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What is measurement? What can be measured? What is Metrology?  
What is measurement? Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. What can be measured?

Aircraft into six weight classes Weight Class Weight class is based are assigned by APO130 based on the TFMS observed aircraft codes. There are 6 categories  (A) Heavy, (B) B757, (C) Large Jet, (D) Large Commuter, (E) Medium, (F) Small. (A) Heavy: Any aircraft weighing more than 255,000 lb such as the B 747 or the Airbus A340; (B) B757: B 757 all series; (C) Large Jet: Large jet aircraft weighing more than 41,000 and up to 255,000 lbs such as the B 737 or the Airbus A320; (D) Large Commuter: Large nonjet aircraft (such as the Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR42 and the Saab SF 340), and small regional jets (such as the Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet), weighing more than 41,000 and up to 255,000 lbs; (E) Medium: Small commuter aircraft including business jets weighing more than 12,500 up to 41,000 lbs such as the Embraer 120 or the Learjet 35; and (F) Small: Small, single, or twin engine aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs or less such as the Beech 90 or the Cessna Caravan. Unknown; refers to unspecified equipment. 
Aircraft gross weight  It is the total aircraft weight at any moment during the flight or ground operation. This decreases during flight due to fuel and oil consumption. 
Maximum Taxi Weight  The certified maximum allowable weight of the airplane when it is on the ground. This limit is determined by the structural loading on the landing gear under a specified set of conditions and/or wing bending loads. 
Maximum Brake Release Weight  The certified maximum weight of the airplane at the start of takeoff roll. Maximum Brake Release Weight will always be less than Maximum Taxi Weight to allow for fuel burned during taxi. Brake release weight, in operation, may be limited to values less than Maximum Brake Release Weight by airplane performance, and/or airfield characteristics. 
Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW)  The maximum weight of the airplane without usable fuel. 
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) 
This is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off. What is maximum take off weight? The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) or maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits. Maximum Takeoff Weight: The aircraft with the highest standard maximum takeoff weight is the Antonov An225 "Mriya" originally built at 600 tonnes (1.32 million lb). In 20002001 its floor was strengthened resulting in an increased maximum takeoff weight of 640 tonnes (1.41 million lb). A380: 575 tonnes C130E/H/J: 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms) C130J30: 164,000 pounds (74,393 kilograms) How is Maximum Take Off Weight determined? 
Maximum permissible takeoff weight or maximum allowed takeoff weight 
In many circumstances an aircraft may not be permitted to take off at its MTOW. In these circumstances the maximum weight permitted for takeoff will be determined taking account of the following: Wing flap setting. See the Spanair Flight 5022 crash Airfield altitude (height above sealevel) – This affects air pressure which affects maximum engine power or thrust. Air temperature – This affects air density which affects maximum engine power or thrust. Length of runway – A short runway means the aircraft has less distance to accelerate to takeoff speed. The length for computation of maximum permitted takeoff weight may be adjusted if the runway has clearways and/or stopways. Runway wind component – The best condition is a strong headwind straight along the runway. The worst condition is a tailwind. If there is a crosswind it is the wind component along the runway which must be taken into account. Condition of runway – The best runway for taking off is a dry, paved runway. An unpaved runway or one with traces of snow will provide more rolling friction which will cause the airplane to accelerate more slowly. See the Munich air disaster Obstacles – An airplane must be able to take off and gain enough height to clear all obstacles and terrain beyond the end of the runway. The maximum weight at which a takeoff may be attempted, taking into account the above factors, is called the maximum permissible takeoff weight, maximum allowed takeoff weight or regulated takeoff weight. 
Maximum landing weight (MLW)  This maximum weight at which an aircraft is permitted to land. 
Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW)  Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW) is the maximum weight allowed before usable fuel and other specified usable agents (engine injection fluid, and other consumable propulsion agents) are loaded. 
Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW) 
Weight of the structure, powerplant, furnishings, systems, and other items of equipment that are considered an integral part of a particular airplane configuration. It is essentially a "dry" weight, including only those fluids contained in a closed system (such as hydraulic fluid). What is the different between usable fuel and unusable fuel? Usable fuel is the fuel on board an aircraft that can actually be used by its engines. The small amount of fuel that cannot be drained from the tanks is the unusable fuel. For calculation of range, usable fuel is used. For weight and balance total fuel (usable + unusable) is used. 
Maximum ramp weight (MRW) also called maximum taxi weight (MTW)  It is the maximum weight authorized for maneuvering (taxiing or towing) an aircraft on the ground. 
Payload 
It is the carrying capacity of an aircraft. It includes cargo, people, extra fuel. What is the payload of an aircraft? Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight. Depending on the nature of the flight or mission, the payload of a vehicle may include cargo, passengers, flight crew, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or other equipment. C17 Globemaster III with tanks Weights non ERFCS Empty 125645 kg 277000 lb Payload 76655 kg 169000 lb Maximum takeoff weight 265306 kg 585000 lb ERFCS Empty 127685 kg 281500 lb Payload 75250 kg 165900 lb Maximum takeoff weight 278959 kg 615000 lb Load: 102 troops/paratroops; 36 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants; 170,900 pounds (77,519 kilograms) of cargo (18 pallet positions) What can fit inside a C5 Galaxy? Max Payload Standard: 240,000 pounds (108,862kg); Wartime: 291,000 pounds (131,995kg) 
Operating empty weight (OEW) (Roughly equivalent to basic empty weight on light aircraft)  It is the basic weight of an aircraft including the crew, all fluids necessary for operation such as engine oil, engine coolant, water, unusable fuel and all operator items and equipment required for flight but excluding usable fuel and the payload. 
Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW) Also called Manufacturer's Weight Empty (MWE) or Licensed Empty Weight 
It is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the structure, power plant, furnishings, installations, systems and other equipment that are considered an integral part of an aircraft. This excludes any baggage, passengers, or usable fuel. 
Zerofuel weight (ZFW) 
This is the total weight of the airplane and all its contents (including unusable fuel ), but excluding the total weight of the usable fuel on board. As a flight progresses and fuel is consumed, the total weight of the airplane reduces, but the ZFW remains constant. 
What does 9.8 N kg mean? At Earth's surface, gravity attracts all masses downward with a force of 9.8 newtons per kilogram. This gravitational force is called weight. To calculate an object's weight, multiply its mass by the strength of gravity in N/kg. If a woman has a mass of 50 kg, calculate her weight in Newtons. W = mg = 50 kg x 9.8 N / kg = 490 N Calculate in Newtons the weight of a 2000kg elephant W = mg  2000 kg x 9.8 N / kg = 19,600 N Calculate in Newtons the weight of a 2.5kg melon. What is its weight in pounds? W = mg = 2. Kg x 9.8 N/kg = 24.5 N; 2.5 kg x 2.2 lb = 5.5 lb An apple weighs about 1 N. What is its mass in kilograms? What is its weight in pounds? W = mg, so m = W/g = 1 N / (9/8 N/kg) = 0.1 kg; 0.22 lb Susie Small finds she weights 300 N. Calculate her mass. m = W/g = 300N / 9.8 N/kg = 30.6 kg Calculate the acceleration of a 2000kg, singleengine airplane just before takeoff when the thrust of its engine is 500 N. a = F / m = (500 N) / (2000 kg) = 0.25 m/s^2 Calculate the acceleration of a 300,000kg jumbo jet just before takeoff when the thrust for each of its four engines is 30,000N. a = F / m = 4 (30,000 N) / (300,000 kg) = 0.4 m/s^2 a. Calculate the acceleration if you push with a 20N horizontal force on a 2kg block on a horizontal frictionfree air table. b. What acceleration occurs if the friction force is 4 N? a. a = F / m = (20 N) / (2 kg) = 10 m/s^2 ; b. a = (20 n  4 N) / (2 kg) = 8 m/s^2 Calculate the horizontal force that must be applied to a 1kg puck to make it accelerate on a horizontal frictionfree air table with the same acceleration it would have if it were dropped and fell freely. F = ma = (1 kg) (9.8 m/s^2 ) = 9.8 N Calculate the horizontal force that must be applied to produce an acceleration of 1.8 g for a 1.2kg puck on a horizontal frictionfree air table. F = ma = (1.2 kg)(1.8)(9.8 m/s^2 ) = 21.2 N 1) A 500kilogram rocket is fired straight up from the earth, the engines providing 7 500 newtons of thrust. Its acceleration is 1) 5.2 meters per second squared. 2) The gravitational force on an object in motion is centripetal and constant in magnitude whenever the object is 2) In circular orbit only. 3) The gravitational field at the surface of Mars is 3.3 meters per second squared and its radius is 3 400 kilometers. When the Viking spacecraft was 3 400 kilometers above the surface of Mars, its acceleration was 3) 0.83 meters per second squared. 4) In outer space, a 250kilogram rocket is to be speed ed up from 60 meters per second to 75 meters per second in 5 seconds. The trust needed is 4) 750 newtons 5) A force of 40 newtons keeps a rock going in a horizontal circle by means of a string 2 meters long. If the rock is moving at 10 meters per second, its mass is 5) 0.8 kilogram 
List of large aircraft Antonov An225 Mriya A380800 A340600 Antonov An124 Antonov An22 B 747 B 7478 B 747 "Dreamlifter" Tupolev Maxsim Gorki Military Antonov An225 Mriya Tupolev Tu160 C5 Galaxy B52 Stratofortress What is the largest cargo aircraft in the world? The Antonov An225 Mriya is, quite simply, the largest airplane in the world. At 275 feet in length with a 290 foot wingspan and a maximum takeoff weight of 640 tons, it dwarfs 787's. When it debuted in 1988, the An225 was 50 percent bigger than any airliner ever built before it. What is the largest passenger plane? The A380 is a doubledeck, widebody, fourengine jet airplane manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airplane, and the airports at which it operates have upgraded facilities to accommodate it. A380800 Seating capacity, typical: 544 (4class)/644 (2class)/868 (EASA Certification) Maximum takeoff weight: 575,000 kg (1,268,000 lb) C5 Primary Function: Outsize cargo transport Thrust: 43,000 pounds, each engine (C5A,B,C)/ 51,250 pounds, each engine (C5M) Maximum Cargo: 270,000 pounds (122,472 kilograms) Cargo Compartment:  Height, 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters)  Width, 19 feet (5.79 meters)  Length, 143 feet, 9 inches (43.8 meters) 
Official Name:  An225, Mriya 
Wingspan:  290 ft. 
Length:  275 ft. 7 in. 
Height:  59 ft. 81/2 in. 
Cargo Hold: 
Length: 141 ft.; Width: 21 ft.; Height: 14 ft. 51/4 in. 
Engines:  Six ZMKB Progress Lotarev D18T turbofans each producing 51,590 lb. of thrust 
Crew:  7 
Max Takeoff Weight:  1,322,750 lb. Max. take off weight  600000kg 661.386786552 tons 
Max Payload:  551,150 lb. Capacity/Maximum load: 551150lbs (250000kg) 275.577828 tons 
Cruising Speed:  497 mph 
Max Speed:  528 mph 
Range With Max Payload:  2813 miles 
Range With Max Fuel:  9625 miles 
Variants  The An225 Mriya has three variants: An224, An225100 and An325. 
Manufacturer's empty weight Aircraft gross weight Maximum landing weight Maximum takeoff weight Antonov An225 Mriya Max takeoff weight: 640,000 kg (1,410,958 lb) 640 tonnes (710 short tons). Manufacturer's empty weight In aviation, Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW) (also known as Manufacturer's weight empty (MWE)) is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the structure, power plant, furnishings, installations, systems and other equipment that are considered an integral part of an aircraft before additional operator items are added for operation. Basic aircraft empty weight is essentially the same and excludes any baggage, passengers, or usable fuel. Some manufacturers define this empty weight as including optional equipment, i.e. GPS units, cargo baskets, or spotlights. Specification MEW This is the MEW quoted in the manufacturer's standard specification documents and is the aircraft standard basic dry weight upon which all other standard specifications and aircraft performance are based by the manufacturer. The Specification MEW includes the weight of: Airframe structure – primary and secondary structures (fuselage, wing, tail, control surfaces, nacelles, landing gear). Powerplant. Auxiliary power unit (APU). Systems (instruments, navigation, hydraulics, pneumatics, fuel systems (but not fuel itself), electrical system, electronics, fixed furnishings (but not operator specific), air conditioning, antiice system, etc.). Fixed equipment and services considered an integral part of the aircraft. Fixed ballast (if present). Closed system fluids (such as hydraulic fluids). For small aircraft, the MEW may include unusable fuel and oil. The Specification MEW excludes the weight of: All fuel (both usable and unusable). Potable water, antiice, and chemicals in toilets. Engine oil and APU oil. All specification items, selections, and installations which are nonbasic (i.e. optional selections). Customer specific selections, installations, and options. Operator/operating items. Removable equipment and services. Payload. For small aircraft, the specification MEW is known as the standard empty weight (or standard weight empty). 
Chart of Average Vehicle Curb Weight by Class
How many tons does a car weigh? Two tons How many pounds are equal to 2 tons? 4,000 pounds In 2010, the weight of an average new car was 4,009 pounds. That is significantly heavier than the "modern" cars two decades earlier, which weighed an average of 3,221 pounds. 
What is meant by the datum that is used for weight and balance computations?  A readily identified reference chosen by the aircraft manufacturer from which all longitudinal locations on the aircraft are referenced 
Why are the distances of all of the items installed in an aircraft measured from the datum when computing weight and balance?  This makes it possible to find the point about which the aircraft would balance (the center of gravity) 
What are two reasons weight and balance control are important in an aircraft?  For safety of flight and for most efficient performance of the aircraft 
What is meant by moment in the computation of weight and balance?  A force that tends to cause rotation. It is the product of the weight of an object in pounds and the distance of the object from the datum in inches 
How do you find the moment of an item that is installed in an aircraft?  Multiply the weight of the item in pounds by its distance from the datum 
What is meant by the arm of an item that is installed in an aircraft?  The distance, in inches, between the center of gravity of the item and the datum 
Why must we consider the category under which an aircraft is licensed when we compute its weight and balance?  The different categories under which an aircraft can be licensed have different maximum gross weights and different center of gravity ranges 
Where can you find the leveling means that are specified for a particular aircraft?  In the TCDS for that aircraft 
Where is the arm of an item installed in an aircraft recorded?  In the TCDS for that aircraft 
What must be done to find the empty weight of an aircraft if it has been weighed with fuel in its tanks?  The eight of the fuel and its moment must be subtracted from the weight and moment of the aircraft as it was weighed 
What is meant by the tare weight that is used in a weight and balance computation?  The weight of the chocks and other items that are used to hold the aircraft on the scales 
What must be done to the tare weight when an aircraft is weighed?  It must be subtracted from the scale reading to find the weight of the aircraft 
What is meant by minimum fuel as is used in the computation of aircraft weight and balance?  No more fuel than the quantity necessary for onehalf hour of operation at rated maximum continuous power. It is the maximum amount of fuel used in weight and balance computations when low fuel may adversely affect the most critical balance conditions 
What is meant by the maximum zero fuel weight of an aircraft?  The maximum permissible weight of a loaded aircraft (passengers, crew, cargo, etc.), less its fuel 
What is meant by undrainable fuel?  The fuel that is left in the tank, lines and components when the aircraft is placed in level flight position and he fuel at the main fuel strainer. This is also called residual fuel. 
Describe the way you would find the empty weight and empty weight center of gravity of an airplane if there are no weight and balance records available.  The aircraft is weighed, and the empty weight center of gravity is computed. These values are recorded in new weight and balance records that are started for the aircraft 
What is meant by permanent ballast for an aircraft?  Weight that is permanently installed in an aircraft to bring the empty weight center of gravity into allowable limits 
Which has the more critical center of gravity range, an airplane or helicopter?  A helicopter 
What equipment must be installed in an aircraft when it is weighed to find its empty weight center of gravity?  All of the equipment that is listed in the Aircraft Equipment List as "required equipment" or as equipment that is permanently installed 
What is the significance of the empty weight center of gravity range of an aircraft?  If the empty weight center of gravity falls within the EWCG range, the aircraft cannot be legally loaded in such a way that its loaded center of gravity will fall outside of the allowable loaded CG range. Not all aircraft have an EWCG range. 
Why is empty weight center of gravity range not given in the TCDS for some aircraft?  The empty weight center of gravity range is given only for aircraft that cannot be legally loaded in such a way that their loaded center of gravity will fall outside of the allowable limits 
What is a unit of measurement? What are the seven fundamental units? What are some problem areas with these definitions? 
Measure  Unit  Symbol  Area of Science 
Time  Second  s  All 
Length or distance  Meter or Metre  m  All 
Mass  Kilogram  kg  Physics 
Electric Current  Ampere  A  Physics 
Temperature  Celsius/Fahrenheit/Kelvin  K  Physics 
Luminous Intensity  Candela  cd  Optics 
Amount of Substance  Mole  mol  Chemistry 
Derived quantity 
What is another word for scale? Balance Gauge Ruler Weighbridge Weighing machine What is a Map Scale? There are two main types of map scales: bar and lexical. In a bar scale, which tends to be the most common, the mapmaker has given you a visual guide to use to make distance calculations. You can use any measuring tool or a piece of string to figure out actual distances on a map by directly measuring the map distance and translating it to the bar scale. A lexical scale is not visual like a bar scale. Instead, the mapmaker gives the distance conversion in words. For example, the map may include the scale written as '1 inch equals 10 miles'. This is generally viewed as less practical and is, therefore, much less common. With this scale, it is also much more common to run into language barriers for speakers of languages other than what the map is written in. This scale works in the same way as the bar scale, but it is just represented differently. 
Device  Quantity measured 
accelerometer  physical, accelerations 
actinometer  heating power of sunlight 
alcoholmeter  alcoholic strength of liquids 
altimeter  altitude 
ammeter  electric current 
anemometer  windspeed 
audiometer  hearing 
barkometer  tanning liquors used in tanning leather 
barometer  air pressure 
bettsometer  integrity of fabric coverings on aircraft 
bevameter  mechanical properties of soil 
bolometer  electromagnetic radiation 
breathalyzer  breath alcohol content 
caliper  distance 
calorimeter  heat of chemical reactions 
cathetometer  vertical distances 
ceilometer  height of a cloud base 
chronometer or clock  time 
clapometer  volume of applause 
colorimeter  color 
creepmeter  slow surface displacement of an active geologic fault in the earth 
declinometer  magnetic declination 
densimeter  specific gravity of liquids 
densitometer  degree of darkness in photographic or semitransparent material 
diffractometer  structure of crystals 
dilatometer  volume changes caused by a physical or chemical process 
disdrometer  size, speed, and velocity of raindrops 
dosimeter  exposure to hazards, especially radiation 
dumpy level  horizontal levels 
dynamometer  force,torque or power 
elaeometer  specific gravity of oils 
electricity meter  electrical energy used 
electrometer  electric charge 
electronic tuner  pitch of musical notes 
ellipsometer  refractive index, dielectric function, thickness of thin films 
eudiometer  change in volume of a gas mixture following combustion 
evaporimeter  rate of evaporation 
fathometer  ocean depth 
framing square  right angles in construction 
frequency counter  frequency of alternating current 
fuel gauge  fuel level 
galvanometer  electricity 
gas pycnometer  volume and density of solids 
glucometer  blood glucose (diabetes) 
graphometer  angles 
heliometer  variation of the sun's diameter 
hydrometer  specific gravity of liquids (density of liquids) 
hygrometer  humidity 
inclinometer  angle of a slope 
inkometer  ink 
interferometer  wave interference 
katharometer  composition of gases 
lactometer  specific gravity of milk 
light meter  light (in photography) 
load cell  measurement of force 
lux meter  intensity of light 
magnetometer  strength of magnetic fields 
manometer  pressure of gas 
mass flow meter  mass flow rate of a fluid travelling through a tube 
mass spectrometer  masses of ions, used to identify chemical substances through their mass spectra 
measuring cup  liquid and dry goods 
mercury barometer  Atmospheric pressure 
micrometer  small distances 
multimeter  electrical potential, resistance, and current 
Nephoscope  to measure the speed and direction of clouds 
nephelometer  particle in a liquid 
odometer  distance travelled 
ohmmeter  electrical resistance 
orchidometer  testicle size in male humans 
oscilloscope  oscillations 
osmometer  osmotic strength of a solution, colloid, or compound matter of an object 
pedometer  steps 
pH meter  pH (chemical acidity/basicity of a solution) 
photometer  illuminance or irradiance 
polarimeter  rotation of polarized light 
potentiometer  voltage (term is also used to refer to a variable resistor) 
profilometer  surface roughness 
protractor  angles 
psychrometer  humidity 
pycnometer  fluid density 
pyranometer  solar radiation 
pyrheliometer  direct solar insolation 
pyrometer  high temperatures 
quadrat  percentage cover of a certain species 
quartz crystal microbalance  thickness of deposited thin films 
radiometer  radiant flux of electromagnetic radiation 
refractometer  sugar concentration of sap and syrup 
rheometer  response to applied forces 
rotameter  pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed tube 
ruler  for measuring length 
saccharometer  amount of sugar in a solution 
seismometer  seismic waves (for example, earthquakes) 
sextant  location on earth's surface (used in naval navigation) 
spectrometer  properties of light 
spectrophotometer  intensity of light as a function of wavelength 
speedometer  speed, velocity of a vehicle 
spherometer  radius of a sphere 
sphygmomanometer  blood pressure 
stadimeter  object range 
strainmeter  seismic strain 
SWR meter  standing wave ratio 
tacheometer  distance 
tachometer  revolutions per minute, rate of blood flow, speed of aeroplanes 
taximeter  distance travelled, displacement 
tensiometer  surface tension of a liquid 
theodolite  measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes 
thermometer  temperature 
tintometer  color 
universal measuring machine  geometric locations 
UV meter  ultraviolet light 
vacuum gauge  very low pressure 
viscometer  viscosity of a fluid 
voltmeter  electric potential, voltage 
VU meter  volume unit 
wattmeter  electrical power 
weighing scale  weight 
wind vane  wind direction 
zymometer  fermentation 
What is a derived unit? (Units) a unit of measurement obtained by multiplication or division of the base units of a system without the introduction of numerical factors. A derived unit is a SI unit of measurement comprised of a combination of the seven base units.

Name  Symbol  Quantity  Equivalents  SI base unit Equivalents 
newton  N  force, weight  kg·m/s2  kg·m·s2 
Name  Symbol  Quantity  Equivalents  SI base unit Equivalents 

hertz  Hz  frequency  1/s  s^{1} 
radian  rad  angle  m/m  dimensionless 
steradian  sr  solid angle  m^{2}/m^{2}  dimensionless 
newton  N  force, weight  kg·m/s^{2}  kg·m·s^{2} 
pascal  Pa  pressure, stress  N/m^{2}  kg·m^{1}·s^{2} 
joule  J  energy, work, heat  N·m C·V W·s 
kg·m^{2}·s^{2} 
watt  W  power, radiant flux  J/s V·A 
kg·m^{2}·s^{3} 
coulomb  C  electric charge or quantity of electricity  s·A F·V 
s·A 
volt  V  voltage, electrical potential difference, electromotive force  W/A J/C 
kg·m^{2}·s^{3}·A^{1} 
farad  F  electrical capacitance  C/V s/O 
kg^{1}·m^{2}·s^{4}·A^{2} 
ohm  O  electrical resistance, impedance, reactance  1/S V/A 
kg·m^{2}·s^{3}·A^{2} 
siemens  S  electrical conductance  1/O A/V 
kg^{1}·m^{2}·s^{3}·A^{2} 
weber  Wb  magnetic flux  J/A T·m^{2} 
kg·m^{2}·s^{2}·A^{1} 
tesla  T  magnetic field strength, magnetic flux density  V·s/m^{2} Wb/m^{2} N/(A·m) 
kg·s^{2}·A^{1} 
henry  H  electrical inductance  V·s/A O·s Wb/A 
kg·m^{2}·s^{2}·A^{2} 
degree Celsius  °C  temperature relative to 273.15 K  K  K 
lumen  lm  luminous flux  cd·sr  cd 
lux  lx  illuminance  lm/m^{2}  m^{2}·cd 
becquerel  Bq  radioactivity (decays per unit time)  1/s  s^{1} 
gray  Gy  absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation)  J/kg  m^{2}·s^{2} 
sievert  Sv  equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation)  J/kg  m^{2}·s^{2} 
katal  kat  catalytic activity  mol/s  s^{1}·mol 
Name  Symbol  Quantity  Expression in terms of SI base units 

square metre  m^{2}  area  m^{2} 
cubic metre  m^{3}  volume  m^{3} 
metre per second  m/s  speed, velocity  m·s^{1} 
cubic metre per second  m^{3}/s  volumetric flow  m^{3}·s^{1} 
metre per second squared  m/s^{2}  acceleration  m·s^{2} 
metre per second cubed  m/s^{3}  jerk, jolt  m·s^{3} 
metre per quartic second  m/s^{4}  snap, jounce  m·s^{4} 
radian per second  rad/s  angular velocity  s^{1} 
radian per second squared  rad/s^{2}  angular acceleration  s^{2} 
newton second  N·s  momentum, impulse  m·kg·s^{1} 
newton metre second  N·m·s  angular momentum  m^{2}·kg·s^{1} 
newton metre  N·m = J/rad  torque, moment of force  m^{2}·kg·s^{2} 
newton per second  N/s  yank  m·kg·s^{3} 
reciprocal metre  m^{1}  wavenumber, optical power, curvature, spatial frequency  m^{1} 
kilogram per square metre  kg/m^{2}  area density  m^{2}·kg 
kilogram per cubic metre  kg/m^{3}  density, mass density  m^{3}·kg 
cubic metre per kilogram  m^{3}/kg  specific volume  m^{3}·kg^{1} 
mole per cubic metre  mol/m^{3}  molarity, amount of substance concentration  m^{3}·mol 
cubic metre per mole  m^{3}/mol  molar volume  m^{3}·mol^{1} 
joule second  J·s  action  m^{2}·kg·s^{1} 
joule per kelvin  J/K  heat capacity, entropy  m^{2}·kg·s^{2}·K^{1} 
joule per kelvin mole  J/(K·mol)  molar heat capacity, molar entropy  m^{2}·kg·s^{2}·K^{1}·mol^{1} 
joule per kilogram kelvin  J/(K·kg)  specific heat capacity, specific entropy  m^{2}·s^{2}·K^{1} 
joule per mole  J/mol  molar energy  m^{2}·kg·s^{2}·mol^{1} 
joule per kilogram  J/kg  specific energy  m^{2}·s^{2} 
joule per cubic metre  J/m^{3}  energy density  m^{1}·kg·s^{2} 
newton per metre  N/m = J/m^{2}  surface tension, stiffness  kg·s^{2} 
watt per square metre  W/m^{2}  heat flux density, irradiance  kg·s^{3} 
watt per metre kelvin  W/(m·K)  thermal conductivity  m·kg·s^{3}·K^{1} 
square metre per second  m^{2}/s  kinematic viscosity, thermal diffusivity, diffusion coefficient  m^{2}·s^{1} 
pascal second  Pa·s = N·s/m^{2}  dynamic viscosity  m^{1}·kg·s^{1} 
coulomb per square metre  C/m^{2}  electric displacement field, polarization density  m^{2}·s·A 
coulomb per cubic metre  C/m^{3}  electric charge density  m^{3}·s·A 
ampere per square metre  A/m^{2}  electric current density  A·m^{2} 
siemens per metre  S/m  electrical conductivity  m^{3}·kg^{1}·s^{3}·A^{2} 
siemens square metre per mole  S·m^{2}/mol  molar conductivity  kg^{1}·s^{3}·mol^{1}·A^{2} 
farad per metre  F/m  permittivity  m^{3}·kg^{1}·s^{4}·A^{2} 
henry per metre  H/m  magnetic permeability  m·kg·s^{2}·A^{2} 
volt per metre  V/m  electric field strength  m·kg·s^{3}·A^{1} 
ampere per metre  A/m  magnetization, magnetic field strength  A·m^{1} 
candela per square metre  cd/m^{2}  luminance  cd·m^{2} 
lumen second  lm·s  luminous energy  cd·sr·s 
lux second  lx·s  luminous exposure  cd·sr·s·m^{2} 
coulomb per kilogram  C/kg  exposure (X and gamma rays)  kg^{1}·s·A 
gray per second  Gy/s  absorbed dose rate  m^{2}·s^{3} 
ohm metre  O·m  resistivity  m^{3}·kg·s^{3}·A^{2} 
kilogram per metre  kg/m  linear mass density  m^{1}·kg 
coulomb per metre  C/m  linear charge density  m^{1}·s·A 
mole per kilogram  mol/kg  molality  kg^{1}·mol 
kilogram per mole  kg/mol  molar mass  kg·mol^{1} 
metre per cubic metre  m/m^{3}  fuel efficiency  m^{2} 
kilogram per second  kg/s  mass flow rate  kg·s^{1} 
joule per tesla  J/T  magnetic dipole moment  m^{2}·A 
watt per cubic metre  W/m^{3}  spectral irradiance, power density  m^{1}·kg·s^{3} 
kelvin per watt  K/W  thermal resistance  m^{2}·kg^{1}·s^{3}·K 
reciprocal kelvin  K^{1}  thermal expansion coefficient  K^{1} 
kelvin per metre  K/m  temperature gradient  m^{1}·K 
square metre per volt second  m^{2}/(V·s)  electron mobility  kg^{1}·s^{2}·A 
joule per square metre second  J/(m^{2}·s)  energy flux density  kg·s^{3} 
reciprocal pascal  Pa^{1}  compressibility  m·kg^{1}·s^{2} 
reciprocal henry  H^{1}  magnetic reluctance  m^{2}·kg^{1}s^{2}·A^{2} 
weber per metre  Wb/m  magnetic vector potential  m·kg·s^{2}·A^{1} 
weber metre  Wb·m  magnetic moment  m^{3}·kg·s^{2}·A^{1} 
tesla metre  T·m  magnetic rigidity  m·kg·s^{2}·A^{1} 
joule per square metre  J/m^{2}  radiant exposure  kg·s^{2} 
cubic metre per mole second  m^{3}/(mol·s)  catalytic efficiency  m^{3}·s^{1}·mol^{1} 
kilogram square metre  kg·m^{2}  moment of inertia  m^{2}·kg 
newton metre second per kilogram  N·m·s/kg  specific angular momentum  m^{2}·s^{1} 
hertz per second  Hz/s  frequency drift  s^{2} 
lumen per watt  lm/W  luminous efficacy  m^{2}·kg^{1}·s^{3}·lm 
ampere radian  A·rad  magnetomotive force  A 
metre per henry  m/H  magnetic susceptibility  m^{1}·kg^{1}·s^{2}·A^{2} 
watt per steradian  W/sr  radiant intensity  m^{2}·kg·s^{3} 
watt per steradian metre  W/(sr·m)  spectral intensity  m·kg·s^{3} 
watt per steradian square metre  W/(sr·m^{2})  radiance  kg·s^{3} 
watt per steradian cubic metre  W/(sr·m^{3})  spectral radiance  m^{1}·kg·s^{3} 
watt per metre  W/m  spectral power  m·kg·s^{3} 
What is length?
Length answers the question, "How tall, wide, or far is it?" A length is a measurement of how long something is in size. How far is Los Angeles from Istanbul? Distance from Los Angeles to Istanbul is: 6836.6 Miles (11002.4 Kilometers / 5936.9 Nautical Miles) Approximate travel time from Los Angeles, California to Istanbul, Turkey is: 14 hrs, 12 mins Distance from Los Angeles to Algiers is: 6275.3 Miles (10099.1 Kilometers / 5449.5 Nautical Miles) Approximate travel time from Los Angeles, California to Algiers, Algeria is: 13 hrs, 2 mins Los Angeles coordinates: latitude: 34° 05' North longitude: 118° 22' West Algiers coordinates: latitude: 36° 42' North longitude: 3° 13' East How tall are you without shoes? I'm 5'11 without shoes How wide is the Amazon River? The width of the Amazon River varies from only 1 mile in some places during the dry season to as much as 30 miles in the wet season. The mouth of the Amazon where it meets the Atlantic Ocean is more than 250 miles wide. What are the units of length measurement? Units of length measurement are different in the customary system and metric system. Can units of length measurement in the customary system be converted to units of length measurement in the metric system? Yes. What are units of length in the customary system? Point, pica, inch, foot, yard, mile are the units of length measurement in the customary system. What are the tools used to measure length? We know some metric units for measuring length are millimeters, centimeters, meters and kilometers. Millimeters and centimeters are found on a ruler. There is a meter stick that measures 1 meter. A metric tape measure can be used to measure multiple meters. What can be used to measure length? An English metric length scale, with the main scale marked in 1/16 inch intervals, may use a Vernier scale with 8 divisions, capable of measuring to (1/8)(1/16) = 1/128 inch. In the instrument called the Vernier caliper a movable jaw slides linearly along the main scale. What is measurement of distance? To measure distances in the universe, we will need to construct what is commonly referred to as a "cosmic distance ladder". In other words, astronomers use different methods to determine the distances to objects; the specific method which is used depends on how far away the object is. What is a laser distance meter? The Laser Distance Meter is much faster – point, click, and you have the result in front of you on the display. The job is done in just a fraction of the time it would take to use a tape. You don’t need to walk to and fro, or have a helper at the other end. What is more, you can use it with one hand, leaving the other free to hold your notebook. The laser distance meter is the ideal device for a civil engineer, and any other large scale operations in which distance measurement accuracy is paramount. Laser Distance Meter (LDM) Do you measure outside? Are you using design software? Are you replacing another measuring tool? How much time do you spend measuring every week? Did you have a bad experience with sonic “laser tape” or other cheap product? What accuracy do you need? What range do you need? Laser versus Ultrasonic What is the metric unit for length? The metric unit for length is the meter. Measure of Lengths
How many meters in a mile? 1 Mile = 1609.344 Meters 1 Meter = 0.000621371192 Mile How many feet in a mile? 1 Mile = 5280 Feet 1 Mile [Nautical] = 6076.12 Feet How many kilometers in a mile? 1 Mile = 1.609344 Kilometers Kilometer is a metric length unit and equals to 1000 meters. The abbreviation is "km". How many inches in a foot? 12 inches How many feet are there in a yard? 3 feet What are units of length in the metric system? Micrometer, millimeter, centimeter, meter, decimeter, and kilometer are the units of length measurement in the metric system. Length Equipment What are various length (distance) measuring devices? There are more than 24 length (distance) measuring devices. List of length, distance, or range measuring devices

Weighing Electronics 
Load Cells 
Belt Weighing 
Weighfeeders 
Solids Flowmeters 
Process Protection 
Communication and Software 
Supplementary Components 
Autopilot How To Use an Autopilot Function Altimeter Airspeed Indicator Vertical Speed (Climb/Descent Rate) Static Port An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of a vehicle without constant 'handson' control by a human operator being required. Autopilots do not replace a human operator, but assist them in controlling the vehicle, allowing them to focus on broader aspects of operation, such as monitoring the trajectory, weather and systems. Autopilots are used in aircraft, boats (known as selfsteering gear), spacecraft, missiles, and others. Autopilots have evolved significantly over time, from early autopilots that merely held an attitude to modern autopilots capable of performing automated landings under the supervision of a pilot. Here are further guidelines. 
What is Metrology? Metrology is the science of measurement. It includes units of measurement and their standards, measuring instruments and their field of application, and all theoretical and practical aspects relating to measurement. 
Base units 
Derived units and dimensions 
Digital Metrology 
General Analytical Metrology 
Conversion Factors 
Methods of Measurements 
Mechatronics 
Measurement Systems 
Measuring instruments 
Metric System 
Data Measurement Chart 
Systems of Measurement 
How big is a hectare? A hectare is a unit of measurement for an area, specifically representing 10,000 square metres. A hectare is… •…equal in area to a square which measures 100m on each side •…That’s an area of 10,000 square metres •…or 2.47 acres •…It could also be represented as 0.01 square km •…And there are 259 ha in a square mile How many hectares in a square mile? 1 Square Mile = 258.998811 Hectares How big is an acre? An acre equates to the following: •4046.86 square meters •4840 square yards •43,560 square feet •0.404686 hectares Here are further guidelines. 
A weigh station located near a state border is called a port of entry. States may also locate weigh stations in the interior of the state. Interior weigh stations are often located at choke points or areas where freight originates or is delivered. Most states collect taxes based on the weight of transported goods. Truck weigh stations are used for these tax purposes as well as to monitor the weight of a truck to ensure that it falls within the safety guidelines that each state has in place for its road system. While the maximum allowed weight varies, a common standard is 34,000 pounds (15,400 kilograms). Weight is usually calculated in two measurements: •Axle weight  the amount of weight carried by each axle •Gross weight  the combined weight of all the axles Truck scales are built to handle an enormous amount of abuse. For example, WeighTronix provides a truck scale that they warranty to weigh trucks with a gross weight of 80,000 lbs (36,000 kg) each at a rate of 200 per day, 365 days a year for 25 years! Truck scales are built out of steel, concrete or, in most cases, a combination of both. The technology used in the scales themselves varies. Let's take a look at some of the more common forms. Loadcell systems are the most popular technology used. Each cell is comprised of a durable material such as steel or concrete with one or more strain gauges attached to or embedded in it. A strain gauge consists of a wire (or wires) that transmits a mild electric current. As the cell is subjected to weight, the wire in the strain gauge is altered or compressed slightly. The change in the wire results in a difference in the resistance to the current passing through it. The signal from each cell is sent to a junction box, where sensors measure the variance in the current and calculate the amount of weight the scale is supporting. The strain gauges in load cells can be either compression or tension based. A compression strain gauge is based on how much the cell compresses when pressure is applied, while a tension strain gauge is based on the slight change in shape of the cell caused by the weight. A bendingplate system uses metal plates with strain gauges attached to them. As weight is applied to the scale, the plates are subjected to stress. The strain gauge on each plate measures the amount of stress and calculates the load required to cause it. The amounts from each gauge are added together to get the total for that axle. Piezoelectric systems use a series of piezoelectric sensors. The sensors are embedded in a conducting material. When weight is applied, the pressure changes the voltage of the electrical charge flowing through the conductor. The sensors measure the change in voltage and calculate the load. The amounts from each sensor are added together. In addition to the different scales used, there are at least three methods of getting the weight of a truck: •Oneaxle  The most cumbersome method, a truck gradually drives across a single scale, stopping each time a set of wheels is on the scale. Once all the axles have been weighed, the total is added together. •Onestop  A series of scales are used so that the entire truck can be weighed at once. The scales are typically connected to a single electronic controller that automatically combines the axle weights to get the gross weight. •Weighinmotion (WIM)  A method that is gaining momentum, WIM uses a series of embedded sensors to calculate the weight per axle as a truck drives over the sensor pad. Unlike the other two methods, there is no need for the truck to come to a complete stop while on the scales. In fact, some WIM systems are installed in highways so that all traffic is monitored at speed.  
Truck Regulations  
Truck Routes  
State Traffic Laws 
What is Metrology? 
Metrology 
Measurement
What is measurement? 
What can be measured? 
International System of Units (SI) 
What is a knot? What is a nautical mile? What is a nautical mile, and how does it differ from a normal mile and a kilometer? Knots and Nautical miles are good old navy terms. The nautical mile was based on the circumference of the earth at the equator. Since the earth is 360 degrees of longitude around, and degrees are broken into 60 socalled "minutes", that means there are 360 * 60 = 21,600 "minutes" of longitude around the earth. This was taken as the basis for the nautical mile; thus, by definition, 1 minute of longitude at the equator is equal to 1 nautical mile. So the earth is ideally, by definition, 21,600 nautical miles (and 21,600 "minutes" of longitude) in circumference at the equator. If anyone ever asks you how far is it around the earth, you can quickly do the math in your head (360 degrees * 60 minutes per degree) and answer "about 21,600 nautical miles!" In fact, even modern navigators use the "minute of latitude" on charts to measure distance; this is what you see them doing when they use their compass spreaders while they are hovering over their nautical charts (maps). [For geometrical reasons, we use the minute of latitude on charts to correspond to a nautical mile rather than the minute of longitude. Minutes of longitude shrink as they move away from the equator and towards the poles; minutes of latitude do not shrink. Take a look at a globe with longitude and latitude lines marked on it to understand why.] Using the definition of a nautical mile for distance at sea, the challenge was to measure speed  i.e. what is the ship's speed in nautical miles per hour? (By the way, the nautical mile is about 1.15 larger than the "statute" mile used by land lubbers.) Since [speed] = [distance] divided by [time], if we measure a small distance (or length) in a small time we can do the math and figure our speed. The device that sailors used to make their speed measurement was called the "chip log." Chip as in chip of wood, and log as in to record in a log. What is Density? How is Density Measured? How do they get ships made of iron and steel to float? Density is a property of matter that is unique to each substance. It is a measure of the mass of the substance in a standard unit of volume. Sometimes density is easy to sense. If two objects have exactly the same size and shape, the denser one may feel heavier. But if their densities are very close together, it will be hard to tell a difference. It gets really tough if you are dealing with materials that have very different sizes and/or very different shapes. The only way to decide the density of a substance is to measure its mass and its volume, then divide. Density = Mass ? Volume Units for density g/cm3 Mass vs Volume PreTest Questions Name: ____________________________ Period: ___________ Date: ___________ 1. Mass is measured with which instrument listed below? a. thermometer b. triple beam balance c. ruler d. graduated cylinder 2. What is formula for finding density of an object? a. volume ? mass b. mass ? volume c. volume x mass d. mass x volume 3. What is a correct unit for volume? a. centimeter 3 b. kilogram 2 c. seconds 1 d. pound 4. Which of the following is a formula for finding volume of an object? a. density ? mass b. mass ? density c. density x mass d. mass x density Densities: Balsa: 0.13 g/cm 3 Iron: 7.9 g/cm 3 Gold: 19.3 g/cm 3 Aluminum: 2.7 g/cm 3 Formulas: Sphere: 4/3 x π x radius x radius x radius Cylinder: π x radius x radius x height Cube: length x length x length Cone: 1/3 x π x radius x radius x height 5. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of an aluminum cone with a radius of 2 cm and height of 7 cm. a. 79.1 grams b. 277 grams c. 39.7 grams d. 712.3 grams 6. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of an gold sphere with a radius of 17 cm. a. 397 grams b. 23.2 kilograms c. 397 kilograms d. 1.4 kilograms 7. You have 4 spheres all with an equal radius. One is made of iron, one of gold, one of balsa, and one of aluminum. Which sphere is the least massive? a. iron b. gold c. balsa d. aluminum 8. What is the fewest number of aluminum spheres it would take before their total mass is greater than one gold sphere with the same radius. a. 2 b. 4 c. 8 d. 16 9. Can two objects with the same volume have different masses? a. No, objects with the same volume always have the same masses. b. Yes, objects with the same volume will have different masses if they have different densities. c. Yes, objects with the same volume will have different masses if they are in different locations (like on the moon) . d. Yes, objects with the same volume will only have the same mass if they have the same shape. 10. You have an elementary balance with three iron spheres, each with a radius of 1 cm. on one side. The other side of the balance you have an empty container with a mass of 10 grams. What volume of water will need to be added to the container to make the balance level? a) 99 cm 3 b) 33 cm c) 10 cm 3 d) 89 cm 3 Mass vs Volume PreTest Answers 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. D Mass vs Volume Post Test Questions Name: ____________________________ Period: ___________ Date: ___________ 1. Volume of a box is measured with which instrument listed below? a. thermometer b. triple beam balance c. ruler d. graduated cylinder 2. What is a correct unit for mass? a. centimeter b. kilogram c. milliliter d. pound 3. What is a correct unit for density? a. grams ? cm 3 b. grams x cm 3 c. cm 3 ? grams d. cm 3 x grams 4. Which of the following is a formula for finding the mass of an object? a. density x volume b. volume x density c. density ? volume d. volume ? density Densities: Balsa: 0.13 g/cm 3 Iron: 7.9 g/cm 3 Gold: 19.3 g/cm 3 Aluminum: 2.7 g/cm 3 Formulas: Sphere: 4/3 x π x radius x radius x radius Cylinder: π x radius x radius x height Cube: length x length x length Cone: 1/3 x π x radius x radius x height 5. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of a balsa wood cylinder with a radius of 3 cm and height of 0.5 cm. a. 0.61 grams b. 1.8 grams c. 18.4 grams d. 30.6 grams 6. Using the information in the charts above, calculate the mass of an iron cube with all edges equal to 4 cm. a. 505.6 grams b. 126.4 grams c. 31.6 grams d. 7.9 grams 7. You have 4 spheres all with an equal radius. One is made of iron, one of gold, one of balsa, and one of aluminum. Which sphere is the most massive? a. iron b. gold c. balsa d. aluminum 8. You have a gold cube. Which of the following is more massive? a. A balsa wood cube with triple the gold cube?s edge length. b. A gold cone with radius that is equal to half of the gold cube?s edge length and a height of twice the gold cube?s edge length c. An aluminum cube with double the gold cube?s edge length. d. An iron sphere with a radius of 1.5 times the gold cube?s edge length. 9. Can two objects with the same mass have different volumes? a. Yes, objects with the same mass will have different volumes if they have different densities. b. Yes, objects with the same mass will have the volumes if they are in different locations (like on the moon). c. No, objects with the same mass always have the same volumes. d. Yes, objects with the same mass will only have the same volume if they have the same shape. 10. You have an elementary balance with two gold cubes in one pan and three gold cubes on the other. All five gold cubes have an edge length of 2 cm. On the side of the balance with the two gold cubes, there is an aluminum object. What must the volume of the aluminum object be in order to keep the balance level? a) 154.4 cm 3 b) 308.8 cm 3 c) 463.2 cm 3 d) 57.185 cm 3 Mass vs Volume Post Test Answers 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. A 10. D How many micrograms (?g, ug or mcg) in a milligram (mg)? 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, and 1000 milligrams = 1 gram. How can I convert from international units (IU) to milligrams or micrograms? Math in the News. How is math used in everyday news reports on television, in newspapers, and in magazines? Follow a particular news program and/or section of the newspaper for several days. Record how numbers are used in reporting. What kinds of math are referred to the most? Which stories generate the most mathematical analysis? Choose a story that uses math and follow it. Do your own mathematical analysis to share with the class. Time. How did we come to use the system of time that we use today? Does everyone measure time the same way? What are different units of time? How were modern (analog and digital) clocks invented? Include a historical discussion of time and culture. Describe your project idea. * Relevance: What is the purpose of your project? Why is your type of project important or special to you? * Content: What subject topics will you incorporate into your project? Please be as specific as possible. * Methods: How do you plan to develop and/or explore the content through working on your project? How do you plan to incorporate different methods of representation (symbolic, numerical, graphical, and verbal) into your project? State your plan for each. * Organization: How will the content be organized within the project? Also, for group projects, how will you organize the work to be divided equally among group members? * Discourse: How do you plan to share your project with the class? Also, how will you use critique on your project presentations to help guide you through revision and subsequent presentations? * Challenge: What do you think will be the biggest difficulty you will encounter in completing this project? How do you plan to meet that challenge? * What resources will you use for research? * What do you hope to learn through this project? * What other questions, comments, concerns, and/or suggestions do you have? Progress Presentation Outline Progress Presentations should be short (5 minutes maximum). * Explain your project o What project did you do? What mathematics did you use? o Briefly share what you have done symbolically, numerically, graphically, and verbally. o Share what you learned from the Internet. o Share your plans for your Display Board * What?s next? o What do you have left to complete? o Who is responsible for finishing each part? Relevance: Is this project interesting and/or meaningful? Content: Does the project include the appropriate information accurately? Methods: Does the project exhibit mathematical and/or scientific thinking?  Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding SYMBOLICALLY?  Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding NUMERICALLY?  Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding GRAPHICALLY?  Does the project clearly demonstrate their understanding VERBALLY? Organization: Is the project exhibited in a clear, wellorganized format? Discourse: Does the project incite discussion to promote learning? Challenge: Is this project challenging for the author(s)? Please take notes summarizing the discussion following the presentation. Remember that this is to help the presenters improve their project. Continue your notes on the back if necessary. Name: ___________________________________ Question/Comment: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 
Q. What is Industrial Mathematics? Q. What Kind of Problems do IMS Professionals Work On? The problems that applied mathematicians work on are very diverse. Some of the problems that applied mathematicians and statisticians in industry have faced and solved include: Aerospace Q. What should be the dimensions of an aircraft manufacturing industrial estate plant with the following capacity? Aircraft for 800 passengers Wing span 115.02 m (or ftin) Length 105.22 m (or ftin) Jets of two types, single and twostoried Jumbo Q. How should an airline set ticket prices to ensure maximum revenue while allowing for noshows and the aggravation and expense of overbooking? Automotive Tractor Q. What should be the dimensions of a plant with production capacity of 120 units per month? Q. An automobile production plant is falling far short of the capacity for which it was designed. Why? 
To change  To  Multiply by 
acres  hectares  .4047 
acres  square feet  43,560 
acres  square miles  .001562 
atmospheres  cms. of mercury  76 
Btu/hour  horsepower  .0003930 
Btu  kilowatthour  .0002931 
Btu/hour  watts  .2931 
bushels  cubic inches  2150.4 
centimeters  inches  .3937 
centimeters  feet  .03281 
cubic feet  cubic meters  .0283 
cubic meters  cubic feet  35.3145 
cubic meters  cubic yards  1.3079 
cubic yards  cubic meters  .7646 
degrees  radians  .01745 
dynes  grams  .00102 
fathoms  feet  6.0 
feet  meters  .3048 
feet  miles (nautical)  .0001645 
feet  miles (statute)  .0001894 
feet/second  miles/hour  .6818 
furlongs  feet  660.0 
furlongs  miles  .125 
gallons  liters  3.7853 
grains  grams  .0648 
grams  grains  15.4324 
grams  ounces (avdp)  .0353 
grams  pounds  .002205 
hectares  acres  2.4710 
hectoliters  bushels  2.8378 
horsepower  watts  745.7 
horsepower  Btu/hour  2,547 
hours  days  .04167 
inches  millimeters  25.4000 
inches  centimeters  2.5400 
kilograms  pounds (avdp or troy)  2.2046 
kilometers  miles  .6214 
kilowatthour  Btu  3412 
knots  nautical miles/hour  1.0 
knots  statute miles/hour  1.151 
liters  gallons  .2642 
liters  pecks  .1135 
liters  pints (dry)  1.8162 
liters  pints (liquid)  2.1134 
liters  quarts (dry)  .9081 
liters  quarts (liquid)  1.0567 
meters  feet  3.2808 
meters  miles  .0006214 
meters  yards  1.0936 
metric tons  tons (long)  .9842 
metric tons  tons (short)  1.1023 
miles  kilometers  1.6093 
miles  feet  5280 
miles (nautical)  miles (statute)  1.1516 
miles (statute)  miles (nautical)  .8684 
miles/hour  feet/minute  88 
millimeters  inches  .0394 
ounces (avdp)  grams  28.3495 
ounces  pounds  .0625 
ounces (troy)  ounces (avdp)  1.09714 
pecks  liters  8.8096 
pints (dry)  liters  .5506 
pints (liquid)  liters  .4732 
pounds (ap or troy)  kilograms  .3732 
pounds (avdp)  kilograms  .4536 
pounds  ounces  16 
quarts (dry)  liters  1.1012 
quarts (liquid)  liters  .9463 
radians  degrees  57.30 
rods  meters  5.029 
rods  feet  16.5 
square feet  square meters  .0929 
square kilometers  square miles  .3861 
square meters  square feet  10.7639 
square meters  square yards  1.1960 
square miles  square kilometers  2.5900 
square yards  square meters  .8361 
tons (long)  metric tons  1.016 
tons (short)  metric tons  .9072 
tons (long)  pounds  2240 
tons (short)  pounds  2000 
watts  Btu/hour  3.4121 
watts  horsepower  .001341 
yards  meters  .9144 
yards  miles  .0005682 
Yard Inches Tablespoon Cup (unit) Pint Quart Gallon Ounce Pound (mass) Tablespoon This tablespoon has a capacity of about 15 ml. Cup (unit) 1 cup = 250 millilitres 1 kg = 2.2046226218 pounds 1 kg = 2.2046226218 lbs 
What is Distance? Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. What is the difference between a nautical mile and a knot? A nautical mile measures distance and a knot measures speed. What is a nautical mile, and how does it differ from a normal mile and a kilometer? A nautical mile is based on the circumference of the planet Earth. If you were to cut the Earth in half at the equator, you could pick up one of the halves and look at the equator as a circle. You could divide that circle into 360 degrees. You could then divide a degree into 60 minutes. A minute of arc on the planet Earth is 1 nautical mile. What is a knot? What is a nautical mile? Knots and Nautical miles are good old navy terms. A rough average: 1 mile = 2,000 steps. 1 km = 1,250 steps. 10,000 steps = 5 miles. Mile 1 Mile = 5280 Feet 1 Mile [Nautical] = 6076.12 Feet Measurement unit: miles Full name: mile Plural form: miles Symbol: mi Category type: length Scale factor: 1609.344 Definition: Mile A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. Today, one mile is mainly equal to about 1609 m on land and 1852 m at sea and in the air, but see below for the details. The abbreviation for mile is 'mi'. There are more specific definitions of 'mile' such as the metric mile, statute mile, nautical mile, and survey mile. On this site, we assume that if you only specify 'mile' you want the statute mile. Distance Calculator Distance Calculator – How far is it? The distance is calculated in kilometers, miles and nautical miles, and the initial compass bearing/heading from the origin to the destination. It will also display local time in each of the locations. Aptitude :: Time and Distance How many miles in 1 km? The answer is 0.621371192237. 1. A person crosses a 600 m long street in 5 minutes. What is his speed in km per hour? A. 3.6 B. 7.2 C. 8.4 D. 10 A person crosses a 600 m long street in 5 minutes. What is his speed in km per hour? A. 3.6 B. 7.2 C. 8.4 D. 10 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Speed = 600 m/sec.  5 x 60 = 2 m/sec. Converting m/sec to km/hr (see important formulas section) = 2 x 18 km/hr  5 = 7.2 km/hr. 2. An aeroplane covers a certain distance at a speed of 240 kmph in 5 hours. To cover the same distance in 1 hours, it must travel at a speed of: A. 300 kmph B. 360 kmph C. 600 kmph D. 720 kmph Answer: Option D Explanation: Distance = (240 x 5) = 1200 km. Speed = Distance/Time Speed = 1200/(5/3) km/hr. [We can write 1(2/3) hours as 5/3 hours] Required speed = (1200 x 3/5) km/hr = 720 km/hr. 3. If a person walks at 14 km/hr instead of 10 km/hr, he would have walked 20 km more. The actual distance travelled by him is: A. 50 km B. 56 km C. 70 km D. 80 km Answer: Option C Explanation: Let speed of the car be x kmph. Then, speed of the train = 150 x = 3/2 x kmph.  100 75  75 = 125 x (3/2)x 10 x 60 75  50 = 5 x x 24 x = 25 x24 = 120 kmph.  5 5. Excluding stoppages, the speed of a bus is 54 kmph and including stoppages, it is 45 kmph. For how many minutes does the bus stop per hour? A. 9 B. 10 C. 12 D. 20 Answer: Option B Explanation: Due to stoppages, it covers 9 km less. Time taken to cover 9 km = 9 x 60 min = 10 min. 54 
Displacement (like distance above) is also a measure of how far an object has travelled from its starting point but displacement also tells you the direction of the object. Distance is a scalar and displacement is a vector. 
What is Speed? Speed is a measure of how fast an object is moving. Speed = Distance ÷ Time. What is the Difference between Velocity and Speed? The difference between velocity and speed is that velocity is speed in a certain direction. Speed is a scalar and velocity is a vector. What is Acceleration? A change in velocity is called acceleration. What is the Equation for Acceleration? Acceleration = Change in Velocity ÷ Time. What are the Units of Acceleration? The units of acceleration are m/s2 called "metres per second squared". What is Negative Acceleration? If an object gets faster, it will have a positive acceleration. If an object gets slower, it will have a negative acceleration (this is sometimes called "deceleration" but the term "negative acceleration" is preferred). 
Machinery onboard ships require regular care and maintenance so that their working life and efficiency can be increased, and the cost of operation, which includes unnecessary breakdowns and spares, can be reduced. For different types of machinery and systems, different measuring tools, instruments and gauges are used on ship.
Measuring instruments and gauges are used to measure various parameters such as clearance, diameter, depth, ovality, trueness etc. These are important engineering parameters which describes the condition of the working machinery. Popular mechanical gauges and tools used on ships are: 
Ruler and scales:  They are used to measure lengths and other geometrical parameters. They can be single steel plate or flexible tape type tool. 
Callipers:  They are normally of two types inside and outside calliper. They are used to measure internal and external size (for e.g. diameter) of an object. It requires external scale to compare the measured value. Some callipers are provided with measuring scale. Other types are odd leg and divider calliper. 
Vernire calliper:  It is a precision tool used to measure a small distance with high accuracy. It has got two different jaws to measure outside and inside dimension of an object.It can be a scale, dial or digital type vernire calliper. 
Micrometer:  It is a fine precision tool which is used to measure small distances and is more accurate than the venire calliper. Another type is a large micrometer calliper which is used to measure large outside diameter or distance. 
Feeler gauge:  Feelers gauges are a bunch of fine thickened steel strips with marked thickness which are used to measure gap width or clearance between surface and bearings. 
Telescopic feeler gauge:  It is also known as tongue gauge and it consists of long feeler gauge inside a cover with tongue or curved edge. The long feeler strips protrude out of the cover so that it can be inserted in to remote places where feeler gauge access is not possible. 
Poker gauge:  This gauge is used to measure propeller stern shaft clearance, also known as propeller wear down. 
Bridge gauge:  Bridge gauges are used to measure the amount of wear of Main engine bearing. Normally the upper bearing keep is removed and clearance is measured with respect to journal. Feeler gauge can be used to complete the process. 
Liner measurement tool:  Liner measurement tool is a set of straight assembled rod with marked length in each set. It is used to measure the wear down or increase in the diameter of the engine liner. 
American Wire Gauge:  American wire gauge or AWG is a standard tool which is circular in shape and has various slots of different diameter in its circumference. It is used to measure cross section of an electric cable or wire. 
Bore Gauge:  A tool to accurately measure size of any hole is known as bore gauge, It can be a scale, dial or digital type instrument. 
Depth gauge:  A depth gauge is used to measure the depth of a slot, hole or any other surface of an object. It can be of scale, dial or digital type. 
Angle plate or tool:  It is a right angle plate or tool used to measure the true right angle of two objects joined together. 
Flat plate:  Flat plate is a précised flat surface used to measure flatness of an object when it is kept over the flat plate. 
Dial Gauge:  Dial gauge is utilised in different tools as stated above and can be separately used to measure the trueness of the circular object, jumping of an object etc. 
Lead Wire:  It is a conventional method to used soft lead wire or lead balls to measure the wear down or clearance between two mating surfaces. The lead wire or balls of fixed dimension is kept between two surfaces and both are tightened against each just as in normal condition. The increase in the width of the lead wire or ball will shoe the clearance or wear down. 
These are some of the main tools that are used onboard ship. If you feel we have missed any important tool, then let us know and we will add it in the list.
To understand measuring instruments, one must first understand what units are. As mentioned earlier, units are values given to measurements that make them usable across the world. 
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linearmeasurement markings.
Surveyors use tape measures in lengths of over 100 m (300+ ft). Selfretracting tape measure (imperial) Diagram showing fractions of an inch on a standard sixteenth measuring tape Uses Tape measures that were intended for use in tailoring or dressmaking were made from flexible cloth or plastic.These types of tape measures were mainly used for the measuring of the human's waist line. Today, measuring tapes made for sewing are made of fiberglass, which does not tear or stretch as easily. Measuring tapes designed for carpentry or construction often use a stiff, curved metallic ribbon that can remain stiff and straight when extended, but retracts into a coil for convenient storage. This type of tape measure will have a floating tang or hook on the end to aid measuring. The tang is connected to the tape with loose rivets through oval holes, and can move a distance equal to its thickness, to provide both inside and outside measurements that are accurate. A tape measure of 25 or even 100 feet can wind into a relatively small container. The selfmarking tape measure allows the user an accurate one hand measure. Tape measures can measure length from millimeters to centimeter to inches to feet to yards and to meters. They are different but similar to a Ruler. Tape measures can be used in many different occupations such as Remodeling and they make their jobs easier and more accurate. Their are proper techniques to using tape measures. Do not retract the tape measure too rapidly or it could damage the tape measure or cut your finger. Also to keep a tape measure in prestige condition you should keep it dry at all times and never leave it out in the rain. Ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing, printing, engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines. The ruler is a straightedge which may also contain calibrated lines to measure distances. A variety of rulers A 2meter carpenter's rule 
Blood Components  
Blood Tests A to Z  
Low or high medical lab results  
Do you understand your blood results? Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood? Why the blood test is being carried out? What the blood test is looking for? http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/BloodSerumChemistryNormalValues.pdf There are hundreds of different blood tests carried out  some for general tests others are more specialised. A test tube sample showing the different components of human blood. Human blood  the basic compilation The blood has two main components: 1.plasma 2.blood cells. This texture allows substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, enzymes and other products to be carried to all organs, tissues and cells of the body. •Plasma is made up of approximately 9192% water. The other 8% consists of blood plasma proteins and traces of other elements. Not only does the plasma transport blood cells but it also acts as a conductor of heat. Plasma is not a clear liquid but is more straw coloured. •Within the blood there are three kinds of blood cells  red cells, white cells and platelets. •Red blood cells, (RBC) account for approximately 99% of all the blood cell categories. The scientific name for a red blood cell is  erythrocyte •The red colouring comes from haemoglobin. This is a red pigment that carries oxygen in the blood. •White blood cells, (WBC), fight disease and infections within the body by producing antibodies that destroy harmful organisms. •Platelets form clots when there is injury in order to prevent blood loss from the body. However, if clots develop inside the body for some reason  due to disease for example  then the clots are called a thrombosis and can be dangerous. A modern laboratory showing the machines that analyse all the components of human blood. Low or high medical lab results

Plastic Trash Bags 13 Gallon Trash Bags 
Metrology 
What is Metrology? 
Alphabetical Listing 
Data Measurement Chart 
What is length? 
1 mile = 5 280 feet 1 mile = 1.609 344 kilometer 1 mile = 160 934.4 centimeter 1 mile = 63 360 inch 1 mile = 1 609.344 meter 1 mile = 1 609 344 millimeter 1 mile = 1 760 yard 1 meter = 100 centimeter 1 meter = 3.280 839 895 feet 1 meter = 39.370 078 74 inch 1 meter = 0.001 kilometer 1 meter = 0.000 621 371 mile 1 meter = 1 000 millimeter 1 meter = 1.093 613 298 yard 1 kilometer = 100 000 centimeter 1 kilometer = 3 280.839 895 013 feet 1 kilometer = 39 370.078 740 157 inch 1 kilometer = 1 000 meter 1 kilometer = 0.621 371 192 mile 1 kilometer = 1 000 000 millimeter 1 kilometer = 1 093.613 298 338 yard 1 yard = 3 feet 1 yard = 36 inch 1 yard = 91.44 centimeter 1 yard = 0.000 914 4 kilometer 1 yard = 0.914 4 meter 1 yard = 0.000 568 182 mile 1 yard = 914.4 millimeter 1 feet = 30.48 centimeter 1 feet = 12 inch 1 feet = 0.000 304 8 kilometer 1 feet = 0.304 8 meter 1 feet = 0.000 189 394 mile 1 feet = 304.8 millimeter 1 feet = 0.333 333 333 yard A kilometer is 1000 meters A hectometer is 100 meters A decameter is 10 meters A decimeter is 1/10 meter A centimeter is 1/100 meter A millimeter is 1/1000 meter 1 Centimeter = .3937 inches 1 Centimeter = .032808 feet 1 Foot = 12 inches 1 Foot = 0.3048006 meter 1 Inch = .0254 meter 1 Kilometer = 3280.83 feet 1 Kilometer = .62 mile 1 Knot = 6080.2 feet 1 Meter = 3.280833 feet 1 Meter = 39.37 inches 1 meter (m) = 1000 millimeters (mm) 1 yard = 3 feet 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) 1 yard = 36 inches 1 meter (m) = 10 decimeters (dm) 1 league [nautical] = 3.452 338 344 mile 1 mile = 5,280 feet 10 meters (m) = 1 dekameter (dam) 100 meters (m) = 1 hectometer (hm) 1000 meters (m) = 1 kilometer (km) 1 Mile = 5,280 feet 1 Mile = 1.60935 kilometers 1 Mile = 1,609.2655 meters 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 cm = 0.4 inch 1 yard = .914 m 1 m = 3.28 ft. 1 mile(mi) = 1.61 km 1 km = 3281 ft. 1 km = 1093 yd. Kilometer (km) = 1,000 Meters Hectometer (hm) = 100 Meters Dekameter (dam) = 10 Meters Meter (m) =1 Meter Decimeter (dm) = 0.1 Meter Centimeter (cm) = 0.01 Meters Millimeter (mm) = 0.001 Meters Distance Calculator – How far is it? How many miles is it from New York to Los Angeles? How far is it to Los Angeles California? How many miles is it from Atlanta to Los Angeles? How Far is it From the East Coast to the West Coast? 2,092 miles is the shortest distance from the East Coast to the West Coast. The widest distance 2,800 miles. However, the distance between the two coasts varies depending on specific locations. Distance Measuring Instruments Here are further guidelines. 
1  1.609344  26  41.842944  51  82.076544  76  122.310144  
2  3.218688  27  43.452288  52  83.685888  77  123.919488  
3  4.828032  28  45.061632  53  85.295232  78  125.528832  
4  6.437376  29  46.670976  54  86.904576  79  127.138176  
5  8.04672  30  48.28032  55  88.51392  80  128.74752  
6  9.656064  31  49.889664  56  90.123264  81  130.356864  
7  11.265408  32  51.499008  57  91.732608  82  131.966208  
8  12.874752  33  53.108352  58  93.341952  83  133.575552  
9  14.484096  34  54.717696  59  94.951296  84  135.184896  
10  16.09344  35  56.32704  60  96.56064  85  136.79424  
11  17.702784  36  57.936384  61  98.169984  86  138.403584  
12  19.312128  37  59.545728  62  99.779328  87  140.012928  
13  20.921472  38  61.155072  63  101.388672  88  141.622272  
14  22.530816  39  62.764416  64  102.998016  89  143.231616  
15  24.14016  40  64.37376  65  104.60736  90  144.84096  
16  25.749504  41  65.983104  66  106.216704  100  160.9344  
17  27.358848  42  67.592448  67  107.826048  125  201.168  
18  28.968192  43  69.201792  68  109.435392  150  241.4016  
19  30.577536  44  70.811136  69  111.044736  175  281.6352  
20  32.18688  45  72.42048  70  112.65408  200  321.8688  
21  33.796224  46  74.029824  71  114.263424  250  402.336  
22  35.405568  47  75.639168  72  115.872768  300  482.8032  
23  37.014912  48  77.248512  73  117.482112  500  804.672  
24  38.624256  49  78.857856  74  119.091456  750  1207.008  
25  40.2336  50  80.4672  75  120.7008  1000  1609.344 
How much does one metric ton weigh? A metric ton weighs 1,000 kilograms. 100 kilograms = 1 quintal = 220.46 pounds How many grams in a kilogram? 1 Kilogram = 1000 Grams How many pounds equal a ton? There are 2,000 pounds in one ton. 1 Short Ton [North America] = 2 000 Pounds 1 Long Ton [England] = 2 240 Pounds 1 Metric Ton = 2 204.62262 Pounds How many pounds in a kilogram? 1 Kilogram = 2.20462262 Pounds How many ounces in a kilogram? 1 Kilogram = 35.2739619 Ounces How many ounces in a pound? 1 Pound = 16 Ounces 1 Troy Pound = 12 Troy Ounces What is the difference between mass and weight? What is mass? What is weight? 
What is mass? Mass is a scientific measure of the amount of matter an object is made up of. No matter where you are at given moment in time, mass is constant. So, whether you're walking to the shop to stock up on groceries or bouncing around on the moon, your mass is the same. Obviously, if you're on a diet that's not the answer you want to hear but don't panic  we'll get to the allimportant definition of weight shortly. Some other key points about mass 1.Mass is indestructible. As you've seen above, no matter where you are in the universe your mass will never change 2.Mass can never be zero. What we mean by this is that everything in the universe has mass. If it didn't it simply wouldn't exist 3.Mass is not related to gravity, centrifugal force, etc and these forces have no effect whatsoever on your mass 4.Mass is commonly measured in kilograms and grams. Hopefully, the descriptions above have given you a good idea of what mass really is. Don't fall into the trap of thinking that this unit of measure is not important  it is. After all, without the huge mass that makes up planet Earth we'd have no gravity. What is weight? Weight is a form of measurement that is dependent on gravity and, unlike mass, your weight can vary depending on where you are in the universe. But how can weight vary whilst mass has to remain constant? It's fairly simple: weight is a variable i.e. it can change based on the amount of gravitational pull an object exerts on a body. Scientists have defined weight using this equation: Formula: Weight (W) = Mass (M) multiplied by gravitational acceleration (g). (W = mg) Some key points about weight 1.The weight of an object changes based on where it is. If you've decided to visit the moon to test out this theory then you'll find that, in a matter of hours, you will have slashed your weight by two thirds (in your face, Slimming World!) 2.Weight is a vector and its direction of pull is towards the centre of the planet you're stood on. What? Sorry, I did promise layman's terms: gravity, which is created by the mass of an object, moves towards the centre of the object and it is gravity that determines your, or any other object's, weight. 3.The weight of any given object can go up or down depending on the amount of gravity acting on it. More gravity  the heavier the object. Less gravity  the lighter the object. 4.Unlike mass, weight can be zero. An example of this is an astronaut floating in space  there's no gravity acting on his body and, therefore, he has no weight. 5.Weight is commonly measured in Newtons. Mass and weight example  the moon In the below example, we've featured an astronaut on earth and on the moon. The Moon's gravity is much less than the Earth's gravity  approximately one sixth. So, a 100 kg astronaut weighs 980N on Earth. On the Moon, the astronaut would weigh only 162.2N. However, the astronaut's mass is 100kg whereever they are. Weight on Earth: 100kg x 9.8m/s2 = 980N. Weight on Moon: 100kg x 1.622 m/s2 = 162.2N. Mass and Weight Converter Use this mass & weight converter to convert instantly between pounds, ounces, kilograms, grams, stones, tonnes and other metric and imperial weight units. Items as small as an atom to as large as a train, as unusual as a bowling ball to as common as an egg, all at one time or other need to be weighed What objects weigh 1 kilogram? An unabridged dictionary, a medium cantaloupe and a bottle of wine all weigh approximately 1 kilogram. Other 1kilogram objects include a liter of water, a pineapple and a small laptop. Kilograms are part of the metric system, which is the standard of measurement in most of the world. Other common mass measures in the metric system are grams and tonnes, which are also known as metric tons. Some examples of 1 gram objects are a paper clip and a coat button. One thousand grams are equivalent to 1 kilogram. A large motorcycle has a mass of approximately 250 kilograms. Tonnes differ from tons and short tons, which are units of weight based on the pound. One kilogram is equal to about 2.2 pounds. Although both kilograms and pounds are measured with a scale, kilograms are a measure of mass, or the amount of matter in an object. Pounds are a measure of weight, which is the force of gravity on an object. The mass of an object does not change, while weight is affected by fluctuations in gravity. A 1 kg object on Earth has the same mass but a different weight if it is taken to the Moon. What are examples of things that weigh an ounce? Examples of items weighing an ounce include a slice of bread, about five quarters, approximately three and a half French fries and a matchboxsized cube of cheese. Objects that weigh an ounce are fairly light, weighing in at just onesixteenth of a pound. The term ounce may be used to describe both weight, which is also called mass, or volume. When used to describe volume, the term fluid ounce is often used. A fluid ounce is equal to oneeighth of a cup. These terms are both used to describe food portions, so it's very important to pay attention to which measurement is being used. How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured? Earth weighs about 13,170,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pounds (or 5,974,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilograms). Since Earth is too big to be placed on a scale, scientists use mathematics and the laws of gravity to figure out Earth's weight. How do we weigh objects in space? There is a simple answer to your question: we don't, because in space where there is no gravity objects weigh nothing! We have to be careful about definitions. The weight of an object is a force. It is the force with which a body is attracted toward Earth or another celestial body. This means that when you are in space, away from Earth, objects do not weight anything since they do not feel gravitational attraction to the Earth. What objects have though in space is mass. This is because mass is defined as the amount of material an object contains, and that doesn't change whether the object is on Earth, on the Moon, or anywhere in space. Now, weight and mass are linked in the following way: the weight is obtained by multiplying the mass by the value of the gravitational acceleration. That means that for an object of a given mass, the stronger the gravitational attraction, the larger its weight (this is why objects weigh 6 times more on Earth than on the Moon, and weigh nothing in empty space). On Earth we know the value of the gravitational attraction, so a measure of the weight (which is what a regular scale measures) gives us directly the mass. This is why in the common language weight and mass are often confused. But it space it makes a big difference. Objects can have a large mass, but weigh nothing. So how do we measure mass in space? On Earth we only have to weigh the object and divide by the gravitational acceleration, but this obviously doesn't work in space. To measure mass in space, we have to use another kind of scale, which is called an inertial balance. An inertial balance is made of a spring on which you attach the object whose mass you're interested in. The object is therefore free to vibrate, and for a given stiffness of the spring the frequency of the vibrations enables the scientists to calculate the mass. This is how you would get the mass of objects in a space shuttle, or something like it. But there are other objects in space that astronomers are very interested in knowing their masses: stars and galaxies. The way to get the mass of these objects is to look at the gravitational interaction with other objects nearby. For example, if you have two stars orbiting one another and you know the distance between them and how long it takes for one to go around the other, you can calculate the mass of the stars. Similar tricks apply to measure the mass of galaxies, for example by measuring how fast they rotate. How do we weigh planets? How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured? How do we weigh objects in space? Here are further guidelines. 

Weight 
Here are further guidelines. 
What objects weigh 1 kilogram? What are examples of things that weigh an ounce? How do we weigh planets? How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured? How do we weigh objects in space? How much does Earth weigh and how is this measured? How do we weigh objects in space? Here are further guidelines. 
EqualArm Beam Scales 1. English coin scale, c1770 2. Office letter scale by DeGrave & Co, London, c1890 3. Money scale by S. Henry, London, c1774 for weighing the guinea, half and quarter 4. Money scale by unknown British maker, c1780 5. Money scale by John Pickett of Marlborough, c1780, for weighing the guinea and half 6. Letter scale by unknown maker, c1880 7. Hydrostatical money scale by Charles & Luke Proctor, Sheffield, England, c1780 8. Bread scale by Davis & Southerton Ltd, Walsall, England, c1916 9. Shop scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, England, c1880 10. Ducat scale by unknown maker, Nuremberg, 18th century 11. Jockey scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, England, 1898 12. Precision balance by Paul Bunge of Hamburg, Germany, 1923 13. Apothecary scale by Doyle & Son, London, 1904 Steelyard Scales 1. Steelyard, French, 18th century 2. Chondrometer or grain scale by Payne of London, c1820 3. Bread scale by W. & T. Avery, Birmingham, patented in 1885 4. Guinea scale, known as “folding gold balances” by T. Houghton, England, c1780 5. Unusual steelyard by A. Prutscher, Sonthofen, Germany, 20th century 6. “Shelfedge” type of coin balance by Bradford, Derby and Hulls, England, patented in 1753 7. Sovereign balance by F. Sheldon, Birmingham, c1845 8. Letter scale by unknown maker, British, marked S. TURNER’S PATENT, postage rates for the period 1871 to 1897, patented in 1871 9. ______ steelyard by T. Beach of Birmingham, c1780 10. Letter balance marked H.B. WRIGHT No. 130 LONDON Dec. 20th 1839 11. Candy scale by Henry Troemner, Philadelphia,1926 12. Letter steelyard by unknown maker, English, c1880 13. Coin steelyard, as advertised by John Joseph Merlin, London, c1780 14. Doublebeam steelyard by Fucoma, Berlin, Germany, 20th century 15. Jeweler’s estimating balance by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, 1916 16. Coal scale by J. White & Son of Scotland, c1910 17. Westphal laboratory balance to determine specific gravity 18. Counter scale by E. & T. Fairbanks & Co, St Johnsbury, Vermont, 1919 19. Prescription scale by E. & T. Fairbanks & Co, St Johnsbury, Vermont, c1910 20. Laboratory scale marked CENCO Triple Beam Balance by the Central Scientific Co. Chicago Bismar Scales 1. Traditional bismar 2. Combined letter balance, ruler and paper knife 3. Roman bismar made of bronze 4. Letter balance marked J. Rodgers & Sons, c1890 5. Letter balance by Edward Greaves, Sheffield, England, c1900 6. Tobacco balance 7. Letter balance made by Silvester & Co, London, for Henry Hooper, who registered the design in 1839 8. Weighing spoon marked HARTLEY 9. Late 19th century Swedish bismar Pendulum Scales 1. Coin balance by Anscheutz & Co, London, c1765 2. Egg balance, probably by P. J. Maul of Hamburg, Germany, for the British market, c1930 3. Letter balance by N.B. Paris, markings indicate date 18691875 4. Letter balance by G. Riddle, London, Registered Design No. 113 of 1839 5. Letter balance by unknown maker, probably German, for the British market, c1910 6. Letter balance by unknown maker, patented in Germany in 1911 7. Letter balance by unknown maker, patented in Germany in 1900 8. Letter balance by N.B. Paris, c 1900 9. Market scale by Testut of Paris 10. Letter scale by J. Cooke & Sons, London, c1865 11. Stylus balance by Lenco, Switzerland, 1977 12. Letter balance by ThorneFoster Inc, New York, c1934 13. Confectioner’s scale marked Cooperative Wholesale Society Ltd, Scale Dept, Manchester 14. Paper testing scale by Louis Schopper of Leipzig, Germany, c1900 Roberval Scales 1. Letter scale by S. Mordan & Co, London, c1870 2. English ______ scale by Joseph & Jesse Siddons Ltd, West Bromwich, England, 1924 3. Scale by Henry Pooley & Son Ltd, Liverpool, England, 1907 4. “Equity” butcher scale by Cooperative Wholesale Society Ltd, Scale Dept, Manchester, England, 1935 5. ______ scale by Hizar of Istanbul, 1976, Beranger system, based on design patented by Joseph Beranger in 1849 6. Butcher scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, 1898 7. Butter trip scale by E & T Fairbanks & Co, St Johnsbury, Vermont Spring Scales 1. Mancur spring balance used for rough weighing on farms, in kitchens and on hunting trips for animals or hides 2. Early type of spring balance by W. Day, c1820 3. Tubular spring balance by Geo. Salter & Co, West Bromwich, England 4. Sector or “V” spring balance, French, used for general weighing 5. Postal spring balance by Geo. Salter & Co, c1910, larger ones made for parcels 6. Modern version of a candlestick type (a), top is reversible for storage (b) 7. Candlestick type letter spring balance by J & E Ratcliff, Birmingham, c1840 8. Postal scale by Triner Scale & Mfg, Co, USA, 1910 9. Letter spring balance, the PRESTO by Metal Specialty Manufacturing Co, Chicago 10. ______ Circular Balance No. 80T by Geo. Salter & Co, West Bromwich, England, 1912 11. “Bowfront” type of letter balance by Pelouze Mfg. Co, Chicago, c1910 12. “Straightface” type of letter balance by Salter, postage rates for period 1871 to 1897 13. Person scale marked JARASO Made in England, patented in 1910 14. Coin balance patented by C. Leni in 1892 15. Combined spring letter balance and stamp case, design registered in 1888 16. Combined letter balance with pen and seal, John Sheldon, Birmingham, design registered in 1858 17. Spring balance which combines a dial with a pulldown slide, Morton & Bremner, New York, c1900 18. Market scale by John Chatillon & Sons, New York, c1900 Rocker Balances 1. Coin rocker for coins of Turkey, Greece and Egypt with marks in Middle Eastern and Western numerals 2. Sovereign rocker marked “Martineau & Smith”, Birmingham, England, c1840 3. Unusual equalarm rocker by S. Mordan & Co, London, weights for 1843 4. Sovereign rocker by B. Cattle, Birmingham, England, c1830 5. ”Base Coin Detector” by unknown ______ maker, patented in 1853 6. Coin rocker by unknown French maker, marked “Depose. Numismetre. Etalon” 7. Sovereign rocker By Charles Simmons, Birmingham, c1845 8. Letter balance by William Poupard, London, c1850 9. Medicine rocker marked “Dr. Fitch’s Prescription Scale”, USA. “Patented Sept. 29th . 1885” 10. Triple coin rocker by unknown maker, mid 19th century for weighing the halfcrown, shilling and sixpence 11. Coin rocker patented by John Allender, USA, Nov 27th, 1855 12. Egg rocker by unknown British maker, c1935 13. Cruciform rocker for coins of Turkey, Greece and Egypt, late 19th century 14. “Martini Scale”, American, 20th century, bismar type rocker 15. Sovereign rocker marked M. Hammond. Registered Jan 5.1845 16. Coin rocker patented by H. Maranville of America in 1857 17. Rocker for an unidentified single coin, 19th century 18. Sovereign rocker, English, 19th century 19. Coin rocker by the Berrian Mfg Co, New York, for weighing US gold and silver coins, patented by J. A. Thompson in 1877 Platform Scales 1. Decimal scale made in Germany, late 19th century 2. “One Horse Scale” made by Jones of Binghamton, New York, c1885 3. Early type of platform scale called the “Caledonian Scale” 4. Person scale by George Salter & Co, England, 1912 5. Counter platform scale with looseweight steelyard by W. & T. Avery Ltd, Birmingham, c1900 6. Kitchen scale marked “Royal. A Tower Product. Made in Germany”, c1958 7. “Mayfair” bathroom scale by Geo. Salter & Co. Ltd, c1960 8. Person scale marked “Weeks’ Museum, Tichbourne Street”, c1790 9. Table scale marked “Hanovaria. 25kg”, German, late 19th century Miscellaneous Scales MiscellaneousScales.jpg" height="300" width="500"> 1. “Weightcollecting” scale made by Joseph & Edmund Ratcliff and patented by R. Willis in 1840 2. Combined letter balance, pen, pencil and toothpick by John Sheldon, Birmingham, England, c1845 3. Stylus balance, the “Variscale” by Colton & Co, London, 1971 4. Hydraulic letter balance, the “Eldon”, USA, mid 20th century 5. Weighing scoop patented in England by F.C. Howe of America in 1906 6. “Ladder scale” made by DeGrave, Short, Fanner & Co, London, c1870 7. Letter balance marked DBP, German, 1978 8. General purpose scale patented by Robert Salmon, London, in 1796 9. Counting scale by W. & T. Avery Ltd, 1965 10. Sovereign scale by Isaac Brown, London, registered in 1842 11. Weightlifting letter scale registered by F. Gye of London in 1840 12. Hydraulic letter balance, registered by A. F. Osler of Birmingham in 1839 13. Letter scale registered by Joseph Gillot, Birmingham, England, in 1839 14. Sovereign balance by R. W. Winfield, Birmingham, weights marked with the maker’s name and the date 1842 15. Candy scale by Henry Troemner, Philadelphia, USA, 1926 16. Laboratory scale by W. Bochkoltz, Germany, mid 19th century 17. Stylus balance, the “Transcriptor”, English, 1976 18. Parcel scale by S. Mordan & Co., London, halfroberval and hanging pan system, parcel postage rates for the period 1883 to 1886 
Energy Units Conversion Length Units Conversion Mass Units Conversion Surface Units Conversion Temperature Units Conversion Volume Units Conversion Pressure Units Conversion Speed Units Conversion Coordinates conversion (polarcartesian) Here are further guidelines. 
How many liters in a gallon? 1 Gallon [Fluid, North America] = 3.7854118 Liters 1 Gallon [Dry, North America] = 4.4048838 Liters 1 Gallon [England] = 4.54609 Liters How many milliliters in a liter? 1 Liter = 1000 Milliliters How many gallons of fuel does a c5 hold? The C5 has 12 internal wing tanks with a total capacity of 51,150 gallons (194,370 liters) of fuel — enough to fill 6 1/2 regularsize railroad tank cars. A full fuel load weighs 332,500 pounds (150,820 kilograms). How many gallons in an oil and fluid barrel? 1 Barrel [Oil] = 42 Gallons [North America, Oil] 1 Barrel [Fluid] = 31.5 Gallons [North America, Fluid] 1 Barrel [Dry] = 26.24975569 Gallons [North America, Dry] Drum 1 Drum = 200litre/55gallon drum or 44gallon drum. What instrument is used to measure volume? A graduated cylinder is one instrument used to measure volume. A second volumemeasuring device used in the laboratory is the pipette. Measuring Spoons Dry Measuring Cups Liquid Measuring Cups Clapometer volume of applause Dilatometer volume changes caused by a physical or chemical process Eudiometer change in volume of a gas mixture following combustion Fuel gauge fuel level Gas pycnometer volume and density of solids Mass flow meter mass flow rate of a fluid travelling through a tube Volume in calculus Volume formulas Volume in differential geometry Volume in thermodynamics A household measuring jug is used to measure the volume of liquids in the kitchen Here are further guidelines. 