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Heat wave harms
Heat wave deaths are preventable.

What are examples of heat wave harms?
Heat wave deaths in southern Sindh Asia reached nearly 700 on June 23, 2015.
Administrative negligence is one factor.
It is the duty of the administration in the state and outside the state to arrange habitable dwelling to prevent heat wave or cold wave deaths.

What recommendations are there for people?
On June 24, 2015, Muslims were advised not to fast.
Heat wave deaths in southern Sindh Asia reached nearly 700 on June 23, 2015.
Take care of your health first.
Drink plenty of fluids, including water.

Taking care of public health emergency and individual emergency are equally important.

On July 23, 2011, deaths of 22 people had been attributed to a heat wave that has left some 17 states from Texas to Michigan battling temperatures over 100 F (37 Celsius).

This is an immediate directive.

Consume enough drinking water.

If cooling arrangements are not adequate, sprinkle cold tap water frequently over your body. Evaporation causes cooling.

Room temperature should be kept below 27 degrees C during the day and 22 degrees during the night.

Electric fans can provide cooling but when the temperature is above 35 degreees C, it may not prevent heat related illness.

Drink lots of fluids.

Spend 2-3 hours of the day in a cool place such as an air-conditioned public building.

Avoid going outside during the hottest time of the day.

Take drinking water with you in case it is too hot and it seems essential to go out during the hottest time of the day.

Avoid strenuous physical activity during excessively hot weather. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during the coolest part of the day.

Stay in the shade.

Do not leave children or animals in parked vehicles or locations that are unsafe, including too hot or too cold.

Take cool showers or baths.

Alternatively, use cold packs and wraps, towels, or sponging.

Wear light loose fitting clothes.

Outreach to vulnerable people.

Discuss preventive measures relevant to heat wave.

How much water should you drink each day?

People more than 18 years of age should drink at least 1.5 to 2 liters of water daily.

Water consumption for children

How much drinking water do children need every 24 hours?
How much formula?

For the first 6 months your baby should be taking 150-200 mls of formula per 1 kg (or 70-90 mls per lb). For example, a baby weighing 5 kg should take 750-1000 mls in 24 hours (150/200 mls multiplied by 5). It is normal for some babies to take slightly more than this, some a little less.

Commonly, babies have 6-7 feeds every 24 hours - researchers/pediatrician recommend you feed your baby whenever she/he is hungry.

About 20 minutes is the right length of time for a feed but some babies are slow feeders and others fast. A slow feed could last up to one hour and a fast feed may be finished in 10 minutes. The flow of milk from the teat and wind are two factors that may affect your baby's feeding.

Formula will provide a healthy baby with all the fluid needed in the first 6 months of life. It's only when your baby is unwell or very thirsty e.g. during hot weather, that additional drinks are needed. For a thirsty baby, cooled, boiled tap water is the best drink to offer. An unwell baby with diarrhoea needs to be given an oral reyhdration solution.

What nutrients are in infant formulas?

Baby formulas contain energy-providing nutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) as well as water (an essential nutrient) and appropriate vitamins and minerals. The energy nutrients provide the calories necessary to maintain bodily functions, support activity, and promote growth. They also support desirable immune functions as an outcome of overall nutrition. Protein provides the building blocks necessary to form and repair tissue. Vitamins and minerals are essential in the metabolism of energy nutrients. Minerals play an important part in bone structure, regulate certain body functions and, together with water, help maintain the body's water balance.

Standard iron-fortified baby formulas are nutritionally complete foods for normal infants. When a physician recommends a formula not fortified with iron, another source of iron should also be recommended. A physician may recommend fluoride supplementation to infants at least 6 months of age only if the water supply is severely depleted of fluoride.
Here are further guidelines.

How can you tell if children are dehydrated?

If your child has fever, diarrhea, or vomiting, or is sweating a lot on a hot day or during intense physical activity, watch for signs of dehydration, which can include:

* Irritability (more crying, fussiness with inconsolability)

* No tears when the child cries

* Dry or sticky mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth or tongue)

* Lethargy (less than normal activity)

* Lack of urine or wet diapers for 6 to 8 hours in an infant (or only a very small amount of dark yellow urine)

* Lack of urine for 12 hours in an older child (or only a very small amount of dark yellow urine)

* Fatigue or dizziness in an older child

* Sunken eyes

* Sunken soft spot on the front of the head in babies (called the fontanel)

Here are further guidelines.