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Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of three types of fiber into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. These are then fabricated into clothes or other artefacts. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.

There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.

What is Textile Fiber? | Types of Textile Fiber Textile fiber can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster.

As they always have, manufactured fibers continue to mean, “life made better.”
First Production
1910 — Rayon
1924 — Acetate
1930 — Rubber
1936 — Glass
1939 — Nylon
1939 — Vinyon
1941 — Saran
1946 — Metallic
1949 — Modacylic
1949 — Olefin
1950 — Acrylic
1953 — Polyester
1959 — Spandex
1961 —Aramid
1983 — PBI
1983 — Sulfar
1992 — Lyocell

Textile Standards

These textile standards help fabric and cloth designers and manufacturers in testing textiles to ensure acceptable characteristics towards proper end-use.

Here are further guidelines.
Fabric Glossary
Multiple Choice Questions
How is fabric created?
Raw Materials for Fabric
The Manufacturing Process of Fabric
Fabric Color and Design
Evolution of Fabric and Clothing
Networking and Data Center Fabric Products
Fabric Types

    Natural Fabrics

    1. Cotton
    2. Wool
    3. Silk
    4. Linen
    5. Hemp
    6. Ramie
    7. Jute
    8. Coir

    Man-Made Fabrics

    1. Acetate
    2. Acrylic
    3. Lastex
    4. Nylon
    5. Polyester
    6. Rayon
    7. Spandex
All clothes are made of some type or combination of fabrics.

Fabric or cloth is a flexible artificial material that is made by a network of natural or artificial fibers. The example is thread or yarn which is formed by weaving or knitting as in textiles. Cloth is mostly used in the manufacturing of clothing and household furnishings etc. Cloth is made in many varying strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer fabrics to sturdy canvas sailcloths. Fabric has several definitions. Some of them are discussed below.

* Cotton, is the most famous fabric and most widely used fiber in the world because of its versatility and ability to provide good comfort, particularly in apparel items . Cotton is soft, natural, vegetable fiber obtained from the seed-pod of the cotton plant. The use of cotton is diverse for example it is used in apparel, home furnishings, towels, rugs, and sewing thread etc.

* Polyester, it is a type of fabric which is a synthetic, man-made fiber produced. Some of it\'s features are crease resistance, ability to dry quickly, shape retention in garments, high strength, abrasion resistance, and minimum care requirement. It is very important fiber in upholstery fabrics, which is often used in warps due to its strength and inexpensiveness.

* Silk is a natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in cocoon. Silk is mostly collected from cultivated worms, it is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. Primarily found in Asia there are several types of silk like tussah silk and wild silk etc.
* Acrylic, it is a synthetic fiber. It has a soft, wool-like hand, and is generally able to be dyed in a wide range of brilliant colors. Excellent sunlight resistance and wrinkle resistance is it\'s great feature.

* Velvet which is another type of popular fabric is basically a warp pile cloth in which rows of short cut pile stand so close together as to form an even, uniform surface. Velvet is appealing in look and with soft. Different fibers including silk is used in making of velvet.
* Damask is mainly made in china and it is firm, glossy jacquard-patterned fabric. It is a reversible fabric characterized by a combination of satin and sateen weaves. You can distinguish it from the ground by it's contrasting luster.

Some other fabrics are brocade, chenille, crewel, linen, rayon, sateen fabric and taffeta etc. Some more definitions related to fabric is ?embroidery? which refers to an embellishment of a fabric or garment in which colored threads are sewn on to the fabric to create a design. It can be done either by hand or machine. ?Grois Point it is a fabric which features large points of yarn on the surface of the fabric, ?hand? is the way the fabric feels when it is touched and ?printed fabrics? which refers to the textiles with design elements or motifs which are applied to the surface of the fabric like in dyes or pigments.

The Manufacturing Process of Fabric

There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. These days, the vast majority of spinning is done by spinning wheel. The fibers are drawn across the wheel, and as it spins, the fibers are collected on a cylindrical object called a bobbin. The bobbin holds the spun fibers, which are now connected into a long strand of thread or yarn. In the next step, the bobbins will be transferred to another machine, where the yarn will continue on its journey into fabric.

After the raw materials have been converted into yarn, they're ready for the second step in the production process, which involves joining these individual threads together to form fabric. This process of joining the yarn together is called weaving. Weaving is done on a machine known as a loom and requires two sets of yarn. The first set, called the warp set, is strung tautly across a metal frame. The second, called the weft, is connected to metal rods, with one thread per rod. The loom is controlled by a computer, which lets the weft know how the fabric should be woven.

After the fabric has been woven, it's removed from the loom and is ready for the final step: processing. Fabric that's fresh off the loom is called greige, and it looks nothing like the crisp white sheets or clothing you're used to. It's discolored and full of impurities, seed particles and debris. Before it can be transformed into useful textiles, it must be cleaned. First, it's treated with bleach to purify the base color. Next, it's treated with a variety of chemicals and cleaners to remove oils, wax and other elements that are naturally occurring in most fibers. Finally, it's ready to be shipped out to clothing and textile manufacturers.

In addition to loom weaving, there are other methods for joining fabric, including knitting and crochet. While both are traditionally associated with wool materials, crochet is also common with lace production. Both are traditionally done by hand. Hand looms are also widely used throughout the world, and hand-woven textiles tend to be very popular with consumers.
Clothes & Fashion
Textile Chemicals
Textile Machinery
    What are the various types of textile machines?
Here are further guidelines.
    How do you define textiles?
    What are the various processes in textile manufacturing?
    What is a textile mill?
    What are the various types of textile fibers?
    What are the various processes in textile manufacturing?
    What various items are required in the textile industry?
    Here are further guidelines.
Production Process

The production process for lyocell begins by treating wood chips approximately the size of a coin until they form a substance similar to a thick paper, which is then sent to a fabric production factory. Once there, it is broken down into about 1 inch (2.5 cm) squares and chemically dissolved. The resulting slurry is then forced through a device called a spinneret, which has many small holes in it, somewhat like a strainer. This causes the mixture to form long fibers, which are chemically treated again, rinsed and dried, and lubricated before being compressed, combed, and cut. After this, they can be spun into yarn for use, either alone or in combination with other materials.

Characteristics and Uses

In its pure form, this material is very strong both when wet and dry, and lasts a long time. It can be mixed with many other types of fibers, including cotton, wool, linen, silk, and Lycra®; and can also be treated to have a variety of textures, from silky to denim-feel. It drapes well and resists wrinkles, which makes it popular for dress clothing. Additionally, it's very absorbent and wicks moisture well, and so is often used to make athletic clothing and summer garments. Depending on how it's treated, lyocell can be either machine washed, hand washed, or dry clean only.

Besides clothing, lyocell is used in making linens, some cigarette filters, vehicle carpeting, baby wipes, and bandages. Its durability makes it well-suited for industrial uses too: it's commonly found in conveyor belts, oil filters, and capacitor separators. It is also used to reinforce some plastics and in making some types of paper.

The manufacturing process

Hardwood logs are chipped into squares about the size of postage stamps. The chips are digested chemically, to remove the lignin and to soften them enough to be mechanically milled to a wet pulp. This pulp may be bleached. Then it is dried into a continuous sheet and rolled onto spools. At this stage, it has the consistency of thick posterboard paper. The roll of cellulose weighs some 500 lb (227 kg). The waste liquor may be reworked to produce tall oil, used to make alkyd resins.

At the Lyocell mill, rolls of pulp are broken into one-inch squares and dissolved in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide, giving a solution called "dope." The filtered cellulose solution is then pumped through spinnerets, devices used with a variety of manmade fibers. The spinneret is pierced with small holes rather like a showerhead; when the solution is forced through it, long strands of fiber come out. The fibers are then immersed in another solution of amine oxide, diluted this time, which sets the fiber strands. Then they are washed with de-mineralized water. The Lyocell fiber next passes to a drying area, where the water is evaporated from it. The strands then pass to a finishing area, where a lubricant, which may be a soap or silicone or other agent depending on the future use of the fiber, is applied. This step is basically a detangler, prior to carding and spinning into yarn.

The dried, finished fibers are at this stage in a form called tow, a large untwisted bundle of continuous lengths of filament. The bundles of tow are taken to a crimper, a machine that compresses the fiber, giving it texture and bulk. The crimped fiber is carded by mechanical carders, which perform an action like combing, to separate and order the strands. The carded strands are cut and baled for shipment to a fabric mill. The entire manufacturing process, from unrolling the raw cellulose to baling the fiber, takes about two hours. After this, the Lyocell may be processed in many ways. It may be spun with another fiber, such as cotton or wool. The resulting yarn can be woven or knitted like any other fabric, and may be given a variety of finishes, from soft and suede-like to silky.

The amine oxide used to dissolve the cellulose and set the fiber after spinning is recycled. 98% of the amine oxide is typically recovered. Since there is little waste product, this process is relatively eco-friendly. However, it uses a substantial amount of energy, and uses an organic solvent of petrochemical origin.

Fabric and garments from Lyocell fiber

After the fiber is created it is provided to manufacturers for weaving into fabric, then the fabric is used to create garments. Manufacturers may use environmentally unfriendly or chemical treatments to overcome the natural reluctance of the fiber to take dye and to overcome its natural pilling tendency. Although the closed-loop manufacturing process makes Lyocell inherently the most eco-friendly of the naturally regenerating fibers, different fabric and garment manufacturers vary in this respect.


It is used in many everyday fabrics. Staple fibres are used in clothes such as denim, chino, underwear, casual wear, and towels. Filament fibers are used in items that have a silkier appearance such as women’s clothing and men’s dress shirts. Lyocell can be blended with a variety of other fibers such as silk, cotton, rayon, polyester, linen, nylon, and wool. Lyocell is also used in conveyor belts, specialty papers and medical dressings. (Textiles, Kadolph & Langford). Tencel is also used for making some brands of baby diaper wipes.


Lyocell is manufactured under the brand Tencel by Lenzing AG in Mobile, Alabama, at the Grimsby plant, England, and in Heiligenkreuz, Burgenland, Austria and in Lenzing Austria. Also under the brand Excel from Grasim in Nagda. Also under the brand Lyocell from Baoding Swan in Baoding.