project, depending on its size, daily meetings could be necessary.

•You're Managing People
Many bosses call weekly staff meetings in addition to weekly one-on-one meetings with their direct reports. These standing meetings provide a chance to review the work accomplished in the previous week and look ahead to what will be accomplished in the coming week. Weekly one-on-one meetings also give the chance to provide feedback outside the performance review process.

•You're Managing a Client
Many types of ______, especially professional services _____, make presentations to clients - sales presentations, kickoff meetings, interim status meetings, and final presentations. Ongoing relationships also typically involve periodic meetings.

•Email is Getting Complicated
When an email conversation gets increasingly complex, it can be time to call a meeting so that the conversation can take place in spoken words - which can be quicker than a series of carefully crafted email responses. A conference call or an in-person meeting may be necessary.

•Problems are Arising
If a project is getting off course, interpersonal conflicts are escalating, or any other emergency occurs, it's time to call a meeting. Groups are great at some tasks, like weighing alternatives and generating ideas. But sometimes a meeting is not the best or most efficient way to get something done. Some types of work are best done in subcommittees - even subcommittees of one - then presented to the larger group for review and approval. An example is the group asked to provide comments and suggested changes to a document. It is said that a committee can write the Declaration of Independence, provided they appoint a subcommittee with Thomas Jefferson as chair.

What Type of Meeting is It?
The purpose of the meeting should help determine the appropriate format. If it's to get clarification on something, a quick question at the water cooler or a visit to someone's office may take the place of a meeting. The length and formality of the meeting will vary depending on how many people are invited, how much notice is given, the size of the company (larger _____ often have more formal meeting protocols than smaller ones), and who's leading the meeting. The basic types of meetings are as follows.

•Standing Meeting
A regularly scheduled appointment, such as a weekly one-on-one with a boss or a department; or a project meeting taking place at intervals until the project is over. Since these meetings recur, their format and agenda become relatively well established. Although it's important to hold these meetings at routine intervals for convenience and consistency, at times they can be rescheduled. •Topical Meeting
A gathering called to discuss one subject, such as a work issue or a task related to a project. •Presentation
A highly structured meeting where one or more people speak and a moderator leads the proceedings. The purpose is usually to inform. Attendees may have an opportunity to ask questions, but typically their participation is limited. •Conference
A highly structured, moderated meeting, like a presentation, where various participants contribute following a fixed agenda. •Emergency Meeting
A meeting called to address a crisis, whether internal or external. Such meetings are often arranged with very little notice, but attendance is mandatory. If the emergency meeting conflicts with another appointment, the emergency meeting typically takes precedence. •Seminar
A structured meeting with an educational purpose. Seminars are usually led by people with expertise in the subject matter.

What's Different About Conference Calls and Videoconferences?
Conference calls and videoconferences are similar to in-person meetings, but the differences in media suggest some changes in the way these meetings are managed. Here are some tips on managing technology-enabled conferences.
•Set an agenda in advance.
•Choose a time that works for all participants, factoring in time zones.
•Confirm attendee list and make sure all handouts have arrived.
•If the call is incoming, be ready when the phone rings. If you're cutting it close, delegate someone to pick up.
•If the call is outgoing, dial in one or two minutes before the conference is scheduled to begin.
•If you're initiating, learn how to use the conferencing system ahead of time.
•Identify yourself by name even if your system does it automatically.
•Make sure you can see and hear everyone (videoconferences).
•Greet each person by name.
•Don't leave out the small talk.
•Repeat names during the call (especially teleconferences).
•If you're a silent participant, resist the urge to talk.
•Let one person speak at a time, so that no one's words get cut off.

•Stick to your role: are you leading? facilitating? lurking?
•If a party becomes disconnected from a call facilitated by a teleconferencing system, that person should dial back in unobtrusively.
•If parties are disconnected from a three-way call, the person who initiated the call should reconnect the person. •End on time. As in all meetings, it's important to stick to the agenda and manage time effectively.

Here are further guidelines.

Managing skills
What are managing skills?
Managing skills are everyday life and job skills.
What are examples of everyday managing skills?
What are examples of managing skills relevant to work?
How has the Internet changed everyday and job-specific managing skills?
Here are various examples.
I update www.qureshiuniversity.com every day relevant to everyday managing skills and job-specific managing skills of various jobs.
This would not have been possible before computer and Internet.

People Skills

What are other terms for people skills?
Interpersonal skills
Soft skills

Survival skills

What are survival skills?
Survival skills are techniques people may use in a dangerous situation, like a natural disaster, to save themselves and others.

Biodata, Resume, Curriculum Vitae, Biography, and Bibliography

What is the difference between a biodata, resume, curriculum vitae, biography, and bibliography?
Biodata is one page or 300 words.
Resume is 2 pages.
Curriculum Vitae is more than 2 pages.
Biography is more than 50 pages.
These are all man-made demarcations.
No universal scientific law is applicable to this situation.

Nonhumans do not learn abilities.
Nonhumans do not learn English language abilities.

Can you name one animal with scientific classification of living things that can learn English language reading, speaking, understanding, and writing abilities?
It is silly to suggest that nonhuman animals can learn English language reading, speaking, understanding, and writing abilities.

Age 18 or more

How old are you?
What life skills should you have relevant to your age?
What life skills should a human 18 years old or older have?

Where is the Europe in Asia?
North west asia is also called Europe.
For directional purposes, Asia has been demarcated as South Asia, Southeast Asia, Northwest Asia, Middle east Asia , Asia Pacific, etc.

Head of the state does not have to make difficult decisions.
Head of the state has to guide others in the state and outside the state.

English language has become first language in all states around the world.

Comparison between human and nonhuman learning.
Let’s examine this.
This is relevant to comparison with human abilities.
Birds can build nests, birds cannot build a building. So birds do not have professional abilities . Chimps can make tools and be taught to count. I have not seen any chimp like this . Animals have their own forms of communication, etc. Can animals have English language understanding, reading, speaking, writing abilities?

Orientals do not have English language abilities; at some point English translation is required. English language is most popular language.
Questioning Skills

Questions you should know about human communications skills.
What method of communication do you prefer?
In-person meeting
Social media

What is effective communication?
How to Develop Good Communication Skills
What makes communication effective?
What are the different methods of communication?
Why is Communication Important?
What is interpersonal communication?
What do people write about in communication studies?
How can communication skills be improved?
Why are some young people not so good at communicating?
Why are communication skills important?
What do people write about in communication studies?
How do young people communicate?
Communication as academic discipline
Communication noise
Nonhuman communication
Barriers to effective human communication
Written communication and its historical development
Oral communication
Nonverbal communication
Human communication
Here are further guidelines.
Communication Skills
Communication skills are included in general skills.
English language skills are included in general skills.

A person should have both general skills and work-specific skills.

Communication Skills

Communication skills are essential skills.

There was no response from you: What seems to be the problem?

What is the reason you did not reply?

Not replying is not a healthy sign.

What best describes your situation?
Someone is intimidating me not to reply.
I do not know how to reply.
I do not have Internet services every day.
I am involved in various harms; I do not know how to manage the issues and am very upset.
I am living among uncivilized people.
I am not feeling well.
I have been harmed.

What are further details?

Communication skills

Reading Effectively

Data communication
Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our scent.
Sign system
Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television or other media.
Face-to-Face Discussions

Face-to-face discussions are possible after you go through online education, and you point out issues you did not understand.

Take a look at online resources; you will see the difference.

What is Communication?
Communication Skills

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another.

Although this is a simple definition, when we think about how we may communicate the subject becomes a lot more complex. There are various categories of communication and more than one may occur at any time. The different categories of communication are:

Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television or other media.

Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our scent.

Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or via other media.

Visualizations: graphs, charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can communicate messages.

Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or via other media.

The ability to communicate our needs and wants is one of life's most basic activities. Communication involves the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver. It's a two-way street—the sender and receiver are both necessary for communication to take place. For communication to be effective, the sender and receiver each needs to understand the message being communicated and the method being used to communicate.

Types of Communication

Oral Communication
Written Communication
Body Language

These range from gestures to manual signs, to systems using objects, pictures, or symbols, to technological devices—or to combinations of all these methods.

Below is a list ranking six methods of communication:
1.Face-to-face meeting
3.Virtual meeting
4.Phone call
5.Voice mail

What are Oral and Written Communication Skills and Why are they important?

Communication problems

Some problem behaviours that can get in the way of communicating well with others include:

Not listening - by having your mind somewhere else when others are speaking to you and not really responding to their thoughts and feelings about a particular topic Looking away when the other person is talking Yawning when the other person is talking or during the conversation Talking too fast or too slow Using a voice tone that's unpleasant and hard to listen to Giving unwanted advice - no one likes to be told what to do Talking over the top of others - because you're not listening or think your point is much more important than theirs Talking about yourself too much Changing the topic suddenly and without explanation

Top 10 Valued Workplace Skills include communication, organizational, computer, interpersonal, analytical, leadership, problemsolving, time management, mathematical and professional skills.


Negotiating; bargaining; persuading; debating issues without being unpleasant or abrasive to others Greeting people; representing others to the public; selling; demonstrating products or services Courteous telephone skills Reporting; conveying information; explaining issues or procedures Listening effectively Interviewing; drawing out others' views; probing for information Demonstrating skills in the use of language, grammar and punctuation Expressing ideas in written form; editing; revising; preparing concise and logically written materials Organizing and presenting ideas effectively for both formal and spontaneous speeches • Participating in group discussions


Identifying tasks to be accomplished Pulling elements together in an orderly, functional, and structured whole Facilitating discussions on program planning processes Facilitating brainstorming activities Giving constructive feedback on others' work Prioritizing tasks; getting most important work done first


Identifying and using appropriate software Identifying, analyzing, and solving hardware or technical difficulties Teaching others to use computer programs Understanding different application programs Using HTML and other web design tools Understanding and using different operating systems like UNIX and Windows


Interacting effectively with peers, superiors, and assistants
Understanding the feelings of others
Analyzing behavior of self and others in group situations
Demonstrating effective social behavior in a variety of settings and under different circumstances
Maintaining group cooperation and support
Making and keeping commitments to others

Analytical/Critical Thinking

Analyzing the interrelationships of events and ideas from several perspectives
Identifying reasonable standards for assessing the appropriateness of an action
Identifying the general principles that explain interrelated events
Applying appropriate criteria to strategies and action plans
Understanding and making logical arguments


Motivating others towards the accomplishment of a common goal or vision
Understanding and working to fulfill the needs of each team member
Knowing, using, and properly allocating a team’s resources
Effectively planning team activities
Influencing the actions of team members by setting a good example
Dealing with team disputes quickly, fairly and effectively
Assigning duties and responsibilities effectively
Effective problem solving and conflict resolution
Anticipating problems before they occur
Defining problems and identifying possible causes
Identifying possible solutions and selecting the most appropriate ones
Developing plans to apply new solutions
Creating inventive solutions to complex problems
Adapting one's ideas and behaviors to changing customs and rules
Quickly and accurately identifying the critical issues when making a decision or solving a problem

Time Management

Managing and organizing projects while being conscious of schedules and deadlines
Setting realistic goals
Organizing work effectively; breaking projects down into manageable steps
Prioritizing work to do most critical tasks first


Interpreting, manipulating, and using numerical data effectively Understanding and managing financial plans
Understanding and controlling operating expenses
Creating formulas
Recognizing and understanding data in different forms (like graphs)
Using precise dataentry
techniques; analyzing data
Recognizing abnormalities or mistakes in data


Representing an organization through appropriate dress, language, behavior, and business ethics
Complying with the _____'s _______rules and expectations
Treating coworkers,
superiors, assistants, and customers with respect
Working toward compromise in situations of disagreement or dispute Working within project protocols
Showing loyalty to an organization
Being punctual and working efficiently
Producing high quality results

Here are further guidelines.
Communication Skills

Being able to communicate with others is one of the best life skills a person can develop. Someone who can effectively communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings is better equipped for success both on the job and in personal relationships.

Effective communication is much more than being able to talk; it is also the ability to listen and understand others, to “read” and interpret body language and to know the best ways to get our points across.

To be a better speaker:
Be considerate. Don’t dominate the conversation by talking only about yourself. Use questions to probe the person’s feelings or opinions on the topic of conversation.

Speak clearly. Don’t mumble or talk in the opposite direction of the listener. Also, use words that you know the listener might understand.

Stay focused on the conversation. Doing something else while you are talking, such as typing or working on a car, sends a message to the listener that you don’t think the conversation is worthy of your full attention, and it could inhibit the listener’s responses to what you say.

Be brief. Don’t over talk a point. It may cause the other person to lose interest in the conversation.

Learn to “read” the listener. If the other person seems inattentive or uncomfortable, it is probably not a good time to be carrying on a conversation. Recommend having the conversation at another time. To be a better listener:

Eliminate distractions. If you find it hard to concentrate because of your surroundings, move to another area or schedule another time to talk.

Make time to listen. If you are in a hurry or don’t have time, let the speaker know and schedule another time to talk. Better to delay the conversation than to risk having an important conversation cut short.

Practice reflective listening. Repeat what you think the speaker said to ensure you heard the speaker correctly. This is called “reflective listening” and it is identified by statements as “If I understand you correctly…” reflective listening gives the speaker a chance to clarify a point and ensures that both the speaker and the listener are on the same page.

Listen for understanding. If you don’t understand what is being said, don’t by shy or embarrassed to ask questions. It is better to ask for clarification than to risk a misunderstanding that could lead to problems later on.

Wait for the speaker to finish. Don’t interrupt, even when it’s apparent the person speaking is gathering his/her thoughts.

Pay attention to what is being said. When someone is speaking, don’t spend that time preparing your remarks or working on a project – listen.

Keep eye contact. Doing so shows that you are interested in what is being said, which may encourage the speaker to express him/herself more freely.

The fine points of arguing fairly:

Everyone gets into arguments, but good communicators know how to argue fairly. Here are some guidelines to keep your arguments from going too far south.

Don’t resort to name calling. Never, ever call a partner a hurtful name. Try the five-second rule (below) to choose words that are appropriate and relevant to the disagreement.

Try the five-second rule. Because we sometimes say things without thinking of the consequences, wait five seconds before you comment on what is just been said. Use this time to exercise control and think about what you should say.

Stick to the issue at hand. Talk only about the present point of disagreement. Bringing up or engaging in discussions about past problems adds the proverbial fuel to the fire. It also shifts the focus from the present problem, which means it probably won’t get resolved and will cause trouble again.

Manage your anger. Anger is a natural emotion, especially when you are having a disagreement. But don’t allow your anger to turn violent. If you feel your anger reaching that point, leave the scene immediately and do something safe to calm yourself down – counting to 20, taking a brisk walk or exercising. Don’t resort to drugs or alcohol or drive your car away on all cylinders.

Speak and act with regard for the other person. Remember with whom you are arguing. It may be a marriage partner or someone whom you love and care about deeply. Although that is probably the last thing on your mind when you are having a disagreement, it should be the first.

What is effective communication?
How to Develop Good Communication Skills
What makes communication effective?

Communication Skills—skills that describe your listening, writing, language abilities, understanding and speaking a foreign language, presenting information to groups, or team, listening, taking directions.
Top 15 Communication Skills
1. English language reading abilities.
2. English language speaking abilities.
3. English language understanding abilities.
4. English language writing abilities.
5. Listening
6. Nonverbal Communication
7. Clarity and Concision
8. Friendliness
9. Confidence
10. Empathy
11. Open-Mindedness
12. Respect
13. Feedback
14. Picking the Right Medium
15. Presentation Skills

Internet communication
Internet communications
What is Internet communication?
The most common methods of communications on the Internet (as well as within the major online services) can be roughly grouped into six categories: one-to-one messaging (such as "e-mail"), one-to-many messaging (such as "listserv"), distributed message databases (such as "USENET newsgroups"), real time communication (such as "Internet Relay Chat"), real time remote computer utilization (such as "telnet"), and remote information retrieval (such as "ftp," "gopher," and the "World Wide Web"). Most of these methods of communication can be used to transmit text, data, computer programs, sound, or visual images.

Is there a difference between Internet communications and world wide web presentation?

What is the difference between Internet communications and world wide web presentation?
Internet communications consists of 6 categories of communications.
World wide web presentation is one among many categories of Internet communications.

What are the categories of Internet communication?
1 One-to-one messaging (such as e-mail).
2 One-to-many messaging (such as listserv).
3 Distributed message databases (such as USENET newsgroups).
4 Real-time communication (such as Internet Relay Chat).
5 Real-time remote computer utilization (such as telnet).
6 Remote data retrieval (such as ftp, gopher, and the World Wide Web).

World wide web presentation

What is an example of world wide web presentation?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com is an example of world wide web presentation.
This is an educational resource.

Questions that have been answered.
What are the types of presentations?
How should you improve your presentation skills?
How should you plan an effective presentation?
How many participants are expected to attend?
Here are further facts.
Face-to-face in-person presentation.

What should you do before face-to-face in-person presentation?
First do world wide web presentation.
Presence on world wide web does not always mean world wide web presentation.
Academic topics, issues, abilities, professions, products, services, and intended audience are essential in world wide web presentation.

You must first introduce yourself.
Your attention, please.
I would like to introduce myself to you.
I am Asif Qurehsi.
I am the founder of Qureshi University and Global democratic party.
I can guide 45 departments in the state and outside the state.
I can guide 611 professions, including teacher, lawyer, engineer, and physician.

Why are we here today?
We are here today for a presentation on the topic of world state governments.

How much time have I been allocated?
10 minutes.

What is the topic of this presentation?
World state governments is the topic of this presentation.

What do I expect my audience to do?
Listen to me.
Take notes.
Read the documents I provided.
Ask questions before/during/after presentation.
Preserve documents that I have provided.

What do I intend to be the outcome of this presentation?
You will enhance your knowledge.
This knowledge will help you to resolve relevant issues.

How will I be presenting the topic?

How should you ask questions during presentation?
Raise your hand.
Excuse me, I have a question.
What is the question?

What are my recommendations?
If you have any issues in the state or outside the state, www.qureshiuniversity.com has all further guidelines.
Do you have any questions for me?

Is it legal to e-record?

What is electronic recording or e-recording?
What are the benefits of e-recording vs. paper recording or filing documents through traditional means?
World Wide Web Presentation

Nonverbal Communication

Types of nonverbal communication:
What are examples of nonverbal human communication?
What is non-verbal communication?
Why is non-verbal communication important?

What are examples of nonverbal human communication?
Eyes Expressions
Facial Expression
Body Posture
Communicating with Gestures
Listening Skills
Sounds (paralanguage)
Using Songs and Melodies
Using Rituals and Routines
Non-Verbal Communication: Cues, Signals and Symbols

Listening Skills

Four Types of Listening

Most communication experts agree that poor listening skills are the biggest contributors to poor communication. There are four basic types of listening. Which one do you think most people practice?

1. Inactive listening. The definition of this is the old adage, “In one ear and out the other.” You hear the words, but your mind is wandering and no communication is taking place.

2. Selective listening. You hear only what you want to hear. You hear some of the message and immediately begin to formulate your reply or second guess the speaker without waiting for the speaker to finish.

3. Active listening. You listen closely to content and intent. What emotional meaning might the speaker be giving you? You try to block out barriers to listening. Most importantly, you are non-judgmental and empathetic.

4. Reflective Listening. This is active listening when you also work to clarify what the speaker is saying and make sure there is mutual understanding.

What is effective communication?

Communication is about more than just exchanging information. It's about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information. Effective communication is how you convey a message so that it is received and understood by someone in exactly the way you intended.

More than just the words you use, effective communication combines a set of skills including nonverbal communication, attentive listening, managing stress in the moment, the ability to communicate assertively, and the capacity to recognize and understand your own emotions and those of the person you’re communicating with.

Effective communication is the glue that helps you deepen your connections to others and improve teamwork, decision-making, and problem solving. It enables you to communicate even negative or difficult messages without creating conflict or destroying trust.

While effective communication is a learned skill, it is more effective when it’s spontaneous rather than formulaic. A speech that is read, for example, rarely has the same impact as a speech that’s delivered (or appears to be delivered) spontaneously. Of course, it takes time and effort to develop these skills and become an effective communicator. The more effort and practice you put in, the more instinctive and spontaneous your communication skills will become.

Barriers to effective interpersonal communication

  • Stress and out-of-control emotion. When you’re stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behavior. Take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation.
  • Lack of focus. You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking. If you’re planning what you’re going to say next, daydreaming, checking text messages, or thinking about something else, you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. You need to stay focused on the moment-to-moment experience.
  • Inconsistent body language. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said, not contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will likely feel you’re being dishonest. For example, you can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.
  • Negative body language. If you disagree with or dislike what’s being said, you may use negative body language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact, or tapping your feet. You don’t have to agree, or even like what’s being said, but to communicate effectively without making the other person defensive it’s important to avoid sending negative signals.

Improving communication skills #1: Be a good listener

People often focus on what they should say, but effective communication is more about listening than it is about talking. Listening well means not just understanding the words or the information being communicated, but also understanding how the speaker feels about what they’re communicating. When you really listen, you make the other person feel heard and understood, which can help build a stronger, deeper connection between you.

If your goal is to fully understand and connect with the other person, listening effectively will often come naturally. If it doesn’t, try the following tips. The more you practice them, the more satisfying and rewarding your interactions with others will become.

Tips for effective listening

  • Focus fully on the speaker, his or her body language, and other nonverbal cues. If you’re daydreaming, checking text messages, or doodling, you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. If you find it hard to concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your head—it’ll reinforce their message and help you stay focused.
  • Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns, by saying something like, “If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to me.” Listening is not the same as waiting for your turn to talk. You can’t concentrate on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next. Often, the speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.
  • Try to set aside judgment. In order to communicate effectively with someone, you don’t have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions. However, you do need to set aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism in order to fully understand a person. The most difficult communication, when successfully executed, can lead to the most unlikely and profound connection with someone.
  • Show your interest in what’s being said. Nod occasionally, smile at the person, and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”
  • Provide feedback. If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. "What I'm hearing is," or "Sounds like you are saying," are great ways to reflect back. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—you’ll sound insincere or unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words mean to you. Ask questions to clarify certain points: "What do you mean when you say," or "Is this what you mean?"

Improving communication skills #2: Pay attention to nonverbal signals

When we communicate things that we care about, we do so mainly using nonverbal signals. Nonverbal communication, or body language, includes facial expressions, body movement and gestures, eye contact, posture, the tone of your voice, and even your muscle tension and breathing. The way you look, listen, move, and react to another person tells them more about how you’re feeling than words alone ever can.

Developing the ability to understand and use nonverbal communication can help you connect with others, express what you really mean, navigate challenging situations, and build better relationships at home and work.

  • You can enhance effective communication by using open body language—arms uncrossed, standing with an open stance or sitting on the edge of your seat, and maintaining eye contact with the person you’re talking to.
  • You can also use body language to emphasize or enhance your verbal message—patting a friend on the back while complimenting him on his success, for example, or pounding your fists to underline your message.

Tips for improving how you read nonverbal communication

  • Be aware of individual differences. People from different countries and cultures tend to use different nonverbal communication gestures, so it’s important to take age, culture, religion, gender, and emotional state into account when reading body language signals. An American teen, a grieving widow, and an Asian businessman, for example, are likely to use nonverbal signals differently.
  • Look at nonverbal communication signals as a group. Don’t read too much into a single gesture or nonverbal cue. Consider all of the nonverbal signals you receive, from eye contact to tone of voice to body language. Anyone can slip up occasionally and let eye contact slip, for example, or briefly cross their arms without meaning to. Consider the signals as a whole to get a better “read” on a person.

Tips for improving how you deliver nonverbal communication

  • Use nonverbal signals that match up with your words. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said, not contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will likely feel you’re being dishonest. For example, you can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.
  • Adjust your nonverbal signals according to the context. The tone of your voice, for example, should be different when you’re addressing a child than when you’re addressing a group of adults. Similarly, take into account the emotional state and cultural background of the person you’re interacting with.
  • Use body language to convey positive feelings even when you're not actually experiencing them. If you’re nervous about a situation—a job interview, important presentation, or first date, for example—you can use positive body language to signal confidence, even though you’re not feeling it. Instead of tentatively entering a room with your head down, eyes averted, and sliding into a chair, try standing tall with your shoulders back, smiling and maintaining eye contact, and delivering a firm handshake. It will make you feel more self-confident and help to put the other person at ease.

Improving communication skills #3: Keep stress in check

To communicate effectively, you need to be aware of and in control of your emotions. And that means learning how to manage stress. When you’re stressed, you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behavior.

How many times have you felt stressed during a disagreement with your spouse, kids, boss, friends, or coworkers and then said or done something you later regretted? If you can quickly relieve stress and return to a calm state, you’ll not only avoid such regrets, but in many cases you’ll also help to calm the other person as well. It’s only when you’re in a calm, relaxed state that you'll be able to know whether the situation requires a response, or whether the other person’s signals indicate it would be better to remain silent.

Staying calm under pressure

In situations such as a job interview, business presentation, high-pressure meeting, or introduction to a loved one’s family, for example, it’s important to manage your emotions, think on your feet, and effectively communicate under pressure. These tips can help:

  • Use stalling tactics to give yourself time to think. Have a question repeated, or ask for clarification of a statement before responding.
  • Pause to collect your thoughts. Silence isn’t necessarily a bad thing—pausing can make you seem more in control than rushing your response.
  • Make one point and provide an example or supporting piece of information. If your response is too long or you waffle about a number of points, you risk losing the listener’s interest. Follow one point with an example and then gauge the listener’s reaction to tell if you should make a second point.
  • Deliver your words clearly. In many cases, how you say something can be as important as what you say. Speak clearly, maintain an even tone, and make eye contact. Keep your body language relaxed and open.
  • Wrap up with a summary and then stop. Summarize your response and then stop talking, even if it leaves a silence in the room. You don’t have to fill the silence by continuing to talk.

Quick stress relief for effective communication

When things start to get heated in the middle of a conversation, you need something quick and immediate to bring down the emotional intensity. By learning to quickly reduce stress in the moment, though, you can safely face any strong emotions you’re experiencing, regulate your feelings, and behave appropriately. When you know how to maintain a relaxed, energized state of awareness—even when something upsetting happens—you can remain emotionally available and engaged.
To deal with stress during communication:

  • Recognize when you’re becoming stressed. Your body will let you know if you’re stressed as you communicate. Are your muscles or your stomach tight and/or sore? Are your hands clenched? Is your breath shallow? Are you "forgetting" to breathe?
  • Take a moment to calm down before deciding to continue a conversation or postpone it.
  • Bring your senses to the rescue and quickly manage stress by taking a few deep breaths, clenching and relaxing muscles, or recalling a soothing, sensory-rich image, for example. The best way to rapidly and reliably relieve stress is through the senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. But each person responds differently to sensory input, so you need to find things that are soothing to you.
  • Look for humor in the situation. When used appropriately, humor is a great way to relieve stress when communicating. When you or those around you start taking things too seriously, find a way to lighten the mood by sharing a joke or amusing story.
  • Be willing to compromise. Sometimes, if you can both bend a little, you’ll be able to find a happy middle ground that reduces the stress levels for everyone concerned. If you realize that the other person cares much more about something than you do, compromise may be easier for you and a good investment in the future of the relationship.
  • Agree to disagree, if necessary, and take time away from the situation so everyone can calm down. Take a quick break and move away from the situation. Go for a stroll outside if possible, or spend a few minutes meditating. Physical movement or finding a quiet place to regain your balance can quickly reduce stress.

Improving communication skills #4: Assert yourself

Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help boost self-esteem and decision-making. Being assertive means expressing your thoughts, feelings, and needs in an open and honest way, while standing up for yourself and respecting others. It does NOT mean being hostile, aggressive, or demanding. Effective communication is always about understanding the other person, not about winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.
To improve assertiveness:

  • Value yourself and your opinions. They are as important as anyone else’s.
  • Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing on the rights of others.
  • Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It’s OK to be angry, but you must be respectful as well.
  • Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from your mistakes, ask for help when needed.
  • Learn to say “no”. Know your limits and don’t let others take advantage of you. Look for alternatives so everyone feels good about the outcome.

Developing assertive communication techniques

  • Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognize the other person's situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. "I know you've been very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well."
  • Escalating assertion can be used when your first attempts are not successful. You become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if your needs are not met. For example, "If you don't abide by the contract, I'll be forced to pursue legal action."
  • Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to start with to help build up your confidence. Or ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them first.

How to Develop Good Communication Skills

The ability to communicate effectively is important in relationships, education and work. Here are some steps and tips to help you develop good communication skills.

Understanding the Basics of Communication Skills

Know what communication really is. Communication is the process of transferring signals/messages between a sender and a receiver through various methods (written words, nonverbal cues, spoken words). It is also the mechanism we use to establish and modify relationships.

Have courage to say what you think. Be confident in knowing that you can make worthwhile contributions to conversation. Take time each day to be aware of your opinions and feelings so you can adequately convey them to others. Individuals who are hesitant to speak because they do not feel their input would be worthwhile need not fear. What is important or worthwhile to one person may not be to another and may be more so to someone else.

Practice. Developing advanced communication skills begins with simple interactions. Communication skills can be practiced every day in settings that range from the social to the professional. New skills take time to refine, but each time you use your communication skills, you open yourself to opportunities and future partnerships.

Make eye contact. Whether you are speaking or listening, looking into the eyes of the person with whom you are conversing can make the interaction more successful. Eye contact conveys interest and encourages your partner to be interested in you in return.
•One technique to help with this is to consciously look into one of the listener’s eyes and then move to the other eye. Going back and forth between the two makes your eyes appear to sparkle. Another trick is to imagine a letter “T” on the listener’s face ,with the crossbar being an imaginary line across the eye brows and the vertical line coming down the center of the nose. Keep your eyes scanning that “T” zone.

Use gestures. These include gestures with your hands and face. Make your whole body talk. Use smaller gestures for individuals and small groups. The gestures should get larger as the group that one is addressing increases in size.

Don’t send mixed messages. Make your words, gestures, facial expressions and tone match. Disciplining someone while smiling sends a mixed message and is therefore ineffective. If you have to deliver a negative message, make your words, facial expressions, and tone match the message.

Be aware of what your body is saying. Body language can say so much more than a mouthful of words. An open stance with arms relaxed at your sides tells anyone around you that you are approachable and open to hearing what they have to say.

•Arms crossed and shoulders hunched, on the other hand, suggest disinterest in conversation or unwillingness to communicate. Often, communication can be stopped before it starts by body language that tells people you don't want to talk.

•Appropriate posture and an approachable stance can make even difficult conversations flow more smoothly.

Manifest constructive attitudes and beliefs. The attitudes you bring to communication will have a huge impact on the way you compose yourself and interact with others. Choose to be honest, patient, optimistic, sincere, respectful, and accepting of others. Be sensitive to other people's feelings, and believe in others' competence.

Develop effective listening skills: Not only should one be able to speak effectively, one must listen to the other person's words and engage in communication on what the other person is speaking about. Avoid the impulse to listen only for the end of their sentence so that you can blurt out the ideas or memories your mind while the other person is speaking.

Enunciate your words. Speak clearly and don’t mumble. If people are always asking you to repeat yourself, try to do a better job of articulating yourself in a better manner.

Pronounce your words correctly. People will judge your competency through your vocabulary. If you aren’t sure of how to say a word, don’t use it.

Use the right words. If you’re not sure of the meaning of a word, don’t use it. Grab a dictionary and start a daily habit of learning one new word per day. Use it sometime in your conversations during the day.

Slow your speech down. People will perceive you as nervous and unsure of yourself if you talk fast. However, be careful not to slow down to the point where people begin to finish your sentences just to help you finish.

Develop your voice. A high or whiny voice is not perceived to be one of authority. In fact, a high and soft voice can make you sound like prey to an aggressive co-worker or make others not take you seriously. Begin doing exercises to lower the pitch of your voice. Try singing, but do it an octave lower on all your favorite songs. Practice this and, after a period of time, your voice will begin to lower.

Animate your voice. Avoid a monotone and use dynamics. Your pitch should raise and lower periodically.

Use appropriate volume. Use a volume that is appropriate for the setting. Speak more softly when you are alone and close. Speak louder when you are speaking to larger groups or across larger spaces.

Job Skills Examples

Basic skills

When you have basic skills, you can read, write, perform arithmetic and mathematical operations, listen, and speak.

  • Reading: You can locate, understand, and interpret written information such as manuals, graphs, and schedules.

  • Writing: You can communicate thoughts, ideas, information, and messages in writing and create documents such as letters, directions, manuals, reports, graphs, and flow charts.

  • Arithmetic/mathematics: You can perform basic computations and approach practical problems by choosing appropriately from a variety of mathematical techniques.

  • Listening: You receive, attend to, interpret, and respond to verbal messages and other cues.

  • Speaking: You organize ideas and communicate orally.

People skills

These are the skills that allow the “wonder of you” to mesh well with others. They include social, negotiation, leadership, teamwork, and cultural diversity.

  • Social: You respect the feelings of others, assert yourself when appropriate, and take an interest in what others say and why they think and act as they do.

  • Negotiation: You present the facts and arguments of your position and listen to and understand the other party’s position, create possible ways to resolve conflict, and make reasonable compromises.

  • Leadership: You communicate thoughts and feelings to justify the position you champion, encourage or convince others, and motivate people to believe in and trust you.

  • Teamwork: You work cooperatively with others, contribute ideas and effort, and do your share of the work.

  • Cultural diversity: You work well with people who have different ethnic, social, or educational backgrounds.

Thinking skills

These skills enable you to think creatively, make decisions, solve problems, visualize, and know how to learn and reason.

  • Creative thinking: You generate new ideas.

  • Decision making: You have the ability to specify goals and understand reasons not to do something.

  • Problem solving: You can recognize a problem and devise a plan of action to deal with it.

  • Visualizing: You can picture symbols and organize them in your mind’s eye.

  • Knowing how to learn: You are able to use efficient learning techniques to acquire and apply new knowledge and skills.

  • Reasoning: You concentrate on discovering a rule or principle underlying the relationship between two or more objects and then apply it to solve a problem.

Personal qualities

Classified as skills, these personal qualities include responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management, integrity, and honesty.

  • Responsibility: You put forth a high level of effort and persevere toward reaching your goal.

  • Self-esteem: You believe in your own self-worth and maintain a positive view of yourself.

  • Sociability: You show understanding, friendliness, adaptability, empathy, and politeness in group settings.

  • Self-management: You have a realistic view of your knowledge and skills, set realistic personal goals, and monitor progress toward those goals.

    Here are further guidelines.

Questioning Skills
Ability to Delegate - Interview Questions
Ambition - Interview Questions
Analytical Skills – Interview Questions
Assertiveness – Interview Questions
Awareness to Detail – Interview Questions
Career Goals – Interview Questions
Cooperation Skills – Interview Questions
Coaching Ability – Interview Questions
Communication Skills – Interview Questions
Confidence – Interview Questions
Conflict – Interview Questions
Creativity – Interview Questions
Customer Service – Interview Questions
Determination – Interview Questions
Diplomacy Skills – Interview Questions
Ethics – Interview Questions
Final Questions – Interview Questions
Illegal Questions – Interview Questions
Imagination – Interview Questions
Initiative – Interview Questions
Interpersonal Skills - Interview Questions
Inventiveness - Interview Questions
Job Knowledge - Interview Questions
Judgment - Interview Questions
Leadership - Interview Questions
Learning Skills - Interview Questions
Listening Skills - Interview Questions
Manage Change - Interview Questions
Management Ability - Interview Questions
Mental Attitude - Interview Questions
Motivation - Interview Questions
Negotiation Skills - Interview Questions
Organizational Skills - Interview Questions
Patience - Interview Questions
People Skills - Interview Questions
Personality Traits - Interview Questions
Present Job - Interview Questions
Pressure - Interview Questions
Problem Solving Abilities - Interview Questions
Profile Match for New _______ - Interview Questions
References - Interview Questions
Reliability - Interview Questions
Resignation - Interview Questions
Resourcefulness - Interview Questions
Responsibility - Interview Questions
Risk Taking - Interview Questions
Safety Skills - Interview Questions
Salary - Interview Questions
______ Ability - Interview Questions
Strategic Thinking - Interview Questions
Teamwork - Interview Questions
Technology Skills - Interview Questions
Trick Questions - Interview Questions
Written Communication Skills - Interview Questions

Presentation skills
What is a Presentation?
What are the types of presentations?
How should you improve your presentation skills?
How should you plan an effective presentation?
When and where will you deliver your presentation?
Will it be in a setting you are familiar with, or somewhere new?
Will the presentation be within a formal or less formal setting?
Will the presentation be to a small group or a large crowd?
Are you already familiar with the audience?
What equipment and technology will be available to you, and what will you be expected to use?
What is the audience expecting to learn from you and your presentation?
How to Create a PowerPoint Presentation

1. What is a Presentation?
A presentation is the process of presenting a topic to an audience.

Presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner. Presentation is also the means of communication which can be adapted to various speaking situation, such as talking to a group, addressing a meeting or briefing a team.

Presentations and reports are ways of communicating ideas and information to a group. But unlike a report, a presentation carries the speaker's personality better and allows immediate interaction between all the participants.

A presentation is created in the same manner as a report; however, it adds one additional element — The Human Element.

Questions you need to answer in this situation.

What are the issues?
What is the topic?
How many participants are there?
Have the participants displayed their profiles?
What is the location?
Who is recording these facts?
What is the format of recorded videos?

2. Types of presentation

There are 5 types of presentation:1 )Informative: Keep an informative presentation brief and to the point. Stick to the facts and avoid complicated information.2) Instructional: Your purpose in an instructional presentation is to give specific directions or orders. Your presentation will probably be a bit longer, because it has to cover your topic thoroughly.
3)Arousing: Your purpose in an arousingpresentation is to make people think about acertain problem or situation.4) Decision-making: Your purpose in a decision-making presentation is to move your audience totake your suggested action. A decision-makingpresentation presents ideas, suggestions, andarguments strongly enough to persuade anaudience to carry out your requests.5) Persuasive: Your purpose in a persuasivepresentation is to convince your listeners to acceptyour proposal.

4. How to make an effective presentation?
The first step of a great presentations is preplanning i.e. acquiring a room, informing participants, etc.
The second step is before preparing the presentation, ask yourself the following:
What is the purpose of the presentation?
Who will be attending?
What does the audience already know about the subject?
What is the audiences attitude towards me (e.g. hostile, friendly)?

5. Third, step is to prepare the presentation. A good presentation starts out with introductions and may include an icebreaker such as a story, interesting statement or fact. It should have a logical beginning, middle, and end.
Fourthly there are several options for structuring the presentation: Timeline: Arranged in sequential order. Climax: The main points are delivered in orderofincreasing importance.

6. Problem/Solution: A problem is presented, a solution is suggested, and benefits are then given. Simple to complex: Ideas are listed from the simplest to the most complex. Can also be done in reverse order.? Fifthly, after the body, comes the closing. This is where you ask for questions, provide a wrap-up.

7. Factors that affect effectivepresentation? The Voice: The voice is probably the most valuable tool of the presenter. It carries most of the content that the audience takes away. One of the oddities of speech is that we can easily tell others what is wrong with their voice, e.g. too fast, too high, too soft, etc. 1) Volume: How loud the sound is. The goal is to be heard without shouting. 2)Tone: The characteristics of a sound. . A voice that carries fear can frighten the

8. audience while a voice that carries laughter can get the audience to smile.? The Body: Your body communicates different impressions to the audience. People not only listen to you, they also watch you. 1)Postures: Slouching tells them you are indifferent or you do not care... even though you might care a great deal! On the other hand, displaying good posture tells your audience that you know what you are doing and you care deeply about it. 2)Eye contact: Speakers who make eye

9. open the flow of communication andconvey interest, concern, warmth, andcredibility.3)Facial Expression: Smiling is a powerfulcue that transmits happiness, friendliness,warmth, and liking.4)Gestures: If you fail to gesture whilespeaking, you may be perceived as boringand stiff.


11. Make It Big(Text).

12. Keep It Simple (Text)
Do not have Too many colors Too Many Fonts and Styles
Follow the 6 x 7 rule
No more than 6 lines per slide
No more than 7 words per line

13. Make It Clear
ALL CAPITAL LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO READ? Upper and lower case letters are easier
Italics are difficult to read on screen
Normal or bold fonts are clearer
Underlines may signify hyperlinks
Instead, use colours to emphasise
Use contrasting colours
Light on dark vs dark on light
Use complementary colors

14. Be Consistent.

Presentation Skills

How to Improve Your Presentation Skills
28 Quick Tips for Effective Presentations
1.Do your research.

2.Know your audience. Talk naturally to your audience – although it may be appropriate to read short passages avoid reading from a script for the majority of your presentation.

3.Make a plan for your time limit. Vary the tone, pitch and volume of your voice to add emphasis and maintain the audience’s interest. Aim to speak loudly and clearly while facing your audience. Avoid talking in a monotone voice or turning your back to the audience. See Effective Speaking for more information.

4.Make eye contact with your audience. Do not stare at your feet, or the podium and avoid looking directly at any one person for more than a few seconds, gain eye contact with the individual members of the audience.

5.Use visual aids where appropriate, graphs and charts, diagrams, pictures and video - but don’t overdo it. Visual aids should help to illustrate and strengthen your points not be a distraction from what you are saying.
6.Rehearse your talk and check your timings. Always aim to finish you talk in time remembering to allow time for questions if appropriate.

7.Prepare and structure your presentation carefully. Introduce the subject – tell the audience what your talk is about. Explain the points you wish to convey. End with a summary of your points.

8.Stay focused throughout your presentation – avoid irrelevance and unnecessary detail.

9.Learn to channel any nervous energy, relax but stay alert.

10.Answer any questions as honestly and concisely as you can. If you don’t know the answer then say so and offer to provide further information at a later date.

11.Take a seminar or course on public speaking.

12.Join a _______'s organization.

13.Get inspired. Go see the best speakers in person and decide for yourself what makes them great.

14.Be human. Connect through your emotion. Nobody likes a boring speaker so infuse some energy into your gestures, inflect your voice as you would when talking to someone one-on-one, attempt self-deprecating humor and don’t be afraid to show your failures as an example to learn from.

15.Finish strong. End your presentation on a solid note. Don't let your presentation taper off or wrap things up when you or the audience looks bored.

16.Make a plan for your time limit.

17.Practice, practice, practice. If you want to improve your presentation skills, then one of the best things you can do is to practice your presentation. Practice it in front of the mirror, practice it in the shower, practice it in front of your close friends or family members.

18.Consider using technology. Technology, from using music or a slide projector, can help enhance your points and engage your audience.

19.Have a solid presentation structure. •Introduction: Hooking your your audience and introducing the main points you'll be making. In other words, "Tell 'em what you're gonna tell 'em." •Body: Using specific examples, facts, stories, and data to help illustrate your point. In essence, "Tell 'em." Restate your most important points to make sure they resonate with your audience. •Conclusion: Wrapping up your presentation with some food for thought while summarizing your main points. That is to say, "Tell 'em what you told 'em."

20.Get specific.

21.Be articulate.

22.Exude confidence.

23.Relax beforehand.

24.Have a strong opening.

25.Embrace the power of "you." Though you should avoid the second person when you're writing a formal essay, the word you is crucial to connecting to your audience during a presentation.

26.Repeat your important points.

27.Consider making time for a Q & A period. Having a question and answer period can help your audience really understand your material, connect with you and your presentation, and feel like they have gotten the full story on the subject you presented about. If you feel that your presentation calls for a question and answer period and that you can effectively make time for one without derailing your presentation, then you should plan for having a question and answer period after you've given the body of your presentation -- but before the closing. •You should give a time limit for questions, say, 5-10 minutes. Tell your audience that you're going to make this much time for questions so that you don't get off track by answering so many questions that your audience has forgotten the gist or your presentation. •Make sure you have a conclusion after the question period. You don't want to give a stellar presentation and then have it peter off into a series of irrelevant questions.

28.Get feedback.

Preparing a Presentation
Organising the Material
Writing Your Presentation
Deciding the Presentation Method
Working with Visual Aids
Managing the Event
Coping with Presentation Nerves
Dealing With Questions

What is the purpose of the presentation?
Who will be attending?
What does the audience already know about the subject?
What is the audience's attitude towards me (e.g. hostile, friendly)?

Planning an effective presentation

What is a effective presentation?

A effective presentation makes the best use of the relationship between the presenter and the audience. It takes full consideration of the audience’s needs in order to capture their interest, develop their understanding, inspire their confidence and achieve the presenter’s objectives.

Careful planning is essential.

Seven stages in planning a presentation

1. Preparation

Many factors affect the design of your presentation. A powerful presenter will acknowledge and address each of the following:



Why you are making your presentation? Bear in mind what you want to achieve and what you want your audience to take away with them. Once you have decided upon your objectives, you are in a much better position to make strategic decisions about the design and tone of your presentation. For example, a presentation to a seminar group might require a balanced argument, whereas a charity appeal might require a more creative approach. Ask yourself:

•what do you want your audience to have understood?
•what action do you want your audience to take following your presentation?
•how can you best design your presentation to meet your objectives?


Your audience will have a variety of different experiences, interests and levels of knowledge. A powerful presenter will need to acknowledge these and prepare for and respond to them accordingly. Ask yourself:

•how much will your audience already know about your topic?
•how can you link new material to things they might already understand?
•will you need to win them over to a particular point of view?
You may not be able to answer these questions for each member of your audience but you should have enough information to ensure that you have targeted your material at the right level for their needs. This might involve avoiding technical jargon or explaining abstract concepts with clear practical examples. If you fail to consider your audience’s needs, you will fail to appeal to their interest and imagination.


Where will you be making your presentation? What will the room be like?
What atmosphere will the physical conditions create? A large lecture theatre might create a formal atmosphere. Similarly, a seminar room might create a less formal tone. Ask yourself:
•what kind of atmosphere do you wish to create?
•how might the room arrangement affect your relationship with the audience?
•can you do anything to change the arrangement of the room to suit your objectives?
•what audio-visual aids can you use?
You may well have been given a remit for your presentation; you will need to stick to this. For example, you may have been asked to present a paper at a conference in a certain style or meet certain assessment criteria on your course. Ask yourself:

•how much time have you been allocated?
•are you required to stick to a common format or style?
•have any guidelines been set regarding the content of your presentation (i.e. a predetermined title, or a fixed number of overhead transparencies)?
2. Choosing your main points
Once you have thought about the design of your presentation, you can define your main points. Try presenting no more than three main points in a ten minute presentation. Always allow time for an adequate introduction and conclusion. It is difficult for an audience to follow a more complex argument without significant help from the presenter. A powerful presentation delivers information in a logical, structured manner, building on the previous point and avoiding large jumps in sequence. Ask yourself:

•what are the main points you wish to make?
•are these points structured in a logical, coherent way?
•do these main points reflect your own objectives and take account of the needs of your audience? 3. Choosing your supporting information The supporting information helps your audience understand, believe in and agree with your main points. This evidence might take the form of factual data, points of detail or an explanation of process. It might be presented in imaginative ways using diagrams, pictures or video segments. Think about:
•what will add clarity to your argument (explaining complex terms, reminding your audience of any supporting theories)?
•what will add authority to your argument (making connections with other people's work, quoting experts, offering evidence from your own research)?
•what will add colour to your argument (showing a video clip or a slide, using a practical example or a vibrant analogy)?

4. Establishing linking statements The next stage is to develop the linear flow of your presentation. This can be achieved by using linking statements to show clearly how your main points fit together. Common linking statements include:
•“The next stage in our project was to …”;
•“Another important issue of consideration was …”;
•“By following this argument we can now see that …”.
Linking statements send signals to your audience, highlighting the next point in your argument, linking to earlier ideas or clarifying the stage you have reached in your argument overall. This may be of particular importance in a lengthy presentation where even the most effective presenter has to work hard to keep an audience involved.

5. Developing an opening

The introduction to your presentation is crucial. It is your first point of contact with your audience; you can either capture or lose your audience’s interest in a matter of seconds. Use your introduction to lay a clear foundation for the presentation to follow. Try using the following structure:

•introduce yourself;
•state what you will be talking about (a title or subject area);
•state how you will be talking about it (e.g. by comparing test results or reviewing the supporting literature);
•state what you intend to be the outcome of your presentation (an informed group, a lively discussion);
•state what you expect your audience to do (listen, take notes, read a handout, ask questions before/during/after).
Always give your audience a moment to absorb this information before moving into your first main point.

6. Developing a conclusion Your conclusion is another important stage in your presentation. You can use it to remind your audience of your main points, draw these points to a stimulating conclusion and leave your audience with a lasting impression of the quality of your presentation. The following structure provides a powerful conclusion:

•a review of your title or subject area “In this presentation I wanted to explore the relationship between X and Y.”;
•a summary of your main points “We have discussed the following points…”;
•a summary of the process you have been through “By looking at X we have found that Y …”;
•a conclusion clearly drawn from your main points (this must be supported by the detail of your presentation) “It is clear that there can be no substantive relationship between X and Y”;
•a parting statement to stimulate your audience’s thoughts (this might be a question or a bold comment).

7. Reviewing your presentation
Once you have written your presentation make sure that you review its content. Ask yourself:
•does the presentation meet your objectives?
•is it logically structured?
•have you targeted the material at the right level for your audience?
•is the presentation too long or too short?

Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.

How to Create a PowerPoint Presentation
What do I need to think about before designing my first slide?
How can I create a presentation that really connects with my audience?
How much textual content should I include?
How many slides should I have?
How can I be sure that my textual slides are as efficient and high-impact as possible?
What types of images should I incorporate into my slides and why?
What about slide transitions? Should I go all-out with them or limit them?
Should I add audio and video elements to my presentation?
Should I use charts? If so, what kind?
What are some common PowerPoint mistakes and clich?s to avoid?

Types of Presentations
World Wide Web Presentation
Illustrated Talks
Public Speeches
Impromptu Speeches


A demonstration puts words into action. With this type of presentation, you will show how to do something at the same time you tell how to do it. There is a finished product at the end. If you have given a successful demonstration, the audience should leave knowing how to do what you have demonstrated.

Illustrated Talks

An illustrated talk is a way to share information with the audience. The topic should be educational in nature, but it can be very basic. No finished product is necessary, but visual aids must be used to help explain what is being said. Visual aids can include posters, slides, transparencies, models, or actual items. Examples of illustrated talks are:
· Nutritional requirements using charts and graphs
· Items in a first aid kit using samples of the items
· Tree identification using leaf/needle samples

Public Speeches

A public speech is just talking. No visual aids or props can be used. A speech can be informative or persuasive with the purpose to stimulate thought or present a point of view. Speeches should not simply entertain. They need to persuade the audience to agree with you, educate the audience, or get an emotional reaction from the audience. Speeches often have a personal tie-in, a way the topic relates to something that happened in your life. A speech may be the most difficult type of presentation. It requires careful planning and effective delivery. Since no visual aids are allowed, gestures and voice variety are very important. There also needs to be a clear theme or thesis and understandable points to follow. A speech is not an effective way to teach a difficult concept.

Impromptu Speeches

As the name implies, impromptu speeches require the presenter to compose and deliver a speech with little previous preparation. Like public speeches, no visual aids are used unless the speaker is given an object to talk about.

Impromptu speeches require you to “think on your feet.” You need to be able to come up with ideas on the spur of the moment and quickly organize them in a logical manner. Acquiring the skill to express yourself quickly is extremely beneficial. You will encounter many situations where it will be helpful to be able to give input on the spot.

Team Presentations

Demonstrations and illustrated talks may be done as an individual or team. (Public speaking and impromptu speeches are for individuals only.) A team usually consists of two members of the same age division.

Team presentations are good when four hands are needed to demonstrate something or when it is hard to do the work and talk at the same time. First-time presenters often like to work as a team because they don’t have to be in front of an audience by themselves. It can be comforting to have a friend up there with you.

When giving a team presentation, there needs to be a balance between the two team members. Both should talk equal amounts and/or demonstrate equal amounts. You should rotate between the speakers frequently without making it choppy. Shifts in speakers should seem natural. Don’t change speakers in the middle of a thought or a process. You can use a change in speakers to show transitions in the talk. At the end, the members should take turns answering questions. After giving an answer, ask if your partner has anything to add. In addition to speaking to the audience, there should be interaction between the team members. Asking each other questions is an easy way to do this. It’s not good for one person to talk a long time and then the other to talk a long time. Approaching a team presentation as a conversation between two people is a good way to plan at least part of your talk.

Team presentations are a good way to learn teamwork and cooperation. You need to be aware, however, that it can be difficult to do a really good team presentation. They require a lot of planning and practice in order to flow smoothly. Also be aware that some topics lend themselves to a team presentation better than others. Be sure that the topic you have chosen is one that works for a team and wouldn’t better be done by one person.

Panel - This refers to a proposal submission that includes three to four papers or topics that would form a single conference panel session. It includes a panel chair and an optional discussant. The convener (individual submitting the proposal) of a panel proposal is responsible for recruiting all of the papers and other components.

Practitioner Idea Swaps- This is an informal discussion that allows a presenter to speak on a topic related to best practices in public administration and/or management. There are normally up to 9 attendees at a time. No formal paper is presented. Practitioner Idea Swaps are broken into two sessions, each running 45 minutes, for a total of 90 minutes. This allows for an exchange through questions and dialogue between the table leader and attendees. Half way through the 90 minute time slot, attendees are given the opportunity to participate in another idea swap. Speakers may interact with 5-20 attendees during the 90 minute period.

Poster - A poster is a visual explanation of a topic. Posters are usually displayed in the Exhibit Hall or registration area. There is also a dedicated question and answer period for conference attendees with poster authors. To be considered for a poster display, please indicate in the proposal submission.

Workshop - This refers to a professional development session that is most relevant to practitioners. Workshops usually feature one or two presenters. The presentation is focused on best practices and functional takeaways for attendees.

Symposia - These are multi-session programs focused on a specific topic. They are half or full day events that usually take place one or two days before the official start of the Annual Conference.
What is the difference between Conference, Seminar, Symposium & Workshop?


Definition: A seminar is a lecture or presentation delivered to an audience on a particular topic or set of topics that are educational in nature. It is usually held for groups of 5-50 individuals.

Formal presentation by one or more experts in which the attendees are encouraged to discuss the subject matter.


A workshop is a series of educational and work sessions.


Symposium is meeting of a number of experts in a particular field at which papers are presented by specialists on particular subjects and discussed with a view to making recommendations concerning the problems under discussion. Symposium: refer to any academic conference, or a style of university class characterized by an openly discursive format, rather than a lecture and question–answer format. The term symposium has come to refer to any event where multiple speeches are made. A symposium suggests that more than one person is speaking. A Symposium is typically a more formal or academic gathering, featuring multiple experts delivering short presentations on a particular topic.


Conference is a prearranged meeting for consultation or exchange of information or discussion (especially one with a formal agenda). A conference is pretty general and in fact could mean something with thousands of participants or something with just a few participants. None of these are hard and fast rules though. Conferences often features keynote presentations delivered to all attendees, as well as multiple break-out sessions.

Here are further guidelines.

English grammar relevant to word communication.
Analyzing English Grammar
What English grammar should you know relevant to communication?
Communication is a noun.
Communications is plural of communication.
Communicate is a verb base form.
Communicates is simple present or third person singular of the verb communicate.
Communicating is the present participle of the verb communicate. In some situations, this is called gerund.
Communicated is the past participle of verb communicate.
To communicate is the infinitive of the verb communicate.

What does communication mean?
Communication can mean transferring messages from human to human.
Communication can mean transferring messages from human to animal.
Communication can mean transferring messages or signals from animal to animal.
We are elaborating on human communications.
You should know types, categories, and methods of English grammar relevant to verbal human communication to understand human communications

What is human communication?
Human communication is the process of sending and receiving messages or transferring information from one party (sender) to another (receiver). Human communication can be a message such as a letter, phone call, e-mail, or other method of communications.

Why is there a need to elaborate on human communications compared to animals?
Humans communicate through spoken and written English or other languages, and non verbal types of communication. Animals do not learn types of communications compared to humans.

What is the meaning of the word communication?
The imparting or exchanging of information or news
A letter or message containing such information or news
The successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings
Social contact
Means of connection between people orplaces, in particular
The means of sending or receiving information, such as telephone lines or computers
The means of traveling or of transporting goods, such as roads or railroads
Thefield ofstudy concerned with thetransmission ofinformation byvarious means

What is another word for communication?
Here's a list of synonyms for this word.
contact, interaction, transfer, consultation, exchange, transmission, exchanging information, giving, ideas, connection, conversation, delivery, intelligence, link, advice, advisement, articulation, assertion, communion, converse, correspondence, declaration, dissemination, elucidation, expression, interchange, intercommunication, intercourse, mention, publication, reading, reception, revelation, talk, talking, telling, utterance, writing, announcing, corresponding, disclosing, making known, notifying, translating message, communiqué, announcement, statement, letter, email, phone call, fax, information transmitted, information, account, briefing, bulletin, directive, disclosure, dispatch, excerpt, goods, info, language, missive, news, note, pipeline, poop, prophecy, publicity, report, scoop, skinny, speech, summary, tidings, translation, warning, word, work, communiqué, hot story, inside story, lowdown, précis

What is the plural of communication?
The plural form of communication is communications.

What is the opposite of communication?
Here's a list of antonyms for this word.

quiet, denial, disagreement, silence, concealment, cover, suppression, withholding ignorance, question, secret

What is the adjective for communication?

Sentences and phrases with the word communication

As such, graduates need to have great communication skills.

What rhymes with communication?
Rhyming Words with 1 Syllable
Rhyming Words with 2 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 3 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 4 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 5 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 6 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 7 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 8 Syllables
Rhyming Words with 22 Syllables

How do you pronounce the word communication?

What is the noun for communicate?

What is another word for communicate?
converse, talk, speak, commune, be in touch, correspond, write, be in contact, answer, chat, confer, buzz, cable, confabulate, discourse, reach, reply, telephone, wire, associate with, be close to, be near, commune with, drop a line, drop a note, establish contact, get on the horn, give a call, give a ring, have confidence of, hear from convey, share, impart, transmit, publicize, put out, reveal, ideas, advertise, broadcast, connect, contact, disclose, disseminate, get across, get through, inform, interact, pass on, reach out, relate, suggest, tell, transfer, acquaint, advise, announce, betray, break, carry, declare, discover, divulge, enlighten, hint, imply, network, phone, proclaim, publish, raise, report, signify, spread, state, unfold, interface, keep in touch, let on, let out, make known, ring up, touch base interconnect, lead into, link, join

What is a conjugated verb?
It is a verb that has been changed to communicate one or more of the following: person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, or voice.

Conjugated Verbs Communicate
A verb conjugation can communicate a lot of detail about a verb such as:

It’s a bit redundant in English because we almost always state a subject explicitly in our sentences, but still, our conjugated verbs often go with specific subjects. For example, “am” is a present tense conjugation of the verb “be,” and it is the form that goes with the subject “I.” Using “I” (or “we”) also indicates that the speaker is speaking in first person as opposed to second person (“you”) or third person (“he,” “she,” “it,” “they”).

It is perhaps clearer in other languages, but conjugated verbs in English can also sometimes tell us something about how many people are participating in the action of the verb. For example, singular subjects (he, she, it) in the present simple tense have an “s” added to them when conjugated:
•He sings.
•She reads.
•It rains.

Plural subjects (you, we, they) do not have an “s” on the end:

•You sing.
•We read.
•They play.
English is a little tricky here because “you” can be singular or plural, but in other languages, the differentiation between singular and plural subjects is very clear in the conjugated verb endings.

In some languages, though not English, conjugated verbs can indicate the gender of the subject.

The verb tense indicates the time at which the action of the verb takes place. Past tense verbs, for example, tell us that the action took place in the past. Present tense indicates the action is happening at this very moment, or that it happens regularly in the present state of things, or that it is true up to the present moment.

The aspect of a verb tells us the degree to which it is completed. There are continuous (or progressive) aspects that tell us the action is in progress, there are perfect aspects that tell us the action is complete up to a certain point in time, and there are simple aspects that are just that – simple.

The mood is like the purpose of the sentence in which a verb is used. The stative mood, for example, is used to make a statement. The interrogative mood is for questions. And the conditional mood is for sentences that pose hypothetical scenarios and the outcomes that depend on them.

You’ve probably heard people talk about active and passive voice. In active voice, the verb indicates that the subject of the sentence is the one doing the action. In passive voice, the subject is the recipient of the action done by someone/something else.

A conjugated verb is a well-explained verb.

Verb conjugation of "communicate" in English

) What is the ing form of communicate?
2) What is the simple present tense form of communicated?
3) Is communicated past participle of communicate?

Past Tense: communicated

Past tense of communicate is communicated.

Other verb forms:

Simple Present: communicates (third-person singular)
Present Participle: communicating
Past Participle: communicated Verb
Plain form Third-person singular Past tense Past participle Present participle
communicate communicates communicated communicated communicating
Parents have to work hard to communicate better with their children.

Present tenses

Present Simple tense
Present Continuous tense
Present Perfect tense
Present Perfect Continuous tense

Past tenses

Past Simple tense
Past Continuous tense
Past Perfect tense
Past Perfect Continuous tense

Future tenses

Future Simple tense
Future Continuous tense
Future Perfect tense
Future Perfect Continuous tense

Conjugation of Verb COMMUNICATE in Present Tense
Noun / PronounSimple / Indefinite Present TensePresent Continuous Tense
 Rule: subject + communicate / communicates + object
He, She, It, Asif, Boy -> communicates
I, You, They, We, Boys -> communicate
Rule: subject + is/am/are + communicating + object
He, She, It, Asif, Boy -> is
I -> am
You, We, They, Boys -> are
He/She/It/Asif (Name)/Boycommunicates is communicating
Icommunicateam communicating
You/We/They/Boyscommunicateare communicating

Noun / PronounPresent Perfect TensePresent Perfect Continuous Tense
 Rule: subject + has/have + communicated + object
He, She, It, Asif, Boy -> has
I, You, We, They, Boys -> have
Rule: subject + has/have been + communicating + object
He, She, It, Asif, Boy -> has been
I, You, They, We, Boys -> have been
He/She/It/Asif (Name)/Boyhas communicated has been communicating
I/You/They/We/Boyshave communicated have been communicating

Conjugation of Verb COMMUNICATE in Past Tense

Noun / PronounSimple Past TensePast Continuous Tense
 Rule: subject + communicated + objectRule: subject + was/were + communicating + object
I, He, She, It, Asif, Boy -> was
You, We, They, Boys -> Were
I/He/She/It/Asif (Name)/Boycommunicated was communicating
You/They/We/Boyscommunicated were communicating

Noun / PronounPast Perfect TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
 Rule: subject + had + communicated + objectRule: subject + had been + communicating + object
He / She / It / Asif (Name) / Boy / I / You / We / They / Boyshad communicated had been communicating

Conjugation of Verb COMMUNICATE in Future Tense

Noun / PronounSimple Future TenseFuture Continuous Tense
 Rule: subject + shall/will communicate + objectRule: subject + shall/will be + communicating + object
He / She / It / Asif (Name) / Boy / I / You / We / They / Boyswill/shall communicatewill/shall be communicating

Noun / PronounFuture Perfect TenseFuture Perfect Continuous Tense
 Rule: subject + shall/will have + communicated + objectRule: subject + shall/will have been + communicating + object
He / She / It / Asif (Name) / Boy / I / You / We / They / Boyswill/shall have communicated will/shall have been communicating

List of English Irregular Verbs
List of Regular Verbs
English Verb Conjugation

Non-English language human communication (Arabic, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, French, etc.)
What are examples of Non-English language human communication?
There are more than 5,000 non-English communication languages.
Most of them are among languages less popular than English.
Here are further guidelines.

Communication methods and teaching methods.
How are communication methods and teaching methods linked?
Communication methods can be utilized for teaching.
Worldwide presentation is a communication method that can be utilized as a teaching method.

How are World Wide Web presentation teaching methods better than face-to-face in-person classroom presentation?
An individual was subject to face-to-face in-person classroom presentations for years.
The individual could not improve communication skills including English language speaking, writing, and various methods of communication.

The World Wide Web method of teaching improved communications skills quickly, including English language understanding, reading, speaking, and writing abilities.

What are other terms for methods of communication?
Medium of communication.
TV and newspaper are methods or mediums of communication.
Internet is a method or medium of communication.
Internet communication, a method or medium of communication, can be relayed through local TV method or medium of communication. The word media is plural of medium.

What is a teaching method?
All communication methods are teaching methods if utilized properly.
Information or skill that is being taught is necessary during teaching.

What are the components of a teaching method?
Teaching method has components like
1. Communication type, for example English speaking, English written documents, visualizations.
2. Communication method, for example World Wide Web presentation, face-to-face in-person discussion. There are more than 150 communication methods.
3. Ability, profession, subject, product, issue, topic, or skill being taught. At least one of 650 high school skills or 611 professional training skills.

What type of teaching method or methods should you use?
The choice of teaching method or methods to be used depends largely on the information or skill that is being taught, and it may also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the students.
Here are further guidelines.

Teaching methods
What are the components of a teaching method?
Teaching method has components like
1. Communication type, for example English speaking, English written documents, visualizations.
2. Communication method, for example World Wide Web presentation, face-to-face in-person discussion. There are more than 150 communication methods.
3. Ability, profession, subject, product, issue, topic, or skill being taught. At least one of 650 high school skills or 611 professional training skills.

What is a teaching method?
All communication methods are teaching methods if utilized properly.
Information or skill that is being taught is necessary during teaching.

What type of teaching method or methods should you use?
The choice of teaching method or methods to be used depends largely on the information or skill that is being taught, and it may also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the students.
Teaching methods

What are other terms for training and skill building?
Teaching methods.

What are examples of training and skill building?
Active learning.
Classroom lecture.
Email communications with academic content is an example.
World wide web presentations.
World wide web presentations relayed via TV.
These are some of the teaching methods.

Active Learning

What is active learning?
Why incorporate active learning techniques?
How can you cover the content when using active learning?
How can you incorporate active learning into various classroom settings?
What are some considerations for integrating active learning techniques?
What are examples of active learning?

Who all are required to enhance English communication skills of residents in the state and outside the state?

What is active learning?
Active learning strategies can be as short as a few minutes long.
Active learning techniques can be integrated into a lecture or any other classroom setting relatively easily. Even large classrooms can involve learning activities beyond the traditional lecture format.
Active learning is "anything that involves students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing"
________ define active learning as "anything course-related that all students in a class session are called upon to do other than simply watching, listening and taking notes"

Why incorporate active learning techniques?
Research suggests that audience attention in lectures starts to wane every 10-20 minutes. Incorporating active learning techniques once or twice during a 50-minute class (twice to or thrice for a 75-minute class) will encourage student engagement. Active learning also:
Reinforces important material, concepts, and skills.
Provides more frequent and immediate feedback to students.
Addresses different student learning styles.
Provides students with an opportunity to think about, talk about, and process course material.
Creates personal connections to the material for students, which increases their motivation to learn.
Allows students to practice important skills, such as collaboration, through pair and group work.
Builds self-esteem through conversations with other students.
Creates a sense of community in the classroom through increased student-student and instructor-student interaction.

How can you cover the content when using active learning?
Consider what students can do outside of class to more effectively prepare for in-class activities:
Incorporate pre-class reading assignments.
Assign videos for students to watch and answer questions about.
Require students to complete pre-class quizzes (to ensure that students have read the material) on Blackboard.

How can you incorporate active learning into various classroom settings?
Become familiar with a few active learning techniques. Some that are easier to implement are the "one minute paper," and "think-pair-share" (see "CTE Active Learning Strategies" in the resources below for more detailed instructions on how to incorporate them).
Choose one or two techniques and modify them so that they address learning goals in your class.
When implementing active learning techniques, follow these general steps: •Use activities to draw attention to issues and content you feel are most critical.
Establish rules of conduct and civility to encourage appropriate participation.
Introduce the activity and explain the learning benefit.
Control the time cost by giving students a time limit to complete the task.
Stop the activity and debrief. Call on a few students or groups of students to share their thoughts and tie them in to the next steps of your lecture.
Consider using classroom response technologies, video clips, and even smartphones and laptops to facilitate active learning activities.

What are some considerations for integrating active learning techniques?
Implementing any new teaching technique can be a daunting or challenging task.

Start small. Choose one simple technique to try in one class.
Think about how you will facilitate the process each step of the way. How will you introduce the activity? Do you need to provide visual aids with directions? How much time will you give students? How will you debrief? Smaller groups may be easier to manage than larger ones.
Consider the logistics of getting a large group of students back on track after an activity. Clap your hands or flash the lights to get students to stop and refocus their attention on you.

Some students may not accept new learning activities with complete ease. Rather than trying to engage all students, focus on engaging more students in more meaningful ways.

Again, start small. Integrating many active learning techniques in one session may irritate students and discourage their participation.
Explain the benefits for using active learning techniques and connect the activity to student learning outcomes for the class.
Use a quick icebreaker or two early in the term to help students become comfortable with one another and to set expectations for an interactive class.

What do you know about teaching methods?
If others would have known about teaching methods, there was no need for me to elaborate on these issues.

What should you know about teaching methods?
Email can be utilized for a teaching method.
World wide web presentation can be utilized for a teaching method.
Teaching methods are applicable to school education general abilities teaching.
Teaching methods are applicable to professional education, including teacher, lawyer, engineer, and physician.
Class lecture needs combination of English language speaking and writing abilities.

What is the difference between classroom English language lecture and active learning?
English language classroom lecture is confined to spoken English from teacher or professor.

What should you know about teaching methods?
Teaching methods require a combination of English language speaking, understanding, reading, and writing abilities.

What will happen to residents of the state who will not go ahead with English language as the official language?
They will face various difficulties in the real world.
Here are further guidelines.

What are the different methods of communication?
What is Communication?
Why is Communication Important?
What is interpersonal communication?
What do people write about in communication studies?
How can communication skills be improved?
Why are some young people not so good at communicating?
Why are communication skills important?
How do young people communicate?
Communication Methods(Types of Communication)

What are the different methods of communication?


Automated phone call
Automated process, such as a database or e-mail update
Document Types in English language
Face-to-Face Meetings
Mobile phone
Meetings with key communicators
Motion Pictures
Phone call
Pictures and Written Language
Postal mail
SMS text messaging
Scheduled events
Video Conferencing
Wireless message

Emergency Communication Methods

In an emergency, notification will begin immediately and may use one or all of these methods:

Mass e-mail


What is Communication?
Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.Your next question may be: What is an entity? For now, let's call the entity that transfers information Sender and the entity that receives the information Receiver.

The sender and the receiver can be people, animals or devices.

Information can be a lot of different things depending on the context. People sometimes view information and the medium to transfer it as one and the same. They aren't. Let's distinguish between the information being sent that the medium used to send it.

The information can be:Words, gestures, drawings, paintings, songs, music.

The means can be: speeches, emails, blogs, forums, text messages, voice messages, poems, essays, books, newspapers, ads, articles, and practically anything you can speak through, write on or draw on. Communication is a learned skill.

Communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life: home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur.


What is Effective Communication?

Effective Communication is a process where a message is received and understood by the receiver in the manner that the sender intended it to be.

Definition of Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal CommunicationInformation exchanged between people via words, gestures/signs and body language. The entities (sender and receiver) can be:

One sender to one receiver
One sender to many receivers
Many senders to one receiver
Many senders to many receivers. This sounds crazier than it is, as an example think of a chorus singing at a church.

Glossary of communication

Acculturation. A process of cultural transformation initiated by contacts between different cultures. At a global level, acculturation takes place as societies experience the transforming impact of international cultural contact. The global trend towards modern economic organization and developed market economies has been accompanied by a process of cultural transformation. Individuals experience acculturation when their social roles and socialization are shaped by norms and values that are largely foreign to their native culture. [DP]

Active listening. Process of analyzing and evaluating what another person is saying in an effort to understand the speaker's feelings or the true meaning of the message. [SB]

Active public. People who are aware of a problem and will organize to do something about it. [BA]

Ad hominem. A fallacy that attacks a person rather than the argument itself. This is also referred to as "name calling." [SB]

Agenda. List of all topics to be discussed during a meeting. [SB]

Agenda-setting. Function of mass media to the relative importance of our attitudes on issues. The perceived importance of issues is related to the attention given to those issues by the media. [IRW]

Agenda-setting effect. The influence of the mass media created by emphasizing certain topics, thus causing people to perceive these same issues as important. [D]

Artifact. Ornament or possession that communicates information about a person. [SB]

Asynchronous communication. Also known as non simultaneous communication. Communication during which participants engage in the process at different times, such as bulletin boards or e-mail. [WI]

Attitude(s). Learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward an object. [IRW] Stable clusters of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions toward specific objects, people, or institutions. [GB] A construct said to be composed of affective (feeling), cognitive (thoughts), and connotative (behavioral) components; internal feelings about some object; composed of opinions, beliefs, and values. [SHH] Evaluative disposition, feeling, or position about oneself, others, events, ideas, or objects. [SB]

Audience. A group of individuals attending to a common media. They receive communication from the same source, but are not active participants and do not communicate with each other. [DP] Collection of individuals who have come together to watch or listen to someone or something, such as to listen to a speech. [SB]

Authoritarian leadership style. The leader controls group goals and procedures. [IRW]

Autocrat personality. A person who possesses a need to dominate others and distrusts the motives and creative potential of others. [SHH]

Avoiding style. An approach to conflict which tries to manipulate circumstances so that conflict does not surface. [IRW]

Aware public. People who know about a problem but don't act on it. [BA]

BBack to the top of the page.

Belief. An expectation about the way some event or sequence of events will occur. [SHH] Conviction or confidence in the truth of some-thing that is not based on absolute proof. [SB]

Benchmarking. The process of seeking to improve quality by comparing one´s own products or services with the best products or services of others. [GB]

Brainstorming. A technique designed to foster group productivity by encouraging interacting group members to express their ideas in a noncritical fashion. [GB]

Bureaucracy. Organization characterized by hierarchical chains of command and power, each with its own separate function. The organization is governed by rules accepted by the members in order for efficient mass administration. [IRW] A formal organization with defined objectives, a hierarchy of specialized roles and systematic processes of direction and administration. Bureaucracy is found in earlier times in history, for example in administration of agricultural irrigation systems, the Roman army, the Catholic church, but it becomes most prominent in the large-scale administration of agencies of the modern state and modern business corporations. [DP]


CBack to the top of the page.

Campaign. In advertising, a large number of ads that stress the same theme and appear over a specified length of time. [D]

Centralization. The degree to which information must flow through a specific central member of a communication network. [GB]

Change agent. Individual who exerts influence on opinion leaders to adopt an innovation. [IRW]

Charisma. An attitude of enthusiams and optimism that is contagious; an aura of leadership. [GB] The appeal or attractiveness that the audience perceives in the speaker, contributing to the speaker's credibility. [SB] Channel. Medium or route through which a message is sent for purposes of communication. [AR] The pathway by which a message travels from sender to receiver. [D] Means by which a message is conveyed from source to receiver (radio, television, telephone, face-to-face, for example). [IRW] Route (such as sound waves or light waves) by which messages flow between the source and the receiver. [SB]

Cheesecake. Photograph of a scantily clad young woman used as a publicity device. Similar photographs of men are called "beefcake". [WAAC]

Chronemics. The study of how people perceive, structure, and use time as communication. [SB]

Code. Set of rules or symbols used to translate a message from one form to another. [IRW]

Collaborative style. A problem-solving approach to conflict situations where consulting with affected parties is considered important. [IRW]

Commitment. Desire of group members to work together to complete a task to the satisfaction of the entire group. [SB]

Communication. The mutual process through which persons interpret messages in order to coordinate individual and social meanings. [AR] Human manipulation of symbols to stimulate meaning in other humans. [IRW] The proces by which a person, group, organization (the sender) transmits some type of information (the message) to another person, group, organization (the receiver). [GB] The simultaneous sharing and creating of meaning through human symbolic action. [SB]

Communication apprehension. Fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with others. [IRW] Anxiety syndrome associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. [SB]

Communication competence. Ability to take part in effective communication, which is characterized by skills and understandings that enable communication partners to exchange messages successfully. [SB]

Communication flow. The direction (upward, downward, horizontal) messages travel through the networks in an organization. [BA]

Communication networks. The patterns of communication flow between individuals in organization. [BA] Pre-established patterns dictating who may communicate with whom. [GB]

Communication policies. Final statements of organizational positions related to communication activities and behaviors and information sharing. [BA]

Communitarian. A philosophy or belief system which places priority on the community or on social values. Often contrasted to individualism or libertarianism. It claims that meaning in individual life and individual liberty are only possible within a strong and vital community so government policies and individual choices should be responsive to social values. [DP]

Community. A society where peoples relations with each other are direct and personal and where a complex web of ties link people in mutual bonds of emotion and obligation. In the social sciences, especially sociology, the idea of community has provided a model to contrast to the emergence of more modern less personal societies where cultural, economic and technological transformation has uprooted tradition and where complexity has created a less personal and more rationalized and goal-directed social life. [DP]

Competitive style. A win/lose approach to conflict situations which typically involves a good deal of argumentation. [IRW]

Compromising style. An approach to conflict which emphasizes all parties getting some of what they want. [IRW]

Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC). Any form of interpersonal, small group, organizational, or puclic communication that occurs with the use of computers. [WI]

Conduit metaphor. The persistent bias within the English language toward assuming that communication is a transmission of meanings "contained" in words from "senders" to "receivers." [AR]

Constructivism. Theory explaining communication as a fundamentally interpretive process through which persons organize and create personal reality; examines the complexity with which persons develop and organize different categories of perception called constructs. [AR]

Contentious style. Tendency to challenge others when disagreements occur. [IRW]

Controlled media. Those media that the public relations practitioner has actual control over, such as a company newsletter. [BA]

Cool media. McLuhan´s term for media that are incomplete and, thus, require human involvement and participation. [WO97]

Copyright. The protection of a creative work from unauthorized use. [WAAC] Legal protection from unauthorized use of intellectual property fixed in any tangible medium of expression. [BA]

Corporate communications. Term covering all types of communication by a company to both external and internal audiences. [WAAC]

Corporate image. The impression that people have of an organization. [GB]

Corporate stories. Narratives that serve to convey the values, style, and history of an organization. Told to newcomers, stories perform socialization; told among veteran members of an organization, stories serve to bind members together and vitalize the organization´s ideology. [WO97]

Counterculture. A set of cultural ideas that, to some extent, differ from and conflict with, those generally upheld in the society. A counterculture develops when members of groups identify common values that distinguish them from others. These groups may be based on common appearance, ethnic group, sexuality, status or social behaviour. The term is close in meaning to subculture, but the concept of counterculture stresses the idea of an open and active opposition to dominant cultural values. [DP]

Credibility. Speaker's believability, based on the audience's evaluation of the speaker's competence, experience, character, and charisma. [SB]

Crisis communications. Methods and policies a corporation uses in distributing information when its operations become involved in an emergency situation affecting the public. [WAAC]

Critical analysis. Form of research that goes beyond description and explanation to argue for changes in communicative practices that are judged to be oppressive, wrong, or otherwise undesirable. [WO97]

Critical theory/ies. Explains and critiques social communication by examining the implications of power relationships; Marxist and feminist scholars usually approach theorizing with these assumptions. Often identified with cultural studies approaches. [AR] Group of theories that seek to produce change in oppressive or otherwise undesirable practices and structures in society. [WO97]

Critical listening. Listening that judges the accuracy of the information presented, determines the reason-ableness of its conclusions, and evaluates its presenter. [SB]

Cross-cultural communication. Communication of different combinations of people. A cross-cultural communication study might compare and contrast Japanese and American negotiation tactics, for example. [IRW]

Cultivation. Cumulative process by which television fosters beliefs about social reality including the belief that the world is more dangerous and violent than it actually is. [WO97]

Cultivation analysis. Explains media, especially television, not in cause?effect terms but by describing longer?term tendencies of audiences to adjust their expectations about reality in the direction of prevalent media content. [AR]

Cultivation theory. Point of view that claims television cultivates, or promotes, a view of social reality that may be inaccurate, but that viewers nonetheless assume reflects real life. [WO97]

Cultural imperialism. The practice of systematically spreading the influence of one culture over others by means of physical and economic domination. Usually involves an assumption of cultural superiority (ethnocentrism). [DP]

Cultural mainstream. General view of life in a society. Cultivation theorists argue that television constructs and presents images that define the cultural mainstream. [WO97]

Cultural studies. Broadly based approach to studying communication through its cultural implications; often studies in this tradition adopt the tone of social commentary or criticism; closely identified with critical theory. [AR] Group of related theories that seek to unmask the techniques by which privileged groups maintain their privilege and power in society. [WO97]

Culture. Traditions and patterns of thought which are passed down through generations of people. [IRW] The generally shared knowledge, beliefs and values of members of society. Culture is conveyed from generation to generation through the process of socialization. [DP] The set of values, customs, and beliefs that puople have in common with other members of a social unit (e.g., a nation). [GB] The deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, actions, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and artifacts acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. [SB] Structures and practices that uphold a given social organization by producing and reproducing particular values, expectations, meanings, and patterns of thought, feeling, and action. [WO95] Both the ideology of a society and the actual, concrete practices that occur in that society. [WO97]

Culture shock. The tendency for people to become confused and disoriented as they find it difficult to become adjusted to a new culture. [GB]

DBack to the top of the page.

Decentralization. The extent to which authority and decision makng are spread throughout all levels of an organization rather than being reserved for top management (centralization). [GB]

Decentralized networks. Communication networks in which all members play an equal role in the transmittal of information. [GB]

Decoding. Process of translating a message into the thoughts or feelings that were communicated. [SB]

Defensive communication. Behavior which occurs whenwhen a person perceives or anticipates threat in interaction. [SHH]

Democratic leadership style. The leader seeks group member participation in determining group goals and procedures. [IRW]

Democrat personality. A person who can give or receive orders, follow or lead, and is capable of relinquishing control. [SHH]

Dominant style. Tendency to lead and take control in social situations. [IRW]

Downsizing. The process of adjyusting downward the number of employees required to perform jobs in newly designed organizations. [GB]

Downward communication. Communication from higher members of the organization (i.e., managers, vice-presidents) to members lower in the organizational hierarchy (subordinates). [IRW]

Dramatistic pentad. Means of analyzin rhetoric in context through looking at the five factors (pentad) of act (what was done), agent (by whom it was done), scene (where it was done), agency (by what means it was done), and purpose (the goal that guided the action). [AR]

Dyad. A two-person communication system. [AR]

EBack to the top of the page.

Editor. Director of a newspaper´s news and editorial department; may be subordinate to the publisher or on equal footing, depending upon the newspaper´s organization. [WAAC]

Egalitarian. A shortening of the word equalitarian, suggesting a commitment to, or a state of, equality. Egalitarian societies or groups are contrasted to hierarchical or class-based societies or groups. [DP]

Electronic epoch. Fourth era in media history of civilization. The electronic epoch was ushered in by the invention of the telegraph, which made it possible for people to communicate personally across distance. [WO97]

Empathic listening. Listening to understand what another person is thinking and feeling. [SB] Empowerment. The passing of responsibility and authority from managers to employees. [GB]

Encoding. Process by which the source expresses thoughts or feelings in words, sounds, and physical expressions, which together make up the actual message that is sent. [SB]

Ethnocentrism/ethnocentric. Judging other groups according to the categories and values of one´s own culture rather than being open to cultural differences. [IRW] The assumption that the culture of one's own group is moral, right and rational and that other cultures are inferior. When confronted with a different culture, individuals judge it with reference to their own standards and make no attempt to understand and evaluate it from the perspective of its members. Sometimes ethnocentrism will be combined with racism, the belief that individuals can be classified into distinct racial groups and that that there is a biologically-based. [DP] A person whose pride in his or her her-itage or background leads to the conviction that he or she knows more and is better than those who differ. [SB]

Ethos. Aristotelian concept associated with persuasion; the personal character of the speaker. [SHH]

Evaluative listening. Listening to judge or analyze information. [SB]

Expatriates. People who are citizens of one country but who are living in another country. [GB]

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Fallacy. Arguments that are flawed because they do not follow the rules of logic. [SB]

Feedback. Any message that aids a communicator in evaluating the success of previous message(s). [AR] The responses of the receiver that shape and alter subsequent messages from the source. [D]

Feminine communication orientation. Fostered by socialization in feminine communication cultures, this orientation assumes that the purposes of communication are to create and sustain relationships, support others, and maintain harmony between people. It is enacted through communication that is cooperative, supportive, emotionally expressive, relationship-focused, and attentive to interactional processes. [WO95]

Feminine culture. According to Hofstede, the cultural orientation in which people emphasize concern for others and the relationship among people. [GB] Feminist theory. Explains communication variables such as language, nonverbal immediacy, media effects, and ethics from the perspective of gender relationships; often focuses on overt and covert power implications of cultural patterns. [AR]

Flow. Stream of communication messages. [IRW]

Fordism. Refers to the system of mass production (e.g., the assembly line) pioneered by Henry Ford to meet the needs of a mass market. [DP]

Formal communication systems. Communication links and networks determined and sanctioned by the organization. [IRW]

Formal groups. Groups that are created by the organization, intentionally designed to direct its members toward some organizational goal. [GB] Format. Consistent programming designed to appeal to a certain segment of the audience. [D]

Function of communication. According to Cicero, to entertain, inform, and persuade: to stimulate was added later. [IRW]

Functional approach to leadership. The study of leadership which focuses on the leadership behaviors needed by the group to accomplish its goals. [IRW]

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Gangplank. Horizontal chain of communication between employees on the same hierarchical level but in different departments. [IRW]

Gatekeeper. Any person (or group) who controls what media material eventually reaches the public. [D] Editor, reporter, news director, or other person who decides what material is printed, broadcast, or otherwise offered to the public. [WAAC] Individual who controls the flow of information to a group of people. [IRW] An individual who is positioned within a communication network so as to control the messages flowing through communication channels. [BA] A filter between source/receivers in the mechanistic model of communication. [WI]

Gemeinschaft. A German word, translated as 'community', used by sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies to define an 'ideal type', or model, society where social bonds are personal and direct and there are strong shared values and beliefs. Characteristic of small scale, localized societies, it is in contrast to Gesellschaft which refers to complex, impersonal societies. [DP]

Gender. A social construct related to masculine and feminine behaviors that are learned. [SB] A social, symbolic construction that expresses the meanings a society confers on biological sex. Feminine and masculine are gender terms that refer to socially expected and prescribed qualities in women and men, respectively. Sex and gender are not absolutely correlated, so women and men may be masculine or feminine or degrees of both. [WO95] Socially created system of values, identities, and behaviors that are prescribed for women and men. Unlike sex, which is biologically determined, gender is socially constructed. [WO97]

Gender roles. Social roles ascribed to individuals on the basis of their sex. The term gender differs from sex because it refers specifically to the cultural definition of the roles and behaviour appropriate to members of each sex rather than to those aspects of human behaviour that are determined by biology. Thus giving birth is a female sex role, while the role of infant nurturer and care giver (which could be performed by a male) is a gender role usually ascribed to females. [DP]

General Systems Theory. The description of living systems in terms of the interdependence of their components and relationships among components. [AR] A view of systems that examines the system as more than the simple interconnectedness between objects; presupposes an active and reactive system fed on information. [SHH]

Gesellschaft. A German word, translated as 'society-association', used by Ferdinand Tonnies to refer to an 'ideal type', or model, of a society where social bonds are primarily impersonal, instrumental and narrow. Characteristic of large scale, complex societies, with a strict division between private and public spheres of life, it contrasts to the community-oriented life of the Gemeinschaft. [DP]

Glass ceiling. A barrier preventing females from reaching top positions in many organizations. [GB] In the analysis of women in the work place, this concept is useful for describing the invisible barriers that block the promotion of women. It refers to barriers that are not explicit, but are inherent in the social organization and social relationships of the workplace. For example, women may find their corporate careers obstructed because they are excluded from the recreational and social associations created by male fellow workers and lack the social contacts that are important in gaining status and recognition. [DP]

Globalization. The process of interconnecting the world's people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological, and environmental aspects of their lives. [GB] A comprehensive world-wide process of the internationalisation of communication, trade and economic organization. In the economic sphere it can be seen in international trade agreements, vast increases in the volume of international trade and growing economic interdependency. It is also marked by the expansion of the size and power of multinational corporations and the development of the American entertainment industry's domination of international cultural communication. Generally the process is seen as driven by the growth of international capitalism and involving the transformation of the culture and social structures of non-capitalist and pre-industrial societies. [DP]

Grapevine. An organization's informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship or acquaintance, [GB] Grass roots lobbying. Organizing local constituencies to influence government decision makers. [BA]

Great person theory. The view that leaders possess special traits that set them apart from others and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority. [GB]

Group. A collection of two or more interacting individuals who maintain stable patterns of relationships, share common goals, and perceive themselves as being a group. [GB] An aggregate of individuals having some characteristic in common. They may be distinguished from others by appearance, language, socio-economic status or cultural values and practices. A group is often characterized by a sense of common identity, shared interests and goals among its members, but a group may exist simply because its members share some objective characteristic and are defined as a group by others. [DP] Collection of individuals who form a system in which members influence one another, derive mutual satisfaction from one another, have a common purpose, take on roles, are interdependent, and interact with one another. [SB]

Group Decision Support System (GDSS). A computer-based system that supports message exchange, collaboration on ideas, projects, and products, and/or group decision-making. [WI]

Groupthink. A group communication process where high group cohesiveness impairs decisions by stimulating premature closure on important issues. [IRW] The tendency for members of highly cohesive groups to conform to group pressures regarding a certain decision so strongly that they fail to think critically, rejecting the potentially correcting influences of outsiders. [GB] A dysfunction in which group members value the harmony of the group more than new ideas, fail to critically examine ideas, hesitate to change de-cisions, or lack willingness to allow new members to participate. [SB]

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Halo effect. The tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated. [GB]

Haptics. Tactile, or touch, communication; one of the most basic forms of communication. [SB]

Hawthorne effect. An increase in worker productivity observed at the Chicago Hawthorne plant of General Electric in the 1920's and 1930's attributed to improvements in worker-management communication and increased involvement of workers with each other. The term is now used more generally to refer to improvement of worker productivity that does not result from any objective change in working conditions or work organization, but seems to arise from workers having more positive psychological feelings about the workplace. [DP]

Hermeneutics. The branch of philosophy that investigates the interpretation of texts; in one form popularized by Gadamer, hermeneutics emphasizes the historical and inherently linguistic nature of experience in denying a transmissional model of communication. [AR]

Hierarchy. Ordering in which parts are related to each other in subordinate or superordinate fashions. For example, they may be more or less important, large or complex. A system is composed of a hierarchy consisting of subsystems and suprasystems. [IRW] A proposition underlying systems theory which maintains that systems are organized in a successively more inclusive and complex pattern and that to understand systems of behavior, several appropriate levels should be examined. [BA] A structuring of social statuses and roles within an organization or society ranked according to differentiations of power, authority, wealth, income, etc. Related terms are ranking or stratification. [DP]

High-context culture. Culture in which most of the information in a message is encoded in the physical context or in the person's mental catalog of rules, roles and values. [IRW] The meaning of the communication act is inferred from the situation or location. [SB]

Homeostasis. A characteristic of systems whereby feedback seeks to maintain the system at the current level. [SHH] A steady state, equilibrium, balance. General systems theory claims that living systems (relationships, for example) strive for, but never fully achieve, homeostasis. Dialectical theory, on the other hand, claims that continuous change is the very nature of relationships. [WO97]

Horizontal chain of communication. Communication between organization. members on the same hierarchical level (between two managers or between two subordinates, for example). [IRW]

Hot media. McLuhan's term for relatively complete media that do not require significant human participation. [WO97]

Human capital. The talents and capabilities that individuals contribute to the process of production. Companies, governments and individuals can invest in this 'capital' just as they can invest in technology and buildings or in finances. [DP]

Humanism. Form of science that focuses on human choices, motives, and meanings and that assumes the reasons or causes of human behavior lie within humans, not outside of them. [WO97]

Hypodermic needle theory. The belief that people receive information directly without any intervening variable, as in a vacuum. [WAAC]

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Immediacy. Theory of immediacy demonstrates how persons signal the emotional responses of attraction, dominance, and arousal through nonverbal (and verbal) messages related to physical closeness; for example, eye contact and movement toward another, as indicators of immediacy, correlate with desires for increased involvement. [AR]

Impression management. Efforts by individuals to improve how they appear to others. [GB] Creating a positive image of oneself in order to influence the perceptions of others. [SB]

Informal communication systems. Communlcation links and networks (not determined by the organizatinal chart) which arise through natural human interaction. For example, two workers who might have no formal communication links may be connected in the informal communication system because they both play on the company golf team or eat lunch together. [IRW]

Informal groups. Groups that develop naturally among people, without any direction from the organization within which they operate. [GB]

Interaction. Exchange of communication in which communicators take turns sending and receiving messages. [SB]

Intercultural communication. Communication between individuals or groups from different cultures or from different subcultures (for example, ethnic groups) of the same sociocultural system. [IRW] Branch of communication field that studies communication between people from different cultures, including distinct cultures within a single country. [WO97]

Interest group. A group of individuals and organizations linked together for the purpose of active promotion of particular values and objectives. Interest groups are usually associated with the political process through which they seek support and resources for their objectives. [DP]

Internet. Master computer network connecting networks world-wide, enabling computer users to exchange e-mail, hold electronic conversations, obtain information and entertainment, and operate sites on the World Wide Web. [WAAC]

Interorganizational communication. Structures communication among organizations linking them with their environments. [BA]

Interpersonal communication. Exchange between two or more persons in close proximity using conversation and gestures. [WAAC] Communication between two people. [IRW] The exchange of messages between individuals through which needs, perceptions, and values are shared and by which mutual meanings and expectations are developed. [BA] Communication between individuals. Interpersonal communication exists on a continuum ranging from impersonal (between social roles) to highly personal. [WO97]

Interpretation. An active process whereby individuals perceive and assign meaning to phenomena, relying on their working models to do so. [WO95]

Interview. Carefully planned and executed question-and-answer session designed to exchange desired information between two parties. [SB] Intrapersonal communication. Communication with oneself, including self?talk, planning, and reflections. [WO97]

Issues management. Program of identifying and addressing issues of public concern in which a company is or should be involved. [WAAC] The process of identifying issues that potentially impact organizations and managing organizational activities related to those issues. [BA]

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Key contacts. People who can either influence the publics an organization is trying to reach or who have direct power to help the organization. [BA]

Kinesics. Sometimes referred to as "body language"; any movement of the face or body that communicates a message. [SB]

K.I.S.S principle. A basic principle of communication advising that messages should be as short and simple as possible (an abbreviation for keep it short and simple). [GB]

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Laissez-faire leader. Leader who gives complete decision-making freedom to the group or to individual members. [SB]

Language. Structured system of signs, sounds, gestures, and marks used and understood to express ideas and feelings among people within a community, nation, geographic area, or cultural tradition. [SB] Laissez-faire leadership style. The leader provides the means for members to accomplish group goals and has minimal involvement in group functioning. [IRW]

Latent public. People who are not aware of an existing problem. [BA]

Leadership. The process whereby one individual influences other group members toward the attainment of defined group or organizational goals. [GB] An influence process that includes any behavior that helps clarify or guide the group to achieve its goals. [SB]

Liaison(s). Person who links two groups but is not a member of either group. [IRW] Individuals who serve as linking pins connecting two or more groups within organizational communication networks. Sometimes referred to as internal boundary spanners. [BA]

Libertarianism. A philosophy or belief system which gives priority to the liberty of the individual. May be associated with classical liberalism regarding economic matters or the protection of those negative liberties which declare the right of the individual to be free from interference by the state, or the community, unless the actions of the individual constitute harm to others. For example, the individual has the right to freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of religious expression, freedom of contract. Libertarianism is related to individualism and contrasted with communitarianism. [DP]

Line organization. A method of structuring organizations as a sequence of ascending levels of responsibility for the production of goods or services. [BA]

Listening. The active process of receiving aural stimuli by hearing, selecting, attending, understanding, evaluating, and remembering. [SB]

Literate epoch. Second era in media history of civilization. Invention of the phonetic alphabet inaugurated the literate epoch in which common symbols allow people to communicate with writing. [WO97]

Lobbying. The practice of trying to influence governmental decisions. Usually done by agents who serve interest groups. [BA]

Lobbyist. Person who presents an organization´s point of view to members of [...] government bodies. [WAAC]

Logos. Aristotelian concept associated with persuasion; proof or apparent proof provided by the words used in the speech. [SHH]

Low-context culture. Culture in which most information in a message is contained in the explicit or verbal message. [IRW] The meaning of the communication act is inferred from the messages being sent and not the location where the communication occurs. [SB]

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Machiavellianism. Personality trait which involves manipulating other people as a basic strategy of social influence. [IRW] A personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for one's own purposes. [GB]

Magic bullet theory. Influential early perspective on media effects; held that media caused direct and measurable effects on individuals in the mass audience. [AR] Theory which suggests that the mass media influence a large group directly and uniformly. Also referred to as the hypodermic needle theory. [IRW]

Mainstreaming. Argues that heavy television viewing diminishes differences in perceptions of reality caused by demographic and social factors. [IRW] The effect of television in stabilizing and homogenizing views within a society. [WO97]

Management-by-objectives (MBO). A process that specifies that supervisors and employees will jointly set goals for employees. Usually followed by a joint evaluation of the employee's progress after a set period of time. [BA] The technique by which managers and their subordinates work together to set and then meet organizational goals. [GB]

Mass communication. The process by which a complex organization, with the aid of one or more machines, produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences. [D] Communication to large audiences which is mediated by electronic or print media. [IRW]

Marketing communications. Product publicity, promotion, and advertising. |WAAC]

Masculine communication orientation. Cultivated by participation in masculine communication cultures, this orientation views the goals of communication as asserting self, competing for attention and influence, and achieving objectives. It is enacted through a communication style that is competitive, individualistic, emotionally reserved, and instrumental. [WO95]

Masculine culture. According to Hofstede, cultures in which people are highly materialistic and value assertiveness and the acquisition of money. [GB]

Mass culture. A set of cultural values and ideas that arise from common exposure of a population to the same cultural activities, communications media, music and art, etc. Mass culture becomes possible only with modern communications and electronic media. A mass culture is transmitted to individuals, rather than arising from people's daily interactions, and therefore lacks the distinctive content of cultures rooted in community and region. Mass culture tends to reproduce the liberal value of individualism and to foster a view of the citizen as consumer. [DP]

Mass media. The channels of mass communication. [D] Sociologically speaking in modern times the 'community' has been replaced by a 'mass', a set of autonomous and disconnected individuals, with little sense of community. The mass media then is that media (radio, television, newspapers, etc) which are targeted at the mass rather than at specific groups or communities. [DP]

Matrix organization. The type of departmentalization in which a product or project form is superimposed on a functional form. [GB]

Mcworld. A concept developed by Benjamin Barber to describe the new globalized world where nation states have little power and citizenship has become meaningless as a cornerstone of democracy. This new world is ruled by corporations (multinational corporations or in Barber's terms antinational corporations) which see everyone simply as consumers. In this new world citizens can no longer effectively use democracy to enhance or protect social values because this would interfere with the marketplace. The assumption is that the actions of countless consumers will best satisfy the social needs of communities. [DP]

Meaning. A human construction arising out of interpreting and negotiating interpretations with others. [WO95]

Mechanistic organization. An organizational structure in which people perform specialized jobs, many rigid rules are imposed, and authority is vested in a few top-ranking officials. [GB]

Media richness. The degree to which a medium facilitates feedback or provides multiple cues to reduce message ambiguity. Rich media are considered most efficient for highly ambiguous communication. [WI]

Mediated interpersonal communication. Any situation where mediated technology (for example, telephone, computer) is used to advance face-to-face interaction. [IRW]

Medium is the message. A central idea of communications theorist Marshall McLuhan who demonstrated that each media (print, speech, television) is connected with a different pattern or arrangement among the senses and thus results in a different awareness or perception. Although the literal message of a radio report of a disaster and the television coverage of the same event may be identical, the event will be perceived differently and take on different meaning because the two media arrange the senses differently. In this sense the medium (the singular for the word media) is the message; this message is often more important than the literal message. [DP]

Message. A stimulus to which meanings are attributed in communication. [AR] Set of verbal and/or nonverbal symbols sent to a receiver. [IRW]

Metacommunication. The process of communicating about communication. [AR]

Metaphor. A figure of speech in which a word or phrase relates one object or idea to another object or idea that are not commonly linked together. [SB]

Model. A verbal or pictorial description or representation of a process. [AR] A way of looking at something. [BA] A representation of something else. Models may represent their referents physically, verbally, and/or visually. [WO95]

Moderating public. Those people who could make it easier for an organization to get its message through to the public it really wants to reach.

Monitor. Process of observing ourselves and our actions. Monitoring is possible because humans are self-reflective. [WO95]

MUM effect. The reluctance to transmit bad news, shown either by not transmitting the message at all, or by delegating the task to someone else. [GB]


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Narrative paradigm/theory. Point of view that asserts humans are natural storytellers and that most, if not all, communication is storytelling. [WO97]

News conferences. Structured opportunities to release news simultaneously to all media. [BA]

News release. A story prepared for the media to share information and generate publicity. [BA]

Newsletters. Regiularly published internal documents describing information of interest to employees regarding an array of business and nonbusiness issues affecting them. [GB]

Noble self. Tendency to be inflexible in expressing a position; to base behavior on a rigid conception of self. [IRW]

Noise. Any internal or external interference with the sending and receiving of messages. [AR]

Nonverbal communication. The transmission of messages without the use of words (e.g., by gestures, the use of space). [GB] One of two major communication code systems; sometimes defined as all that language is not; communicated via channels other than words. [SHH] Any information that is expressed without words. [SB]

Norm. A culturally established rule prescribing appropriate social behaviour. Norms are relatively specific and precise and elaborate the detailed behavioural requirements that flow from more general and overarching social values . For example, it is a value in Western society that one should respect the dead, it is a norm that one should dress in dark colours for a funeral. [DP]

Not-for-profit organization. A group or company whose primary purpose is not to make a profit, regardless of whether it actually does so in a given year. [BA]

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Opinion. The verbal or nonverbal expression of an attitude. [SHH]

Opinion-leader(s). Person who influences the opinions, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of others through informal communication. [IRW] People who are instrumental in influencing other people's attitudes or actions. [BA]

Organization. Hierarchically organized group of people so large that personal relationships with every member of the group are impossible. Organizations tend to outlive individual members and to be regulated by formal structures and rules. [IRW] A structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives. [GB]

Organizational change. Planned or unplanned transformations in an organization's structure, technology, and/or people. [GB]

Organizational chart. A diagram representing the connections between the various departments within an organization; a graphic representation of organizational structure, indicating who is to communicate with whom. [GB]

Organizational climate. The collective subjective perceptions held by an organization's employees concerning organizational policies, structure, leadership, standards, values, and rules. [BA]

Organizational commitment. The extent to which an individual identifies and is involved with his or her organization and/or is unwilling to leave it. [GB]

Organizational communication. Communication between and among the indlviduals and groups which make up an organization. [IRW] The exchange and interaction of informal and formal messages within networks of interdependent relationships. [BA]

Organizational culture. A cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by organization members. [GB] Understandings about identity and codes of thought and action that are shared by members of an organization. [WO97]

Organizational structure. The formal configuration between individuals and groups with respect to the allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authorities within organizations. The formally prescribed pattern of interrelationships existing between the various units of an organization. [GB]

Outsourcing. The practice of eliminating nonessential aspects of business operations by hiring other companies to perform these tasks. [GB]

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Paralanguage. Vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech; the manner in which something is said rather than what is said. [IRW] The way we vocalize, or say, the words we speak. [SB]

Parasocial relationship. The tendency of some audience members to identify with media figures (such as celebrities or fictional characters) as though an interpersonal relationship has been established. [AR] A situation whereby audience members develop a sense of kinship or friendship with media personalities. [D] A type of "relationship" which exists between television viewers and media performers (for example, talk show hosts, entertainers, sports stars). [IRW]

Pathos. Aristotelian concept associated with persuasion; the emotive aspects of the speech and audience. [SHH]

Perception. The process by which an organism assimilates, interprets, and uses sensory data. [AR]

Personal relationship. Voluntary commitments that are marked by continuing and significant interdependence between particular individuals and that are constantly in process. [WO95]

Personalized communication. Using nicknames, coded terms, and special vocabulary to enhance partners' feelings of being connected and to exclude others by demarcating the boundaries of an intimate relationship. [WO95]

Persuasion. Attitude change toward a source's proposal resulting from a message designed to alter a receiver's beliefs about the proposal. [IRW] Communication process, involving both verbal and nonverbal messages, that attempts to reinforce or change listeners' attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior. [SB]

Plagiarism. Use of another person's information, language, or ideas without citing the originator and making it appear that the user is the originator. [SB]

Planned publicity. Publicity that is the planned result of a conscious effort to attract attention to an issue, event, or organization. [BA]

Policy. A type of standing plan that serves as a guide for decision making and usually is set by top management. [BA]

Popular culture. Intellectual opinions of popular culture, the culture of the masses, have been deeply shaped by critical theory. Since the Frankfurt School, which identified with the 'high culture' of the intellectual classes, popular culture has been seen as trivial, demeaning and commercialized, serving the interests of the capitalist system. Post-modernist theorists, however, no longer accept the belief that there is some objectively superior high culture setting a standard from which to make evaluations of others. They have been more interested in popular culture as representing the voices of the previously silent, and by adopting the methods of film analysis or literary criticism they examine the way popular culture is produced and the underlying assumptions upon which its meaning rests. [DP]

Positioning. The practice of creating corporate identity programs that establish a position in the market for a company and its products. Also, the effort to get ahead by doing something first. [WAAC]

Positivism. One way to think about the relationship between science and society and found in the early writings of August Comte. All of the assumptions that Comte makes are now rejected by postmodernists. Comte begins by imposing meaning on history, arguing that societies evolve through three stages: the theological stage, the metaphysical stage and the positive (or scientific) stage. Each of these stages is reproduced in the evolution of the human mind. The human mind, and the most privileged among these was the sociologist, would use the scientific method to arrive at an understanding of the universal laws of social development. Comte argues against democratic discourse in the belief that parties involved in the political process are always committed to a particular viewpoint. Only science can rise above the local and particular and understand impartially. The application of this knowledge to society would enable the liberation of individuals. Positivism, therefore, places science in a privileged position; assumes the possibility of a scientific understanding of human and social behaviour; assumes the separation of knowledge and power; and assumes the possibility of objectivity and impartiality. Positivism shaped sociology for the next 100 years. In much contemporary social science debate, however, positivism has become a term of abuse. [DP]

Postmodern. Refers to era of social life that emerged after modernism. Postmodern society is described as fragmented, uncertain, and continuously in flux; individuals are described not as a core self, but as a range of selves that are brought forth by and embodied in particular contexts. [WO97] In social theory it is best seen as a rejection of central assumptions of the modern world or of what has been described as the 'enlightenment project'. This project has had at least two core beliefs. First is the assumption that modern society will become more democratic and just because of our growing ability to rationally and objectively understand the community's best interests. Second is the assumption that scientists and social theorists hold a privileged viewpoint since they are taken to operate outside of local interests or bias. Each of these assumptions suggests the possibility of disinterested knowledge, universal truths and social progress. The late twentieth century writings of Michel Foucault and Jean Francois Lyotard called these assumption into question. Foucault's work has argued that knowledge and power are always intertwined and that the social sciences, rather than empowering human actors, have made humans into objects of inquiry and have subjected them to knowledge legitimated by the claims of science. Similarly Lyotard has argued that social theory has always imposed meaning on historical events (think of the writing of Marx) rather than providing for the understanding of the empirical significance of events. This rejection of the idea of social and intellectual progress implies that people must accept the possibility of history having no meaning or purpose, abandon the idea that we can know what is or is not true and accept that science can never create and test theories according to universal scientific principles because there is no unitary reality from which such principles can be established. We are left living in a fragmented world with multiple realities, a suspicion of science or authoritative claims and many groups involved in identity politics in order to impose their reality on others. The clearest signs of a postmodern approach to sociology can be found in social constructionism, ethnomethodology and labeling theory. [DP]

Poststructuralism/poststructural theory. Point of view that emphasizes relationships among language, subjectivity, social organization, and power. [WO97]

Power. Relationship between people including the ability to control the behavior(s) of others. The potential to influence or restrict a partner's behaviors. [IRW]

Power distance. According to Hofstede, the degree to which the unequal distribution of power is accepted by people in a culture (high power distance) or rejected by them (low power distance). [GB]

Prejudice. Prejudging others using positive or negative attitudes based on stereotypes rather than information about a specific individual. [IRW] To make a judgment about an individual or group of individuals on the basis of their social, physical or cultural characteristics. Such judgments are usually negative, but prejudice can also be exercised to give undue favour and advantage to members of particular groups. Prejudice is often seen as the attitudinal component of discrimination. [DP]

Primary public. The group of people an organization ultimately hopes to influence or gain approval from. [BA]

Print epoch. Third era in media history of civilization. Invention of the printing press made it possible to mass-produce written materials so that reading was no longer restricted to elite members of society. [WO97]

Prototype. An organized understanding of what the defining qualities are of some category of people, events, objects, or situations. [WO95]

Proxemics. Study of the use of space and of distance between individuals when they are communicating. [SB]

Public. A group of individuals tied together by a sense of common characteristics or responses. [BA]

Public affairs. That aspect of public relations dealing with the political environment of organizations. [BA]

Public communication. A multistep, multidirectional process in which messages are disseminated to a broad, and sometimes undifferentiated, audience through complex networks of active transmitters. [BA]

Public opinion. An attitudinal measure of the image a public holds concerning some person, object, or concept. [BA]

Public relations. A management function that helps define an organization's philosophy and direction by maintaining communication within a firm and with outside forces and by monitoring and helping a firm adapt to significant public opinion. [BA]

Public speaking. Presentation of a speech, usually prepared in advance, during which the speaker is the central focus of an audience's attention. [SB]

Publicity. Publication of news about an organization or person for which time or space was not purchased. [BA]

Publisher. Chief official of a newspaper who directs financial, mechanical, and administrative operations, and sometimes news and editorial operations as well. [WAAC]


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Race. A classification of humans beings into different categories on the basis of their biological characteristics. There have been a variety of schemes for race classification based on physical characteristics such as skin colour, head shape, eye colour and shape, nose size and shape etc. A common classification system uses four major groups: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid and Australoid. The term was once popular in anthropology, but has now fallen into disrepute, because the idea of racial classification has become associated with racism - the claim that there is hierarchy of races. The idea of race categories also appears to be unscientific, since humans are able to mate across all 'races' and have done so throughout history, creating an enormous variety of human genetic inheritance. In addition the defining characteristics of 'race' do not appear in all members of each so-called race, but merely occur with some degree of statistical frequency. If the defining characteristic of each 'race' does not appear in all members of each 'race' then the whole definition is clearly inadequate. [DP]

Racism. An ideology based on the idea that humans can be separated into distinct racial groups and that these groups can be ranked on a hierarchy of intelligence, ability, morality etc. [DP]

Red herring. A fallacy that uses irrelevant information to divert attention away from the real issue. [SB]

Reengineering. The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve drastic improvements in performance. [GB]

Repatriation. The process of readjustment associated with returning to one´s native culture after spending time away from it. [GB]

Resistance to change. The tendeng for employees to be unwilling to go along with organizational changes, either because of individual fears of the unknown or organizational impediments (such as structural inertia). [GB]

Rhetorical reflector. Tendency to be too flexible in expressing a position by ignoring self and telling people only what they want to hear. [IRW]

Rhetorical sensitivity. Tendency to be flexible in adapting to others in communication; to base behavior on a complex network of perceived selves. [IRW]

Ritual. Communicative performances that are regularly repeated in an organization and that members of an organization come to regard as familiar and routine. [WO97]

Role. The typical behavior that characterizes a person in a specific social context. [GB] A position, or status, within a social structure that is shaped by relatively precise behavioural expectations (norms). A role has been described as the active component of status. The individual, placed within a status in a social structure, performs their role in a way shaped by normative expectations. Individuals have varying ideas about normative standards and their own unique values, so role behaviour is not standardized, however radical departure from expected role behaviour will usually result in social sanctions. [DP] A position that specifies behavioral expectations and status in relation to others. [WO95]

Rules. Shared understandings about what is appropriate and inappropriate in various situations. [WO95]

Rumors. Information with little basis in fact, often transmitted through informal channels. [GB]


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Scientific management. An early approach to management and organizational behavior emphasizing the importance of designing jobs as effeciently as posiible. [GB] A method of work organization where management implements a specialised division of labour and sets out detailed instructions for the performance of work. Associated with the innovative methods introduced by Frederick Taylor to separate workers from their knowledge of the work process, to divide labour so as to pay only for the specific skill required to perform a narrow function and to establish management as the controller of work and the work process. [DP]

Search engines. Programs used to find information on the World Wide Web. [SB]

Self-disclosure. Communication in which information about self normally hidden is revealed honestly and accurately to another. [IRW] Voluntary sharing of information about the self that another person is not likely to know. [SB] Disclosing personal or private information about oneself to another. [WO95]

Self-fulfilling prophecy. Molding of behavior by expectations so that what was expected does indeed happen. [SB]

Self-presentation. An intentional tactic in which a person reveals certain aspects of himself or herself in order to accomplish specific goals. [SB]

Sex. The biological classification of individuals as males and females. Sociologists would note, however, that even though this is a classification based on biological differences it is a socially constructed classification. [DP] Biological and genetic quality. Sex refers to being male or female. Sex is not the same as gender. [WO97]

Sexism. Actions or attitudes that discriminate against people based solely on their gender. Sexism is linked to power in that those with power are typically treated with favour and those without power are typically discriminated against. Sexism is also related to stereotypes since the discriminatory actions or attitudes are frequently based on false beliefs or over generalizations about gender and on seeing gender as relevant when it is not. [DP]

Sexist language. Language that creates sexual stereo-types or implies that one gender is superior to another. [SB]

Sign. Something that stands for or represents something else and bears a natural, nonarbitrary relationship to it. For example, dark clouds, thunder, and lightning are signs of rain. [IRW]

Signal. Another category of sign. That which stands for something by virtue of a natural relationship of causality, contingency or resemblance. For example. a blinking yellow light signals drivers to slow down. [IRW]

Small group. Group of fewer than 20 people who develop regular patterns of interaction and share a common purpose; members influence and are influenced by each other. [IRW]

Small group communication. Communication between and among the members of a small group; communication involving several people. [IRW] Exchange of information among a relatively small number of persons, usually three to thirteen, who share a common purpose, such as doing a task, solving a problem, making a decision, or sharing information. [SB]

Small talk. Casual conversation that is often impersonal and superficial, including greetings, comments about the weather, newsworthy events, or trivia. [SB]

Social loafing. The tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases. [GB]

Social relationships. Relationships in which participants interact with social roles but do not significantly depend on each other as individuals. [WO95]

Source. The originator of a thought or idea subsequently transmitted to others in the communication process. [D] Originator of a message. [IRW]

Spamming. Sending unsolicited mass e-mail to members of e-mail discussion lists or Usenet newsgroups. [WI]

Speech community. A group of people who share understandings of comrnunication that are not shared by people outside of the group. [WO97]

Spiral of silence theory. Explains how perceptions of public opinion can minimize social expression of minority opinion while exaggerating majority voices. [AR]

Spontaneous publicity. Publicity accompanying unplanned events. [BA]

Stakeholder analysis. A method for characterizing publics according to their interest in an issue. [BA]

Stereotypes/stereotyping. Beliefs about members of a group based on learned opinions rather than information about a specific individual. [IRW] Beliefs that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave the same way. [GB] The categorizing of events, objects, and people without regard to unique individual characteristics and qualities. [SB] Predictive knowledge based on understandings of how members of some category can be expected to act. [WO95]

Strategic plans. Long-range plans concerning a group's major goals and ways of carrying them out. These plans usually are made by top management. [BA]

Subsystem(s). Elements that make up a system. [SHH] Smaller units which are part of a system's hierarchy. [IRW]

Suprasystem(s). An element of systems theory that presupposes that a number of systems are interrelated to form a larger entity, the "suprasystem". [SHH] Larger units which make up a system: suprasystems are composed of subsystems. [IRW]

Symbol. Representation of an idea. [SHH] Type of sign which is arbitrary, agreed upon, and is used to stimulate meaning. That which stands for or represents something else but bears no natural relationship to it. [IRW] Arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representations of other phenomena. Symbols are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought. [WO97]

Symmetrical. A form of communcation and relationships in which power is equal between partners. [WO97] Symptom. Type of sign that bears a natural relation to an object. [IRW]

Synergy. A proposition underlying systems theory which maintains that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. [BA]

Synchronous communication. Also known as simultaneous communication. Communication during which participants engage in the process at the same time, such as telephone conversation or Internet chat room. [WI]

System(s). Set of interdependent units which work together to adapt to a changing environment. An organization is one type of system. [IRW] A set of objects or events grouped together by sets of relationships. [BA] Entities that function as a result of the interdependent action of its components (subsystems). A closed system is neither sensitive to its environment, nor does it make adjustments for external events (e.g., a wristwatch). An open system is sensitive to environmental influences, and may have internal mechanisms for adjustment (e.g., an organization). [WI]


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Tactical plans. Short-range plans for accomplishing the steps that lead up to achieving an organization's goals. These plans are carried out at every level of an organization and on an everyday basis. [BA]

Target audience. In advertising, the segment of the population for whom the product or service has an appeal. [D] The primary group an organization is trying to influence. [BA]

Taylorism. The work management principles followed by Frederick Taylor designed to transfer control of the work process to management and to achieve the greatest rate of productivity from workers through dividing labour and having work performed in a manner detailed by management. [DP]

Team. A group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. [GB] A special form of group that is characterized by a close-knit relationship, members with different and complementary abilities, and a strong sense of identity. [SB]

Technological determinism. Point of view that claims that media decisively influence how individual think, fell, and act, as well as how they view collective life. [WO97]

Technophile. Literally, a lover of technology. Likely to be a person who sees the positive benefits deriving from technology and advocating increased use of technology as a solution to economic, social and political problems within the society. [DP]

Technophobia. Literally, the fear of technology. [DP]

Theory. An account of what something is and/or how it works and/ or what it produces or causes to happen and/or what should be the case. Theories are points of view, human constructions. [WO97] A tentative but usually systematic explanation for a problematic situation; an educated guess open to change. [AR] An explanation or belief about how something works. [BA]

Transaction. A relationship in which each party simultaneously defines and is defined by the other. [AR]

Tribal epoch. First era in media history of civilization. During the tribal epoch, the oral tradition reigned and face-to-face talking and listening were primary forms of communication. [WO97]

Trust. Faith in the behavior of another. Promotes confidence in risk taking. [IRW] The belief among employees that they will be treated fairly by their organization and, more specifically, by their immediate supervisor. [GB]

Trustworthiness. Audience's perception of a speaker's reliability and dependability. [SB]

Turn-taking. Behavior which exhibits the exchange of source and receiver roles during conversation. [IRW]

Two-step flow. Theory which asserts that information from media is processed first by opinion leaders who then pass it along via interpersonal channels. [IRW]

Telephone plug

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Uncertainty avoidance. According to Hofstede, the degree to which people in a culture feel threatened by, and attempt to avoid, ambiguous situations. [GB]

Uncertainty reduction theory. Point of view that claims uncertainty motivates communication and certainty reduces the motivation to communicate. [WO97]

Uncontrolled media. Those media whose actions are not under the public relations practitioner's control, such as community newspapers and radio. [BA]

Upward communication. Communication from lower members of the organizational hierarchy (subordinates) to members higher in the organization (i.e., managers, vice-presidents). [IRW]

Uses and gratifications approach. Explains how mass media audiences make choice to use media content for their own gratifications and their own purposes. [AR]

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Value(s). Relatively general cultural prescriptions of what is right, moral and desirable. Values provide the broad foundations for specific normative regulation of social interaction. [DP] A general, relatively long-lasting ideal that guides behavior. [SB]

Verbal communication. One of two major communication code systems; associated with our spoken and written language; typically labeled as "language". [SHH] The transmission of messages using words, either written or spoken. [GB]

Vertical chain of communication. Communication between members of different levels of organizational hierarchy; i.e., between managers and subordinates. [IRW]

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Whistle-blowing. Insiders telling the media what they know about improper practices by others, usually in the same company, with the hope of improving the situation. [BA] Calling attention to actions or practices that are inconsistent with established organizational norms or policies. [GB]

Work team. A group of people who are responsible for a whole work process or a segment of the process that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer. [SB]

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Xenophobia. An individual's irrational and obsessive hatred of people perceived as different and foreign. Related to the concepts of racism and ethnocentrism. All of these can be overcome by the study of the social sciences and coming to appreciate the ideas of culture and social structure as tools for understanding ourselves and others. [DP]

Questions for the Illinois State Department of Communication.
From: Doctor Asif Qureshi 5042 N. Winthrop Ave. #237, Chicago, Illinois
60640, North America.
Internet address: www.qureshiuniversity.com
Email: admin@qureshiuniversity.com


Professor Pat Gill
Department of Communication
University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign
244 Lincoln Hall, MC #456
702 South Wright Street
Urbana, IL 61801

All other concerned.

Subject: Questions for the Illinois State Department of Communication.

Date of Circulation: May 11, 2016


I am Asif Qureshi.
I am the founder of Qureshi University and the Global Democratic party.

About the Founder

Questions for the Illinois State Department of Communication.

Who must answer these questions?
Professor Pat Gill
Department of Communication
University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign
244 Lincoln Hall, MC #456
702 South Wright Street
Urbana, IL 61801

What are the duties of the state department of communication?
What is the difference between the state department of communication and the state department of media?
Has the Illinois Department of Communication established any print newspapers in the state of Illinois?
Who has the duties relevant to establishing printed government newspapers in the state of Illinois?


Media topics
What is your response to these facts?

Here are further guidelines.

Occupations relevant to this department in the state.
Communication Careers
  1. Admissions Counselor

  2. Benefits Administrator

  3. Communication Analyst

  4. Communication Trainer

  5. Customer Service Representative

  6. Director Corporate Communications

  7. Director Media Relations

  8. Director of Training and Development

  9. Employee Communication and Training

  10. Employee Information

  11. Events Planner

  12. Executive Manager

  13. External Communications Manager

  14. Field Publicity Consultant

  15. Flight Attendant

  16. Government Affairs Director

  17. Government Relations Counselor

  18. Group Supervisor

  19. Hospitality Manager

  20. Hotel Manager

  21. Human Resources Manager

  22. Information Department

  23. Internal Communication Manager

  24. Management-Employee Communication

  25. Media Relations Specialist

  26. Mediator

  27. Negotiator

  28. Newsletter Editor

  29. Personnel manager

  30. Personnel Recruiter

  31. Press Information Officer

  32. Press Relations Manager

  33. Public Affairs Officer

  34. Public Information Officer

  35. Public Relations Supervisor

  36. Speech Writer

  37. Staff Consultant

  38. Trainer

  39. Training and Communication Administrator

  40. Training and Development Specialist

  41. Upward Communication

  42. Vice-president Human Resources (state)

  43. Advertising:

  44. Account Executive

  45. Account Manager

  46. Advertising Copywriter

  47. Advertising Director

  48. Advertising Manager

  49. Advertising/Marketing Specialist

  50. Assistant Account Representative/Executive

  51. Audience Analyst

  52. Copy Writer

  53. Development Officer

  54. Health Professions

  55. Media Analyst

  56. Media Buyer

  57. Media Planner

  58. News Writer

  59. Presenter

  60. Press Agent

  61. Promotions Manager

  62. Public Opinion Researcher

  63. Public Researcher

  64. Publicity Manager

  65. Communication Education:

  66. Alumni Officer

  67. Audiovisual Specialist

  68. College or University Professor

  69. Director of College News

  70. Education Researcher

  71. Educational Administrator

  72. Educational Tester

  73. Forensics/Debate Coach

  74. High School Speech Teacher

  75. Language Arts Coordinator

  76. School Counselor

  77. Speech Communication Department Chairperson

  78. Speech Communication Department Chairperson

  79. Media/Radio/Television/Broadcasting:

  80. Account Executive

  81. Announcer

  82. Assistant Producer

  83. Audiovisual

  84. Broadcasting Station Manager

  85. Camera Person

  86. Casting Director

  87. Comedy Writer

  88. Community Relation Director

  89. Director

  90. Director of Broadcasting

  91. Disc Jockey

  92. Film Director

  93. Film Editor

  94. Film Producer

  95. Film Tape Librarian

  96. Floor Director

  97. Floor Manager

  98. Graphic and Audiovisual

  99. Motion Picture Manager

  100. News Anchor

  101. News and Relation Manager

  102. News Director

  103. News Writer

  104. On-Air Talent

  105. Photo Services Manager

  106. Photo-Audio-Visual Services

  107. Photographer

  108. Photojournalist

  109. Playwright

  110. Producer

  111. Public Relations Manager

  112. Radio and Television Announcer

  113. Radio and Television Publicity

  114. Researcher

  115. Supervisor, Coordinator, Director, or Project Manager

  116. : Talent Scout

  117. Talk Show Host

  118. Technical Director

  119. Television Specialist

  120. Traffic/ Continuity Specialist

  121. Transmitter Engineer

  122. Unit Manager

  123. Writer

  124. Journalism (Print or Electronic):

  125. Acquisitions Editor

  126. Advertising Copywriter

  127. Assistant Editor

  128. Associate Editor

  129. Associate Publisher

  130. Audiovisual Writer

  131. Author

  132. Book Designer

  133. Copy Editor

  134. Copy Writer

  135. Editor

  136. Editorial Assistant

  137. Editorial Director

  138. Employee Publications Editor

  139. General News Manager

  140. Greeting Card Writer

  141. Media Interviewer

  142. Medical Editor

  143. News Manager

  144. News Service Researcher

  145. News Supervisor

  146. Newscaster

  147. Product Promotion Writer

  148. Production Assistant

  149. Production Editor

  150. Publications Advisor

  151. Publications Editor

  152. Publisher

  153. Reporter

  154. Script Writer

  155. Senior Editor

  156. Specifications Writer

  157. Supervisor of Staff Publications and Services

  158. Supervisory Editor

  159. Talk Show Host

  160. Technical Writer

  161. Technical Writer

  162. Writer-Editor

  163. Public Relations:

  164. Account Executive

  165. Advertising Manager

  166. Audience Analyst

  167. Creative Director

  168. Development Officer

  169. Media Analyst

  170. Media Planner

  171. News Writer

  172. Public Opinion Researcher

  173. Publicity Manager

  174. Special Events Coordinator Specialist

  175. Government/Politics:

  176. Communication Trainer

  177. Information Officer

  178. Legislative Assistant (state)

  179. Legislative Liaison (state)

  180. Negotiator

  181. Political Aide (state)

  182. Press secretary

  183. Program Coordinator

  184. Public Information Office Writer

  185. Research Specialist

  186. Speech Writer

  187. High Technology Industries:

  188. Audio & Visual Computer Display Specialist

  189. Circuit Television Producer/Director

  190. Cognition Researcher

  191. HTML Designer and Programmer

  192. Language Specialist

  193. Multimedia Designer/Producer

  194. Performance Assessor

  195. Speech Synthesizer

  196. Systems Analyst

  197. Technical Copywriter

  198. Trainer

  199. Trainer for Communication Tech.

  200. Communication and Health Care:

  201. Activities Director

  202. Clinic Public Relations Director

  203. Drug Rehabilitationist

  204. Health Communication Analyst

  205. Health Educator

  206. Health Personnel Educator

  207. Heath Care Counselor

  208. HMO’s

  209. Hospice Manager

  210. Medical Center Publications Editor

  211. Medical Grants Writer

  212. Medical Training Supervisor

  213. Research Analyst

  214. School Health Care Administrator

  215. International Relations and Negotiations:

  216. Foreign Correspondent

  217. International on-air media talent

  218. On-Air International Broadcasting

  219. Translator

  220. Law:

  221. District Attorney

  222. Legal Educator

  223. Legal Reporter

  224. Legal Researcher

  225. Legal Secretary

  226. Mediation & Negotiation Specialist

  227. Paralegal Researcher

  228. Public Defender

  229. Social and Human Services:

  230. Advisors

  231. Case Worker

  232. College Counselor

  233. Counselor

  234. Customer Relations Representative

  235. Human Resources Associate

  236. Human Rights Office

  237. Information Specialist

  238. Investigator

  239. Lawyer

  240. Mediator

  241. Mental Counselor

  242. Museum Director

  243. Park Service Public Relations Specialist

  244. Public Administrator

  245. Public Affairs Director

  246. Public Relations Specialist

  247. Recreation Supervisor

  248. Recruiter

  249. Researcher

  250. Service Administrator

  251. Social Worker

  252. Speech Instructor

  253. Student Activities Director

  254. Tour Guide

  255. Youth Worker

  256. Labor Relations:

  257. Arbitrator

  258. Chief Negotiator

  259. Contract Administrator

  260. Mediator

  261. Education:

  262. Admissions Counselor

  263. Associate Director/Assistant

  264. College Recruiter

  265. Development Officer

  266. Director/Dean etc. of Administrative Offices

  267. High School Teacher

  268. Project Director

  269. Researcher

  270. Resident Director

  271. School Administrator

  272. Vice-president University Relations

  273. Researcher:

  274. Assistant Director of Research

  275. Corporate Communications Research Analyst

  276. Research and Editorial Associate

  277. Research Coordinator

  278. Research Scientist

  279. Research Specialist

  280. Senior Scientific Services Officer

  281. Social Scientist
Non-essential occupations inside and outside the state.

Association Administrator
Brand/Division Manager
Corporate Relations Officer
Industrial and Labor Relations
Investor Relations Manager
Labor Relations Specialist
Marketing Communication
Sales Representative
Special Projects
Vice-president Corporate and Community Relations
Campaign Manager
Corporate Public Affairs Specialist
Creative Director
Customer Sales Representative
Financial Industry (Stocks and Bonds)
Fund raiser
Manufacturer's Representative
Market Analyst
Marketing Specialist
Marketing Vice-President
Media Sales Representative
Membership Recruiter
Sales Manager
Sales Representative
Vice-President Sales
Stunt Coordinator
Theatre Critic
Theatre Professor
Campaign Director
Director of Corporate Communication
Elected Official
Health Facility Fund Raiser
Hospital Director of Communication
Marketing Director
Non-Profit Health Organizations
Pharmaceutical Companies
Corporate Representative
Foreign Relations Officer
Host/Hostess for Foreign Dignitaries
International Business
Student Tour Coordinator
Corporate Lawyer
Private Practice Lawyer
Attraction Manager
Community Action Director
Community Affairs Liaison
Consumer Advocate
Consumer Affairs Specialist
Corporate Trainer
Foreign Relations Officer
Philanthropic Representative
Professional, Religious, & Charitable Organizations
Religious Leader
Sales Representative
Sales-Retail Manager
Labor Relations Specialist
Union Representative

Journalism (Print or Electronic):

Industrial Editor
Manager of Corporate Information
Sales Promotion Writer
Sports Information Director


  • Actor/Actress
    Advertising Sales Coordinator
    Art Director
    Assistant Art Director
    Booking Agent
    Business Manager
    Cable Television Project Director
    Coordinator, Corporate Internal Television
    Market Researcher
    Media Buyer

    Public Relations:

    Corporate Public Affairs
    Sales Manager
    Telemarketing Specialist

    Communication Education:

    Drama Coach
    Drama Director
    Educational Fund-raiser

    Theatre/Performing Arts:

    Arts Administrator
    Casting Director
    Costume Designer
    Lighting Designer
    Lighting Theatre Critic
    Makeup Artist
    Movie Critic
    Movie Theater Manager
    Performing Artist
    Performing Arts Educator
    Scenic Designer
    Script Writer
    Stage Manager
  • Last Updated: June 24, 2017