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Who has duty to provide telecommunications services in the state?
The state department of telecommunications.
How do you determine what location in the state needs telecommunications services?
A needs assessment reveals needs for telecommunications services in addition to other human rights in the state.
What are various telecommunications services?
Telecommunications combination services are also called bundled services.
What is a digital telecommunications system?
The basic components of a modern digital telecommunications system must be capable of transmitting voice, data, radio, and television signals.
In data transmission, this step is bypassed because the signals are already in digital form; most television, radio, and voice communication, however, use the analog system and must be digitized.
What professionals are required in state department of telecommunications?
What is an Internet service provider (ISP)? |
Why do you need an ISP to connect to the Internet?
What is network access server (NAS)?
What do I need to start an ISP?
Is it feasible in your area?
|Guide To Building Your Own ISP|
|What do I need to connect to the Internet?|
|Internet Protocol: IP Addresses|
|Internet Protocol: Domain Name System|
|Network Routing, Switching and Bridging|
|Ports and HTTP|
|Registration and Administration of Internet Domain Names|
|Types of Internet Connections|
|Types of Internet Protocols|
|Types of Computer Networks|
|Types of Network Equipment|
|URL: Uniform Resource Locator|
|Uses of Internet|
When did wireless telephones come into existence?
What resources and equipment are required to establish worldwide wireless telephone service?
|What is telecommunications?|
What is the difference between landline telephone service and wireless telephone service?|
How do you manufacture various equipment utilized in telecommunications?
What workers are required in telecommunications?
What equipment is required by telecommunications workers?
Wireless Phone Systems
Q) What are the components of a GSM network?
Subscriber EquipmentMobile Station (MS) - The mobile telephone.
The Switching System (SS)Home Location Register (HLR) - A database which stores data about GSM subscribers, including the Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) for each Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).
Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) - The network element which performs the telephony switching functions of the GSM network. The MSC is responsible for toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling.
Visitor Location Register (VLR) - A database which stores temporary information about roaming GSM subscribers.
Authentication Center (AUC) - A database which contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) the Subscriber Authentication key (Ki), and the defined algorithms for encryption.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - A database which contains information about the identity of mobile equipment in order to prevent calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations.
The Base Station System (BSS)Base Station Controller (BSC) - The network element which provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. The BSC provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in Base Transceiver Stations.
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) - The network element which handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network.
The Operation and Support System (OSS)Message Center (MXE) - A network element which provides Short Message Service (SMS), voice mail, fax mail, email, and paging.
Mobile Service Node (MSN) - A network element which provides mobile intelligent network (IN) services.
Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC) - A network element used to interconnect two GSM networks.
GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) - The network element which interfaces to various data networks.
|How Cordless Telephones Work|
|What is the telephone?|
Q) What will it look like?
Q) What are the components of a mobile telephone?
Q) What Are The Materials Used To Manufacture A Telephone?
Radio Frequency (RF)
Mobile Communication Services on AircraftQ) What is meant by mobile communication services on aircraft (MCA)?
Q) What are the technical requirements for airlines that wish to offer mobile services to passengers during flights?
Q) During flight, each aircraft will effectively be a single "network in the sky" for MCA customers, so the price will not be affected by the aircraft's location.
Q) Who will provide in-flight mobile phone services?
Q) How can I find out more about it?
Q) Will all mobile devices be allowed on board?
Q) Do you have a better answer?
Q) Does anyone have a better answer?
Q) Does anyone else have an answer better than the answers I already have, we have?
Q) Would you like to add anything?
Q) Can you make me wiser? How?
Q) Can you make us wiser? How?
Q) Do you have any recommendations?
Q) What is a monopoly?|
Q) What is corruption in the politics of regulations?
State department of telecommunications.
What and how many telecommunications products are manufactured in the state?
How many total telephone connections with Internet are required in the state?
How many telephone connections with Internet existed in the state as of June 10, 2014?
How many workers relevant to this product and service are in the state?
How many more are required?
Q) What is a Toll Free Number?|
Q) Where do I fit into the toll free world?
Q) How do toll-free numbers work?
Q) Why are Toll Free Numbers so popular?
General Information: Telephone Diagrams & Terms
Shown below is a diagram of a single-line telephone. The terms listed provide information about the physical features of the telephone set and tones or signals received from the system, and can help when describing telephone troubles.
Dial: Rotating disk or push-button assembly used for entering digits and accessing features.
Direct-In-Dial: A telephone number which rings directly at a person's desk; the call does not go through an operator or receptionist. (See also Private Branch Exchange below).
Handset: The portion of the telephone containing the transmitter and receiver which is hand held when the telephone is in use.
Handset Cord: The coiled connection between the handset and the base of the telephone.
Hookflash: The process of pressing the switchhook down for one-half second and releasing. The Hookflash is used to access system features. (Refer to Introduction above for further information about hookflash.)
Hunt Group: A series of telephones or telephone numbers on multi-button or single-line phones, which search for a free line when the main number is called. If the first line is busy, the call will ring at the next available line. Members of a hunt group are often referred to as terminals or "terms" of the main number.
Key Telephone System: Electronic (EKS) or electromechanical (KS) telephone system allowing several users access to the same lines. Telephone instruments are usually multi-button (line) sets with a hold button and internal intercom features.
Mounting cord: The connection between the base of the telephone and the wall or floor.
On-hook: The handset is in the cradle.
Off-hook: You are talking, the handset is in your hand.
Private Branch Exchange (PBX): Local departmental automatic telephone system providing internal features and connection of extensions as well as access to the UT campus and public network. (See also Direct-in-Dial, above.)
Receiver: The earpiece or portion of the handset through which you hear the other party's voice.
Station Number: The last five-digits of an on-campus phone number. (Also used to refer to a two- or three-digit intercom number or a three-digit PBX extension.)
Switchhook: A device in the cradle, on the side, or on the top of the telephone which signals the status of the telephone to the switching equipment; on-hook (not in use), or off-hook (in use).
Transmitter: The portion of the handset into which you speak.
What is a Telephone Exchange?
Telephone exchanges are usually identified in the United States by the three-digit area code (NPA) and the first three digits of the phone number (NPA-NXX).
Long distance (interexchange carrier, or IXCs)
Local exchange carrier, or LECs). Different exchanges are generally in different geographic locations, such as separate central offices (COs, also called "wire centers").
When it comes to a discussion of telecommunications, referring to a telephone exchange may be used in a couple of different ways. One usage refers to specific forms of telephone equipment, while the second has to do with the use of it as a term of designation.
As a reference to telephony equipment, a telephone exchange is often also called a telephone switch. Originally, the exchange was created as a means of a provider receiving an inbound phone signal, interacting with a subscriber, and then switching the signal to whomever the subscriber wished to speak with. This was referred to early on in the history of telephony as "exchanging a call."
Over time, the process became more complicated, as technological advances allowed for the creation of exchanges that would allow calls to be routed from a local exchange to one in neighboring cities, states, and ultimately to international locations. The creation of switching overlays that worked in conjunction with the local exchanges led to the creation of the term “telephone switch.”
The first hints of the automatic switching to come came in 1891, with the creation of the stepping switch. A stepping switch allowed for the first real automation, which involved being able to reach subscribers in the immediate area by using a telephone dial to signal a four number sequence. This allowed the phone exchange operators to focus on exchanging inbound and outbound signals that needed to be processed outside a local calling area. The stepping switch helped with the designation of the terminating number, however, as the caller could ask the operator to connect the call to a neighborhood and then give the four digit number for the subscriber in that neighborhood.
In time, the term “telephone exchange” came to also be associated with the actual location and number designation for an individual subscriber. The four digit number referred to a local exchange within the city or town, while the addition of the name of the neighborhood calling area added to the front end of the numbers allowed operators to switch a call from another telephone switch into the local area.
Eventually, the procedure of using both proper names and a number sequence became extremely complicated, and many areas began to switch to three digit number prefixes to replace the older neighborhood designations. Since the 1960s, all areas of the United States now use a local seven digit calling plan for local calls within the area, and have the ability to dial the numbers directly through an automatic switch.
In time, the creation of area codes were added to the overall number designation, allowing for direct dial of both national and international long distance calls with no operator intervention. While the amount of numbers used in the dialing plans of various ________ varies, all of them now use numeric telephone exchanges, with no use of letters to access any point around the world.
Whether using the term to refer to the original designation for a telephone switch, or the newer designation to refer to a telephone number, a telephone exchange serves the purpose of connecting people around world, both locally and on an international basis.
Here are further guidelines.
|Glossary of Frequently Used Telecommunications Terms|
|Telephone Exchange Area|
|Telephone Exchange Finder|
|Telephone Area Code Exchange|
|Telephone Exchange Information|
|Telephone Exchange Office|
|Telephone Exchange Names|
|Telephone Exchange Number|