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Aircraft Emergencies.
Emergency Transponder Codes
Aviation Incidents within and outside the State
Aircraft Crash Investigation
How are aviation incidents categorized within and outside the state?
Aircraft utilized for criminal activities investigations.
Crash investigation of an aircraft.
Incidents in aviation that are not criminal activities or air crashes.

What has happened relevant to aviation within or outside the state?

Aircraft crash investigations

What is on the list of aircraft crash investigations?
May 19, 2016: Aircraft crash description.
October 31, 2015: Aircraft crash description.
December 28, 2014: Aircraft crash description.

Questions you need to answer during an air crash investigation.

What are the specifications of the aircraft, flight, and pilot biodata?
When did the aircraft go off the radar and who reported this?
When and where exactly did the aircraft crash?
Who verified that the aircraft crashed?
How did you verify that the aircraft crashed?
Was the aircraft crash due to a technical failure?
Was the aircraft intentionally brought down?
Was the aircraft a nonmilitary or military aircraft?
If the aircraft was intentionally brought down, how was it brought down, by whom, and why?
Who from the state’s emergency management department answered the questions?
How could the harms have been prevented?
Aviation investigators around the world.
Aircraft Incident Investigations.
Air Crash Investigations.

Beacon Code Allocated Use
6000 Military flights in Class G airspace
7500 Aircraft hijacking
7600 Radio Failure
7700 Emergency
Aircraft in Distress
Emergencies at the Airports

Aircraft in Distress

3.Type of aircraft
4.Nature of emergency
2.Intention of person in command

A distress message should contain as many
as possible of the following elements, if possible in the order shown: MAYDAY (preferably spoken 3 times)
a) Name of the station addressed;
b) Identification of the aircraft;
c) Nature of the distress condition;
d) Intention of the person in command;
e) Position, level and heading of the aircraft;
f) Any other useful information.

What's a squawk code?
To make it possible for an ATC to know "who is who and where" on his display, aircraft are equipped with a device called a "transponder". The transponder transmits a 4-digit code as a reply to an interrogation by a radar station. The 4 digit code is called a squawk code. Each digit of a squawk varies from "0" to "7" only (octal numeral system). There can never be an "8" nor a "9" in a transponder code. By combining 4 numbers from "0" till "7" ("0000" - "7777"), 4096 different squawk codes are available.

Pilots will select a particular "non-discrete" transponder code such as "2000" to show their presence to ATC before they have been able to make contact. A "non-discrete code" is a set of 4 numbers that may be used by several aircraft in the same area.

By making a particular aircraft squawk a specific "discrete" code, the controllers can easily see "who is who" amongst other aircraft. "Discrete code" means that a particular squawk code has been assigned to 1 aircraft only by ATC.

The squawk code is also used as a primary means to "correlate" or link a flight plan to a specific aircraft. If a pilot has filed a Flight Plan and received a discrete squawk code, Flight Plan information such as aircraft callsign, aircraft type and wake turbulence category are shown in the aircraft label on the ATC's Situational Data Display (SDD).

Transponder settings

When squawking "stand-by", controllers can still see the aircraft blip on their screens but without any label with flightplan information. Stand-by is required when on apron, before departure and after landing. That way, the pilot does not cause any disturbance in the ground traffic, as all the extra information can clutter the controller's screen. On IVAO, stand-by is simulated by setting the transponder "OFF".

Set the transponder "ON" when entering the active runway for departure until vacating the runway after landing at the end of your flight.

Squawk IDENT can also be requested by ATC. This highlights the aircraft label on the controller's screen so that the controller can easily identify the traffic if he/she has a doubt. IDENT is accessed with the little button in the IvAp window and only should be pushed when requested by a controller only.

Transponder Equipment Modes

Always mention in your Flight Plan what information the transponder equipment on board of the aircraft is sending. If the transponder is "not working properly", select the letter that corresponds to the remaining equipment capability.

Mode "A"

This transponder sends only the 4-digit squawk code that was set by the pilot to the radar antenna. In this case no altitude information (mode C) is transmitted when a radar station interrogates the transponder.

Mode "C"

This type of transponder sends the 4-digit squawk code but also the pressure altitude at which the aircraft is flying.

Mode "S"

Since traffic has increased a lot over the years and because more ATC Units received radar equipment, the 4096 squawk code combinations are no longer sufficient to give different squawks to all aircraft. Besides Mode "A" and "C" information, this generation of transponders also sends the aircraft identification, selected heading, selected altitude, ... and much more. The additional information can only be decoded by an ATC system that is adapted to do so.Mode S stands for "selective interrogation" where every transponder is interrogated seperately by each radar station.

Preventing Emergencies

Safety Margins

Fuel Management

Far and away the most common reason for losing engine power is fuel mismanagement. This includes running out of fuel as well as contamination of the fuel. The good news is that such problems are relatively easy to prevent.

Check the fuel sumps if the aircraft has been sitting overnight or longer. Humid air in the tanks can condense at night. The problem is worse if the tanks are less than 100% full, because that leaves more room for air. Because of the daily temperature changes, new air gets into the tank each day. The condensed water, hiding underneath the fuel, does not re-evaporate — it just accumulates day after day.

Check the sumps if the aircraft has been refueled since the last flight.

If you do detect water after refueling, notify the fuel vendor immediately, so that one of your less-meticulous fellow pilots doesn’t get harmed. Then, wait a few minutes and check your tanks again. A fair amount of water can be suspended in the fuel in the form of tiny droplets that take a while to settle out.

Check the fuel sumps if the airplane has been sitting in the rain even for a short time. The filler caps have been known to let water leak in.

Check the color of the fuel. Different octane grades are color-coded differently. The color is rather pale, so it may help to look lengthwise down a long column of fuel.

Check the odor of the fuel. If it smells like jet fuel, watch out. There have been many cases where an airplane that runs on AVGAS has been mis-fueled with Jet-A. The engine may run on the mixture for a while, but it will be rapidly destroyed because of detonation in the cylinders.

If you suspect here is a mixture of Jet-A along with AVGAS in your tank, here’s how you can check: Put a drop or two of the suspect fuel on a piece of paper. For comparison, put a similar amount of known pure AVGAS on the paper nearby. The AVGAS should evaporate rather quickly. The Jet-A, if any, will remain behind, leaving a translucent spot on the paper.

There are several ways to detect a sample that is 100% water. For one, the water will not have the right color, since the fuel color-code dyes are insoluble in water. Secondly, water has a noticeably different density and viscosity — it just doesn’t “slosh” the same way. It also doesn’t evaporate at the same rate. Last but not least, you can add a drop of water to your fuel sampler and make sure it goes to the bottom.

Before each flight, peer into the tank to make absolutely sure the fuel quantity is OK. Cross-check what you see against the gauges. One fellow I know bought gas and got ready to take off, but noticed that the tanks were nearly empty. The service crew had refueled the wrong plane. Another fellow filled the tanks on Sunday and went to fly again on Friday. The tanks were nearly empty because of a leak.

Don’t switch tanks just before takeoff. On typical airplanes the engine can run for two or three minutes just using the fuel stored in the carburetor and engine sumps. That’s just long enough to get you into big trouble if you use tank “A” for taxi and runup, and then switch to tank “B” for takeoff. What if tank “B” is contaminated? What if it is empty? What if there is a blockage in the lines? What if you accidentally select “Off” instead of “B” during the switch? Et cetera, et cetera.... If there is a problem with tank “B”, you’d like to find out about it before starting your takeoff roll. If you absolutely must switch to tank “B” for takeoff, do a duplicate runup on that tank, and wait long enough to consume the fuel in the lines and sumps and prove that you are actually getting fuel from tank “B”.

By the same token, it isn’t smart to switch to a new tank on final approach. Plan ahead; do your tank-switching at an altitude and at a location where if something bad happens you’ll have a chance to do something about it.