Meeting Guidelines

Meeting Guidelines

Table of contents.

What should an executive in the state and outside the state know about a meeting?
  1. Annotations or definition.

  2. Circulating printed materials in a meeting.

  3. Closing a meeting.

  4. Clothes

  5. Communications before the meeting.

  6. Confirmation of attendance of the meeting.

  7. Cordial meeting.

  8. Effective Meetings

  9. Essential departments in various states.

  10. Event

  11. Event Planning

  12. Follow-Up Meeting

  13. Food during the meeting.

  14. Introduction to others.

  15. Legal proceedings meeting and nonlegal proceedings meeting in the state.

  16. Location and timing of the meeting.

  17. Meeting and event difference

  18. Meeting guidelines and public safety.

  19. Meeting Management

  20. Planning and Preparation for a Meeting

  21. Presentation documents

  22. Profiles of participants in the meeting.

  23. Running a meeting

  24. Situations requiring a meeting

  25. Starting a meeting

  26. Technology enabled Meetings

  27. Troubleshooting Meetings

  28. Types of Meetings

  29. Types of Meetings and Events

  30. Video Conferencing

  31. What to do After a Meeting

  32. What to do Before a Meeting

  33. What to do During a Meeting

Annotations or definition.

What is a meeting?
A meeting is a gathering of people to present or exchange information, plan joint activities, make decisions, or carry out actions already agreed upon.

Why do we organize a meeting?
To discuss various issues.
To resolve various issues.

What are the most common reasons people do not attend a specific community or public meeting?
Relevant questions prior to the meeting do not get answered.

If you follow these guidelines, most of the problems and harms can be prevented.
Most of your problems will be solved.
You will have effective meetings.

Have issues raised in previous meeting been resolved?

What was mentioned in previous meetings regarding the aspects relevant to various issues?
There are some issues that need to be resolved with one-on-one meetings.

What was done later?
During a one-on-one meeting, issues were either not discussed or intentionally ignored. Was it justified?

Does organizing meetings for their own sake without resolving various issues make sense?

How many issues have been submitted to you that need to be resolved?
At least six issues have been submitted to you from my side that need to be resolved.

What are the types of meetings?
Do you want to have effective, productive meetings?
How often are you expected to attend meetings?
What questions should be answered before, during, and after the meeting?
Here are further guidelines.


What should your clothes look like?
I prefer cultural clothes.

Communications before the meeting.

What should you do before the meeting?
Try to resolve issues through Internet, email, postal mail, telephone, fax, other communications.

Before the meeting

Meeting preparation basics

A general misconception is that only the organizer needs to prepare for a meeting. (Although this is true for informational meetings where participants just sit and listen). In most meetings where you expect a discussion between all participants everybody should be prepared.

Here are a 3 basic preparation rules for both organizer and participants that can avoid plenty of wasted time. You can tweak these rules and distribute them in your organization as general guidelines or convert them into a policy!

Meeting organizer

Rule #1: Do you have a clear purpose?

Do you have a clear purpose for the meeting that can easily be formulated in one sentence? If the answer is yes, go ahead and use this line as the meeting title. If the answer is no, you should not schedule a meeting but probably do some more research or you try to find another way to solve your issues(s)

Rule #2: Do you have a clear agenda?

An agenda is a road map of the meeting. It let you define the expected outcome and let your participants know what to expect and how to prepare. If you don't have an agenda, don't schedule the meeting!

Rule #3: Do participants have all documentation?

If you expect your participants to be prepared by looking at or reading over some materials make sure that they receive all materials well before the meeting and have time to review them. If you are too late distributing them, re-schedule the meeting or remove the affected items from the agenda!

Meeting participants

Rule #1: Is there and do you understand the purpose of the meeting?

If from the meeting invitation the purpose is missing or not clear or you think you should not be invited for that purpose, ask the meeting organizer for clarfication (maybe there is good reason). If he or she cannot provide this, don't waste your time. Decline the meeting and remove it from your calendar.

Rule #2: Did you receive the meeting invitation with agenda in advance?

If you received a meeting invitation without a clear agenda you should simply decline the meeting. It's the organizer's responsiblity to provide one and you should not waste your time chasing it. End of story!

Rule #3: Did you receive any documentation and did you review it?

The responsibility here is on both sides. If documentation is required but not provided, decline the meeting again as the organizer will be wasting your time. If the documentation was provided but you didn't review it, also decline the meeting out of respect for the organizer and other particpants. You would be wasting their time!

1. Schedule the Meeting

When scheduling your meeting, consider the information that must be covered, then allocate an appropriate amount of time. Don't try to cram too many agenda topics into a 30-minute meeting. You'll end up going overtime and attendees will become frustrated. On the other hand, don't schedule too much time or the meeting may become slow-moving and get off-topic. Our advice? Being realistic is the best way to allocate an appropriate amount of time for a meeting.

Don't get caught up on halves and wholes. Many people will automatically allocate either 30 minutes or a full hour when scheduling a meeting simply because these quantities of time are common and expected. Schedule a 40-minute meeting if that's the amount of time it takes to cover the subject. Don't feel pressured to fill an hour if you don't have an hour of issues to cover.

Carefully consider who should be attending the meeting. Only invite those whose attendance is absolutely necessary. If there's someone who should know what happened in the meeting, but whose attendance isn't absolutely necessary, send them a quick e-mail outlining the outcomes of the meeting. All of us already attend too many meetings. These individuals will be thankful for that one extra meeting they DIDN'T have to attend that week.

2. Create the Meeting Information

When sending invitations to a meeting, ask attendees if they have any agenda item requests. Once the agenda items have been requested, the agenda must be created at least one day before the meeting is scheduled. This way, you can distribute the agenda to all of the attendees before the meeting begins.

3. Distribute the Meeting Information

When participants have the agenda and access to background information before the meeting, it gives them sufficient time to prepare for any discussions or decisions that will occur during the meeting. This also saves time during the meeting. If attendees come to the meeting prepared, less time will be spent answering background information questions and more time for discussing the important issues. When distributing the agenda, remind participants that it's their responsibility to come prepared to the meeting!

4. Lead the Meeting

Start your meeting on time! Even if all the attendees haven't arrived, begin when you said you would. Adhering to the schedule sends out a message that you're serious about the meeting and expect attendees to arrive on time.

As the meeting begins, provide an overview of agenda items and introduce the overall objective of the meeting. This provides direction for the meeting and reinforces what needs to be accomplished during this time. Introduce each agenda item by mentioning who will speak next and what will be discussed.

As the meeting leader, you're responsible for recording the meeting notes, whether it's on an interactive whiteboard, flipchart or in a notebook. This will free participants from the burden of note-taking and encourage richer, more in-depth discussions.

It's also your responsibility to keep the meeting on track. This means steering the meeting discussion in a way that fulfills the meeting objectives. If you have difficult personalities in the room or opposing views, this can be challenging! Try using sentences such as, "That's a valid point, but doesn't directly apply to this discussion. Perhaps we should schedule a separate meeting to address it fully." Or, "It's obvious there are some opposing views surrounding this issue. Perhaps our time would be best spent working towards a compromise. Any suggestions?" If a meeting becomes particularly heated, it's best to address what's possible in the meeting but consider hiring a professional facilitator for the next meeting – a neutral leader who's trained to deal with high-pressure, high-conflict meetings.

Items that surface and must be addressed should be assigned during the meeting discussion. Assign a particular individual or group to follow-up on each action item. A deadline and priority level should also be assigned for the action items.

5. Wrap-up the Meeting

At the end of the meeting, the leader should review the action items, who's responsible and by when. This way, everyone has a clear picture of who's responsible for what when the meeting's over.

Another item that should be addressed at the end of your meeting is the meeting process itself. Take a few moments at the end of the meeting to discuss what the group did well during the meeting and which areas need improving.

Once the meeting objective has been accomplished, adjourn the meeting. Even if it's thirty minutes earlier than expected! Don't continue meeting simply because that's what the schedule dictates.

6. Provide the Meeting Information

After the meeting is over, send the meeting information to all the participants. Because you were responsible for note-taking during the meeting, you may be the only one who has this information after the meeting ends. Whether you provide the notes by e-mail or photocopied hand-outs, sharing this meeting information is vital for proper follow-up. It's also a good idea to include a summary of all the action items assigned during the meeting. This acts as a reminder to all participants of who's responsible for what and by when.

Legal proceedings meeting and nonlegal proceedings meeting in the state.

Is there a difference between a legal proceedings meeting and nonlegal proceedings meeting in the state?

What is the difference between a legal proceedings meeting and nonlegal proceedings meeting in the state?
At a legal proceedings meeting in the state, a specific legal term is given to it, like civil deposition or criminal deposition.
A nonlegal proceedings meeting’s purpose is elaborated in the agenda that cannot have legal implications.

Is this a legal proceedings meeting in the state or nonlegal proceedings meeting in the state?

Meeting and event difference

What is the difference between a meeting and an event?
All meetings are events.
Not all events are meetings.
Meetings usually have discussion.
Not all events have discussions.

What to do Before a Meeting

Questions you need to answer.

Will anyone be harmed by this meeting or event?
Who will be harmed by this meeting or event?
Should you attend all events?
Why should you not attend all events?
What are examples of various useful events?
What are examples of harmful events?
What do we use meetings for?
What is a meeting?
What questions do you need answered prior to the meeting?
What are the dates of the meeting?
What are the location, day, date, time, and duration of the meeting?
When does it start and end?
What is the location of the meeting?
What are the types of meetings?
Why do you want to hold this meeting?
Who else will be there or should be there?
What are we hoping to achieve in the meeting?
Where is the best place to hold the meeting?
What is the exact time the meeting should start?
How long will it last?
Is there an agenda?
Who else will be there?
Who will be the facilitator?
What are we trying to accomplish?
Who else is invited?
What do we want to achieve?
What kind of a meeting is this going to be-information, discussion, or both?
What is the agenda?
Who will be the facilitator or meeting leader?
Whom do you want to take the minutes of the meeting?
Did you try to solve these problems and issues online?
Did you try to solve these problems over the phone?

Profiles of participants in the meeting.

What is the profile of the participants?
Are participants able to answer relevant questions?
Do they have answers to these questions?
What is good human character?
What is good human behavior?
Do you know about state planning and development?
What do you know about state planning and development?
Where is it displayed?
How would you rate your English language skills on a scale of 1-10?
If you rate yourself as 10, you should be able to answer all English language questions.
How do you define state economy?
How do you define a state budget?
What is the Essential Commodities Act?
What is the Essential Services Maintenance Act?
What is the Fair Housing Act?
What do you call the method of recording, summarizing, reporting, and analyzing quotas for food, clothing, building needs, transportation, communications, health care, education, land resources, etc., in the state?

What questions should you answer before the meeting?

1. The Meeting's Objective

Too often, people call a meeting to discuss something without really considering what a good outcome would be.

Do you want a decision?
Do you want to generate ideas?
Are you getting status reports?
Are you communicating something?
Are you making plans?

2. Use Time Wisely

To prepare an agenda, consider the following factors:

Priorities – what absolutely must be covered?
Results – what do need to accomplish at the meeting?
Participants – who needs to attend the meeting for it to be successful?
Sequence – in what order will you cover the topics?
Timing – how much time will spend on each topic?
Date and Time – when will the meeting take place?
Place – where will the meeting take place?

3. Satisfying Participants that a Sensible Process Has Been Followed

Once you have an agenda prepared, you need to circulate it to the participants and get their feedback and input. Running a meeting is not a dictatorial role: You have to be participative right from the start.

Why do you want to hold this meeting?
Who else will be there or should be there?
What are we hoping to achieve in the meeting?
Where is the best place to hold the meeting?
What is the exact time the meeting should start?
How long will it last?
Is there an agenda?
Who else will be there?
Who will be the facilitator?
What time should the meeting start?
Who will be the facilitator or meeting leader?
Whom do you want to take the minutes of the meeting?

Who else will be there or should be there?
What kind of a meeting is this going to be-information, discussion, or both?

Is there a time or date I should avoid?
What are we trying to accomplish?
Who else is invited?
What do we want to achieve?
What kind of a meeting is this going to be-information, discussion, or both?
What is the agenda?
Who will be the facilitator or meeting leader?
Whom do you want to take the minutes of the meeting?
Did you try to solve these problems and issues online?
Did you try to solve these problems over the phone?
Who else needs to be informed before the meeting?
Who will preside at the meeting?
How many people are expected to attend?
How many people will give a presentation or speech?
Who will give a presentation or speech?
How long will a person's presentation be?
What is the seating arrangement?
Will there be a question and answer session?
Who will answer the questions?
How many questions can one participant ask?
Will all participants ask and get answers to their questions?
What is the profile of people expected to attend?
How old are the people expected to attend?
What are you trying to accomplish in the meeting?
Why can’t the issues be deliberated via e-mail?
Can they communicate via e-mail?
Why don’t they communicate via e-mail, telephone, and postal mail and than have a meeting?
What is the profile of presenters or speakers?

Are they ready to answer relevant questions before, during, and after the meeting?

Are participants able to answer relevant questions?
Are they ready to answer relevant questions before, during, and after the meeting?
Do they have answers to these questions?
What is good human character?
What is good human behavior?
Do you know about state planning and development?
What do you know about state planning and development?
Where is it displayed?
How would you rate your English language skills on a scale of 1-10?
If you rate yourself as 10, you should be able to answer all English language questions.
How do you define state economy?
How do you define a state budget?
What is the Essential Commodities Act?
What is the Essential Services Maintenance Act?
What is the Fair Housing Act?
What do you call the method of recording, summarizing, reporting, and analyzing quotas for food, clothing, building needs, transportation, communications, health care, education, land resources, etc., in the state?

These are basic questions.
There are many more.

Does the meeting require any of the following?
1, Meeting coordinator
2. Meeting facilitator or presider
3. Meeting recorder
4. Meeting timekeeper
5. Specific speaker or person
6. Meeting initiator or leader.

Assigning Key Meeting Roles

1-Leader convenes the meeting
2-Facilitator keeps discussion and decision-making process moving along
3-Recorder takes notes on paper, laptop or on flip charts
4-Timekeeper reminds leader when time almost up for a given item.
5-Meeting Coordinator
Assigning Key Meeting Roles

Most meetings need people playing four roles:

1-Leader convenes the meeting

2-Facilitator keeps discussion and decision-making process moving along

3-Recorder takes notes on paper, laptop or on flip charts

4-Timekeeper reminds leader when time almost up for a given item.

Make sure these roles are assigned prior to a meeting

Leader role

The leader convenes the meeting and takes responsibility for communication before and after. The leader may lead discussion on all items or may ask others, including a facilitator, to lead all or parts of the meeting. This enables the leader to be a full participant in discussions.

Facilitator role

The facilitator keeps the discussion and decision-making process moving along. The facilitator takes responsibility for the process, but should not be involved in the content of the meeting. A facilitator is especially useful if the leaders holds a very strong opinion on an agenda item. Having a facilitator enables the leader to be a full participant.

Recorder role

The recorder takes notes on paper, laptop or on flip charts. Meeting notes should be distributed as soon after the meeting as possible. The longer the lag, the less confidence the members have that their investment will result in action. For groups that meet regularly, the recorder is responsible for keeping previous meeting notes and agendas in one place where they can be referenced later, such as through a shared network drive or a notebook, etc.


The timekeeper reminds leader when time almost up for a given item. A stop watch or small clock is invaluable.

Meeting Facilitator

12 Tips for Virtual Meetings

In today’s business world, many meetings take place over telephone lines, through the Internet, using video-conferencing and via other technology vehicles that allow participants to be in different geographic areas. While these vehicles can reduce the cost of meetings, they can also present significant challenges to the meeting leader. For, despite the geographic dispersion, the meeting leader must still find a way to get the participants excited from the very beginning, keep everyone engaged and focused on the objective, gather and document the critical information, build consensus, manage dysfunction, keep the energy high, and close with a clear understanding of what was accomplished, the value of the accomplishment and the steps to be taken once the meeting ends. When it comes to conference calls and other meetings with remote participants, it is even more important to utilize the Secrets of Facilitation to achieve success.

Tips for Planning

1. Distribute the meeting objectives, agenda, ground rules and any relevant handouts prior to the meeting. If multiple time zones are included in the meeting, be sure to specify the time zone when informing participants of the start and end times.

2. In planning the meeting, limit agenda items so that the entire call can be completed in two hours or less. If necessary, break the meeting into several calls. It is difficult to be productive and to maintain group participation with extended call times.

3. Consider having participants do preliminary brainstorming and submit their ideas prior to the meeting. You can summarize these ideas into “brainstorm lists” and send them in advance to participants along with the agenda and other written materials. This advanced preparation allows more time in the meeting to be spent grouping, prioritizing, or evaluating the brainstormed material.

4. Consider having multiple people at the same location assemble for the meeting in a conference room or some other suitable environment. Having as many as possible in the same room promotes teamwork and helps people avoid the temptation to multi-task (for example, answer emails) during the meeting. With each “call-in” location, consider appointing a scribe to document key points during the meeting on flip charts.

Prior to the meeting, create a list that shows the name and location of each person expected in the meeting.

Tips for Starting

1. At the beginning of the meeting, conduct a roll call: ask each person to state name and location. Try to address participants by name throughout the meeting to help people link names with voices.

2. In getting the session started, perform a traditional “inform-excite-empower-involve.”

* Explain the purpose of the meeting;
* Get the participants excited about participating by explaining the benefits to them of a successful outcome;
* Let them know the authority that has been given them; and
* Get them involved by asking a Type-B question that engages them in meaningful discussion that contributes to the work to be done
3. Consider adding specific ground rules to assist with “remote meeting etiquette,” such as the following: * Announce yourself when joining the meeting and inform the group if you are leaving prior to the end of the meeting;
* Always identify yourself before speaking;
* Avoid using the “hold” button, especially when music or other sounds result;
* Stay 100% focused during the meeting; avoid doing other work, answering emails, etc.

Tips for Executing

What if YOU are the one not in the room?

There may be times when a team has gathered for a meeting, but you – the facilitator or meeting leader – are the one in a different location. This situation is especially difficult because, along with all the other challenges previously identified, you can’t see the group dynamics but everyone else can. For example, everyone else might see that the group is ready to move on, or that you are going too fast, or that the group is not believing what you are saying, but you can’t see these things. When you find yourself leading a virtual meeting and you are not in the room, we recommend that you ask one person in the room to “be your eyes.” Ask this person to point out those things that you can’t see. Let the person know that you are looking to him or her to point out what the group’s feeling is or when the group appears to be in agreement or when there is a need to speed up or slow down.

1. Use round robins frequently to get input from everyone. Follow the same order each time, calling people by name. Establish this order early in the meeting.

2. Establish a verbal method for doing consensus checks, such as a round robin, where each person indicates agreement or disagreement.

3. Consider using meeting software that allows all participants to view on computer the information that is recorded while the session is on-going.

4. Do considerable summarizing and use frequent prompt and playback questions to make sure that everyone understands the focus of the discussion and what is being said.

Review all issues, decisions and action items prior to ending the meeting to help ensure full understanding and commitment to action.

5. Publish a re-cap immediately after the meeting.

Interested in learning more facilitation techniques? Check out our course, The Effective Facilitator.

Meeting coordinator

Do you think a meeting coordinator is necessary?
When is a meeting coordinator necessary?
What is a meeting coordinator?
What should you ask before the meeting?
Who is the meeting coordinator?
What should the meeting coordinator display to others?
What is the e-mail, fax, telephone, or mailing address of the meeting coordinator?
What is the profile of the meeting coordinator?

Always communicate these details before the meeting.

What other names are there for meeting coordinators?
Meeting coordinators also are called event planners and meeting planners.

What meeting requires a meeting coordinator?

A meeting that has many participants.
A meeting that has more than four participants needs at least one meeting coordinator.
A meeting that has more than 10 participants needs more than one meeting coordinator.

What should be the skills and knowledge of a meeting coordinator?

What are the duties of a meeting coordinator?

Create an agenda.
Post and send out the agenda.
Make room and location arrangements.
Arrange other requirements.
Reply to questions before the meeting by e-mail, fax, telephone, postal mail or face to face.
Document details of the meeting.
Arrange for printed materials and audiovisual equipment in case they are required.
Determine the purpose, message, and impression to communicate.
Search and select appropriate meeting sites.
Select attendees and how they will get to the meeting.
Select meeting dates and outline the planner needs for the meeting.
Describe what space and services are required for the meeting.
Determine the number and type of workers required.

Meeting that needs a meeting coordinator.
Meeting that does not need a meeting coordinator.
What are the meetings that need and do not need a meeting coordinator?

Meeting that needs a meeting coordinator.
Meeting that does not need a meeting coordinator.
What are the meetings that need and do not need a meeting coordinator?

You should suggest better options.

You need to e-mail, fax, call, or send postal mail before the meeting.

How do you measure the effectiveness of a meeting?
The meeting goes as per the agenda.
Doable actions are determined in the meeting.

Meeting Coordinator

* Research: Planners must conduct the required research, establish expected outcomes and produce outlines of events, including attendees, participants or contributors. This is where the logistics and organizational needs are determined along with the necessary resources required to create the final event.

* Design: Coordinators must visualize and make an evaluation of the scale needed to meet the objectives and determine what elements will supply the characteristics of the desired event.

* Organization: This phase may include locating a site, catering, decorations entertainment, travel arrangements and arranging for accommodations.

* Supervision: Vendors and others will need to be coordinated and supervised.

* Evaluation: This involves answering the questions regarding the delivery of the final production.

I am calling to confirm our meeting.
When are we expected to have a meeting?
Are we expected to have a meeting today?
Who else will be there?
Who will be the facilitator or meeting leader?
Why do you want to hold this meeting?
What are we hoping to achieve in the meeting?
Is there an agenda?
Who else is invited?
What is the agenda?
What kind of a meeting is this going to be-information, discussion, or both?
How long will it last?
How do you give a reminder for a meeting?
We are expected to have a meeting.
When are we expected to have a meeting?
Are we expected to have a meeting today?
What is the exact time the meeting should start?
I will be there within 10 minutes.
You should suggest better options.

You need to e-mail, fax, call, or send postal mail before the meeting.

How do you measure the effectiveness of a meeting?
The meeting goes as per the agenda.
Doable actions are determined in the meeting.

What questions do you need answered prior to attending the meeting?

Why is an e-mail communication better than telephone communication or a meeting?
E-mail can be sent twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
E-mail can transmit more details than possible over the telephone or a meeting.
E-mail doesn't need planning of venue, time, duration, and others parameters, like a meeting.
E-mail can transmit communication fast, resolve issues, and prevent conflict.
E-mail doesn't need to ensure whether the other party will be available as in a telephone conversation or meeting.
E-mail can maintain better records.
E-mail can resolve issues, problems, claims in a fast, easy, and timely manner.

Who may avoid e-mail use?
Monopolists, incompetent people.
Before the meeting
I have a meeting on the aforementioned date.
I would like you to be present at the meeting.
I will be submitting these documents.
Take a look at this. Make a copy for your records. If you have any questions, please let me know.

I am Asif Qureshi.
If you have questions, or don't understand something, please let me know.
Regional and structural variations exist in English.
Understanding English language is essential.
Reschedule a meeting

I have to schedule another appointment at 4:00 but I don't want it to overlap with yours. How long is the meeting going to be?
Is the meeting going to be more than an hour?
What time was the meeting again?
When are you going to make that presentation? I thought it was today?
Here are common statements people use when they can't attend a meeting.

I have another appointment that conflicts with your meeting. I will not be able to make it.
I have another meeting that I cannot miss. I won't be able to make yours.
I won't be able to go to the 3:00 meeting. I have another appointment at the same time.
I can't go to the meeting at 4:00. I have a doctor's appointment. Can you take notes for me?
I'm going to be out of town tomorrow, so I won't be able to attend the quarterly meeting. Can you send me a mail on the topics that were discussed?


Should you attend all meetings?
What questions should you ask before attending an event?

I am writing to you after I received your invitation in the mail.
What is the purpose of the event?
Do organizers have answers to all relevant questions before the event?
Do presenters and speakers have answers to all relevant questions before the event?
Meeting Management
Situations requiring a meeting
Types of Meetings
Planning A Meeting
Event Planning
Closing a Meeting
After a meeting
Technology enabled Meetings
Video Conferencing
Troubleshooting Meetings
These are basic questions.
There are many more.
Here are further guidelines.

Will we have workshops or panels as part of the meeting?
What is the exact time the meeting should start?
What is the theme or feeling you would like to create?
What is the sales strategy?
Should I put out a memo telling everyone why we are holding the meeting?
Should I ask others for their ideas on what should be on the agenda?
Who are the original thinkers we need to include?
Who will be the facilitator or meeting leader?
Whom do you want to take the minutes of the meeting?
Do we need any audiovisual equipment for the meeting?
Should I prepare any audiovisual elements or printed material?
Is there an agenda?
Will I need to present anything?
Will we be making any decisions?
Which one of these people is a good planner?
What do I need to bring to the meeting?
What do we want to avoid?
What's the best way to address this?
How do we want to make any decisions?
What do we need to know?
Does anyone have any questions about something he/she doesn't understand?
Can anyone help?
Would you like to share your thoughts?
Are we finished with this part of the discussion?
Do we know enough to make a decision?
What questions do we need to follow up on?
What key issues need to be addresses that you now have in your notes?
What has been set aside for us to follow up at another time?
Can each of you write a follow-up memo outlining your plan of action?
How did this meeting go?
Was it worth the time we've invested?
Did we do what needed to be done?
Did you get the information you needed?
Was the information effectively presented?

What should the meeting leader have done to make this a better meeting?
Did you participate in the meeting?
What could be done to encourage everyone to participate?
Was there an alternate to holding this meeting?
Can I have time to brainstorm about the future?
Can I ask you about your point of view?
What concerns do you have about the future of our company?
What concerns do our employees have about the future of our organization?
What concerns do you have about the future of the company?
What trends will affect the future?
What is the focus of the future for our organization?
What do we need to do to be ready for the future?
What is your track record on projects you’ve been in charge off?
All products are quality products. Emails are blocked. Can I have your advice?
What are the different ways we could do this business?
What are the industry trends?
What do we think the marketplace and copmpetition will be?
What are the products and the markets we will target?
What advantage will we offer customers?
How much is the customer willing to pay for that advantage?
Is our technology cutting edge?
What alternative technology could replace us?
How will we measure performance to make sure we are on tract?
What are the issues?
Can you tell me what happened?
Is this a situation that has occured before, if so, how often?
How likely is the problem to occur again?
Can you bring me up to date?
What reliable information do we have about the problem?
Who was involved?
Where did it happen?
When did it happen?
What did you hear and see?
What is the history of this type of problem?
Can you give me a chronology of this most recent problem?
What do we currently do?
How do we do it?
Why did it happen this way?
What was the logic?
What could be other causes for this problem?
Who is affected?
How are they affected?
Who might complain about this?
What problem do you think has created the situation?
How likely is the problem to occur again?
What is the precedent for solutions to this problem?
Will we be setting a precedent?
What are the issues?
Analyze a study regarding an issue.
Has anyone done a study about the issue we are facing?
What kind of study was it?
What was the point of the study?
Where did the study appear?
How many cases were in the study?
What is observer variability?
What is the margin of error?
Margin of error with regard to sampling and non sampling errors.
What is Sampling Error?
What is Coverage Error?
What is measurement Error?
What is Non-Response Error?
What is the desired outcome of the meeting? (How will you know the meeting was successful?)
This is the first and most important question to ask before any meeting.

Too often meeting planning revolves around the topic – which doesn’t define success at all. Why would you meet if you didn’t know what you wanted to accomplish? I’m not sure why you would, but it happens thousands of times everyday.

Before you schedule or at least plan your meeting, you need to know what your desired outcome(s) are. Without these, your meeting is doomed to being less effective (and more frustrating) than it could be.

Who needs to be there? (And who doesn’t?)

I’m guessing some of the meetings you’ve attended that you would consider to be ineffective or boring were meetings where you didn’t see a need for being there at all. This experience should give you a clue . . . the best meetings have the right people (and only those people) in attendance.

Once you know what you want to accomplish, then (and only then) should you think about who needs to be there. Let your desired outcomes drive who you include in your meeting.

Is the agenda prepared? (If not now, when?)

Your desired outcome(s) are a pivotal part of your agenda and so once you have them determined you are a long way towards completing your agenda. Add the timing, order of events, and a listing of the desired outcomes, as well as the location, length, attendees, etc. and get that to people ahead of time.

What can I do to prepare? (How can I help others prepare?)

If you are planning this meeting, you need to think through the agenda to make sure you are prepared from a logistical standpoint. You also need to make sure the others you have invited understand the agenda, how they can contribute, and what preparation they need to do.

Beyond your planning role though, as a meeting participant you also need to consider your preparation for the content of the meeting. Think about the information or ideas that you need to bring with you. If you need input from others or need to review something, make sure you have done that as well.

What can I do to make this meeting succeed? (What is my responsibility?)

Once the planning is done and the agenda is published, this important question remains. Answering this question reminds you that there are many things you can do to make the meeting more effective. Those things you can do include:

Being on time
Actively participating
Maintaining an open mind
Making sure everyone is contributing
Asking questions

I could go on, but you get the idea. It doesn’t matter what your stated role is for the meeting, hopefully you are there because you have something to contribute. It is your responsibility to offer that contribution.

When everyone attending a meeting thinks about their responsibility – and acts on it, you’ll be amazed at the results.

Lets' talk

Let me be perfectly clear.
You haven't got the facts.
Here's the bottom line.
I'm not sure I know what you mean.
What's the point?
What are the issues?
What are you trying to say?
Do you understand what I am saying?
That's not the issue.
You need to set your priorities.
I understand what you're saying.
Take a look at this.
Do you have any question.


Opening the Meeting

Good morning/afternoon, everyone. If we are all here, let's start the meeting.

Welcoming and Introducing Participants

Please join me in welcoming (name of participant)
We're pleased to welcome (name of participant)
It's a pleasure to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to introduce (name of participant)
I don't think you've met (name of participant)

Stating the Principal Objectives of a Meeting

We're here today to
Our aim is to ...
I've called this meeting in order to ...
By the end of this meeting, I'd like to have ...

Giving Apologies for Someone Who is Absent

I'm afraid.., (name of participant) can't be with us today. She is in...
I have received apologies for the absence of (name of participant), who is in (place).
Reading the Minutes (Notes) of the Last Meeting
First let's go over the report from the last meeting, which was held on (date)
Here are the minutes from our last meeting, which was on (date)
Dealing with Recent Developments
ABCD, can you tell us how the XYZ project is progressing? ABCD, how is the XYZ project coming along? ABCD, have you completed the report on the new accounting package? Has everyone received a copy of the (name of the company. organization) report on current marketing trends?

Moving Forward

So, if there is nothing else we need to discuss, let's move on to today's agenda.
Shall we get down to business?
Is there any other business?
If there are no further developments, I'd like to move on to today's topic.
Introducing the Agenda

Have you all received a copy of the agenda?
There are five items on the agenda. First,
Shall we take the points in this order?
If you don't mind, I'd like to ... go in order (or) skip item 1 and move on to item 4
I suggest we take item 2 last.

Allocating Roles (secretary, participants)

(name of participant) has agreed to take the minutes.
(name of participant) has kindly agreed to give us a report on this matter.
(name of participant) will lead point 1, (name of participant) point 2, and (name of participant) point 3.
(name of participant), would you mind taking notes today?
Agreeing on the Ground Rules for the Meeting (contributions, timing, decision-making, etc.)
We will hear a short report on each point first, followed by a discussion round the table.
I suggest we go round the table first.
The meeting is due to finish at...
We'll have to keep each item to ten minutes. Otherwise we'll never get through.
We may need to vote on item 5, if we can't get a unanimous decision.

Introducing the First Item on the Agenda

So, let's start with
Shall we start with. .
So, the first item on the agenda is
Pathan, would you like to kick off?
Martin, would you like to introduce this item?

Closing an Item

I think that covers the first item.
Shall we leave that item?
If nobody has anything else to add,

Next Item

Let's move onto the next item
The next item on the agenda is
Now we come to the question of.

Giving Control to the Next Participant

I'd like to hand over to Mark, who is going to lead the next point.
Right, Dorothy, over to you.


Before we close, let me just summarize the main points.
To sum up, ...
In brief,
Shall I go over the main points?

Finishing Up

Right, it looks as though we've covered the main items
Is there Any Other Business?
Suggesting and Agreeing on Time, Date and Place for the Next Meeting

Can we fix the next meeting, please?
So, the next meeting will be on... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at...
What about the following Tuesday? How is that?
So, see you all then.

Thanking Participants for Attending

I'd like to thank John and Jessy for coming over from London.
Thank you all for attending.
Thanks for your participation.

Closing the Meeting

The meeting is closed.
I declare the meeting closed.


Most organizations use meetings in the course of their work, and these meetings can be successful or unsuccessful, depending on whether they are managed properly. Managers must learn to properly organize and conduct meetings to contribute to organizational effectiveness. There are several important principles to meeting management: determining situations that require a meeting, understanding types of meetings, planning a meeting, running a meeting, closing the meeting, and managing people after the meeting.


Before calling a meeting, it is important to know if one is needed. Some situations benefit from having a meeting, and in other situations, one is unnecessary. There are some common situations in which a meeting is needed.

First, you are likely to need to meet if you are managing a project. Because projects involve multiple people and a lot of information, you will likely need to meet with individuals at various stages: at the beginning of the project, throughout the project, and at the end of the project. Meetings may change in terms of content and frequency, depending on the stage of the project.

A second reason that a meeting is often called is when a supervisor needs to manage people. Managers need to meet with staff as a group or one-on-one to direct employees effectively. Typically, meetings to manage people are held at regular intervals.

A third reason to meet is when a manager must interact with a client. Client relationships may require meetings to pitch ideas, update the client on progress, or present a completed product or service.

A fourth situation in which a meeting is preferable is when written communication, such as interoffice memos or email, is burdensome. If issues are too complex for memos or email, a meeting may be a more efficient way to communicate.

Finally, managers may call meetings to address workplace problems. If a project is on the wrong course, or if there are interpersonal problems, a meeting may be the best way to address such problems.

While a meeting is often the best way to accomplish work objectives, there are times in which a meeting is simply a waste of people's time. There may be situations in which bringing a large group together to address an issue may only cause confusion or conflict. Additionally, there are some tasks that may be accomplished more easily and quickly, but just as effectively, by a smaller group (subcommittee) or an individual, then presented to the larger group for approval. Thus, while meetings can be very useful in the workplace, managers should take care to determine whether they are truly necessary.


The reasons for calling the meeting should help to determine how the meeting should be formatted, or whether a meeting is really necessary. The length and formality of a meeting will differ depending on what type of meeting it is. There are six basic types of meeting: standing meeting, topical meeting, presentation, conference, emergency meeting, and seminar.

1. A standing meeting is a regularly scheduled meeting, such as a weekly check-in with employees or a project meeting that occurs every month. Because these meetings are recurring, they are easier to manage, with similar formats and agendas. Typically, these meetings are held on the same day and time, but they may be rescheduled if necessary.

2. A topical meeting is one that is called to discuss one specific subject. This may be a work issue or a project task. The invitees and format are dependent on the subject being addressed.

3. A presentation occurs when one or more people speak, and one moderator leads the meeting. Presentation meetings tend to be highly structured, and there purpose is usually to inform. It may be to inform clients, employees, or managers.

4. A conference is also highly structured, but it is used to solicit contributions from participants on a particular topic.

5. An emergency meeting is used to address a crisis, and they are often called with very little advance notice. These meetings may be used to address internal problems, such as a theft in the building, or external problems, such as a natural disaster.

6. A seminar is typically educational—someone with expertise provides participants with specific information.

The type of meeting will dictate who is invited to participate and how the participants are arranged in the meeting room. Topical meetings, conferences, and emergency meetings are best run in seating arrangements in which participants can all see one another and therefore be more likely to engage in discussion.

Conversely, presentations and seminars require a different seating arrangement where all participants can see the speaker, but do not need to see one another. These arrangements are presented in Figure 1, in which the ovals represent meeting participants and the shaded oval is the presenter or facilitator.

Standing meetings may vary in seating, depending on what is discussed; if a supervisor is giving information, then there is no need for participants to group themselves in order to see one another. Some standing meetings may literally be "standing" if participants only need to meet briefly to get information from a supervisor or team leader.


The most critical part of planning a meeting is determining whether a meeting is actually necessary. There are many organizational issues that can be addressed without needing to hold a meeting. Meetings are time-consuming, and because they require many different people to leave their work to meet, they can hinder productivity if they are called when unnecessary. Additionally, some standing meetings are kept without any assessment as to whether or not that weekly or monthly meeting is actually productive and useful.

To determine whether a meeting is necessary, consider the problem that needs to be solved or the issue that must be addressed. If all that is required is dissemination of information, then a memo or email may be sufficient. If you need information, decide if you can get that information from one person or if a

Figure 1 Possible Seating Arrangements for Types of Meetings
Figure 1

Possible Seating Arrangements for Types of Meetings
meeting with several people is necessary. It is appropriate to call a meeting if you have to solicit information or feedback from a group of people, if a group decision must be made, or if a group will have questions regarding the information being given.

Once you have determined that a meeting is necessary, you must decide who should participate. Consider the goal or purpose of the meeting and be sure to invite those members of the organization who have the information or opinions necessary for the meeting. It may be helpful to ask others for their opinions as to who should attend the meeting, since you may not have all of the necessary information.

After the list of participants has been compiled, the participants should be contacted as soon as possible to ensure that all of the necessary people can attend. When contacting individuals about the meeting, let them know the time, place, and purpose of the meeting.

Additionally, if the meeting participants need to bring any documents or information to the meeting, be sure to ask them specifically for these things. It will be a waste of time to call a meeting without properly preparing yourself and the participants. Finally, if you have scheduled a meeting in advance, give participants a reminder of the meeting time and place as the meeting draws nearer. A quick email or telephone call can remind participants of the meeting.

The final step in preparing for a meeting is to develop a meeting agenda. The agenda should indicate the desired outcome of the meeting, the major topics to address, and the type of action needed. You may also want to list a name of a participant next to an agenda item. For example, an agenda item might be: "Update on monthly sales numbers (Linda Smith)."

By determining which participants will need to be involved with each meeting agenda item, you may discover that a critical person has been overlooked and must be invited to the meeting. If possible, distribute the agenda to the meeting participants before the meeting so that they know what will be discussed and what they will be responsible for doing before and during the meeting. This agenda will also give you and the participants a better idea of how long the meeting should last.


Deciding a meeting's purpose and preparing to hold the meeting are critical steps for an effective meeting. However, if the actual meeting is not properly run, it can be a waste of time and resources for everyone involved. The first and easiest step in running a meeting properly is to start the meeting on time. This indicates respect for meeting participants and their time.

When beginning the meeting, be sure to thank the participants for taking time to attend, and thank those who have done prior preparation for the meeting. Review the purpose of the meeting with the participants and determine who will take minutes of the meeting (if necessary). It may also be necessary to clarify your role in the meeting, which is dependent on the purpose of the meeting.

For instance, if the purpose of the meeting is to come to a group decision on a topic, your role may be to facilitate discussion and decision-making. If the meeting's purpose is to provide information on a new organizational policy and answer questions about that policy, your role will be quite different. You will be an information provider and a representative of the organization. Thus, to ensure smooth interactions in the meeting, it may be helpful to inform participants of your role.

Once the meeting is underway, you may need to establish some guidelines or rules for how the meeting should progress. Many of these guidelines for interaction are understood by members of the organization, but how strong unwritten rules are may depend on the people who attend the meeting. Therefore, there may be times in which it is necessary to establish or reiterate ground rules.

Ground rules might include: meeting attendees must participate in the meeting by providing information or opinions; participants must listen when others are speaking and not interrupt; members must maintain the momentum of the meeting and not get distracted with tangential topics. In some meetings it may be necessary to request that participants maintain confidentiality about what was discussed in the meeting.

Facilitating the meeting can be a daunting task. First, as meeting facilitator, you may have to enforce the established ground rules. For instance, if one participant is dominating discussion and preventing others from voicing opinions, you may need to ask that person to give others a chance to participate. Second, you are responsible for managing the time used in the meetings. It can be very difficult to keep a meeting's momentum and accomplish the tasks set forth in the agenda.

Be mindful of the time, and if necessary, get a meeting participant to help monitor the time. If the time seems to be getting out of hand, you may choose to table a certain topic to be addressed at a later time, or you may ask participants for their suggestions to resolve the impasse and move on.

While it is often difficult to encourage meeting participants to stop discussing a particularly interesting or controversial topic, this is often necessary. At times, you may be able to ask certain participants to gather more information related to a difficult topic, which will be shared in a later meeting and discussed further at that time.


Try to end the meeting on time; if necessary, schedule another meeting to address agenda items that need more time. At the close of the meeting, reiterate any conclusions, decisions, or assignments to participants, so that you are sure that you have summarized the meeting properly. Any meeting minutes should reflect these outcomes of the meeting, so that there is a record of tasks and responsibilities that were decided. Often during the course of the meeting, it is easy to forget specific issues that have been resolved.

In closing the meeting, you may also want to ask participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the meeting. Participants may be able to identify issues that should be addressed in a memo or another meeting. Additionally, participants may tell you that the meeting was unnecessary, which will aid in future meeting planning. Without such evaluation, unnecessary meetings may continue to be scheduled, or you may have some participants who are absent from future meetings, believing them to be a waste of time.

Regardless of the purpose of the meeting or the way in which it progressed, you should try to close the meeting on a positive note. Even if a meeting has involved difficult discussion or disagreements, try to find something positive to mention. This may be a conclusion that has been reached or a decision about the need for more information, or that all participants have voiced their concerns and that those concerns have been heard.

Finally, be sure to thank all participants for coming to the meeting.


After the meeting, the most critical task is to disseminate information about the conclusions reached in the meeting. This is easily done by distributing the meeting minutes. However, if minutes have not been taken, you should record important outcomes of the meeting as soon as possible after the meeting. The distribution of information regarding the outcomes of the meeting helps participants know that their voices were heard and that the tasks accomplished in the meeting are recognized.

If tasks were assigned for people to complete after the meeting, distribute those via email, memo, or personal request. It is helpful to remind people of the tasks they were asked to do.

Post-meeting follow-up tasks should be carried out as soon as possible. To keep the momentum of the meeting and of the agenda, it is useful to provide information quickly.

After a meeting

This topic contains frequently asked Live Meeting organizer questions. Q. How do I create meeting reports in Live Meeting?

A. You can use Live Meeting to generate, print, and save meeting and recording reports. Meeting reports provide summaries as well as detailed information about the meetings that take place in Live Meeting. The following table describes the report information that you can collect: Information Description

Meeting list report

This report lists the meetings and meeting attendance for a particular time period.

Meeting attendance report

This report lists the meeting participants and specifies whether the participants were presenters or attendees. Additionally, this report lists the browser used, the time each participant arrived, and the duration of each participant's attendance. If extended registration was required for the meeting, the meeting attendance report includes the e-mail address and company name of each participant.

Meeting poll report

This report indicates how each person who attended the meeting voted in response to each polling slide that was shown and displays the aggregate percentages for each poll.


Technology now allows people in remote locations to meet in a way that is similar to face-to-face meetings. Conference telephone calls and videoconferencing are alternatives when parties cannot meet in person.

Conference calls are made via telephone, and all parties are able to listen to and speak to one another. Many workplace telephones have the ability to place conference calls, and these calls are relatively inexpensive, especially when compared to the cost of an employee or client traveling long distances to attend a meeting.

The major difficulty associated with conference calls is the participants' inability to see one another. Because of this, participants may not know who is speaking; therefore, it is important that individuals identify themselves before speaking. Another problem with not seeing others is that interruptions are common in conference calls; care must be taken to wait for each person to speak in turn. Finally, as with all telephone conversations, facial expressions and eye contact are not possible, and thus, the meaning of a person's words may be lost.

Videoconferencing is done through an Internet connection, and it allows participants to see and hear one another through a video or computer screen. Because participants can see one another, many of the limitations associated with telephone conference calls are eliminated. However, many videoconferences have a short time delay; a person speaking in one location must wait for the others in the other location to receive the message. This means that reactions to speaker may lag such that the speaker cannot easily understand the reaction to his or her words.

Another major drawback to videoconferencing is that, with increasing use of technology, there is a possibility that others will not have adequate or compatible technology, or that the technology will fail. However, despite potential problems, videoconferencing provides much richer information than a conference call and is still less expensive in many cases than having all participants travel to one location.


There are a number of problems that can occur in meeting planning and facilitating. However, if you can determine the cause of the problems, avoiding or eliminating them may lead to more effective meetings.

The first problem that you may encounter in meeting management is when participants do not attend meetings consistently. If participants who need to attend meetings are not coming to them, there may be a number of different reasons why, and as a meeting planner, you need to ask the participant his or her reasons for not attending. If participants are forgetting to come to meetings, you may have to provide more reminders of upcoming meetings or schedule them further in advance. In severe cases, you may even have to personally approach participants immediately before a meeting to remind them of their need to attend.

A more serious problem occurs when participants choose not to attend meetings. It could be that participants feel that meetings are a waste of their time, or perhaps they feel that their contributions are not valued, or they may even dislike other participants enough to not attend. Although difficult, resolving interpersonal problems may be necessary to get needed participants to attend meetings.

A second problem associated with meeting management is when meetings become sidetracked by tangential topics or discussions with no resolution. This problem can be addressed either by improving meeting planning or meeting facilitation. In planning a meeting, if the agenda is not specific enough or if participants do not bring proper information to the meeting, it is easy to get bogged down in discussion that does not result in problem solving. Thus, when meetings become sidetracked, try to determine what the problem is either by observing participants comments or by specifically asking participants what could be done to better focus meetings before they occur.

If the problem is not in the meeting planning, then it is in the facilitation. The facilitator must keep meeting participants on track and speak up if discussion meanders. If a facilitator is unwilling to ask participants to save unrelated comments until a later time, or unable to maintain control over the meeting, it will turn into an unproductive session.

Another problem associated with meeting management is when members do not participate appropriately, either by dominating the discussion or not contributing to the discussion. The facilitator may need to remind participants of meeting etiquette or ground rules or specifically ask some participants to voice their opinions. If a meeting participant is particularly disruptive, it may be necessary for the facilitator to speak to the person outside of the meeting and request that they allow others more opportunity to contribute. In the worst case, a meeting participant may need to be replaced, particularly if bad behavior is detracting from organizational effectiveness.

Successful meeting management is an important management competency. Managers must understand situations that require meetings; the types of meetings; how to plan, run, and close meetings; and how to manage activities after meetings. Furthermore, managers should be able to troubleshoot problems that arise from organizational meetings and know options for technology-enabled meetings.

What to do During a Meeting

What questions should be answered during the meeting?
What is the difference between a meeting, a lecture, and a discussion?

What are the advantages of discussion?

What to do After a Meeting

What questions should be answered after the meeting?
Evaluating after the meeting
How Can a Meeting Be Evaluated?
What Are Some of the Challenges to Conducting Meetings?
Follow-Up Meeting
Department Meetings

Is there a difference between a meeting and an event?

What is the difference between a meeting and an event?

In a meeting, two or more people come together to discuss one or more topics, often in a formal setting.

Meetings are sometimes held around conference tables.

An event can be a scientific phenomenon (rainbow) or gathering of people.

What is an event?

An event can be a scientific phenomenon (rainbow) or gathering of people.

What should happen before the event?

There should be a few orientation meetings with the organizers and main participants of the event.

What are other names for an event?


What are the types of events?

An observable occurrence, phenomenon, or an extraordinary occurrence, or a type of gathering.

What are examples of various events (gatherings)?

Academic discussions, presentations along with meals.
Annual meetings
Award events
Board of directors meetings
Book launch events
Music festivals
Neighborhood block parties
Political rallies
Social events
Sports events
Any other major events
Other types of events
Here are further guidelines.

Should you attend all events?

Why should you not attend all events?
Some events can be harmful.
Sometimes, the purpose displayed is criminal activity. Some events are purposely created to exploit women under various false pretexts or advertisements; that is criminal wrongdoing.
All questions are not answered.
You cannot hold an event while violating the rights of others.

What are examples of various useful events?
Annual general meetings
Consumer shows
Expo or expositions
International events
Networking events
Plenary or general sessions
Political events
Press conferences
Product launch events
Retreats and team building events
Social events

What are examples of harmful events?
Shareholders’ meetings
Trade shows

Who should usually organize an event in the state?

At least a state should sponsor, organize, and endorse an event.

How should you go ahead for an event?

Internet deliberations including communications like call, fax, or postal mail), then a meeting, then an event.

What questions should be answered before organizing a meeting or an event?

Will anyone be harmed by this meeting or event?
Who will be harmed by this meeting or event?
Is this a meeting or an event?
Do the participants know the purpose of the meeting or event?

What should you circulate before advertising any meeting or event?

How is your event or presentation better than existing presentations, guideliness or instructions?
Take a look at this.

If you show that your event, presentation, guidelines, and instructions are better than existing presentations, guidelines, or instructions, then others will attend the event you have organized.





The Purpose of Meetings
Meetings are an important organisational tool as they can be used to:

Pool and develop ideas
Solve problems
Make decisions
Create and develop understanding
Encourage enthusiasm and initiative
Provide a sense of direction
Create a common purpose

Components of Meetings

A meeting can be divided into the following three main components:

Content is the knowledge, information, experience, expertise, opinions, ideas, attitudes and expectations that each individual brings to a meeting.
Interaction is the way in which the participants work together to deal with the content of a meeting. This includes the feelings, attitudes and expectations of the participants which have a direct bearing on co-operation, listening, participation and trust.
Structure is the way in which both the information and the participants are organised to achieve the purpose/objectives of the meeting.

Types of Meetings

There are many different types of meetings; here we focus on those used to:

Solve problems
Make decisions

Informing Meetings

These are the most straightforward meetings where one member, usually the chairperson, has factual information or a decision which affects all those present, which he/she wishes to communicate. Such meetings tend to be formal as their aims are to give the members a real understanding and to discuss any implications or how to put such information to best use.

Consulting Meetings

These are meetings used to discuss a specific policy or innovation and can be used to get participants' views of such a policy or idea. An example could be:

Review a current policy
State its deficiencies
Suggest change
Stress the advantages of such change
Admit any weaknesses
Invite comments
Problem Solving Meetings

These meetings are dependent upon the chairperson describing the problem as clearly as possible. Members should be selected according to their experience, expertise or interest and then given as much information as possible to enable them to generate ideas, offer advice and reach conclusions. (See also:Problem Solving)

Decision Making Meetings

These types of meetings tend to follow an established method of procedure:

Description of the problem
Analysis of the problem
Draw out ideas
Decide which is best
Reach conclusions
(See also: Decision Making)

Many organisations hold regular meetings to enable members to report and discuss progress and work in hand, to deliberate current and future planning. Such meetings can contain elements of each of the four above examples.

Planning and Preparation for a Meeting

Of prime importance for the success of any meeting is the attitude and leadership of the chairperson. In a meeting, the chairperson is the leader and, as such, has to perform the same function as the leader of any working group.

For a meeting to be effective, the chairperson has to:

Plan, organise and control the discussion of subjects on the agenda.
Maintain the group by encouraging and developing harmonious relationships.
Motivate the individuals by encouraging all to contribute, rewarding their efforts and supporting them in any difficulties.
Before any meeting, the chairperson should ask and resolve the following questions:

What is the purpose of the meeting?
Is a meeting appropriate?
How should the meeting be planned?
Who should attend the meeting?
What preparation is required for the meeting?
What is the Purpose of the Meeting?
All meetings must have a purpose or aim and the chairperson must ask questions, questions as:

What is to be achieved by this meeting?
Is advice required on a particular issue?
Has a problem arisen that needs prompt discussion?
Is this a regular meeting to keep members 'in touch'?
Is a Meeting Appropriate?

The chairperson should always consider whether a meeting is necessary or if some other means of communication is more appropriate,for example memos or emails targeted to individuals inviting comment. Unnecessary meetings may waste time, lead to frustration and negativity and may lower motivation to participate in future meetings.

How Should the Meeting be Planned?
This will very much depend on the type of meeting to be held. There should be some rationale behind every meeting, no matter how low-level or informal, and this will largely dictate the content and indicate how planning should proceed.

Who Will Attend the Meeting?
This is often decided by the nature of the meeting itself. In a small organisation, a meeting could well include all members of staff, whereas a working party or committee meeting will already have its members pre-determined. In a large organisation or department, staff attending might well be representing others. It is important that the full implications of such representation are realised by the individuals concerned as they are not merely speaking for themselves. Meetings outside the workplace may include members of the board of directors or other interested parties.

What Preparations are Needed for the Meeting?
If maximum contribution is to be forthcoming from all participants, the purpose of the meeting should be recognised by all. The most tangible expression of this is the agenda which should be circulated beforehand to all those invited to the meeting. The agenda should:

Give the time and place of the meeting.
List the topics to be covered, indicating who will introduce them.
Have any relevant papers attached.
Give the time the meeting will close.
The Agenda: This is the outline plan for the meeting. In most formal meetings it is drawn up by the secretary in consultation with the chairperson. The secretary must circulate the agenda well in advance of the meeting, including any accompanying papers. The secretary also requests items for inclusions in the agenda.

Regular meetings often start with the minutes from the last meeting followed by 'matters arising' which forms a link with what has happened in the previous meeting. Most meetings conclude with 'any other business' (AOB) which gives everyone the opportunity for any genuine last minute items to be raised; though more formal meetings may have AOB items listed on the agenda.

An example of an agenda might be:
Apologies for absence.
Minutes of last meeting.
Matters arising (from minutes of last meeting).
Item 1 -Training & Development.
Time and date of next meeting.
There can, of course, be more items on the agenda.

Essential departments in various states.

What are the essential departments in every state?
  1. Aviation World.| World Aviation Administration.

  2. Agriculture and food sciences.| State department of agriculture and food sciences.

  3. Accountants and Auditors| State Inventory Accounting / World Inventory Accounting

  4. Complaint| State department of complaints

  5. Corrections| State Department of Correctional Services.

  6. Defense.| State department of defense

  7. Economy and budget.| State department of economy and budget.

  8. Electricity.| State department of electricity.

  9. Engineering.| State department of engineering

  10. English language.| State department of English language

  11. Fire.| State Fire Marshal's Office

  12. Fuel.| State Department of Fuel

  13. Food and supplies.| State department of food and supplies.

  14. Health.| State department of health.

  15. Higher education.| State department of higher education.

  16. Housing and development.| State department of housing and development.

  17. Hospitality and Protocol.| State Hospitality and Protocol

  18. Human services.| State department of human services

  19. Human Resources.| State department of Human Resources

  20. Information and broadcasting.| State department of information and broadcasting.

  21. Irrigation & Flood Control.| State Department of Irrigation & Flood Control

  22. Law/justice.| State department of law/justice.

  23. Mechanical engineering.| State department of mechanical engineering.

  24. Planning and development.| State department of planning and development.

  25. Police or defense.| State department of police or defense.

  26. Postal Service | State department of Postal Service

  27. Printing | State Printing and Mail Services

  28. Public health.| State department of public health.

  29. Public Libraries.| Public Libraries

  30. Roads & Buildings./Public Works Department/PWD| State department of Roads & Buildings

  31. Secretary of State.| State department of Secretary of State.

  32. School education.| State department of school education.

  33. State Offices and Agencies of Emergency Management| State Offices and Agencies of Emergency Management

  34. Textiles.| State department of textiles.

  35. Telecommunications.| State department of telecommunications.

  36. Transportation.| State department of transportation.

  37. Water.| State department of water.

  38. Weather and Climate.|Weather and Climate

  39. Other.| Other.

Public safety
Meeting guidelines and public safety.
How do you make an area safe for civilized people?
Educate people about civilized behavior.
Resolve conflicts before they lead to violence.
Screen newcomers properly so that they do not harm themselves or others.
Make sure the state is within the minimum dimensions meant for a state.
Make sure the state does not exceed 10-13 millions residents. Profile all residents.
Make profiles of residents known to others.
Meeting guidelines and public safety.

How does following specific meeting guidelines enhance public safety?

This example will make you understand.

A person was asked to reach a location.
He asks certain questions.
The questions were not answered and he was told he will be updated there only.

When he reached the location, five individuals were at that location.
He was assaulted.
A police complaint was filed.

This was a conspiracy, sabotage with assault.
If both sides would have known the meeting guidelines, conspiracy, sabotage, and assault would have been prevented.

Do not go ahead for a meeting if all questions relevant to the meeting are not answered.
Harms can occur if all questions relevant to the meeting are not answered.
Here are further guidelines.
Public Safety Act
Here are further guidelines.

Copyright © 2012
Who has authored these resources?
Doctor Asif Qureshi.

All rights reserved.


What do you have to do?
Doctor Asif Qureshi dedicates these resources for public good to state departments of health and state departments of public health.

Make sure these resources, with my directives, are displayed at state departments of health and state departments of public health; this includes education for aspiring physicians, continuing education for existing healthcare professions, and guidelines for patients as well.

About the Author

My name is Asif Qureshi.
I am the founder of Qureshi University.
I am a qualified medical doctor.
I am also a forensic psychiatrist.
My biodata/profile is available at
I am an educator, researcher, and administrator inside and outside the state.
I have more than 7 years of hospital experience as a practicing physician.
I have 17 years of research experience in Chicago, Illinois.
My research is available at
I have written more than 40 nonfiction books.
My published works are relevant to school education and professional education.
I can guide 600 professions inside and outside the state.
I can guide 600 professions, including governors, teachers, lawyers, engineers, and specific physicians, inside and outside the state.
I can guide 18 specific types of aspiring and existing physicians inside and outside the state.
I can guide 64 essential departments inside and outside the state.
I can guide more than 330 governors inside and outside the state.
My mailing address is Doctor Asif Qureshi, 5042 N. Winthrop Ave. #237, Chicago, Illinois 60640 North America
I have lived at this location for more than 17 years, from 1999 to May 11, 2017.
I am a legal resident under the color of state law: What did you understand?
This is my home office.
This is for those who need to know my biodata or profile.

Who has authored these resources?
Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Last Updated: January 6, 2018