Who has authored these resources?
Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Human Healthcare
Human Healthcare Resources Every Specific Physician Must Have
Human healthcare resources by Doctor Asif Qureshi

Health, Human Health, and Human Healthcare
What type of resource is this?
The reference resource for medical doctors.
The reference resource for human healthcare.

What is included in the reference resource for medical doctors?
What is included in the reference resource for health care?
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Table of Contents
What should the head of the state know about health, human health, and human healthcare?
Here are further guidelines.
What is in the table of contents of this resource?
  1. Annotation or definition of health, human health, and human healthcare.

  2. Assessment of a patient by a physician.

  3. Acquired harms

  4. Activities of everyday living

  5. Addresses of state departments of health in various states around the world.

  6. Advice for postgraduate physicians.

  7. A–Z alphabetical listing of human health emergency symptoms and signs.

  8. A–Z alphabetical listing of human health emergency diagnoses and treatment.

  9. All human symptoms and signs.

  10. All human diseases and medical conditions.

  11. Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings.

  12. Assessment of patient

  13. Abilities/skills

  14. Academic degree for physician

  15. Administrative Issues

  16. Advice for postgraduate physicians.

  17. Aging Research

  18. Alphabetical listing of doctors’ abilities.

  19. Alphabetical listing of human diseases and medical conditions.

  20. Alphabetical listing of human healthcare settings.

  21. Alphabetical listing of human medical conditions details.

  22. Alphabetical listing of Human medical emergencies.

  23. Annual health assessment.

  24. Antibiotics

  25. Arterial Blood Gases

  26. Behavioral Therapy

  27. Body mass index

  28. Blood Chemistry Panel

  29. Career Counseling Relevant to Human Healthcare

  30. Cardiologist

  31. Care Coordinator

  32. Chemical Composition of the Human Body

  33. Childbirth: The Stages of Delivery

  34. Children's health

  35. Complaints and problems

  36. Complaint

  37. Complaints against human healthcare provider

  38. Computer and Internet education for doctors

  39. Continuing Medical Education

  40. 2016/17 ICD-10-CM Codes

  41. Categories of human healthcare professionals.

  42. Community health center in the state.

  43. Critical Care

  44. Critical Care Ambulance

  45. Counseling Services

  46. Crisis

  47. Critical, emergency, and non-emergency medical complaints.

  48. Critical Care unit

  49. Critical care unit record

  50. Continuing education for existing physicians

  51. Current Procedural Terminology (medical)

  52. Department of health, United Continents, United States of planet earth.

  53. Death Investigations

  54. Death Certificates

  55. Department of Public Health State Vital Records Office

  56. Difference

  57. Document for patient after seeing primary care physician.

  58. Document for referral patient.

  59. Document for discharge from hospital emergency room.

  60. Document for discharge from hospital other than emergency room.

  61. Documents relevant to a hospital.

  62. Drugs

  63. Duties to provide human healthcare within and outside the state.

  64. Dermatologist

  65. Dental Services

  66. Doctor Consultation

  67. Doctor of Medicine

  68. Doctor(Physician)License

  69. Drugs

  70. Economic and budget issues within the state and in other states in terms of relevance to human healthcare.

  71. Emergency management departments in the state and around the world

  72. Emergency Medical Services

  73. Emergency Medical Department in a hospital in the state.

  74. Elderly Health Issues

  75. Emergency medicine specialist

  76. Emergency medical room in a hospital

  77. Emergency

  78. Emergency Medications

  79. Endocrinologist

  80. Eye Care

  81. Favorite lecture of Doctor Asif Qureshi relevant to medical emergencies.

  82. Forensic Pathologist

  83. Forensic Psychiatrist

  84. Food

  85. Gastroenterology

  86. Glossary of Medical Terms

  87. Guidance for Dietitians and Nutritionists

  88. Gynecologist

  89. Healthcare for specific physicians.

  90. Human symptoms and signs

  91. Home Healthcare

  92. Healthcare Occupations

  93. Healthcare Facilities

  94. Hospitals by state, islands, continents.

  95. Human Nutrition

  96. Human medical conditions grouped by organ and human body systems.

  97. Health Care Provider Taxonomy

  98. Hospital labs errors or variable test reports.

  99. Hospitals around the world and Internet human healthcare.

  100. Hospital

  101. Hospital administration in the state

  102. Hospitalist

  103. Hospital ward patient in the state.

  104. Human healthcare professionals

  105. Human healthcare settings

  106. Interview specific human healthcare executives inside and outside the state.

  107. Intensivist

  108. Identify Unidentified Dead Individual.

  109. Internet guidelines for patients (patient education).

  110. Internet Human Health Care Services

  111. International classification of diseases

  112. Issues with Medical Colleges in Various States

  113. Jail medical staff.

  114. Laws Relevant to Human Healthcare Inside and Outside the State

  115. Medical biochemistry

  116. Medical biochemistry laboratory

  117. Medical college or medical education resources relevant recommendations in various states.

  118. Medical college issues in various states around the world.

  119. Medical Emergency

  120. Medical record

  121. Medical superintendent in the state

  122. Medical Research

  123. Medical Education Resources for Specific Types of Aspiring and Existing Physicians

  124. Medical education for specific types of aspiring physicians.

  125. Medical Emergency

  126. Medical Supplies and Equipment

  127. Mental Health

  128. Nephrologist

  129. Nursing home care

  130. New Medical Colleges’ Opening Issues in Various States

  131. New patient relevant to primary health care (nonemergency).

  132. Nonemergency medical services (Primary care physician training program)

  133. On-the-spot emergency medical diagnosis and treatment

  134. Occupations relevant to the state department of health and the state department of public health.

  135. Ophthalmologist

  136. Pain

  137. Palliative Care Services

  138. Patient Education

  139. Pediatric Hospitalist

  140. Personality disorders (harmful to others).

  141. Physician director of public health of specific states

  142. Physician guide to physician or physicians

  143. Pharmacist

  144. Physical Therapy

  145. Physician intensive care unit

  146. Programs, resources, and guidelines that enhance human health within and outside the state

  147. Prescription

  148. Prison health care

  149. Physician

  150. Physician caregiver for a physician

  151. Physician-scientist (research physician) training program

  152. PhD in biomedical sciences

  153. Primary Care Physician

  154. Psychiatrist

  155. Public Health

  156. Pulmonologist

  157. Public presentation through the Internet by physicians

  158. Questions every specific type of physician must be able to answer.

  159. Random health screening/assessment

  160. Reference ranges for human blood tests

  161. Resident Services case manager in the state.

  162. Renal Dialysis Clinics

  163. Requirements for becoming a physician

  164. Remuneration for these resources

  165. Research

  166. Specific types of physicians with seniority within and outside the state around the world.

  167. Specific physicians as heads of state.

  168. State department of health administrative services.

  169. State department of public health.

  170. Stress issues facing humans within and outside the state.

  171. Surgical Emergencies/Physician surgeon medical emergency

  172. Surgical Emergencies/Alphabetical Listing

  173. Surgical Emergencies/There are 14 different categories of surgical emergencies.

  174. Surgical Emergencies/Emergency Surgery Guidelines

  175. Surgery Elective

  176. State medical licensure requirements, statistics, and challenges

  177. State department of health

  178. Social Work

  179. Stress Counselor

  180. Specialties

  181. Survival Needs

  182. Surgeon

  183. Symptoms & Signs A-Z List

  184. Training programs for medical doctors

  185. Treatment for human healthcare

  186. Tertiary referral hospital

  187. Techniques Relevant to Human Healthcare for Specific Physicians

  188. Traumatic Injuries: Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

  189. The best hospitals are not created from big buildings. An analysis of hospitals inside and outside the state.

  190. Testing for Human Blood

  191. Training programs for various physicians and their subordinates.

  192. Types of Physicians

  193. Vaccine

  194. Women's health

  195. Weight Training Exercises

  196. World Hospital Directory

  197. Workers in human health care

  198. X-ray

  199. Allied health workers guidelines

Annotation or definition of health, human health, and human healthcare.

Is there a difference between health, human health, and human healthcare?
Yes.

What is the difference between health, human health, and human healthcare?
Health is the overall condition of a living organism at a given time.
Human health is the complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity at a given time.
Human healthcare is helping to make people's everyday lives more comfortable and healthier.
Diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings and public healthcare advice are human healthcare.
Human health involves providing products, services, and prescription and non-prescription advice or intervention that help make people's everyday lives more comfortable and healthier.
All these services are relevant within and outside the state.

Why does a physician have to have the title of a specific type of physician?
If a person who can make an 8-inch incision and closing in three layers in emergency and non-emergency situations claims to be a surgeon specialist but cannot reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various human healthcare settings, such a person is not a "physician surgeon, medical emergency" or "physician surgeon, elective surgery." Such a person knows a technique that can be harmful or may be useful under the supervision of a "physician surgeon, medical emergency" or "physician surgeon, elective surgery." Such person can be called a technician.

The prerequisite for any specific type of physician is the ability to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings. The individual should be able to circulate human healthcare advice from time to time that is relevant to specific human healthcare issues within and outside the state.

Human medical conditions

What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

What is it?
What causes it?
What are the risk factors?
What's normal?
How is it diagnosed?
What are the types of this medical condition?
What are the symptoms?
What are the signs?
What are the clinical findings?
What are the lab or investigation findings?
What are the workable treatment options?
What is the best setting or location to treat this medical condition?
What do you think can help?
When is counseling required?
When is medication required?
How long should medication last?
What type of medication is available?
When is surgical intervention indicated?
How could this be prevented?


Questions every specific type of physician must be able to answer.



How many total medical conditions are there?
How many human healthcare settings are there?
What are examples of human healthcare settings?
How many human systems are there?
What are the types of specific physicians in human healthcare settings with seniority?
What do you call a person who can guide all types of specific physicians in addition to executives of other professions?
What are the duties of a physician director of a specific state’s public health?
What are the duties of the director of emergencies of a specific state?
What problems, complaints, incidents, and issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?

What medical conditions should a medical doctor be able to diagnose and treat?
What is a medicolegal case?
When can a patient recover from medical condition at home?
How should an emergency medical doctor categorize the condition of a patient?


Crisis

Do you know what a crisis is?
What is a crisis?
Why was there a need to elaborate on crisis?
Is there a difference between a crisis and medico–legal case?
Is there a difference between a crisis and a medical emergency?
Are there crisis medical emergencies?
How are crisis medical emergencies different from other medical emergencies?
Who should diagnose and treat a human crisis?
What can cause crisis?
Do all case scenarios of crisis need hospitalization?
Can an unjustified hospitalization lead to further harms?
Should a crisis be diagnosed and treated by a medical doctor or a counselor?
What is crisis?
What is the work related difference between a medical doctor, counselor, and social worker?
How many human medical conditions are there?
How many medical conditions are caused by stress?
Can you name a human medical condition?
What should you know about this medical condition?
What should you know about any medical condition?
What are you expected to know as a medical doctor?


These are basic questions. There are many more depending on a person’s experience and seniority.

Acquired harms

Do you feel you have been harmed?
How have you been harmed?
Has the patient been harmed?
Have you been harmed?
What are the various acquired harms?

What are the various acquired harms?
Deprivation of rights under the color of the law.
Discrimination.
Exclusion.





Assessment of a patient by a physician.



Who has the responsibility to teach them these questions and answers authored by Doctor Asif Qureshi?

Assessment of patient.
Assessment of patient with specific complaint.
What are the types of assessment of a patient?
How to Take a Medical History
History Taking


Medical history
Physical Examination Quick Reference Guide
Testing for Human Blood
Diagnosis and treatment by a physician is process of investigation.
Medical history

What questions should a physician on duty ask at the beginning of a patient’s assessment?

Where is the patient now?

____________________________________

What seems to be the issue or issues?

____________________________________

What assessment type does the patient need at this point?

____________________________________

What category of human medical condition is this?

____________________________________

Is this case a medical emergency or medical non-emergency?


____________________________________

Types of patient assessments.

What are the types of patient assessments?
Emergency health assessment on the spot.
Emergency health assessment in a medical emergency room.
Emergency health assessment in an intensive care unit.
Emergency health assessment for pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium for women of childbearing age.
Emergency medicolegal case of human.
Non-emergency medicolegal case of human.
Detailed health assessment for patient.
Follow-up health assessment.
New issue that does not need an emergency assessment.

Personality disorders screening


What type of issue can a person have?
Medical Emergency (survival issues, medicolegal issues, critical issues, post-medical emergency, medical emergencies that need ER consultation)
Medical nonemergency.
Nonmedical emergency.
Non medical issue that is not an emergency.

What best describes the issue?

__________________________________________

Medical emergency
Medical nonemergency
Medicolegal case
Nonmedical issue

Nonmedical issues means patient has an issue; at the same time, a professional other than a physician has to bring solutions or remedies.

Is this a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?

__________________________________________

How do you know if this is a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?
Unconsciousness at a public location, sudden unconsciousness at home, trauma, survival needs issues, seizures, burns, drowning, pregnancy emergencies need on-the-spot evaluation and treatment.

In the medical emergency room, treatment if patient has any of these:
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergencyworld.html

Diagnosis

What is the diagnosis?

__________________________________________

Category
What category of human medical condition is this?
  1. Behavioral, mental, and neurodevelopmental disorders of human.

  2. Blood and blood-forming organs diseases, immune mechanism diseases of human.

  3. Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period of human.

  4. Circulatory system diseases of human.

  5. Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities of human.

  6. Digestive system diseases of human.

  7. Ear and mastoid process diseases of human.

  8. Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases of human.

  9. External causes of morbidity of human.

  10. Eye and adnexa diseases of human.

  11. Factors influencing health status and contact with health services of human.

  12. Genitourinary system diseases of human.

  13. Infectious and parasitic diseases of human.

  14. Injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes of human.

  15. Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases of human.

  16. Medicolegal case of human.

  17. Neoplasms of human.

  18. Nervous system diseases of human.

  19. Old age-related issues of human.

  20. Pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium of child-bearing age of women.

  21. Respiratory system diseases of human.

  22. Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases of human.

  23. Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified of human.

__________________________________________

Individual Treatment Plans

What is the best location to further treat this medical condition?

__________________________________________

On the spot
Emergency medical room
Intensive care unit
Hospital ward
Home healthcare


What is the treatment plan?

__________________________________________

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/prescription.html

Here are further guidelines.

Emergency health assessment on the spot.


Assessment in medical emergency situation.
Analysis of complaints, incidents, issues, and problems.
What should be your first question in case a patient is referred to you?

Questions that must be answered.

Where is the patient now?
How old is the patient?
What is the gender of the patient?
Who is reporting this emergency?
What seems to be the complaint?
What seems to be the problem?


Glasgow Coma scale analysis.

First, analyze Glasgow Coma scale, then analyze vital signs including consciousness.

When was the patient normal?
Can the patient open both eyes spontaneously?
Can the patient talk or make noise relevant to age?
Can the patient walk or move extremities relevant to age?


If yes, Glasgow Coma scale is 15.
Glasgow Coma scale of 15 means the patient is not in a coma.
The patient can have less serious medical issues.
Go ahead with vital signs, including consciousness.

When did it start?
How did it start?
Where did it start?
How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?
What do you think causes it?
What do I think caused it?
What needs to be done to verify what caused it?
Has patient taken any medication or substance before this issue?
Has any specific thing happened that led to this issue?
Is this troubling your everyday activity?
How is this troubling your everyday activity?
Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?
How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?
Is it a medical emergency?

___________________________

In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

___________________________

Do any recent causes lead to this problem; for example, trauma, missed medication, inadequate survival needs, stress, or other issue?

___________________________

What are further details?

___________________________

Does any past medical history lead to this problem?

___________________________

Is there any recent history within past few minutes or hours of any of the following:
1.Unconsciousness at a public location.
2.Sudden unconsciousness at home.
3.Trauma.
4.Survival needs issues.
5.Seizures.
6.Burns.
7.Drowning.

___________________________

If there is even one recent history of the above, on the spot diagnosis and treatment is required.

Is the victim's condition life or limb threatening?

___________________________

Could the victim's condition worsen and become life or limb-threatening on the way to the hospital?

___________________________

Could moving the victim cause further injury?

___________________________

Would distance or traffic conditions cause a delay in getting the victim to the hospital?

___________________________

What have been his activities for the last 10 years?

___________________________

Does the individual use or abuse any of these substances?
Alcohol.
Drugs.
Tobacco.

___________________________

Is the individual on any medication?

___________________________

Is it a medical emergency?

___________________________

Does this need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?

___________________________

What is the most likely diagnosis?

___________________________

What do you think causes it?

___________________________

Why do you think this happened?

___________________________

What is the diagnosis?

___________________________

In what setting/location does this medical condition need treatment?
Treatment required on the spot.
Treatment required in the medical emergency room.
Treatment required in the intensive care unit.
Treatment required in the ward.
Treatment required in the operating room.
Treatment required at home.
Treatment required Internet health care.
Treatment required in OPD consultation.
___________________________

What treatment do you recommend for this patient?

___________________________

What are other treatment options for this patient?
No other treatment option.
Other treatment options are enumerated.

___________________________

What will happen if you do not diagnose and treat a medical emergency properly?
It can lead to death.
It can lead to disability.
It can lead to other harms.
It can lead to medical malpractice.
It can lead to legal malpractice.
All accused suspects listed are charged.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencymedicalservices.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergencyworld.html


Assessment of a patient by a physician.
Annual health assessment.
Administrative Issues
Assessment in medical emergency situation.
Assessment in medical nonemergency situation.
Category
Examples of patient profile.
Human medical conditions
International classification of diseases or medical conditions with ICD10 numbers.
Types
Vital Signs
Planned medical procedures
Past medical procedures audit
Physician guide to physician or physicians
Symptoms specific to category of medical issues.
Internet guidelines for patient.
Interview with a physician

Detailed health assessment for patient.

Assessment of a patient by a physician.
There is no single, correct way to take a history; with time you will develop your own style; however, one effective and commonly used sequence comprises:
  1. Get the patient’s profile, and understand his/her issues before you see the patient.

  2. Introduce yourself if you do not know the patient.

  3. Patient profile

  4. Get the chief complaint.

  5. History of presenting complaint (HPC)

  6. Family History

  7. General Assessment

  8. Social history (medicine)

  9. Past medical history

  10. Checklist of symptoms

  11. Medical History for Drug Use

  12. Review of systems (ROS)

  13. Summary of history

  14. Ideas, concerns, and expectations

  15. Patient questions/feedback

  16. Physical Exam Check Lists

  17. Diagnosis

  18. Individual Treatment Plans
Where is the patient now?

__________________________________________

What seems to be the issue or issues?

__________________________________________

The answer to this question can be from patient or others.

What are the sources of these facts?

__________________________________________

Patient
Legal guardian
Parent
Relative
Community resident
Healthcare provider
Administrator or police
If other, specify

Has anyone already created a profile of the patient?

__________________________________________

Where is the profile of the patient?

__________________________________________

Is it a medical or nonmedical issue?

__________________________________________

What are medical and nonmedical issues?
Human healthcare complaint, issue, problem, concern is a medical issue.
Utility fault (water, electricity, or gas) and similar concerns are nonmedical issues.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencyworld.html

Who has established these guidelines?
Doctor Asif Qureshi

Introduce yourself if you do not know the patient.


Here is an example.

Hello, I am Doctor Asif Qureshi.
I have a few questions about your health.

How are you feeling now?
Cam you describe issues you have now?
What best describes your health issues or any other issues now?
What is the day, date, time, and location these questions are answered by the patient?

Nurse can ask like this.
I have few questions from Doctor Asif Qureshi.

Can you describe issues you have now?

If the patient cannot answer, who can answer questions on behalf of him or her?

Get the chief complaint.

What is bothering you right now?

__________________________________________

How can I help you?

__________________________________________

What are you feeling right now?

__________________________________________

What other issues do you have now?

__________________________________________

Once the category of medical condition is identified through medical history, further questions are needed relevant to the category of medical condition.

Patient profile

What should I know about you?

Questions relevant to the patient.

Where is the patient now?

__________________________________________

What is the name and date of birth of the patient?

__________________________________________

How old is the patient?

__________________________________________

What seems to be the problem?

__________________________________________

What type of patient assessment does this individual need?

__________________________________________

Get the chief complaint.

"What is bothering you right now? how can we help you?" Clarify if needed. "What are you feeling right now?" Survey for other problems. "What else?" Focus on the most important problem first. -
-
Explore the main problem in more detail.

This can be summarized by the mnemonic O.P.Q.R.S.T.: -
-
Onset: "how long has it been going on?"
Palliation/Provocation: "what makes it better or worse?"
Quality: "what does it feel like?"
Region/Radiation: "where is the pain? does the pain travel anywhere?
Symptoms/Severity: "what other feelings or sensations do you get? how bad is the headache?"
Timing: maintain the narrative thread. "What happened first? ...then what?..." Find out the context of the medical problem. "Is the pain continuous, repeating, or sporadic?"
Patient Health Profile

Family History
Has any family member suffered from a similar problem?

__________________________________________

Do you know of any illnesses that run in your family?

__________________________________________

Has any member of your family died before the age of 60?

__________________________________________


Social history (medicine)
What jobs have you done since starting work?

__________________________________________

What did these jobs involve?

__________________________________________

How do you spend your time when you are not at work?

__________________________________________

Where do you live? What is your house like?

__________________________________________

Are you able to do all the activities that you need to be able to do?

__________________________________________

Who lives with you at home?

__________________________________________

Have you had children? Any worries or illness with them?

__________________________________________

How many sexual partners have you had? Male? Female?

__________________________________________

Have you ever smoked? Ever been a heavy drinker?

__________________________________________


Ideas, concerns, and expectations
What have you thought might be causing your symptoms?

__________________________________________

Is there anything in particular that concerns you?

__________________________________________

What have you been told about your illness?

__________________________________________

What do you expect to happen while you are in hospital?

__________________________________________

Do you expect any difficulties in coping when you go home?

__________________________________________

Do you have any questions you would like me to pass on to the medical or nursing staff?

__________________________________________


Past medical history
Have you had any similar episodes in the past?

__________________________________________

What investigations have you had in the past? X-rays? Scans?

__________________________________________

What were the results of your previous tests?

__________________________________________

Have you had any other medical problems or conditions?

__________________________________________

Have you had any serious illness in the past?

__________________________________________

Have you been in hospital before?

__________________________________________

Have you had any operations?

__________________________________________

Have you ever had a blood transfusion?

__________________________________________

__________________________________________

What injuries or accidents have you had in the past?

__________________________________________

When and where have you travelled abroad?

__________________________________________

Have you ever had any of the following conditions: asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/angina/heart attack/stroke/diabetes/epilepsy/rheumatic fever/blood clot in the leg or lung/tuberculosis (TB)/jaundice/high blood pressure/high blood cholesterol?

__________________________________________


HISTORY TAKING: DRUGS AND ALLERGIES
What medications do you actually take?

__________________________________________

What ‘over-the-counter’ drugs or herbal remedies do you use?

__________________________________________

Do you take low-dose aspirin? Vitamin pills?

__________________________________________

Do you take the oral contraceptive pill? HRT (hormone replacement therapy)?

__________________________________________

Have your medications changed at all recently?

__________________________________________

How often do you forget to take your tablets?

__________________________________________

Have any medicines ever upset you? If so, how?

__________________________________________

What exactly happens when you take that medication?

__________________________________________

Are you allergic to anything? – Hay fever? Asthma? Eczema?

__________________________________________


Review of Systems


Review of Systems: Screen for symptoms in each body system that have not already been discussed.
•Skin: any skin problems? rash? itch? sores? moles?
•Eyes: eye problems? vision loss? itchy eyes? blurry vision? double vision?
•Ears, nose, mouth, sinuses, and throat: any trouble with your hearing, ears, mouth, sinuses, or throat?
•Lungs: any lung or breathing problems? coughs? chest pain?
•Heart: heart problems? racing heart? skipping beats?
•Digestive: stomach problems? stomach pain? nausea? vomiting? diarrhea? constipation? bloating? blood in stool?
•Genitourinary: trouble with urinating? unusual color or smell? sexual problems?
•Hematologic: easy bruising or bleeding?
•Endocrine: feeling too cold or too hot compared to others? excessive thirst, hunger, or urination?
•Musculoskeletal: problem with your joints or muscles, such as pain, swelling, weakness?
•Neurological: weakness, numbness, or tingling in arms or legs? problem with walking or balance? memory problems? headaches? seizures?
•Psychiatric: anxiety? depression? suicidal or homicidal urges? repetitive thoughts or acts?

Summary of history Complete your history by reviewing what the patient has told you. Repeat back the important points so that the patient can correct you if there are any misunderstandings or errors. You should also address what the patient thinks is wrong with them and what they are expecting/hoping for from the consultation. A good acronym for this is ICE – Ideas, Concerns and Epectations.

What type of issue can a person have?
Medical Emergency (survival issues, medicolegal issues, critical issues, post-medical emergency, medical emergencies that need ER consultation)
Medical nonemergency.
Nonmedical emergency.
Non medical issue that is not an emergency.

What best describes the issue?

__________________________________________

Medical emergency
Medical nonemergency
Medicolegal case
Nonmedical issue

Nonmedical issues means patient has an issue; at the same time, a professional other than a physician has to bring solutions or remedies.

Is this a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?

__________________________________________

How do you know if this is a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?
Unconsciousness at a public location, sudden unconsciousness at home, trauma, survival needs issues, seizures, burns, drowning, pregnancy emergencies need on-the-spot evaluation and treatment.

In the medical emergency room, treatment if patient has any of these:
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergencyworld.html

Diagnosis

What is the diagnosis?

__________________________________________

Category
What category of human medical condition is this?
  1. Behavioral, mental, and neurodevelopmental disorders of human.

  2. Blood and blood-forming organs diseases, immune mechanism diseases of human.

  3. Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period of human.

  4. Circulatory system diseases of human.

  5. Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities of human.

  6. Digestive system diseases of human.

  7. Ear and mastoid process diseases of human.

  8. Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases of human.

  9. External causes of morbidity of human.

  10. Eye and adnexa diseases of human.

  11. Factors influencing health status and contact with health services of human.

  12. Genitourinary system diseases of human.

  13. Infectious and parasitic diseases of human.

  14. Injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes of human.

  15. Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases of human.

  16. Medicolegal case of human.

  17. Neoplasms of human.

  18. Nervous system diseases of human.

  19. Old age-related issues of human.

  20. Pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium of child-bearing age of women.

  21. Respiratory system diseases of human.

  22. Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases of human.

  23. Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified of human.

__________________________________________

Individual Treatment Plans

What is the best location to further treat this medical condition?

__________________________________________

On the spot
Emergency medical room
Intensive care unit
Hospital ward
Home healthcare


What is the treatment plan?

__________________________________________

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/prescription.html
Comprehensive patient assessment.
A comprehensive patient assessment takes many weeks in many sessions.

Questions that should be answered about procedures relevant to human health care.



Planned medical procedures

What is the name of the medical procedure that needs to be done?
Why is there need for this medical procedure?
How will this medical procedure improve the life of the individual?
What is the diagnosis of the individual?
Who among physician diagnosed the individual?
How did the physician reach this diagnosis?

Past medical procedures audit

What is the name of medical procedure that was done?
Why was there need for this medical procedure?
How did this medical procedure improve the life of the individual?
What was the diagnosis of the individual?

Procedures relevant to human health care.

What are other terms for procedures relevant to human health care?
Procedure classes for ICD-10-PCS
Medical procedures & medical tests A-Z list

What seems to be the issue?

__________________________________________

What symptom category is this?

__________________________________________

What more questions are required to be answered relevant to this issue?

__________________________________________

This depends on the symptom category.

Symptoms specific to category of medical issues.

What category of human symptom or symptoms is this?
Behavioral medical conditions symptoms
Blood and blood-forming organs disease symptoms
Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period human P00-P96 ICD 10
Circulatory system diseases human symptoms
Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities human symptoms
Digestive system diseases human symptoms
Ear and mastoid process diseases human symptoms
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases human symptoms
External causes of morbidity human symptoms
Eye and adnexa diseases human symptoms
Factors influencing health status and contact with health services human symptoms
Genitourinary system diseases human symptoms
Infectious and parasitic diseases human symptoms
Injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes human symptoms
Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases human symptoms
Medicolegal case complaints
Neoplasms huma symptoms
Nervous system diseases human symptoms
Old age-related issues symptoms
Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium of women symptoms
Respiratory system diseases human symptoms
Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases human symptoms
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified human symptoms

International classification of human diseases.


International classification of diseases or medical conditions with ICD10 numbers.
What is displayed at this resource?
International classification of diseases or medical conditions with ICD10 numbers.

What is the latest version of the international classification of human diseases.
ICD 10 Stands for International Classification of Diseases version 10.

How has international classification of diseases or medical conditions been categorized?
  1. Behavioral, mental, and neurodevelopmental disorders of human.

  2. Blood and blood-forming organs diseases, immune mechanism diseases of human.

  3. Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period of human.

  4. Circulatory system diseases of human.

  5. Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities of human.

  6. Digestive system diseases of human.

  7. Ear and mastoid process diseases of human.

  8. Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases of human.

  9. External causes of morbidity of human.

  10. Eye and adnexa diseases of human.

  11. Factors influencing health status and contact with health services of human.

  12. Genitourinary system diseases of human.

  13. Infectious and parasitic diseases of human.

  14. Injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes of human.

  15. Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases of human.

  16. Medicolegal case of human.

  17. Neoplasms of human.

  18. Nervous system diseases of human.

  19. Old age-related issues of human.

  20. Pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium of child-bearing age of women.

  21. Respiratory system diseases of human.

  22. Skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases of human.

  23. Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified of human.

General Assessment

Height
Weight
Build (thin, obese, emaciated, etc.)
Temperature
Radial Pulse
Respirations
Blood Pressure (sitting, standing, and lying if related to current illness or over age 50)
Posture
Speech (descriptive terms include: fast, slurred, thick, articulate, speaks no English, absence of speech)
Emotion (descriptive terms include slightly nervous, comatose, calm, etc.)
Stated Aged Versus Apparent Age (documentation would read “appears chronological age” or “stated age 40, looks 50”)

Types
What is a Medical History?
What is a Medical History Form?
What are the types of assessment of a patient?
How many types of human health care assessment are there?
There are 18 types of human health care nonemergency assessment and 15 types of human health care, emergency assessment in various human healthcare settings.

What is an assessment of a patient?
Patient assessment is the term used to describe the process of identification of the condition, needs, abilities, and genuine preferences of a patient.
Who should ideally do an assessment of a patient?
The physician should ideally do an assessment of the patient.

Questions relevant to the patient.

Where is the patient now?

What is the name and date of birth of the patient?

What seems to be the problem?

What type of patient assessment does this individual need?

What are the types of assessment of a patient?
Non-emergency
  1. Abilities assessment (physical, mental, professional abilities assessment).

  2. Abilities assessment (physical, mental).

  3. Abilities assessment (professional).

  4. Annual health assessment.

  5. Assessment of patient with specific complaint or problem.

  6. Assessment for anesthesia (nonemergency).

  7. Comprehensive patient assessment.
    Comprehensive patient assessment (nonemergency)

  8. Follow-up patient assessment.

  9. Genuine preferences assessment.

  10. Medicolegal case.

  11. Needs assessment.

  12. Nonemergency medicolegal case assessment

  13. New Patient Consultation

  14. Oppressor screening

  15. Patient 60-second assessment in stress.

  16. Patient been referred by you to others.

  17. Patient been referred to you by others.

  18. Patient-focused history and physical exam.

  19. The new problem is not a medical emergency.

Emergency Assessment

  1. A medical emergency with an individual victim.

  2. Assessment for anesthesia (emergency).

  3. Comprehensive patient assessment (ICU).

  4. Comprehensive patient assessment (emergency)

  5. Critical care progress assessment of patient in 60 seconds.

  6. Emergency comprehensive patient assessment

  7. Emergency medicolegal case assessment

  8. Newborn assessment in 5 minutes.

  9. Needs assessment.

  10. Patient 10-minutes assessment in a medical emergency room.

  11. Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.

  12. Patient 10-minutes assessment in a medical emergency room.

  13. Patient 60-second assessment in trauma.

  14. Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Patient 60-second assessment in crisis.

  16. Problem that is a medical emergency (In case of a medical emergency, your local emergency service is the first responder. Guidelines for your local emergency responder are at this location: http:www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencyworld.html).


What should a physician be aware of in the state and outside the state?
In addition to an individualized assessment of patients, a physician should serve in public health emergencies and public health nonemergencies.

Do not lie during an individualized assessment.
If you lied during an individualized assessment or someone else persuaded you to lie, correct immediately with the truth and apology, and face other consequences.
Do not hide the truth.

Who needs health care assessment?
Normal human beings need health care assessment to maintain good health.
Any individual with any specific healthcare complaint.

What are various types of assessment?
What are the types of patient assessment?

Individual person assessments relevant to health care.
Natural or manmade calamity/disaster assessment due to floods or similar harms in the state or outside the state.

What should be available relevant to an individual person for assessment?
Biodata should be available relevant to an individual person. After biodata of an individual person is available, assessment becomes quicker.
If biodata is not available, at least an identity card should be available.
Assessment in medical emergency situation.
Assessment in medical nonemergency situation.
Assessment of a patient in various healthcare settings.

Checklist of symptoms

General

Fatigue
Anorexia
Weight change
Itch
Rashes
Low mood
Fevers/night sweats
Heat/cold intolerance
Change in appearance

Cardiorespiratory

Chest pain
Breathlessness
Orthopnoea
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
Palpitation
Cough
Sputum
Wheeze
Haemoptysis

Gastrointestinal

Swallowing difficulty
Nausea and vomiting
Haematemesis
Heartburn
Indigestion
Abdominal pain
Change in bowel habit
Change in colour/consistency of motions

Genitourinary

Dysuria
Frequency/nocturia
Change in colour/smell of urine
Prostatic symptoms
Urethral/vaginal discharge
Incontinence
Menstrual difficulties
Postmenstrual bleeding
Sexual difficulties

Central nervous system

Headaches
Fits/faints/funny turns
Weakness
Sensory symptoms
Changes in taste/smell
Hearing disturbance
Visual disturbance
Speech disturbance
Dizziness

Locomotor

Pain
Stiffness
Immobility
Swelling
Loss of joint function

What is wrong with existing physicians around the world?
Existing physicians around the world are not able to do proper health care assessment in various human healthcare settings.

Existing physicians are not able to reach correct diagnoses and treatment in various human healthcare settings.

What is a patient?
A person who requires medical care.

What type of individual requires medical care?
A normal individual requires medical care.
A harmed individual requires medical care.
A person who has any medical condition requires medical care.
If a highly experienced physician guides others, including other physicians, it is normal that the physician also needs medical care for himself or herself at least for stress. For example, internationally renowned Doctor Asif Qureshi guides all medical specialties, including 611 professions, and occasionally feels stressed.

Stress is the diagnosis.
If stress is ignored, this can cause an acute stress reaction.

What are the types of assessment of a patient?
There are at least seven types of assessment of as an individual in a human healthcare setting.

A physician or a counselor must be able to answer this question.
What type of patient assessment does this individual need?


Abilities assessment (physical, mental).

How should you answer these questions?
Answer to the best of your ability and knowledge.

What should you write if a question is not applicable to you?
This is not applicable to me at this point.

Question 1

What is your Email address?

Question 2

What is the name of the individual who needs doctor consultation?

Question 3

What is the date of birth of the individual who needs doctor consultation?

Question 4

Address

What is your mailing address?

Question 5

What was your mailing address from birth until now?

Question 6

Where is the patient now?

Question 7

Where do you live now?
How long have you lived at this address?

Question 8

How long do you plan to live at this address?

Question 9

What is your contact information including current mailing address, telephone, e-mail, and any other details, and person to contact in case of emergency?

Question 10

What is the gender of the patient?
What best describes the patient?:
Question 11

In general, how is your physical and mental health?

Question 12

What is your telephone number?

Question 13

Have you been in the hospital in the last month?

Yes
No

Question 14

Do you have health problems that you need help with right away?
Yes
No

Question 15

Do you have any appointments scheduled with doctors or other specialists?
Yes
No

Question 16

Screening for survival needs

Do you have enough of these resources from the state?
Food
Clothing
Housing
Health care
Transportation
Security
Education
Consumer goods
Communication

Do you need any of these resources to be enhanced?

Question 17

What are the issues?

Question 18

Do you need extra help to access services, such as a wheelchair ramp, a computer screen reader or large print materials?
Yes
No

Question 19

What is the number on your medical card?
A medical card number is usually a nine digit number.

Question 20

What state or entity has issued this medical card?

Question 21

What is troubling you?

Question 22

How old is the patient?

Question 23

What languages can you understand?

Question 24

What are the sources of medical history?

Question 25

Where are you located now?

Question 26

Is your complete medical history ready?
Do you have a physician referral?
Yes
No
Don't know

Question 27

Who is writing answers to these questions?

The patient.
Someone else on behalf of patient.

If someone else is answering these questions on behalf of the patient, how are you related to the patient?
Sister
Cousin
Brother
Mother
Father
Case manager
Relative
Primary care physician
Nurse
If other, specify.

Question 28

Have you gone through the Internet human healthcare guidelines? Take a look at this http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/internethealthcareservices.html, public health guidelines, http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html patient education guidelines http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html at mentioned resource?

Question 29

Do you think your issue or issues have not been answered at this resource and need individualized doctor consultation?

Question 30

What type of doctor consultation is required?
Ambulatory human health care
Adolescent girls’ consultation
Community health center evaluation
Critical care consultation (anesthesiology)
Coroner investigations
Cardiology consultation
Dermatology consultation
Disability consultation
Dental consultation
Emergency medicine consultation
Endocrinology consultation
Forensic medicine consultation
Gastroenterology consultation
Geriatrics consultation
Hematology consultation
Internet healthcare consultation
Medical negligence consultation
Nephrology consultation
Neurology consultation
Oncology consultation
Ophthalmology consultation
Orthopedics consultation
Otorhinolaryngology consultation
Obstetrics & Gynecology consultation
Primary care physician consultation
Pediatrics consultation
Psychiatry consultation
Pulmonary medicine consultation
Physical medicine & Rehabilitation consultation
Public health guidelines
Radiology & nuclear medicine consultation
Surgical consultation
Women's health consultation

Question 31

Impairment Rating and Disability Determination
Health status

How would you describe your health status relevant to your age?
100% mentally fit.
100% physically fit.

Question 32

Do you have any problems with activities mentioned below relevant to your age?

Walking
Seeing
Hearing
Speaking
Breathing
Learning
Working
Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)
Performing manual tasks
Getting started after sleep
Sitting
Sleeping
Annual health assessment.
Encourage everyone to have an annual health assessment from a competent medical doctor able to answer relevant questions via e-mail, telephone, fax, postal mail, or face-to-face and able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various health care settings.

Why do you need an annual health assessment?
Most medical emergencies can be prevented with a proper annual health assessment and treatment by a competent medical doctor.

Most medical disabilities can be prevented or cured with an annual health assessment by a competent medical doctor.

Most medical conditions can be diagnosed and cured with a proper annual health assessment by a competent medical doctor.

The quality of health can be enhanced with a proper annual health assessment and treatment by a competent medical doctor.

Every state must assign 200 patients to a competent medical doctor able to answer relevant questions and reach a correct diagnosis and treatment for primary health care that includes an annual health assessment.

Every medical doctor must update the state department of health with relevant findings.

The state department of health must maintain medical records of patients.
A medical doctor can prolong the life of a person at least up to 90 years with a good quality of life. A medical doctor cannot sustain a person beyond 90-95 years of life.
Questions for professional regulators in the state.
Questions for health care providers or medical doctors.
Questions for residents or patients.

Medicolegal case.

Do you know what is a medicolegal case?

------------------------------------

What is a medicolegal case?

------------------------------------

What are examples of medicolegal cases?

------------------------------------


Needs Assessment

What is needs assessment?
Human rights have to be the main focus of needs assessment.

Needs assessment can be at an individual level and/or a community level.

A needs assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions.

Needs assessment has to be done in all human healthcare settings.

How do you proceed with a needs assessment?
Gather data to define needs.
Identify concerns.
Identify and analyze the causes.
List consequences if the cause is not removed.
Enter a rating (low, medium, high) of the difficulty of correcting the problem.
Decide on priorities.
Identify possible solutions and/or remedies.
Prepare a plan.

In what situations are needs assessments required?
Emergency needs assessment.
Nonemergency needs assessment.
Problem or complaint-oriented assessment.
Is there a difference between needs assessment and survival needs assessment?
Yes.

What is the difference between needs assessment and survival needs assessment?
Needs assessment is a big entity.
Within needs assessment is survival needs assessment.
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/survivalneeds.html
These are the questions to be answered in survival needs assessment.

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/needsassessment.html
These are the questions to be answered in detailed needs assessment.

No competent primary care physicians exist in the community.
This is a need of an individual.
This may not be an emergency; however, need of an individual is a need.

What do I feel needs to be included in needs assessment?
Needs assessment has to be done under the supervision of a physician.
A care coordinator, physician assistant, counselor, or nurse can do a needs assessment under supervision of a physician.

What aspects of a needs assessment are important to its success?
Relevant questions and truthful answers.

What steps are involved in conducting a needs assessment?
Questions to be asked in needs assessment.

What questions should be asked in needs assessment?

What are your needs?

--------------------------------------

What is the name of individual whose needs assessment has to be done?
--------------------------------------

What is the date of birth of the individual whose needs assessment is to be done?

--------------------------------------

What is the profile of the individual?

--------------------------------------


Your profile.
Your social support network.
Your health care provider’s profile.
Activities of everyday living assessment.
Your survival needs details.

How does a profile look?
Here are further guidelines.

Are these survival needs or nonsurvival needs?

--------------------------------------

Do you think these are emergency or nonemergency needs?

--------------------------------------

What department in the state has a duty to resolve these issues?

--------------------------------------

What needs to be done immediately?

--------------------------------------

What can be done later?

--------------------------------------

New Patient Consultation

Profile from birth until now
If your profile is available, you do not need to answer these questions.
If your profile is not maintained with me, you need to answer these questions.
If you have difficulty elaborating your profile, you can be helped with sample examples.
Annual health assessment of a child
Female
  1. What is the name of the individual who needs doctor consultation?


  2. ------------------------------------

  3. What is the date of birth of the individual who needs doctor consultation?


  4. ------------------------------------

  5. Can I get a copy of your photo identity card?


  6. ------------------------------------

  7. Are you a new patient?


  8. ------------------------------------

  9. What is the reason for consultation?


  10. ------------------------------------

  11. What is your reason for visit?


  12. ------------------------------------

  13. What is your Email address?


  14. ------------------------------------

  15. What is your mailing address?


  16. ------------------------------------

  17. What was your mailing address from birth until now?


  18. ------------------------------------

  19. Where is the patient now?


  20. ------------------------------------

  21. Where do you live now?


  22. ------------------------------------

  23. How long have you lived at this address?


  24. ------------------------------------

  25. How long do you plan to live at this address?


  26. ------------------------------------

  27. What is your contact information including current mailing address, telephone, e-mail, and any other details, and person to contact in case of emergency?


  28. ------------------------------------

  29. What is the gender of the patient?


  30. ------------------------------------

  31. What best describes the patient?
    Adolescent boy
    Adolescent girl
    Child
    Man
    Woman


  32. ------------------------------------

  33. In general, how is your physical and mental health?
    Excellent
    Good
    Fair
    Poor


  34. ------------------------------------

  35. What is your telephone number?


  36. ------------------------------------

  37. Have you been in the hospital in the last month?
    Yes
    No


  38. ------------------------------------

  39. Does the individual have any of this?
    Stress.
    Intentional enforced harms from others.
    Human rights violations from others.

    If yes, fix these issues immediately.


  40. ------------------------------------

  41. How do you know an individual has stress, intentional enforced harms from others, or human rights violations from others?


  42. ------------------------------------

    Ask questions relevant to stress, intentional enforced harms from others, Or human rights violations from others.

    Questions relevant to stress.

  43. What is troubling you at present?


  44. ------------------------------------

  45. What is troubling you from the past or about the future?


  46. ------------------------------------

    Questions relevant to intentional enforced harms from others.

  47. Who has harmed you in the past or present or is likely to harm you in the future?


  48. ------------------------------------

    Questions relevant to human rights violations from others.

  49. Do you know what basic human rights are?


  50. ------------------------------------

  51. What best describes your human rights violations from others?

  52. Date:________________________________

    Referred by:_________________________

    _____________________

    Telephone:___________________________

    Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

    Referring Physician, if different from above:_______________________

    Emergency Contact Name:______________

    Relationship:________________________

    Phone:_______________________________

    Your Height:_________________________

    Your Weight:_________________________

  53. What seems to be the problem?


  54. ------------------------------------

  55. What is the reason for consultation?


  56. ------------------------------------

  57. Are you a new patient?


  58. ------------------------------------

  59. Do you have health problems that you need help with right away?
    Yes
    No


  60. ------------------------------------

  61. Do you have any appointments scheduled with doctors or other specialists?
    Yes
    No


  62. ------------------------------------

    Screening for survival needs

  63. Do you have enough of these resources from the state?
    Food
    Clothing
    Housing
    Health care
    Transportation
    Security
    Education
    Consumer goods
    Communication
  64. Do you need any of these resources to be enhanced?


  65. ------------------------------------

  66. What are the issues?


  67. ------------------------------------

  68. Do you need extra help to access services, such as a wheelchair ramp, a computer screen reader or large print materials?
    Yes
    No


  69. ------------------------------------

  70. What is the number on your medical card? A medical card number is usually a nine digit number.


  71. ------------------------------------

  72. What state or entity has issued this medical card?


  73. ------------------------------------

  74. What is troubling you?


  75. ------------------------------------

  76. How old is the patient?


  77. ------------------------------------

  78. What languages can you understand?


  79. ------------------------------------

  80. What are the sources of medical history?


  81. ------------------------------------

  82. Where are you located now?


  83. ------------------------------------

  84. Is your complete medical history ready?
    Do you have a physician referral?
    Yes
    No
    Don't know


  85. ------------------------------------

  86. Who is writing answers to these questions?
    The patient.
    Someone else on behalf of patient.


  87. ------------------------------------

  88. If someone else is answering these questions on behalf of the patient, how are you related to the patient?
    Sister
    Cousin
    Brother
    Mother
    Father
    Case manager
    Relative
    Primary care physician
    Nurse
    If other, specify.


  89. ------------------------------------

  90. Have you gone through the Internet human healthcare guidelines?
    Take a look at this http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/internethealthcareservices.html, public health guidelines, http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html patient education guidelines http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html at mentioned resource?


  91. ------------------------------------

  92. Do you think your issue or issues have not been answered at this resource and need individualized doctor consultation?


  93. ------------------------------------

  94. What type of doctor consultation is required?
    Ambulatory human health care
    Adolescent girls’ consultation
    Community health center evaluation
    Critical care consultation (anesthesiology)
    Coroner investigations
    Cardiology consultation
    Dermatology consultation
    Disability consultation
    Dental consultation
    Emergency medicine consultation
    Endocrinology consultation
    Forensic medicine consultation
    Gastroenterology consultation
    Geriatrics consultation
    Hematology consultation
    Internet healthcare consultation
    Medical negligence consultation
    Nephrology consultation
    Neurology consultation
    Oncology consultation
    Ophthalmology consultation
    Orthopedics consultation
    Otorhinolaryngology consultation
    Obstetrics & Gynecology consultation
    Primary care physician consultation
    Pediatrics consultation
    Psychiatry consultation
    Pulmonary medicine consultation
    Physical medicine & Rehabilitation consultation
    Public health guidelines
    Radiology & nuclear medicine consultation
    Surgical consultation
    Women's health consultation


  95. ------------------------------------

  96. Impairment Rating and Disability Determination


    Health status

    How would you describe your health status relevant to your age?
    100% mentally fit.
    100% physically fit.


  97. ------------------------------------

  98. Do you have any problems with activities mentioned below relevant to your age?
    Walking
    Seeing
    Hearing
    Speaking
    Breathing
    Learning
    Working
    Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)
    Performing manual tasks
    Getting started after sleep
    Sitting
    Sleeping

Oppressor screening

How do you know a person is harmful or a gang member?

________________________

He or she has disregard for human rights of others.
He or she has harmed others and is likely going to harm others.
He or she has prejudice toward good charactered, well-behaved individuals.
A harmful individual will not have proper answers to questions relevant to good character, good behavior, or human rights.

What type of individual goes to jail or has involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility?

________________________

Is there an oppressor/harmful individual in the community?

________________________

How has/is this individual harming others?

________________________

How is this individual likely to continue to harm others?

________________________

Is he or she acting alone or is a gang member?

________________________

Who are among the other gang members?

________________________

Primary Health Care


What is primary health care?
A health care resource advertises capabilities of screening hypertension and diabetes. That is not primary health care. That is quackery.

Such activities are planned on April 20, 2012, at Near North Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Heartland Alliance Chicago, Illinois, also is involved in similar quackery.

Asian Human Services has declared an annual health fair on April 25, 2012, in Chicago, Illinois, to screen specific medical conditions.

Can so many residents be screened for so many medical conditions in one day by a few medical doctors?
No, they cannot.

How many residents should be assigned to a medical doctor for primary health care?
One handred patients per medical doctor.

What should a health care resource be able to provide in primary health care?
From time to time, you will be asked to issue a Healthcare screening certificate. http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcarescreeningcertificate.html
Needs Assessment
    Emergency needs assessment.
    Nonemergency needs assessment.
    Problem or complaint-oriented assessment
Refer residents or patients to other physicians with relevant abilities.

Here are further guidelines.
JavaScript Form Validation
Question 1

What is your Email address?
Question 2

What is the name of the individual who needs doctor consultation?
Question 3

What is the date of birth of the individual who needs doctor consultation?
Question 4

Address

What is your mailing address?
Question 5

What was your mailing address from birth until now?
Question 6

Where is the patient now?
Question 7

Where do you live now?
How long have you lived at this address?
Question 8

How long do you plan to live at this address?
Question 9

What is your contact information including current mailing address, telephone, e-mail, and any other details, and person to contact in case of emergency?
Question 10

What is the gender of the patient?
What best describes the patient?:
Question 11

In general, how is your physical and mental health?
Question 12

What is your telephone number?
Question 13

Have you been in the hospital in the last month?
Yes
No
Question 14

Do you have health problems that you need help with right away?
Yes
No
Question 15

Do you have any appointments scheduled with doctors or other specialists?
Yes
No
Question 16

Screening for survival needs

Do you have enough of these resources from the state?
Food
Clothing
Housing
Health care
Transportation
Security
Education
Consumer goods
Communication

Do you need any of these resources to be enhanced?
Question 17

What are the issues?
Question 18

Do you need extra help to access services, such as a wheelchair ramp, a computer screen reader or large print materials?
Yes
No
Question 19

What is the number on your medical card?
A medical card number is usually a nine digit number.
Question 20

What state or entity has issued this medical card?

Question 21

What is troubling you?
Question 22

How old is the patient?
Question 23

What languages can you understand?
Question 24

What are the sources of medical history?
Question 25

Where are you located now?
Question 26

Is your complete medical history ready?
Question 27

Who is writing answers to these questions?
The patient.
Someone else on behalf of patient.

If someone else is answering these questions on behalf of the patient, how are you related to the patient?
Sister
Cousin
Brother
Mother
Father
Case manager
Relative
Primary care physician
Nurse
If other, specify.
I have read and agree to the Terms & Conditions.

These are basic questions.
There are many more.

Once the above listed relevant questions about comprehensive patient assessment are answered and received, you will get another questions list relevant to age, gender, location, problems, or issues, if any.

This will be followed by specific recommendations.
The reference resource for medical doctors.
The reference resource for human health care.
What is included in the reference resource for medical doctors?
What is included in the reference resource for health care?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html
Comprehensive patient assessment (nonemergency)

What are the types of comprehensive patient assessment (nonemergency)?
Age 1-12 years, comprehensive Health assessment of a child.
Age 12–18 years, comprehensive health assessment of adolescent girl (teen).
Age 12–18 years, comprehensive health assessment of adolescent boy.
Age 65 years or older, comprehensive geriatric assessment.

Comprehensive health assessment usually takes three sessions of 30 minutes on various days. If medical history is transmitted via email, fax, or postal mail, the duration can be less.

What are the types of follow-up patient assessment?
60-second progress assessment in an emergency room.
60-second progress assessment in a hospital ward.
60-second progress assessment in OPD.
60-second progress assessment by email, telephone, fax, or postal mail.
One-page discharge summary from hospital.

What are the types of emergency patient assessment?
Newborn assessment in 5 minutes.
Patient 60-second assessment in stress.
Patient 60-second assessment in crisis.
Critical care progress assessment of patient in 60 seconds.
Comprehensive patient assessment (emergency).
Comprehensive patient assessment (ICU).

Age 1-12 years, comprehensive health assessment of a child.

Age 1-12 years, comprehensive health assessment of a child.

What is the mailing address of individual/individuals’ source/sources of this medical history?

-------------------------------------

How is this individual related to the child?

-------------------------------------

Where does this child (with name, date of birth mentioned) live at this point?

-------------------------------------

How long has the child lived at this location?

-------------------------------------

Who is the caregiver for the child at this location?

-------------------------------------

What is the profile of the caregiver at this location?

-------------------------------------

What best describes the caregiver for this individual?
Mother
Father
Foster mother
Foster father
Legal guardian
Other (specify)

-------------------------------------

Feeding History

Who feeds the child every day?

-------------------------------------

Has the caregiver taken parenting classes?

-------------------------------------

What food does the child get every day?

-------------------------------------

How many times is the child fed every day?

-------------------------------------

How long does the child’s feeding last?

-------------------------------------

Developmental History

Do you know the birth weight of this child?

-------------------------------------

What was the birth weight of this child?

-------------------------------------

What is the weight record of the child every six months after birth?

-------------------------------------

What is the record of the yearly length of the child?

-------------------------------------

Recommendations


What are recommendations to other medical colleges?
Various medical colleges start with anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pediatrics, ear nose & throat, forensic medicine, ophthalmology, preventive and social medicine and end with medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology.

They must start directly with a medical condition. Each medical condition should be enumerated in at least 40 questions and answers with relevant anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and preventive concepts.
What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?


If one needs these questions and answers, Qureshi University is willing to provide them.

Healthcare Education

What will happen if you do not follow these guidelines?
Your students will have problems in the real world.

Doctors educated at your resource will not be able to answer relevant questions in the real world.

Sooner or later, your students will complain that they were educated with substandard curriculum.

The focus of your resource should be preparing students to solve real-world issues, problems, and complaints relevant to human health in the real world.

These recommendations are for all regions of the world.

What should you know about various recognitions or accreditation?
If you declare that you have completed you education from a recognized resource with certification, board certifications, licensure, professional memberships, and real-world education but you are not able to answer relevant questions, your education is of no use.

Set up a resource on the Internet in question-and-answer format in the English language that displays questions and answers that you know. This will be one proof of your competence.

If you procure your education from another resource, declare that you have done so.

Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/healthcareworld.html
Grants and perks required to enhance these programs.
Emergency Medicine/Global Medicine
Medical Emergency
Patient assessment

Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment

What are the types of patient assessment?
Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.
Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.
Patient 60-second assessment in trauma.
Patient 10-minutes assessment in a medical emergency room.
Patient-focused history and physical exam.
Comprehensive patient assessment.


What is a medical emergency?
If a human being has any problem, symptom, complaint, or situation listed below, it is a medical emergency.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergency.html

What best describes the problem, symptom, complaint, or situation in the list?

_________________________

What type of assessment does this patient need?

_________________________

What will happen if this medical condition is left without treatment?

_________________________

The individual can die.
The individual can have a disability.
The individual can have severe pain.
The individual can have irreparable harm.

Does this situation need a doctor?

_________________________

What should be displayed on an emergency medical record?
Details of the patient.
Details of the diagnosing and treating medical doctor.


Details of the patient.

What should be your first question in case a patient is referred to you?

Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.

Where is the patient now?

_________________________

How old is the patient?

_________________________

What is the gender of the patient?

_________________________

Who is reporting this emergency?

_________________________

What are the sources of medical history?

_________________________

Patient.
Family.
Patient not responding to medical history questions.
Community member.
Police officer.
Referral from medical doctor.
Other.

How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?

_________________________

Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

A medical emergency with an individual victim.
A multiple casualty incident.
Do you think this is a multiple causality incident?
If it is a multiple causality incident, the guidelines are different.

Vital Signs

Check vital signs, mobility, and survival needs.

Consciousness of a human being has to be included in vital signs.

Vital Signs

Consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature.

Consciousness is extremely essential in reaching a correct diagnosis and treatment.

What are the vital signs on the date and time of diagnosis and treatment?

Date: Time: Consciousness: Pulse: Blood pressure: Respiratory rate: Temperature:
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

How do you categorize the condition of the patient?

_________________________

Undetermined
Good
Fair
Serious
Critical

Is this an emergency?

_________________________

What is the category of this emergency?

_________________________

Is this a medical emergency?

_________________________

In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

_________________________
Here are various examples.
Critical care
Coroner investigations
Emergency room health care
Emergency call center
Hospital ward
Home health care
Internet human health care services
Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms
Medicolegal cases
On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment
Operating rooms
Other


Who has the duty to manage this emergency?

_________________________

What best describes this human emergency?

_________________________

Medical emergency
Surgical emergency
Trauma emergency
Pediatric emergency
Obstetrical/gynecological emergency
Medico legal case
Patient assessment
Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.

What problems, complaints, incidents, and issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
Unconsciousness at a public location.
Sudden unconsciousness at home.
Trauma
Survival Needs
Seizures
Burns
Drowning
Human Pregnancy Emergencies
Here are further guidelines.
What is the reason for consultation?

_________________________

What seems to be the problem?

_________________________

How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?

_________________________

Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

What best describes your problem?

_________________________

Patient Name:________________________

Referred by:_________________________

Mailing Address:_____________________

Telephone:___________________________

Your Email Address:__________________

Date of Birth:_______________________

Gender: Male Female

Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

Emergency Contact Name:______________

Relationship:________________________

Phone:_______________________________

Your Height:_________________________

Your Weight:_________________________

Race::_______________________________

White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Pacific Islander
Asian
Asian/American

Conscious

Can the patient talk?
Can the patient respond to verbal questions accurately?
Can the patient do spontaneous eye opening?
Does the patient respond to painful stimulus?
Is the patient conscious, oriented in time, space, and person?
Conscious means able to see, hear, and talk.
In pediatric patients younger than six months of age, the ability to make any verbal noise or cry is equivalent to talking.

What is the location of patient at the point of the medical emergency?
Can the patient talk relevant to age?
Can the patient walk relevant to age?
Are consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, and respiratory rate normal relevant to age?
What is the cause of the existing emergency medical scenario?

Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.

Emergency medical history

What questions should you ask in emergency medical history?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalhistory.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/vitals.html
Mobility
Survival Needs
Details of the diagnosing and treating medical doctor.

What is the name, date of birth, phone number, and other contact information of the person diagnosing and treating this patient?

_____________________________________________

What is the date and time you are diagnosing and treating this patient?

_____________________________________________

What is the location of the patient at the time you are diagnosing and treating this patient?

_____________________________________________

What best describes the location of diagnosis and treatment of this case?
1. On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.
2. Emergency room diagnosis and treatment.
3. In the hospital diagnosis and treatment.
4. Long-distance health care advice.
5. Other
_____________________________________________
Can you reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being?

_____________________________________________

What is the diagnosis of this patient?

_____________________________________________

How did your reach this diagnosis?

_____________________________________________

What is the treatment for this patient?

_____________________________________________

Does the patient need to be transferred to a medical emergency room?

_____________________________________________

In America up to February 12, 2012, most emergency medical records did not have these facts.

In what emergency medical category do you fit the condition of the patient you are diagnosing and treating on this date and time?

Undetermined, Good, Fair, Serious, Critical.

If on-the-spot diagnosis of a patient declared in serious or critical condition, arrange a bed in the Intensive Care unit.

Date of Examination:_________________________

Physician Name:_________________________

Physician Address:_________________________

Is it a Medical Emergency?

___________________________

In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

___________________________

Do any recent causes lead to this problem; for example, trauma, missed medication, inadequate survival needs, stress, or other issue?

___________________________

What are further details?

___________________________

Does any past medical history lead to this problem?

___________________________

Is there any recent history within past few minutes or hours of any of the following:
1.Unconsciousness at a public location.
2.Sudden unconsciousness at home.
3.Trauma.
4.Survival needs issues.
5.Seizures.
6.Burns.
7.Drowning.


___________________________

If there is even one recent history of the above, on the spot diagnosis and treatment is required.

Is the victim's condition life or limb threatening?

___________________________

Could the victim's condition worsen and become life or limb-threatening on the way to the hospital?

___________________________

Could moving the victim cause further injury?

___________________________

Does the victim need the skills or equipment of paramedics or emergency medical technicians?

___________________________

Would distance or traffic conditions cause a delay in getting the victim to the hospital?

___________________________

What have been his activities for the last 10 years?

___________________________

Does the individual use or abuse any of these substances?
Alcohol.
Drugs.
Tobacco.

___________________________

Is the individual on any medication?

___________________________

Questions doctor on duty needs to answer.

Is it a medical emergency?

___________________________

What is the diagnosis?

___________________________

In what setting/location does this medical condition need treatment?
Treatment required on the spot.
Treatment required in the medical emergency room.
Treatment required in the intensive care unit.
Treatment required in the ward.
Treatment required in the operating room.
Treatment required at home.
Treatment required Internet health care.
Treatment required in OPD consultation.

___________________________

What treatment do you recommend for this patient?

___________________________

What are other treatment options for this patient?
No other treatment option.
Other treatment options are enumerated.

___________________________

Prescription
How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a conscious patient?
Are you the person reporting a medical emergency for yourself?
Emergency
How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of an unconscious patient?
Are all vital signs normal? Can the person move relevant to age? Has the person been provided with survival resources? Does the person or caregiver complaint of anything? Are these justified complaints?

Annual health assessment.

Yearly health assessment


Annual health assessment


What are the details of the problems or complaints you had in past one year?

_________________________

What are the details of the problems or complaints you think you will face in the years ahead?

_________________________

Do you have enough survival needs?

_________________________

What are details of your survival needs for next year?

_________________________

When was your last annual health assessment done?

_________________________

Who did your last annual health assessment?

_________________________

What were the findings?

_________________________

What were the recommendations?

_________________________

Did the recommendations help?

_________________________

Was it an annual health assessment or evaluation of a new problem?

_________________________

When did you last see a medical doctor?

_________________________

Did you see a medical doctor for an annual health assessment or a new problem?

_________________________

What seemed to be the problem?

_________________________

What was the diagnosis and treatment?

_________________________

What is the name and contact information of the medical doctor who gave you this diagnosis and treatment?

_________________________

How are you feeling today?

_________________________

Do you have any problems today?

_________________________

What seems to be the problem?

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

Did you know that 90% of doctor visits are for stress related symptoms?

_________________________

What do you know about stress?

_________________________

What are the sources of medical history?

_________________________

Patient.
Family.
Patient not responding to medical history questions.
Community member.
Police officer.
Referral from medical doctor.
Other.

Where is the patient now?

_________________________

Where do you live now?

_________________________

What is your telephone number?

_________________________

What is your e-mail address or fax number?

_________________________

Who has your medical record?

_________________________

Can I get a copy of your medical record?

_________________________

If you do not have a medical record and need to be my patient, a new medical record needs to be created.
This will take a few weeks.
You need to forward details about yourself.
This will be followed by various specific questions. What best describes your problem?


_________________________

What is the reason for consultation?

_________________________

The new problem is not a medical emergency.
Follow-up medical consultation.
Problem that is a medical emergency (In case of a medical emergency, your local emergency service is the first responder. Guidelines for your local emergency responder are at this location: http:www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencyworld.html).
Patient Education
Annual health assessment.
Patient been referred to you by others.
Patient been referred by you to others.
These are basic questions.
There are many more.

One copy of your yearly health assessment goes to the state department of health.
One copy of your yearly health assessment remains with your primary care physician.
Referred by:_________________________

How long have you known the patient?

______________________________________

What are the details of the primary health care physician of a resident/patient?

Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________
Here are helpful guidelines to describe your primary physician.

I do not have a primary health care physician.
My primary health care physician is not able to answer relevant questions via e-mail, fax, phone, postal mail, or face-to-face.
There are no competent primary care physicians in the area I am living.
I need a primary health care physician able to reach a correct diagnosis and treat me in various health care settings, and able to answer relevant questions via e-mail, fax, postal mail, and face-to-face.
Emergency Contact Name:______________

Phone: _______________________

Email Address: _______________________

Relationship:________________________
What is included in a yearly health assessment?
Survival needs screening.
Life stressors screening.
History from birth until now if not recorded previously.
Vision and hearing screening.
Any new complaints/problems.
Activities of everyday living, housekeeping, mobility screening.
Personality disorders screening
Screening physical exam.
Advice/recommendations.
What are findings about other medical doctors and health care providers?
Most of the medical doctors claiming to be highly specialized health care providers up to March 30, 2013 did not provide this type of yearly health assessment.

All medical doctors and health care providers are required to provide this type of quality yearly health assessment.

They should not call themselves specialists without at least quality yearly health assessment.

What type of health care screening is usually done but is not helpful and sometimes is harmful due to wrong results/false positives?
Cancer screening, PPD test, Elisa tests, etc.

Is this type of health care screening useful?
No.

Write down any symptoms you're having, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the consultation. Note when your symptoms bother you most — for example, if your symptoms tend to get worse at certain times of the day, during certain seasons, or when you're exposed to cold air, pollen or other triggers.

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
_________________________

_________________________

Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements that you're taking.Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to recall all the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.

_________________________

Write down questions to ask your doctor.

_________________________
Annual Physical Exam: The Basics

Date of Examination:_________________________

Physician Name:_________________________

Physician Address:_________________________
(For women only)
Are you pregnant or breast feeding? _____________________
Date of your last menstrual period: ______________________
How many children do you have? ______________________
How were they delivered? ______________________

Human Vital Signs

1. Consciousness:_________________________

2. Pulse rate:_________________________

3. Blood pressure:_________________________

4. Respiration rate:_________________________

5. Body temperature:_________________________

6. Emotion:_________________________

Vital Signs. These are some vital signs checked by your doctor:
Blood pressure: less than 120 over 80 is a normal blood pressure. Doctors define high blood pressure (hypertension) as 140 over 90 or higher.
Heart rate: Values between 60 and 100 are considered normal. Many healthy people have heart rates slower than 60, however.
Respiration rate: Around 16 is normal. Breathing more than 20 times per minute can suggest heart or lung problems.
Temperature: 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is the average, but healthy people can have resting temperatures slightly higher or lower.

Vision & Hearing Screening

Height:_________________________

Weight:_________________________

Waist, hip circumferences:_________________________

BMI:_________________________

    Calculate the body mass index (BMI = wt (kg) ÷ ht(m2)
    < 20 BMI Low body weight
    20 to 25 BMI Healthy weight for most people
    >25 to 27 BMI Weight may lead to health problems
    27 to 29 BMI Overweight. Associated with increase in morbidity and mortality.
    > 30 BMI Obese
Eyes:_________________________

Ears/Nose:_________________________

Oral Cavity:_________________________

Endocrine:_________________________

Lymph Nodes:_________________________

Lungs:_________________________

Heart:_________________________

Breasts:_________________________

Abdomen:_________________________

Genitals:_________________________

Female Physical Exam:_________________________

Male Physical Exam:_________________________

Extremities / Musculoskeletal:_________________________

Habitus:_________________________

Skin:_________________________

Psychiatric:_________________________

Neurologic:_________________________

Laboratory Tests

Complete blood count

Chemistry panel

Urinalysis (UA)

Prescription Here are further guidelines.
Administrative Issues
Common Medical Emergencies
Dispatching for an emergency
Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment
Emergency Diagnosis Code
Emergency medical record
Emergency Department record
Emergency medical responder
Emergency medical record
Emergency Medicine
Health Care
List of medical emergencies
Medico legal cases
Patient assessment
Surgical Emergencies
Symptoms & Signs A-Z List
State Offices and Agencies of Emergency Management
What are various symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, and histories that should raise suspicion of a medical emergency?
How are most patients categorized in American triage locations up to February 12, 2012?

Immediately life threatening
Urgent, but not immediately life threatening
Less urgent

How should patients be categorized around the world, including in America, in case of a medical emergency?
Undetermined, Good, Fair, Serious, Critical.

Fair, serious, or critical will always get a medical diagnosis that needs emergency treatment.

This can be only done by an emergency medical doctor able to reach the correct diagnosis and provide treatment.

Is there a difference between emergency and non-emergency medical diagnosis?
Yes, there is.

What is the difference between non-emergency and emergency medical diagnosis?
This example will make you understand.
Diabetes is a non-emergency medical diagnosis.
Diabetes with hyperosmolar coma or diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical diagnosis.

What is the role of www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergencyworld.html in a medical emergency?
Guide the following:
Doctor in a medical emergency.
Emergency responder in a medical emergency.
Emergency call center in a medical emergency.
Watcher, relative, or acquaintance of the victim in a medical emergency.
Victim himself or herself in a medical emergency.
Guide the state department of health worldwide.
When Is It Really an Emergency?
What types of patients get admitted to emergency room (ER), operating Room (OR), intensive care unit (ICU), and hospital wards and need Internet health care or outpatient (OPD) health care?
Patient assessment
A medical emergency with an individual victim.
Critical and noncritical medical emergency

How do you differentiate between critical and noncritical medical emergency?
How does a doctor conclude a situation is not a medical emergency?

All these functions should be normal relevant to age.

Answers to these questions will determine if this is a medical emergency.

All these functions should be normal relevant to age.

Is the patient able to talk normally?

___________________________

Is the patient able to move his or her extremities normally?

___________________________

Is the patient able to walk normally?

___________________________

Are vital signs like consciousness (able to hear, see, talk), pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and temperature relevant to age normal?

___________________________

Are survival needs — food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, communications, etc. – available from the state?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not agitated or sleepy?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not having acute functional loss or abbreation?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not in acute pain?

___________________________

Is it correct that patient does not have a history of recent harms relevant to symptoms?

___________________________

Is it correct that the patient is not a danger to him/herself or others?

___________________________

Is it correct in the case of a female of child-bearing age who is not pregnant or does not having pregnancy-related complications if pregnant, and is not in labor if pregnant, or no post-delivery complications if she has delivered?

___________________________

Is it correct that there is no woman’s sexual exploitation situation?

___________________________

Is it correct that there is not a situation in which the individual does not know the whereabouts of family members?

___________________________

Is it correct that there is not a situation of a child who does not have a caregiver?

___________________________

(If the answer to any one of these questions is no, this is a critical medical emergency.)
If yes, it is not a critical medical emergency.
If the answers to all these questions are yes, this is not a critical medical emergency.

If the answer to any one question is no, this is a critical medical emergency.
Here is another method to differentiate between critical and noncritical medical emergency.

What best describes this medical emergency situation?
Individual survival needs — food, clothing, housing, health care, transportation, communications, etc. – are not available from the state.
The patient is not able to talk normally.
The patient is not able to move his or her extremities normally.
The patient is not able to walk normally.
The patient’s vital signs, like consciousness (able to hear, see, talk), pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and temperature relevant to age are not normal.
The patient is agitated or sleepy.
The patient is having acute functional loss or abbreation.
The patient is in acute pain.
The patient has a history of new problems/complaints with recent harms relevant to symptoms.
The patient is a danger to him/herself or others.
The patient is a female of child-bearing age who needs medical termination of pregnancy.
The patient has pregnancy-related complications.
This is a woman’s sexual exploitation situation.
This is an individual does not know the whereabouts of family members.
This is a situation involving a child who does not have a caregiver.
This is a situation with symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, or history that has been elaborated in the list of symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, or history of medical emergencies.
(If the answer to any one of questions is yes, this is a medical emergency.)

What recommendations do you have relevant to individualized issues presented?

How should you conduct an assessment of patient?

Questions relevant to the patient.

Where is the patient now?

---------------------------

What is the name and date of birth of the patient?

---------------------------

What are the vital signs on the date and time of diagnosis and treatment?

Date:
Location:
Time:
Consciousness:
Pulse:
Blood pressure:
Respiratory rate:
Temperature:

How do you categorize the condition of the patient?

---------------------------

Undetermined
Good
Fair
Serious
Critical

What are further plans relevant to the individual?

---------------------------


Treatment at home.
Treatment in a hospital.
Treatment in a critical care unit.
Medication details.

Who is the treating doctor?

---------------------------

When did the treating doctor last see the patient?

---------------------------

What is the treatment?

---------------------------
Here are further guidelines.

What are examples of emergency relevant to an individual?
What are various symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, and histories that should raise suspicion of a medical emergency?

There are at least 155 such symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, histories, and scenarios.
Take a look at this.
A–Z alphabetical listing of human health emergency symptoms and signs.

If this is not a medical emergency, it can be a medical disability or prolonged intentional enforced harms.
Is there any medical disability, non-emergency problem or prolonged intentional enforced harms? If yes, a follow-up is required via e-mail, call, postal mail, or a doctor’s appointment.


Abilities assessment (professional).



I am Asif Qureshi.

About the Founder
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/biodata.html

Al Hajj Harb bo zerab Zile le Illahi Maqdoom Mohmed Asif Syed Qureshi,
doctorate in philosophy.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/kashmirhr.html

How should you forward your profile?
Here is a sample profile.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/samplebiodata.html
If your profile is available, then we can speak on the telephone or have a face-to-face meeting.

Fitness for duty

Questions of lawful fitness or safety for specific profession. Gen __________ to be new ______ Governor

The formal announcement in this regard is likely to be made in a week’s time.

I need to make sure you are fit for this job.

Questions you need to answer.

What profession do you identify with?
What is your job description?
What do you think is your duty or role in this job?
What is your department affiliation relevant to essential departments in the state?
How would you rate your English language ability on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being the best?
Have you written any book or books in the English language useful to school, college, or university education?
How many books have you authored in English language up to now?
What is good human character?
What is good human behavior?
How do you define state economy?
How do you define a state budget?
What are the essential ingredients of an economy?
What aren't essential ingredients of the economy?
What is the Essential Commodities Act?
What is the Essential Services Maintenance Act?
What are the basic human rights?
How do you think you can help me/people?
What are the five categories of law in the state?
What are the elements of effective case management?
How do you define justice?
How do you evaluate quality of the judicial system in the state?
Do you know about state planning and development?
What do you know about state planning and development?
Where is it displayed?
Do you understand english language?
What standard and reference of the English language do you follow?
Where is this standard and reference of the English language displayed?
What is your political affiliation?
What is economy?
What is budget?
What are the rights of a civilized human being?
Who is a civilized human being?
Where did you go to high school?v Where did you go to college?
What subjects did you study?
How old are you?
What is your mailing address?

Questions relevant to assets.

What are your assets?
What are the locations of his assets?
Did you have these assets in 1980?
What were your assets in 1980?
What are your assets in 2014?
How did you accumulate your assets after 1980?
What are the assets of his relatives and friends?
Where are they located?

Questions relevant to legal competence.

What are the five categories of law in the state?
What are the essential departments in every state?
What legal skills should a lawyer have?
How many criminal offenses are there?
What are various criminal offenses?
These are basic essential questions.
There are many more.

What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
Illiterate.
Personality disorder (liar, etc).
Harmful to self or others.
Lack of knowledge of specific profession.
Insufficient knowledge of specific profession.
Criminal traits.
Disability; after reasonable adjustment an individual cannot fulfill expected standard of service/profession.
Lack of desire for public service.

Recommendations you will get.

This individual is fit for this job.
This individual is not fit for this job.

E-mail, call, fax, or forward postal mail if you have any questions.

This is Asif Qureshi founder Qureshi University and Global Democratic party at your service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Al Hajj Harb bo zerab Zile le Illahi Maqdoom Mohmed Asif Syed Qureshi, doctorate in philosophy.

Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.
Follow-up patient assessment.
How often should there be follow-up?
Where should the patient come for follow-up?
What are examples of various human health care settings?
  1. Ambulatory human health care

  2. Community health center

  3. Critical care

  4. Coroner investigations

  5. Emergency room health care

  6. Emergency call center

  7. Education of new medical students

  8. Education of existing medical doctors

  9. Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability

  10. Hospital ward

  11. Home health care

  12. Internet human health care services

  13. Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms

  14. Medicolegal cases

  15. Medical Emergency

  16. On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment

  17. Operating rooms

  18. Public health

  19. Patient education

  20. Rehabilitation Services

  21. Research

  22. State health care administrative issues

  23. Space Medicine
What are the types of doctor consultation?
  1. Ambulatory human health care

  2. Adolescent girls consultation

  3. Community health center

  4. Critical care consultation (Anesthesiology)

  5. Coroner investigations

  6. Cardiology consultation

  7. Dermatology consultation

  8. Disability consultation

  9. Dental consultation

  10. Emergency medicine consultation

  11. Endocrinology consultation

  12. Forensic medicine consultation

  13. Gastroenterology consultation

  14. Geriatrics consultation

  15. Hematology consultation

  16. Internet healthcare consultation

  17. Medical negligence consultation

  18. Nephrology consultation

  19. Neurology consultation

  20. Oncology consultation

  21. Ophthalmology consultation

  22. Orthopedics consultation

  23. Otorhinolaryngology consultation

  24. Obstetrics & Gynecology consultation

  25. Primary care physician consultation

  26. Pediatrics consultation

  27. Psychiatry consultation

  28. Pulmonary medicine consultation

  29. Physical medicine & Rehabilitation consultation

  30. Public health guidelines

  31. Radiology & Nuclear Medicine consultation

  32. Surgical consultation

  33. Women's health consultation
Who will answer your questions and concerns?
Doctor Asif Qureshi.

How does this doctor consultation work?
If you have any questions or concerns, forward them to Doctor Asif Qureshi.
You will get answers to your questions and concerns within 24 hours.
If workload is increased, answers may be delayed.
You will be updated ahead of time of increase in work load.
What are examples of various human health care settings?
Ambulatory human health care
Community health center
Critical care
Coroner investigations
Emergency room health care
Emergency call center
Education of new medical students
Education of existing medical doctors
Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability
Hospital ward
Home health care
Internet human health care services
Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms
Medicolegal cases
Medical Emergency
On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment
Operating rooms
Public health
Patient education
Rehabilitation Services
Research
State health care administrative issues
Space Medicine
Here are further guidelines.
What best describes the patient?
Child
Adolescent girl
Adolescent boy
Woman
Man
What do you have to do before a patient or individual from the public seeks individualized doctor consultation?

Has this issue been explained at the public health level?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/publichealthworld.html

Has this issue been explained in patient education?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patienteducation.html

If yes, you need to go through these facts.

If no, you need to seek individualized doctor consultation.

A doctor should first try to resolve health issues at the public health level or patient education.

If the public health level or patient education does not resolve your issues, individualized doctor consultation is required.

What should you expect from a doctor during individualized consultation?
1. Obtaining a complete medical history.
2. Verifying the obtained complete medical history.
3. Reviewing patient records.
4. Performing physical examinations.
5. Medical test recommendations.
6. Monitoring in various settings.
7. Treatment/recommendations.
What are the various methods of completing a medical history?
You need to complete the options listed.
You need to answer relevant questions.
Depending on the situation, more questions can be asked.

How healthy are you?
How can various emergencies be prevented in the state and outside the state?
Enhance various essential departments in the state.
Take all nonemergency complaints and issues seriously.
Resolve nonemergency complaints and issues immediately before they become an emergency.
If you ignore nonemergency complaints and issues, this can become an emergency.
This is relevant to comprehensive patient assessment.
A doctor should know all of these types of consultations.
A doctor cannot declare that he/she is able to diagnose and treat only psychiatric medical conditions.
Physical Examination
Medical Record

Anesthesiologist

Assessment for anesthesia (nonemergency).
Assessment for anesthesia (emergency).

How do you do an assessment for anesthesia (nonemergency and emergency)?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/anesthesiologist.html

FEMALES ONLY
When was your first menstrual period?

When was your most recent menstrual period?

What was the longest time between menstrual periods in the last year?

Medical Record

Interview with a physician

Are you a physician?
What type of physician are you?
Can you guide a physician?
What type of physician or physicians can you guide?
How many types of physicians can you guide?
How many other professions can you guide in addition to physicians, for example teachers, lawyers, engineers? What resources on Internet do you utilize for continuing education being a physician?
What resources have you authored that are displayed on Internet being guide to specific physician or physicians?

What type of physician or physicians can you guide?
1. Physician primary care
2. Physician intensive care unit
3. Physician medical emergency room
4. Physician medical emergency responder
5. Physician surgeon medical emergency
6. Physician surgeon elective surgery
7. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
8. Physician guide to physician or physicians
9. Physician hospitalist (takes care of patients in hospital)
10. Physician forensic psychiatry
11. Physician forensic pathology
12. Physician guide to other physicians through Internet
Answer should be at least one of the physicians on the list.
If a physician can guide all of above listed, it is proof of extraordinary intellectual abilities.

Human medical conditions

What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

What is it?
What causes it?
What are the risk factors?
What's normal?
How is it diagnosed?
What are the types of this medical condition?
What are the symptoms?
What are the signs?
What are the clinical findings?
What are the lab or investigation findings?
What are the workable treatment options?
What is the best setting or location to treat this medical condition?
What do you think can help?
When is counseling required?
When is medication required?
How long should medication last?
What type of medication is available?
When is surgical intervention indicated?
How could this be prevented?

Examples of patient profile.
Why patient profile needs to be created?
From birth until now, medical history is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment.

Community-based patient profile.
Detainees’ patient profile.

How should a community-based patient profile and detainee patient profile look?
Community-based patient profile should look like this.
How should you elaborate your profile?
What should I know about you?

Patient Profile



New Patient Consultation
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalhistory.html

Medical emergency
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalemergency.html

First Name: ---------
Last Name:
Favourite Name(Nickname):---------
Age:-
Address: Mailing Address:
- City:
State:
Zip:
Telephone:
Email Address:
Location of Residence:
Activities of everyday living: Sedintry life/Active Life
Anthropometric measurements: Height: 169 cms 5.5 feet
Weight: 54 kgs 118.8 lbs
Eye Color: Brown
Hair Color: Black
Body mass index
Annual health assessment:_________
Annual Physical Examinations:
Abilities/skills(Talents):
Address from birth until now:
Assets:
Additional Information: (Elaborate on any section of this Individual's Profile)
Allergies:
Appointment Scheduling Instructions:
Scheduling an appointment
Canceling an existing appointment
Modify an existing appointment
Next Appointment Date
Time
Click on the box for appointment types and select the appropriate option:
a. Routine Labs
b. Drug Screen
c. Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
d. Pediatric Draw
Birthplace:
Contact Information:
Complaint or issue type:
Chief Complaint:
Children: No
Complaint/reason for consultation: _________
Children: Yes
Current Medications schedule:
Current diet:
Current treatments:
Date of Birth: -
Date of last yearly assessment/physical exam:
Date of last blood tests:
Diagnosis:_________
Duties, if any:
Date of last physical/annual exam:
Date of last blood tests:
Emergency issues, if any:
Emergency Contact Name: Emergency Contact Name:
Phone:
Email Address:
Relationship:
Educational level:
English Ability: None, Basic, Intermediate, Advanced
Emergency Contact Name: Phone:
Email Address:
Relationship:
Emergency:
Emergency medical record:
Emergency Department record:
Education:
Family/relationship:
Food likes/dislikes:
Fun and relaxation interests:
Follow-up medical consultation:__________
Family History:
Family structure or size:
Friends:
Food:
Final Diagnosis:
Gender:
Goals/dreams/plans:
Geographic Preferences:
General Physical Status: Walks:
Stairs:
Help Needed with Mobility:
Bed:
Wheelchair:
Transfers: Fall Risk:
Vision:
Fracture Risk:
Health Calculators:
Habits: Drinking: No
Smoking: No
Hospitalization records: Date and Time of Admission:
Health Status: Health Issues (Describe limitations in daily activity, minimum required care by nurse or physician, frequency of ______, etc):
Immunization Record: Tetanus
Pneumonia Vaccine
Flu Vaccine
Hepatitis B Vaccine Other
ID:
Identity Card:
Internet health care resource for the resident:
Language:
Location of Residence:
Last updated: _________
Completed By:
Date Completed:
Title:
Living situation:
Law applicable to specific scenarios:
Location of individual at this point:
Languages abilities:
Likes/dislikes:What I don't like:
Spiritual wants/interests:
Other significant interests/preferences:
The important people in my life are:
My dreams for the future are:
What most people like about me best:
What I like best about others:
My gifts and talents are:
Medical history: Present history
Medical Record:
Medical record correction:
Medical doctor to medical doctor communication about patient:
Mental status examination:Normal
Medications: Current Medications:__________
Dosage:
Reason for Taking:
Directions:
Doctor: __________
Date Started:
Medical emergency resource for the resident:
Major Achievements:
Name and contact information: First Name:
Last Name:
Nickname:
Contact Information: Telephone:
Your Email Address:
Normal day:
Other Languages: -
Outpatient medical services record:
Problem/Complaint:
Personal Profile: Key Skills:
    Communication
    Teamwork
    Leadership
    Initiative
    Interpersonal skills
    Numeracy
    Planning & organising
    Problem solving
    Flexibility
    Enthusiasm.
General skills:
Technical skills:
Management skills:
Language skills:
Other languages skills:
Photograph:-
Primary Language Understood:
Primary Means of Expression:
Profession:
Primary health care physician for the resident:
Physical fitness:
Past History:
Personality questions:
Physical examination:
Vitals: Consciousness is extremely essential in reaching a correct diagnosis and treatment. Consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature. Review of systems
Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:
Profession:
Products or services abilities:
Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:
Publications:
Protective devices/medical equipment: (If Other)
Race:
Relationship status:
Referred by:
Relatives:
Relationships:
Religion/spirituality/beliefs: Muslim
Referred by: Mailing Address:
Remarks:
State and outside state travel:
Self Help Skills Status: Eating:
Dressing:
Bathing:
Toothbrushing:
Toileting:
Medication Administration:
Services and Supports Needed:
Signs/Symptoms:
Social Interests:
Surgical history:
Special needs:
State ID Card:
Tests:
Travel history:
Treatment:
Work interests:
Medical Record
What goals do you have for your consultation today?
Primary Care
OB/Gyn
Other

www.qureshiuniversity.com/medicalrecordnewpatient.html

What are the sources of medical history?
Patient.
Family.
Patient not responding to medical history questions.
Community member.
Police officer.
Referral from medical doctor.
Other.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.com/patient.html

Detainee patient profile should look like this.

Name of patient: Samia Qazi
Address: Central Jail, Srinagar, Kashmir.
Diagnosis: Antisocial personality disorder.
Diagnosis last updated: November 11, 2015
Physician diagnosing and treating for public interest: Doctor Asif Qureshi.
Treatment Plan: Imprisonment.
Antipsychotic medication.
Weekly review with community updates.
Further custodial interrogation.

Physical Examination Quick Reference Guide
General Physical Examination
Examination of the cardiovascular system, including auscultation of the heart.
Examination of the respiratory system.
Examination of the abdomen.
Checking for hernia and lumps in the groin and scrotum.
Examining lumps.
Neurological history and examination.
Competence at orthopaedic examination, which should include back examination, neurological examination of the lower limbs for knee and hip history and examination purposes, shoulder examination, and assessment of ankle injuries.
Examination of tender, hot swollen joints.
Gynaecological history and examination.
Breast lumps and breast examination.
Peripheral pulses.
ENT examination.
Examination of the eye.
Mental state examination.
General Physical Examination

General appearance
Pre-exam checklist: WIPE:
Wash your hands
Introduce yourself to pt
Position pt
Expose the area
Always examine from the R side of the pt.
Ask pt. if tenderness anywhere, before start touching them.
Skin colors. See Skin Colors Reference.

Posture, weight, body shape
If pt. enters, examine gait.
Posture, stature, height..
Obesity [BMI = kg/m^2. Normal <25].
Limb amputations, deformities.
Physique expected for age.

Hydration

Sunken orbits.
Mucus membrane dryness.
Axillae.
Skin turgor [pinch skin: normal returns immediately].
Postural hypotension [less BP when sit, stand].
Peripheral perfusion [press nose, time capillary return].
Examine weight loss over hours.

Vital signs

Often logged on ward chart.
See Taking Vital Signs Reference.

Nails

Clubbing.
Nail signs.
Nail fold.
See Nails Reference.

Hands

Palms:
Palmar erythema (cirrhosis, polycythaemia, pregnancy).
Pigmentation of crease (Addison's, but normal in asians, blacks).
Pallor of palmar crease. Better results if hyperextend fingers, or stretch skin on either side of crease (anemia).
Dupuytren's contracture [fibrosis, contracture of palm's fascia] (liver dz, epilepsy, trauma, elderly).
Joints:
Herberdens, Bouchards (OA).
Swollen PIP, distal PIP spared (RA).

Head

Hair: deficiency, excess.
Facial hallmarks (Down's, Grave's, acromegaly, Cushing's, etc).
Teeth: nicotine stains.

Examination tips

Initial examination is from the foot of the bed.
Always ask if any part tender, before touching pt.
Watch pt's head as palpate, to look for pain flinches.
Percussion is R middle finger hitting middle of middle phalynx of L middle finger.
To measure circumference of limbs, choose the bony landmark on each, measure down the correct distance, then take the circumference at that point.

General Systems Review

Cardiovascular

Chest pain, pressure
Shortness of breath, exertion required
Lie flat or use pillows, how many pillows
Awoke breathless at night
Noticed heart racing, aware of heartbeat
Ankle swelling
Cold/ blue hands, feet

Pulmonary

Cough: sputum, blood
Shortness of breath, wheeze
Snore loudly, apnea
Fever, night sweats
Recent chest X-ray
Breast: lumps, bleeding, masses, discharge

Alimentary

Weight, appetite changes
Abdominal pain or discomfort
Bloating, distention
Indigestion
Nausea, vomiting: contents
Bowel habits: change, number
Incontinence, constipation/ diarrhea
Stool: colour, blood/ black, consistency, mucous

Nervous

Headaches
Vision, hearing, speech troubles
Dizziness, vertigo
Faints, seizures, blackouts
Weakness, numbness
Sleep disturbances
Ataxia, tremors
Concentration, memory

Genitourinary

Incontinence
Frequency, dysuria, nocturia
Genitourinary pain, discomfort
Hesitancy, dribbling
Changes to quantity, colour
Blood in urine
Genital rashes, lumps
Sex life problems
Pain, bleeding in periods

Endocrine

Prefer hot or cold weather
Sweating
Fatigue
Hand trembling
Neck swelling
Skin, hair, voice changes
Thirst

Integumental

Itchiness
Rashes
Bruising
Swelling
Color changes

Hematological

Bruise easily, difficulty stopping bleeds
Lumps under arms, neck, loin
Clots in legs, lungs
Fevers, shakes, shivers

Rheumatoid

Joints: pain, stiffness, swollen
Variation in joint pain during day
Fingers painful/ blue in cold
Dry mouth, red eyes
Skin rash
Back, neck pain
Anything else you think I should know?
Here are further guidelines.

Who has established these resources?
Doctor Asif Qureshi
Doctor Asif Qureshi can guide all types of physicians. In addition to physicians, Doctor Asif Qureshi can guide a teacher, lawyer, engineer, and other executives in the state and outside the state.

Diagnosis and treatment by a physician is process of investigation.
Questions doctor on duty needs to answer.

Is it a medical emergency?

___________________________

What is the diagnosis?

___________________________

How did you reach this diagnosis?

___________________________

In what setting/location does this medical condition need treatment?

Treatment required on the spot.
Treatment required in the medical emergency room.
Treatment required in the intensive care unit.
Treatment required in the ward.
Treatment required in the operating room.
Treatment required at home.
Treatment required Internet health care.
Treatment required in OPD consultation.

___________________________

What treatment do you recommend for this patient?

___________________________

What are other treatment options for this patient?

No other treatment option.
Other treatment options are enumerated.

___________________________

Prescription

Addresses of state departments of health in various states around the world.
  1. Addresses and statistics of public hospitals in various states around the world.

  2. Addresses of state departments of public health in various states around the world.

  3. Addresses and statistics of community health centers in various states around the world.

  4. Addresses of state departments of health in various states around the world.

International Classification of Diseases
International classification of diseases and human healthcare issues
How many human medical conditions are there?
There are more than 7,943 human medical conditions.
Here are further guidelines.

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/icd10alphaIndex.html

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/icd-by-systems.html

Last Updated: March 13, 2017
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)

How many human medical emergencies are there?
There are fewer than 1,096 human medical emergencies.
If you know the human medical conditions, then you will be able to diagnose and treat them.
Here are further guidelines.

How should the international classification of diseases be elaborated?
  1. An alphabetical listing of human health conditions currently stands at more than 7000.

  2. We need an A–Z listing of human health emergency symptoms and signs.

  3. We also need an A–Z listing of human health emergency diagnoses and treatments, including:

  4. All human symptoms and signs.

  5. Human medical conditions grouped by organ and human body systems.

  6. Human medical conditions categorized, including infectious medical conditions.

What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?
Here are further guidelines.

What patients need intensive care?
Here are further guidelines.

In how many human medical conditions or settings are intravenous therapy or an intravenous line required?
Here are further guidelines.

Current Procedural Terminology (medical)

What is the abbreviation of CPT?
CPT Current Procedural Terminology (medical)

How many CPT codes are there?
A CPT code is a five digit numeric code that is used to describe medical, surgical, radiology, laboratory, anesthesiology, and evaluation/management services of physicians, hospitals, and other health care providers. There are approximately 7,800 CPT codes ranging from 00100 through 99499.

Types of code

Category I
Codes for evaluation and management: 99201–99499
Codes for anesthesia: 00100–01999; 99100–99150
Codes for surgery: 10000–69990
Codes for Radiology: 70000-79999
Codes for pathology and laboratory: 80000–89398
Codes for medicine: 90281–99099; 99151–99199; 99500–99607

Category II
Category III
Major psychotherapy revisions

What needs to be accomplished relevant to the international classification of diseases in human beings?
On or after March 13, 2017, more than 330 North American, Asian, African, Latin and Australian states need to nominate experienced physicians to standardize the international classification of diseases.

What needs to be accomplished relevant to the current procedural terminology (medical) of human beings?
On or after March 13, 2017, more than 330 North American, Asian, African, Latin and Australian states need to nominate experienced physicians to standardize current procedural terminology (medical).

This should be accomplished with extra resources for www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html which include hosting services, occasional printing, telecommunications services, presentations, and other provisions that might need extra resources.

Questions you will need to answer.

What do you think needs to be added?

What brief medical education courses must be taken by existing physicians?
Life stressors at this point.
Knowledge of infection, infectious diseases, and prevention.
Laboratory biochemical errors and correlation with actual diagnosis of patients.
Internet human health care (for example www.qureshiouniversity.org) and its importance for patient care, medical education for specific physicians relevant to health care settings, and administrative services inside and outside the state.

If others declare on or after March 13, 2017 that their Internet resources are superior to the question-and-answer format, compared to www.qureshiuniversity.org, in English, they must display questions and answers publicly through the Internet relevant to patient care, medical education for specific physicians relevant to the healthcare setting, and administrative services in the state and outside the state.

Public presentation through the Internet by physicians
How should physicians circulate public presentations through the Internet relevant to human health?
English language questions and answers should be the format of the presentation.
If non-English language services are requested, questions and answers can be translated to other languages.

Competence and maintenance of physicians.

How should existing physicians go ahead with maintaining competence?
Internet resources (for example www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html) are there to maintain competence.

How has the Internet changed the way in which medical education for aspiring and existing physicians is taught?
Please take a look at: www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html
At home or at the office, among the world’s 7 billion people anyone can update their knowledge of human health. This was not possible before 2000.


Categories of human healthcare professionals.


Occupations relevant to the state department of health and the state department of public health.
What is on the list of occupations relevant to the state department of health and the state department of public health?
What are the categories of human healthcare professionals?

Guide human healthcare professionals, including the director of the state department of public health.
State department of human healthcare administrator.
Physician, specific type with seniority.
Physician's aide or assistant.
Physician, executive (knows economic, budget, and administrative issues within and outside the state).
Nurse
Dentist
Pharmacist
Allied healthcare workers.


State department of human healthcare administrator.

Director of the state department of public health.
Director of the state department of health.
Staff of the director of the state department of health.
Staff of the director of the state department of public health.
Superintendent of a hospital within or outside the state.

What is the proof of your competence?
You should be able to answer relevant questions.
The same should be displayed publicly.

Physician, specific type with seniority.

Here are various types of physician training programs.
What type of physician would you like to be?
  1. Physician primary care
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

  2. Physician intensive care unit
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

  3. Physician medical emergency room
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

  4. Physician medical emergency responder
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

  5. Physician surgeon medical emergency
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

  6. Physician surgeon elective surgery
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

  7. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

  8. Physician anesthetist, medical emergency, and physician anesthetist, elective surgery
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

  9. Physician guide to physician or physicians
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

  10. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

  11. Physician forensic psychiatry
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

  12. Physician Forensic Pathology
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

  13. Physical Therapist
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

  14. Physician director of public health of the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

  15. Physician director of health of the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorhealth.html

  16. Physician medical superintendent of a hospital in the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianmedicalsuperintendent.html

  17. Physician of public health in the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianpublichealthworld.html


Make sure you differentiate between the old system of physician categories and existing specific types of physicians at this point with seniority.
Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalstudents.html

What should existing human healthcare professionals know, including the director of the state department of public health?
Those who are circulating human healthcare guidelines at this point must know they have been educated in the old system of human healthcare professions.
They must be oriented to existing requirements of human healthcare professions.

Advice for various aspiring and existing human healthcare occupations within and outside the state.

What advice is there for all aspiring and existing human healthcare occupations within and outside the state?
Identify with the state department of health.
Identify with the state department of public health.
The state department of health means the Illinois Department of Health or the equivalent.
The state department of public health means the Illinois Department of Public Health or the equivalent.
Doctor Asif Qureshi is the head of the Department of Health, United Continents, United States of planet earth and the founder of this department on planet earth.
Do not identify with any entity that is not recommended by the state department of health or the state department of public health.
The World Health Organization (WHO), which was once associated with the UN, has been discarded due to various harms.
English language is the official language.
Communicate in the English language.
Differentiate between the old system of human healthcare education, including that of specific types of physicians, and the latest advanced type of education for human healthcare occupations, including specific types of physicians.
If you know anyone interested in human healthcare occupations, share these resources www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html with them, including specific types of aspiring physicians and specific existing types of physicians within and outside the state.
Nominate highly competent physicians for the Department of Health, United Continents, United States of planet earth.
Nominees should focus on individualized human healthcare and public health.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/departmentofhealthucusplanetearth.html

What should existing human healthcare professionals know, including the director of the state department of public health?
Those who are circulating human healthcare guidelines at this point must know they have been educated in the old system of human healthcare professions.
They must be oriented to existing requirements of human healthcare professions.

Differentiate between the old system of human healthcare education, including that of specific types of physicians, and the latest advanced type of education for human healthcare occupations, including specific types of physicians.

Requirements for a New System

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalstudents.html

Take a look at this.
Medical doctors.

OLD SYSTEM: How it is
    What physician specialist gets guidelines through Internet human healthcare?
    Anesthesiologist
    Cardiologist
    Dental services
    Dermatologist
    Emergency medicine specialist
    Endocrinologist
    Forensic pathologist
    Forensic psychiatrist
    Gastroenterologist
    Geriatrician
    Gynecologist
    Hospitalist in hospital ward
    Intensivist
    Internet human healthcare specialist
    Medical superintendent in the state
    Nephrologist
    Neurologist
    Obstetrics & gynecology specialist
    Oncologist
    Ophthalmologist
    Orthopedician
    Pediatric hospitalist
    Physical medicine & rehabilitation specialist
    Physician-surgeon
    Primary care physician
    Psychiatrist
    Public health specialist
    Pulmonologist
    Radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist.
    Allied health workers.
    Chiropractors
    Dentists
    Midwives
    Nurses
    Occupational therapists
    Optometrists
    Pathologists
    Pharmacists
    Physical therapists
    Psychologists
    Speech-language pathologists and audiologists
Why should you not pursue education in the old system of medical education?
MBBS is an old type of education system.
You must pursue education in existing specific types of physician training programs.
Health Care Administrator

State Department of Health

Additional Secretary to Government.
Chief Medical Officer.
Commissioner/Secretary to Government.
Controller, Drug & Food Organization.
Deputy/Secretary to Government.
Director Health.
Under/Secretary to Government.
Health Care Access Outreach Coordinator.
Medical students.
Allied health workers.
Nurses.
Pharmacists.
Coroner

Here are further facts.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/jobcategories.html#Health.


Internet guidelines for patients (patient education).
What do you have to do if you do not have internet resources at the home/home office?
Go to the nearest public library.
If the nearest public library does not have internet service, contact the media to ask for such services from the state.
Read and understand the guidelines provided at these resources www.qureshiuniversity.org/patient.html

If you have a human healthcare issue and need to resolve it through the internet before seeing a specific physician, what do you have to do?
Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.org/patient.html

Do you think you need a specific physician consultation?
What specific type of physician consultation or human healthcare do you need?

Here are further guidelines.
Questions patients should be aware of.
Questions to ask before your appointment.
Questions to ask during your appointment.
Questions to ask after your appointment.

What will happen if you do not take non-emergency human issues relevant to you seriously?
This can become an emergency. This can become a medical emergency.
Here are further guidelines.
www.qureshiuniversity.org/patient.html

Internet Human Health Care Services

Health Care
Internet Human Health Care Services
Human Healthcare

Who has authored this resource?
Doctor Asif Qureshi.

What is the title of this resource?
Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

Resource every physician on this planet must have.
Resource every human healthcare professional on this Planet must have.
Resource every state department of health on this planet must have.


For whom are these training programs meant in the state or outside the state around the world?
Anesthesiologist
Cardiologist
Dentist
Dermatologist
Emergency medicine specialist (first responder)
Emergency medicine specialist (medical emergency room)
Endocrinologist
Forensic pathologist
Forensic psychiatrist
Gastroenterologist
Geriatrician
Gynecologist
Hospitalist in hospital ward
Intensivist
Internet human healthcare specialist
Medical superintendent in the state
Nephrologist
Neurologist
Obstetrics & gynecology specialist
Oncologist
Ophthalmologist
Orthopedician
Palliative Care Services
Pediatric hospitalist
Physical medicine & rehabilitation specialist
Physician-surgeon
Primary care physician
Psychiatrist
Public health specialist
Pulmonologist
Resident Services case manager in the state.
Radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist.
Stress Counselor

Allied health workers guidelines
What are examples of allied health workers?
Here are further guidelines.

Medical biochemistry

Medical biochemistry laboratory

What reference ranges of human blood tests does your biochemistry laboratory follow?
Here are further guidelines.

What are the main branches of biochemistry?
Medical biochemistry (human biochemistry)
Animal biochemistry
Plant biochemistry
Here you will find guidelines related to medical biochemistry (human biochemistry)

What are other terms for medical biochemistry?
Clinical chemistry
Chemical pathology
Clinical biochemistry
Laboratory medicine

What reference ranges of the human body should physicians know?
Blood
Urine
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
Feces
Vital signs

Are there any discrepancies, variations or controversies relevant to reference ranges for human blood tests?
Yes.

What are examples of discrepancies, variations or controversies relevant to reference ranges for human blood tests?
Research has revealed that the reference ranges for human blood tests vary from laboratory to laboratory.
This needs to be standardized.

What tests are usually done on human blood?
Acid-base and arterial blood gases
Cardiac blood tests
Electrolytes and metabolites
Endocrinology Test List
Enzymes and proteins
Hematology red blood cells, white blood cells, coagulation
Immunology; for example, acute phase proteins, isotypes of antibodies, serum free light chains (FLC): kappa/lambda ratio
Ions and trace metals
Lipids
Liver function
Medication tests; for example, digoxin, lithium, paracetamol
Toxins
Tumor markers
Vitamins

Arterial Blood Gases
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/arterialbloodgases.html

What range of normal values should you follow for human blood tests?
Here are further facts.

Electrolytes and metabolites

Osmolality
Urea
Uric acid
Creatinine
BUN/Creatinine Ratio (the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the blood ureanitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and serum creatinine (Cr) (mg/dL)
Plasma glucose (fasting)
Full blood glucose (fasting)
Random glucose
Lactate (venous)
Lactate (arterial)
Pyruvate
Ketones

What are examples of electrolytes in human blood?
Seven major electrolytes and their function.
1. Sodium (Na+)
2. Chloride (Cl-)
3. Potassium (K+)
4. Magnesium (Mg++)
5. Calcium (Ca++)
6. Phosphate (HPO4–)
7. Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

Enzymes and proteins

Serum total protein
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Amylase
D-dimer
Lipase
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
Acid phosphatase
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)

Medication tests; for example, digoxin, lithium, paracetamol

What are the causes of elevated urea in human blood test?
Dehydration is the most common cause

What are the causes of elevated creatinine in human blood tests?
Medical biochemistry laboratory error.
Medical biochemistry laboratory reference range variations.
Non-pathological conditions, such as dehydration.
Other similar causes.

Kidney damage is not always the cause of elevated urea or creatinine in human blood tests.

Basic Metabolic Panel

What is the Basic Metabolic Panel blood test for human beings?
A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a blood test consisting of a set of seven or eight biochemical tests and is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers.

What are other terms for basic metabolic panel blood test for human beings?
The Basic Metabolic Panel is also called Chem 7.

What is included in Basic Metabolic Panel human blood test?
Glucose
Calcium
Sodium
Potassium
CO2 (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate)
Chloride
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Creatinine

Oxygen saturation can be measured separately by pulse oximetry.

When is this test ordered?
Your provider may order this test during a yearly exam or routine checkup.

What is the difference between basic metabolic panel, comprehensive metabolic panel and metabolic panel 20 in human blood tests?
8 components are measured in basic metabolic panel.
14 components are measured in comprehensive metabolic panel.
20 components are measured in Chem 20 metabolic panel.

What is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel human blood test?
Albumin: 3.4 to 5.4 g/dL
Alkaline phosphatase: 44 to 147 IU/L
ALT (alanine aminotransferase): 10 to 40 IU/L
AST (aspartate aminotransferase): 10 to 34 IU/L
BUN (blood urea nitrogen): 6 to 20 mg/dL
Calcium: 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL
Chloride: 96 - 106 mEq/L
CO2 (carbon dioxide): 23 to 29 mEq/L
Creatinine: 0.6 to 2.0 mg/dL
Glucose: 70 to 100 mg/dL
Potassium: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L
Sodium: 135 to 145 mEq/L
Total bilirubin: 0.3 to 1.9 mg/dL
Total protein: 6.0 to 8.3 g/dL

Normal values for glucose and creatinine can vary with age.

What is included in Chem 20 metabolic panel human blood test?
  1. Alanine aminotransferase

  2. Albumin

  3. Albumin/Globulin

  4. Alkaline phosphatase

  5. Aspartate aminotransferase

  6. Bilirubin

  7. Calcium

  8. Carbon dioxide

  9. Chloride

  10. Cholesterol

  11. Creatinine

  12. Globulin

  13. Glucose

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase

  15. Phosphate

  16. Potassium

  17. Protein

  18. Sodium

  19. Urate

  20. Urea nitrogen



Questions that need to be answered by all biochemistry laboratories conducting human blood tests.

What are the various essential topics, issues in medical biochemistry?
What is the difference between chemistry, biochemistry and medical biochemistry?
What is medical biochemistry?
Reference ranges for human blood tests vary according to resource: How would you resolve this issue?
What reference ranges of human blood tests does your biochemistry laboratory follow?
How and why was this reference range selected for human blood and with what scientific rationale?
How accurate and reliable are human blood tests measured by blood analyzers in various hospitals or biochemistry laboratories?
What types of human blood tests are conducted at this biochemistry laboratory?
What equipment is utilized from start to finish for human blood tests at this biochemistry laboratory?
What human blood chemistry analyzer is currently the best for blood tests; for example, comprehensive metabolic panel with 14 components for testing human blood?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalbiochemistry.html

Assessment of patient.
What is wrong with existing physicians around the world?
Existing physicians around the world are not able to do proper health care assessment in various human healthcare settings.

Existing physicians are not able to reach correct diagnoses and treatment in various human healthcare settings.

How many types of human health care assessment are there?
There are 18 types of human health care nonemergency assessment and 15 types of human health care, emergency assessment in various human healthcare settings.

What is an assessment of a patient?
Patient assessment is the term used to describe the process of identification of the condition, needs, abilities, and genuine preferences of a patient. Identify possible solutions and/or remedies.
Prepare a plan.

Who should ideally do an assessment of a patient?
The physician should ideally do an assessment of the patient.

There is only one best doctor on this planet.

His name: Dr. Asif Qureshi.
His focus: The planet.

Questions relevant to the patient.

Here are further guidelines.

PATIENT ASSESSMENT DEFINITIONS

Emergency Medical Services.
Here are further guidelines.

Emergency medical room in a hospital
Here are further guidelines.

Primary care physician consultation
New patient relevant to primary health care (nonemergency).
Here are further guidelines.

Abilities/skills
What are skills?
A skill is the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job.

Is there a difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
Yes.

What is the difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
Human pulse, blood pressure, temperature, consciousness, and respiratory rate are signs of human organ system functions.
These signs exist from birth onwards. These are signs of human organ system functions; they are not abilities.
Abilities are learned gradually after birth.

This example will make you understand.
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.

If an individual does not have English language reading, speaking, understanding, and writing abilities, that does not mean there is impairment of human organ system functions.
These are all learned abilities.
If an individual is educated properly, he or she will learn these abilities.

What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
Consciousness
Pulse
Blood pressure
Respiratory rate
Temperature
Pain

In some regions, consciousness and pain are not considered vital signs.

What are the differences between abilities of a newborn and abilities of an 18-year-old human?
A newborn does not have any learned abilities.
A newborn has five findings: Breathing effort, Heart rate, Muscle tone, Response to smell or foot slap, Skin color.
A doctor of medicine calls this Apgar scoring.
Apgar scoring determines the health of a newborn. These findings are due to human organ systems’ functions.
Sucking reflex, defecation, urination, and crawling are monitored later.

A human learns more than 600 abilities from birth up to 18 years.

What should you know about human organ systems’ functions?
Human organ systems functions exist from birth.

How is a human body organized?
Cells are the basic unit of life.
Tissues are clusters of cells that perform a similar function.
Organs are made of tissues that perform one specific function.
Organ systems are groups of organs that perform a specific purpose in the human body.

The purpose of the 11 organ systems is for the human body to maintain homeostasis.

Organs and Functions

What are the human organs and their function?
Adrenal glands - Fight or flight emergency explosive action and mental clarity.
Appendix - No longer in direct use, theorized to help Immune system.
Bladder - Temporally collects liquids from food waste.
Brain - A neural network of interdependent systems to send signals to muscles.
Epidermis - protect against pathogens, oxidant stress (UV light) and chemicals.
Esophagus - Muscular tube through which food travels to the stomach.
Eyes - Conversion of photons into a data stream for the optic nerve.
Gall bladder - Fat conversion/digestion with high powered chemicals.
Heart - Pump to move blood around the body.
Kidney - Regulate acidity, blood pressure, salt/water balance, signal hormones.
Large intestine - Absorb water and last remaining nutrients from waste.
Liver - Filter out the blood of impurities and toxins.
Lungs - Absorption of Oxygen and release of Carbon Dioxide.
Mouth - Temporary storage area for food while it is evaluated and crushed.
Ovaries - In Females, secrete estrogen, progesterone and create ovums.
Pancreas - Break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in food.
Parathyroid - Control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.
Pleura - Lubricant and structure to convert muscle movements to inhale/exhale.
Prostate gland - In Males, Assist in the preparation of semen.
Rectum - About 12cm of temporary storage site for feces.
Small intestine - Primary absorption of nutrients and minerals in food.
Spine - Bendable support structure for upper body, protects wires from brain to lower body.
Spleen - Secondary backup systems to regulate blood and immune system.
Stomach - Dissolve and churn eaten foods with acids.
Testes - In Males, create sperm containing the DNA code to build another human.
Thyroid gland - Configuration for energy storage, dial in sensitivity to hormones.
Tongue - Evaluate and reposition food in the mouth and push down esophagus.
Uterus - Hold and supply nutrients to the ovum while it grows into a human.

How many organ systems does the human body have?
The human body has 11 organ systems.

What are the organ systems of the human body?
Take a look at this.
Organ Systems of the Body

Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)
Circulatory System
Digestive System
Endocrine System
Integumentary system
Lymphatic (immune) system
Muscular system
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Skeletal System
Urinary system

Is there a difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
Yes.

What is the difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
Functional capacity evaluation measures 11 human organ system functions relevant to age.
Fitness for duty measures general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a profession.

Functional Capacity Evaluation measures 11 human organ system functions relevant to age.

Here are further guidelines.
Body Systems Quiz
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/Quizhumanbodtsystems.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/abilitiesworld.html
Abilities/skills


Anatomy
Physiology
Biochemistry


What are recommendations to other medical colleges?

Various medical colleges start with anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pediatrics, ear nose & throat, forensic medicine, ophthalmology, preventive and social medicine and end with medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology.

They must start directly with a medical condition. Each medical condition should be enumerated in at least 40 questions and answers with relevant anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and preventive concepts.
What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

If one needs these questions and answers, Qureshi University is willing to provide them.

Academic degree for physician

How should you introduce yourself if you are a physician?
I am Asif Qureshi.
I have a Doctor of Medicine academic degree.
I am a physician.
I am a forensic psychiatrist.
I can guide all medical specialties.

If a person is a physician and interprets his or her academic degree with such terms as MB BCh, M.D, MBBS, MB BCh BAO, MBChB, MBBChir, BMBS, BMed, BM, MChDetc, this can create confusion.

Doctor of Medicine is an academic degree for a physician.

Being a physician is the profession.
State department of health director is a professional rank.
Medical superintendent of a hospital is a professional rank.
Ideally, state department of health director should be a physician.
Head of the state is a professional rank.
Head of the United Continents of the world is a professional rank.
Head of the United States of world is a professional rank.

You may have gone for 4, 5, 6, or 8 years to medical college and be licensed to practice as a physician, but that does not mean you can reach a correct diagnosis of and treat complex human problems or complaints in the real world in various health care settings.

A physician’s abilities can range from physician/general practice to the best among physicians, that is, a physician/forensic psychiatrist.

Doctor Asif Qureshi is an example of forensic psychiatrist.

A forensic psychiatrist can evaluate fitness for duty of all other physicians.

A forensic psychiatrist can evaluate fitness for duty of all other professions in addition to physicians.

What does the practice of medicine include?
The practice of medicine includes the diagnosis, treatment, correction, advisement, or prescription for any human disease, ailment, injury, infirmity, deformity, pain, or other condition, physical or mental, real or imaginary.

Remember, if you claim to be a physician, you have to diagnose and treat various complex human problems and complaints in various health care settings.

Administrative Issues

What can be reasons for suspension from services of a medical doctor?
This is usually applicable to a junior doctor.
Absent from specific location of duty during duty hours.
Negligence.
A junior doctor usually remains at a specific location.
A senior doctor supervises from a distance.

What does a senior doctor do from a distance?
Provides education to junior doctors.
Monitors.
Does research.
Makes recommendations.

What is the minimum affiliation a physician or medical specialist should have?
Minimum collaboration with state department of health.

What degrees do I need to hold to become a physician?
Doctor of Medicine degree

Many physicians may also hold other advanced degrees, such as:
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Master's of Public Health (MPH)

Doctor of Jurisprudence, or Law (JD)

How many state departments of health are there in the world?
There are at least 323 state departments of health around the world.

How has the Internet changed the concept of medical education for physicians or medical specialists?
There previously were demarcations like medical college in America and medical college outside America. Internet medical education has made it possible for someone in Asia to get educated from an American medical education resource to become a physician or a medical specialist.

Is there a difference between a physician and a medical doctor?
No.

What are other names for a physician?
Doctor
Medical doctor
Medical practitioner

What is a physician assistant?
In real-world practice, a physician may not get your medical history directly.
A physician assistant or a nurse can get medical history before a real physician consultation.

What do you have to do before a patient or individual from the public seeks individualized doctor consultation?

Has this issue been explained at the public health level?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/publichealthworld.html

Has this issue been explained in patient education?
Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/patienteducation.html

If yes, you need to go through these facts.

If no, you need to seek individualized doctor consultation.

A doctor should first try to resolve health issues at the public health level or patient education.

If the public health level or patient education does not resolve your issues, individualized doctor consultation is required.

Doctor Consultation

Here are further guidelines.
Annual health assessment.
Here are further guidelines.
Health administration (State health care administrative issues)
Hospital administrators
Administrative Issues
Computer and Internet education for doctors

Health.
State department of health.
Occupations relevant to the state department of health and the state department of public health.
What is on the list of occupations relevant to the state department of health and the state department of public health?

Categories of human healthcare professionals.

What are the categories of human healthcare professionals?
Guide human healthcare professionals, including the director of the state department of public health.
State department of human healthcare administrator.
Physician, specific type with seniority.
Physician's aide or assistant.
Physician, executive (knows economic, budget, and administrative issues within and outside the state).
Nurse
Dentist
Pharmacist
Allied healthcare workers.


State department of human healthcare administrator.

Director of the state department of public health.
Director of the state department of health.
Staff of the director of the state department of health.
Staff of the director of the state department of public health.
Superintendent of a hospital within or outside the state.

What is the proof of your competence?
You should be able to answer relevant questions.
The same should be displayed publicly.

Physician, specific type with seniority.

Here are various types of physician training programs.
What type of physician would you like to be?
  1. Physician primary care
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

  2. Physician intensive care unit
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

  3. Physician medical emergency room
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

  4. Physician medical emergency responder
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

  5. Physician surgeon medical emergency
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

  6. Physician surgeon elective surgery
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

  7. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

  8. Physician guide to physician or physicians
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

  9. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

  10. Physician forensic psychiatry
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

  11. Physician Forensic Pathology
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

  12. Physical Therapist
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

  13. Physician director of public health of the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

  14. Physician director of health of the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorhealth.html

  15. Physician medical superintendent of a hospital in the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianmedicalsuperintendent.html

  16. Physician of public health in the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianpublichealthworld.html


Make sure you differentiate between the old system of physician categories and existing specific types of physicians at this point with seniority.
Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalstudents.html

What should existing human healthcare professionals know, including the director of the state department of public health?
Those who are circulating human healthcare guidelines at this point must know they have been educated in the old system of human healthcare professions.
They must be oriented to existing requirements of human healthcare professions.

Advice for various aspiring and existing human healthcare occupations within and outside the state.

What advice is there for all aspiring and existing human healthcare occupations within and outside the state?
Identify with the state department of health.
Identify with the state department of public health.
The state department of health means the Illinois Department of Health or the equivalent.
The state department of public health means the Illinois Department of Public Health or the equivalent.
Doctor Asif Qureshi is the head of the Department of Health, United Continents, United States of planet earth and the founder of this department on planet earth.
Do not identify with any entity that is not recommended by the state department of health or the state department of public health.
The World Health Organization (WHO), which was once associated with the UN, has been discarded due to various harms.
English language is the official language.
Communicate in the English language.
Differentiate between the old system of human healthcare education, including that of specific types of physicians, and the latest advanced type of education for human healthcare occupations, including specific types of physicians.
If you know anyone interested in human healthcare occupations, share these resources www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html with them, including specific types of aspiring physicians and specific existing types of physicians within and outside the state.
Nominate highly competent physicians for the Department of Health, United Continents, United States of planet earth.
Nominees should focus on individualized human healthcare and public health.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/departmentofhealthucusplanetearth.html

What should existing human healthcare professionals know, including the director of the state department of public health?
Those who are circulating human healthcare guidelines at this point must know they have been educated in the old system of human healthcare professions.
They must be oriented to existing requirements of human healthcare professions.

Differentiate between the old system of human healthcare education, including that of specific types of physicians, and the latest advanced type of education for human healthcare occupations, including specific types of physicians.

Requirements for a New System

Take a look at this.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalstudents.html

Take a look at this.
Medical doctors.

Traditional system: How were the old systems of physicians defined?
Take a look at this.
Anesthesiology/Critical Care
Biochemistry
Cardiology
Dermatology
Disability Specialist
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology
Forensic Medicine International
Gastroenterology
Geriatrics
Hematology
Internet Healthcare
Internal Medicine
Medical Negligence (Medical Malpractice Specialist)
Microbiology
Nephrology
Neurology
Oncology
Ophthalmology
Orthopedics
Otorhinolaryngology
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Primary care physician (Family & General Practice)
    Does the provider use email?
Pediatrics
Psychiatry
Pulmonary Medicine
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Public Health/Social and Preventive Medicine
Radiology & Nuclear Medicine
Surgery
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalspecialty.html
Compare today’s existing specific types of physician requirements with traditional systems of physicians and you will see the difference.

What can vary in today’s existing specific types of physician requirements within and outside the state?
Seniority can vary. Seniority can range from junior to most senior levels. If the most senior levels can guide other professions, those persons can be the heads of state.

Why should you not pursue education in the old system of medical education?
MBBS is an old type of education system.
You must pursue education in existing specific types of physician training programs.

Health Care Administrator
State Department of Health
Additional Secretary to Government.
Chief Medical Officer.
Deputy Chief Medical Officer (Physician)
Commissioner/Secretary to Government.
Controller, Drug & Food Organization.
Deputy/Secretary to Government.
Director Health.
Under/Secretary to Government.
Health Care Access Outreach Coordinator.
Medical students.
Allied health workers.
Nurses.
Pharmacists.
Coroner

Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings.

Why have the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings been put together?
In olden days, a specific physician had to take 18-month courses in anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings. Some such anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings courses were more than required for specific physicians. Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings resources are relevant to specific physicians’ real-world services. Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings resources require curriculum reform as recommended by Doctor Asif Qureshi.

What should specific physicians know about the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of human beings?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/biologyworld.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/human.html

What are you expected to know about a matured human?
Annotations or definition.
Abilities.
Bones.
Drugs required for human medical conditions.
Equipment required for human medical conditions.
Health care settings.
Human anatomy by category.
Resources required for human health care.
Internal organs (main).
Muscles.
Medical conditions.
Systems of the human body
Survival needs.

What is a human?
Human as per scientific classification.
Human as per human body systems.
Human as per matured human abilities.


How many human body systems are there?
11

What are the names of human body systems?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/human.html

How many bones, muscles, internal organs, and cells does a mature human have?
Bones: 206
Internal organs (main): 22
Muscles: 600
100 trillion cells

How many human body bones are there in one matured human being?
(206)

What are the names of human body bones?
www.qureshiuniversity.org/human.html

How many human body muscles are there in one matured human being?
600 muscles

What are the names of human body muscles?
www.qureshiuniversity.org/human.html

Human anatomy by category

How many human anatomy categories are there?
19

What should you know about human anatomy by category?
www.qureshiuniversity.org/human.html

How many human body internal organs are there in one human being?
22 internal organs

What are the names of human body internal organs?
www.qureshiuniversity.org/human.html

How many abilities should a matured human have relevant to age?
24 abilities.

What is a matured human?
A matured human is an individual between 18 to 75 years old.

What are examples of matured human abilities relevant to age?
Abstract reasoning
Breathing
Clothing
Cooking food
Communicating through various means (written, spoken, sign language). English language
Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)
Creating and using numerous other technologies
Creating and extinguishing fires or heat
Following a variety of values, social norms, and rituals
Getting started after sleep
Hearing
Intellectual ability knowledge, English language abilities, and able to answer
Learning
Language (English language, problem solving)
Moving or manipulating objects
Performing manual tasks
Replying to relevant questions
Seeing
Speaking
Sitting
Sleeping normally
Having sexual desire
Working
Walking

This is applicable to 18–75-year-olds.
If an individual is less that 18 or more than 75 and feels issues are not due to age less than 18 or old age, that individual needs evaluation as well.

What are recommendations to other medical colleges?

Various medical colleges start with anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pediatrics, ear nose & throat, forensic medicine, ophthalmology, preventive and social medicine and end with medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology.

They must start directly with a medical condition. Each medical condition should be enumerated in at least 40 questions and answers with relevant anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and preventive concepts.
What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?


If one needs these questions and answers, Qureshi University is willing to provide them.

Advice for postgraduate physicians.

Here are few suggestions for you.
This is for those who are counseled to appear for any examination for postgraduation.
Examination before postgraduation is futile exercise.
Relevant questions must be answered.
You must get profiled by your guide for abilities with recommendations.
Any postgraduation cannot teach you more than what is elaborated at www.qureshiuniveristy.org/healthcareworld.html

Because of the computer and Internet, a physician can enhance his/her further abilities at home or home office with computer and Internet and connect to www.qureshiuniveristy.org/healthcareworld.html You need to maintain all these guidelines separately for future review, including guidelines at www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html.

All these useless and unreasonable examinations for further studies or postgraduate studies can be challenged in courts in the state.

Is there any standard examination and justified examination for physicians that can get them a postgraduation training program for further studies?
No.

How should any physician go ahead with any postgraduation in a state?

Questions you need to answer.

What is the profile of your guide?
In what state do you plan to offer professional services of a physician?
Do you plan to be around Asif Qureshi?

If you plan to be around Asif Qureshi, you must visit www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html every day.
You must call every Sunday.
You must call on other days if required.
If required, email or call that you would like to speak with me and I will call or email from this side.
No resource can guide you better than the guidelines at www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html resources.
If others contend that there are better resources, they must display them publicly like those at www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html.

What do I expect from you?
You will maintain all communications and learning materials you get.

You are first a physician, then a specialist and superspecialist.

Drugs

Essential Medicines List

  1. Anaesthetics

  2. Analgesics, Antipyretics, Nsaids And Drugs Used In Gout

  3. Anti-Allergic Drugs

  4. Antidotes And Other Substances Used In Poisoning

  5. Anticonvulsants

  6. Anti-Infective Drugs

  7. Antimigraine Drugs

  8. Antineoplastic And Immunosuppresive Drugs

  9. Antiparkinsonism Drugs

  10. Blood Products And Blood Substitutes

  11. Cardiovascular Drugs

  12. Dermatological Preparations

  13. Diagnostic Agents

  14. Disinfectants

  15. Diuretics

  16. Drugs Affecting The Blood

  17. Drugs Acting On The Respiratory Tract

  18. Gastrointestinal Drugs

  19. Hormones, Other Endocrine Drugs And Contraceptives

  20. Immunologicals

  21. Muscle Relaxants And Cholinesterase Inhibitors*

  22. Ophthalmological Preparations

  23. Oxytocics And Anti-Oxytocics

  24. Dialysis Solutions

  25. Pre-Operative Medications And Sedation For Short-Term Procedures

  26. Psychotherapeutic Drugs

  27. Solutions Correcting Water And Electrolyte Abnormalities

  28. Vitamins And Minerals

  29. Other Specialist Drugs

  30. Here are further guidelines.

The best hospitals are not created from big buildings. An analysis of hospitals inside and outside the state.

What types of guidelines has Dr. Asif Qureshi established for residents and professionals inside and outside the state?
Abilities/Skills: Guidelines for 650 human abilities.
Departments: Guidelines for 54 essential departments inside and outside the state.
Occupations: Guidelines for 1000 occupations, including teachers, lawyers, engineers, and physicians.
Products: Guidelines for 130 products, including computers, road vehicles, and aircraft.
States: Guidelines for 330 states in the world.
Subjects: Guidelines for 150 subjects, including English, math, science, social studies, and forensic medicine.
Take a look at this.
www.qureshiuniversity.org
Everything is displayed via these resources.

The best hospitals are not created from big buildings. An analysis of hospitals inside and outside the state.

Why was there need to elaborate on these issues?
Displays of big buildings do not make the best hospitals.

1. Mayo Clinic
Where: Rochester, Minn.

2. Cleveland Clinic
Where: Cleveland

3. Massachusetts General Hospital
Where: Boston

4. Johns Hopkins Hospital
Where: Baltimore

5. UCLA Medical Center
Where: Los Angeles

6. New York-Presbyterian University Hospital of Columbia and Cornell
Where: New York

7. UCSF Medical Center
Where: San Francisco

8. Northwestern Memorial Hospital
Where: Chicago

9. Hospitals of the University of Pennsylvania-Penn Presbyterian
Where: Philadelphia

10. NYU Langone Medical Center
Where: New York

11. Barnes Hospital/Washington University
Where: St. Louis

12. UPMC Presbyterian Shadyside
Where: Pittsburgh

13. Brigham and Women's Hospital
Where: Boston

14. Stanford Health Care-Stanford Hospital
Where: Stanford, Calif.

15. Mount Sinai Hospital
Where: New York

16. Duke University Hospital
Where: Durham, N.C.

17. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Where: Los Angeles

18. University of Michigan Hospital and Health Centers
Where: Ann Arbor

19. Houston Methodist Hospital
Where: Houston

20. University of Colorado Hospital
Where: Aurora

You need to answer the relevant questions.

Where has the hospital inside or outside the state displayed on the Internet human healthcare guidelines for existing physicians, subordinates, aspiring physicians, and the public in the way displayed at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html resources?
Where is the Internet display of the complete profile of hospital staff relevant to various human healthcare settings in the state, including specific physicians with at least 10 human healthcare settings?
How are your Internet guidelines better than www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html guidelines for existing and aspiring physicians, subordinates, and the public?

Aging Research

What have been findings of aging research?
What is Aging?
How does the aging process work?
Interview Questions for Elders
Further Research Required
What have been findings of aging research?
Elderly means more than 65 years.
Life expectancy in existing systems is at least 90 years with all basic human needs.
An aunt of a senior editor in America celebrated her 100th birthday August 2, 2014.
Take a look at statement from senior editor.
My Aunt Sylvia was 100 on August 2. Her eyesight is virtually nonexistent due to effects of diabetes and macular degeneration, and her hearing is not very good, but she has all of her faculties and can discuss almost any subject. She was the youngest of six children and was only two pounds at birth.

In 1914, few children of such weight survived but she did. She was born in New York, has three children, about 12 grandchildren, and several great-grandchildren. One of her strengths is the ability to think positively and not to let setbacks depress her. To her, the glass is always half full, not half empty. Her husband died of pancreatic cancer at age 65 about three decades ago.

She also has a very supportive family and lives near her daughter in Massachusetts. She has been in a nursing home for more than a year because she had a heart attack and suffers from vertigo.

What is Aging?
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.

In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical, psychological, and social changes.

What is aging, how does it occur, and how does it express itself in human clinical disease?
Aging effects on human body abilities

Functional Assessment

How does the aging process work?
The human body goes through a variety of changes as it gets older.
Further research can add a few more findings.
Blood Vessels And Other Tissues
Bones
Heart
Metabolism
Muscles
Skin

Skin

Wrinkles: Fibers in the skin called collagen and elastin break down and lose strength as a person gets older. Sun exposure throughout life contributes to this process. Without these fibers, the skin cannot hold its shape as well. Older skin retains less fat, making it look less supple. The pull of gravity also causes the skin to sag.

•Dry skin: Older people produce less sweat and oil, causing their skin to be drier. Excessively dry skin can emphasize the appearance of wrinkles.

•Age spots: Dark spots on the skin, particularly the arms, hands, face and feet, stem from cumulative exposure to the sun. Most people call these marks liver spots, but they are unrelated to liver function. They actually stem from overproduction of the pigment melanin in areas of the skin that have experienced the most exposure to the sun.

Sun exposure: Scientists have proven that ultraviolet light from the sun contributes to skin cancer and cataracts. It also plays a role in the appearance of wrinkles and age spots. In addition to using sunscreens, people can reduce their exposure to the sun by: Wearing a hat with a wide brim Wearing sunglasses with lenses that block ultraviolet light Avoiding sun exposure in the middle of the day, when the sun is strongest Avoiding deliberate sun exposure

•Smoking: Smokers generally experience more wrinkles than nonsmokers. Doctors and scientists have not yet determined exactly how smoking contributes to wrinkles. They believe it may accelerate the natural aging process of collagen and elastin.

Interview Questions for Elders

How do you feel about aging?
How old is "old"?
Are you afraid of getting old?
Which new technology have you found most helpful in your life? Which do you find to be the most annoying?
Is there anything you have always wanted to tell me but never have?
Is there anything you regret not having asked your parents?
Do you wish anything had been different between us, or would you still like to change something?
What was the happiest moment of your life?
What are you most proud of?
Who is the person who influenced your life the most?
What are the most important lessons you've learned in life?
What is your earliest memory?
Would you go to a doctor that specializes in helping you age better or more slowly?
Who were your friends when you were growing up?
What was your favorite thing to do for fun (movies, beach, etc.)?
What was school like for you as a child? What were your best and worst subjects?
What school activities and sports did you participate in?
Do you remember any fads from your youth? Popular hairstyles? Clothing?
What world events had the most impact on you?
How would you like to be remembered?
How has your appearance changed?


Further Research Required

What causes aging in humans?
Which is correct aging or Ageing?
Why do you age?
Can you stop aging?
Is it possible to reverse aging?
How do you stop aging?
How do you slow down the aging process?
Here are further guidelines.

Annual health assessment.
Encourage everyone to have an annual health assessment from a competent medical doctor able to answer relevant questions via e-mail, telephone, fax, postal mail, or face-to-face and able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various health care settings.

Why do you need an annual health assessment?
Most medical emergencies can be prevented with a proper annual health assessment and treatment by a competent medical doctor.

Most medical disabilities can be prevented or cured with an annual health assessment by a competent medical doctor.

Most medical conditions can be diagnosed and cured with a proper annual health assessment by a competent medical doctor.

The quality of health can be enhanced with a proper annual health assessment and treatment by a competent medical doctor.

Every state must assign 200 patients to a competent medical doctor able to answer relevant questions and reach a correct diagnosis and treatment for primary health care that includes an annual health assessment.

Every medical doctor must update the state department of health with relevant findings.

The state department of health must maintain medical records of patients.
A medical doctor can prolong the life of a person at least up to 90 years with a good quality of life. A medical doctor cannot sustain a person beyond 90-95 years of life.
Questions for professional regulators in the state.
Questions for health care providers or medical doctors.
Questions for residents or patients.

Questions for residents or patients.
New Patient Consultation
Profile from birth until now
If your profile is available, you do not need to answer these questions.
If your profile is not maintained with me, you need to answer these questions.
If you have difficulty elaborating your profile, you can be helped with sample examples.
Annual health assessment of a child
Female
Yearly health assessment
Annual health assessment


What are the details of the problems or complaints you had in past one year?

_________________________

What are the details of the problems or complaints you think you will face in the years ahead?

_________________________

Do you have enough survival needs?

_________________________

What are details of your survival needs for next year?

_________________________

When was your last annual health assessment done?

_________________________

Who did your last annual health assessment?

_________________________

What were the findings?

_________________________

What were the recommendations?

_________________________

Did the recommendations help?

_________________________

Was it an annual health assessment or evaluation of a new problem?

_________________________

When did you last see a medical doctor?

_________________________

Did you see a medical doctor for an annual health assessment or a new problem?

_________________________

What seemed to be the problem?

_________________________

What was the diagnosis and treatment?

_________________________

What is the name and contact information of the medical doctor who gave you this diagnosis and treatment?

_________________________

How are you feeling today?

_________________________

Do you have any problems today?

_________________________

What seems to be the problem?

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

Did you know that 90% of doctor visits are for stress related symptoms?

_________________________

What do you know about stress?

_________________________

What are the sources of medical history?

_________________________

Patient.
Family.
Patient not responding to medical history questions.
Community member.
Police officer.
Referral from medical doctor.
Other.

Where is the patient now?

_________________________

Where do you live now?

_________________________

What is your telephone number?

_________________________

What is your e-mail address or fax number?

_________________________

Who has your medical record?

_________________________

Can I get a copy of your medical record?

_________________________

If you do not have a medical record and need to be my patient, a new medical record needs to be created.
This will take a few weeks.
You need to forward details about yourself.
This will be followed by various specific questions. What best describes your problem?


_________________________

What is the reason for consultation?

_________________________

The new problem is not a medical emergency.
Follow-up medical consultation.
Problem that is a medical emergency (In case of a medical emergency, your local emergency service is the first responder. Guidelines for your local emergency responder are at this location: http:www.qureshiuniversity.com/emergencyworld.html).
Patient Education
Annual health assessment.
Patient been referred to you by others.
Patient been referred by you to others.
These are basic questions.
There are many more.

One copy of your yearly health assessment goes to the state department of health.
One copy of your yearly health assessment remains with your primary care physician.
Referred by:_________________________

How long have you known the patient?

______________________________________

What are the details of the primary health care physician of a resident/patient?

Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________
Here are helpful guidelines to describe your primary physician.

I do not have a primary health care physician.
My primary health care physician is not able to answer relevant questions via e-mail, fax, phone, postal mail, or face-to-face.
There are no competent primary care physicians in the area I am living.
I need a primary health care physician able to reach a correct diagnosis and treat me in various health care settings, and able to answer relevant questions via e-mail, fax, postal mail, and face-to-face.
Emergency Contact Name:______________

Phone: _______________________

Email Address: _______________________

Relationship:________________________
What is included in a yearly health assessment?
Survival needs screening.
Life stressors screening.
History from birth until now if not recorded previously.
Vision and hearing screening.
Any new complaints/problems.
Activities of everyday living, housekeeping, mobility screening.
Personality disorders screening
Screening physical exam.
Advice/recommendations.
What are findings about other medical doctors and health care providers?
Most of the medical doctors claiming to be highly specialized health care providers up to March 30, 2013 did not provide this type of yearly health assessment.

All medical doctors and health care providers are required to provide this type of quality yearly health assessment.

They should not call themselves specialists without at least quality yearly health assessment.

What type of health care screening is usually done but is not helpful and sometimes is harmful due to wrong results/false positives?
Cancer screening, PPD test, Elisa tests, etc.

Is this type of health care screening useful?
No.

Write down any symptoms you're having, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the consultation. Note when your symptoms bother you most — for example, if your symptoms tend to get worse at certain times of the day, during certain seasons, or when you're exposed to cold air, pollen or other triggers.

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
_________________________

_________________________

Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements that you're taking.Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to recall all the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.

_________________________

Write down questions to ask your doctor.

_________________________
Annual Physical Exam: The Basics

Date of Examination:_________________________

Physician Name:_________________________

Physician Address:_________________________
(For women only)
Are you pregnant or breast feeding? _____________________
Date of your last menstrual period: ______________________
How many children do you have? ______________________
How were they delivered? ______________________

Human Vital Signs

1. Consciousness:_________________________

2. Pulse rate:_________________________

3. Blood pressure:_________________________

4. Respiration rate:_________________________

5. Body temperature:_________________________

6. Emotion:_________________________

Vital Signs. These are some vital signs checked by your doctor:
Blood pressure: less than 120 over 80 is a normal blood pressure. Doctors define high blood pressure (hypertension) as 140 over 90 or higher.
Heart rate: Values between 60 and 100 are considered normal. Many healthy people have heart rates slower than 60, however.
Respiration rate: Around 16 is normal. Breathing more than 20 times per minute can suggest heart or lung problems.
Temperature: 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is the average, but healthy people can have resting temperatures slightly higher or lower.

Vision & Hearing Screening

Height:_________________________

Weight:_________________________

Waist, hip circumferences:_________________________

BMI:_________________________

    Calculate the body mass index (BMI = wt (kg) ÷ ht(m2)
    < 20 BMI Low body weight
    20 to 25 BMI Healthy weight for most people
    >25 to 27 BMI Weight may lead to health problems
    27 to 29 BMI Overweight. Associated with increase in morbidity and mortality.
    > 30 BMI Obese
Eyes:_________________________

Ears/Nose:_________________________

Oral Cavity:_________________________

Endocrine:_________________________

Lymph Nodes:_________________________

Lungs:_________________________

Heart:_________________________

Breasts:_________________________

Abdomen:_________________________

Genitals:_________________________

Female Physical Exam:_________________________

Male Physical Exam:_________________________

Extremities / Musculoskeletal:_________________________

Habitus:_________________________

Skin:_________________________

Psychiatric:_________________________

Neurologic:_________________________

Laboratory Tests



Complete blood count

Chemistry panel

Urinalysis (UA)

Prescription

Here are further guidelines.


Throat Problems
Throat Disorders
Oral Health: Mouth & Throat Medical Conditions
Throat Symptoms - Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
Annotation or Definition
Causes
Complications
Diagnosis
Diagnostic tests
Disabilities associated with this medical condition
Emergencies associated with this medical condition
Epidemiology
History of this medical condition
Medical history relevant to this medical condition
Medical emergencies associated with this medical condition
Mechanism or pathogenesis
Normal values
Prevention
Relevant anatomy, physiology, or biochemistry
Risk factors
Research
Symptoms and signs
Sore Throats: causes & cures
Types
Treatment or management

Annotation or Definition
How do you know if a person has throat problems?
What are the various medical diagnoses relevant to throat problems?
What are the most common medical diagnoses relevant to throat problems?
What are the signs of throat problems?
What are the symptoms of a throat infection?
What causes throat symptoms?
What are the potential complications of throat symptoms?
What is the Pharynx and Tonsils?
What is the function of the pharynx?
Oral pharyngeal disorders
What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
How is it diagnosed?
What is the treatment?
How do you know if a person has throat problems?
Aching muscles and limbs with throat pain
Change in voice, such as muffled or altered speech or hoarseness
Cough
Dry throat
Itchiness or tickling in the throat
Fever (a temperature of 38.5°C or higher)
Fever (a temperature of 38.5°C or higher) with throat pain
Headache with throat pain.
Nasal congestion or runny nose
Pain in your ears or neck
Persistent irritation in the throat
Phlegm or mucus buildup due to postnasal drip, infection, or inflammation
Red, swollen tonsils (the glands at the back of your throat; tonsillitis)
Redness and swelling (inflammation) at the back of your throat causing pain, especially when you swallow
Runny nose
Sore throat
Sneezing
Swallowing problems, such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) or painful swallowing (odynophagia)
Swollen glands (lymph nodes) in your neck
Swollen tonsils
Throat lumps or growths
Throat pain
Throat pain with itchy or watery eyes
Tiredness
White patches on the tonsils and throat

What are the various medical diagnoses relevant to throat problems?
  1. Congenital throat problems

  2. Croup—inflammation, usually in small children, that causes a barking cough

  3. Choking caused by piece of food or other object stuck in the upper airway (rare medical emergency).

  4. Epiglottitis

  5. Flu

  6. Laryngitis—swelling of the voice box, which can cause hoarseness or the loss of voice

  7. Esophageal strictures, webs, and rings

  8. Osteochondroses

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

  10. Paterson Brown-Kelly Syndrome

  11. Pharyngeal pouch

  12. Pharyngitis/Sore throat

  13. Strep throat/streptococcal pharyngitis

  14. Throat Injuries

  15. Tonsillitis—an infection in the tonsils

  16. Tonsils and adenoids

  17. Wegener’s granulomatosis
Do not mention throat cancer
If a specific physician mentions cancer, you have to verify the diagnosis yourself.
How did you reach this diagnosis?
What are the symptoms and signs justifying this diagnosis relevant to this human being?
What are the pathological microscopic findings that led to this conclusion?

You can be charged with unprofessional conduct and/or medical malpractice.

What are the most common medical diagnoses relevant to throat problems?
Flu
Strep throat/streptococcal pharyngitis
Tonsillitis—an infection in the tonsils

Throat pain and mouth sores, along with other cold and flu symptoms, are common problems.

What are the signs of throat problems?
Throat symptoms can vary greatly in character and severity depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Common throat symptoms include:
•Change in voice, such as muffled or altered speech or hoarseness
•Dry throat
•Feelings of itchiness or tickling in the throat
•Persistent irritation
•Phlegm or mucus buildup due to postnasal drip, infection, or inflammation
•Sore throat
•Swallowing problems, such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) or painful swallowing (odynophagia)
•Swollen tonsils
•Throat lumps or growths
•Throat pain
•White patches on the tonsils and throat

What are the symptoms of a throat infection?
Common symptoms of a sore throat include:
redness and swelling (inflammation) at the back of your throat causing pain, especially when you swallow
red, swollen tonsils (the ‘glands’ at the back of your throat; tonsillitis)
swollen ‘glands’ (lymph nodes) in your neck
pain in your ears or neck.

If your sore throat is caused by the cold or flu virus, you may also have some of the symptoms of a cold or flu including: fever (a temperature of 38.5°C or higher)
headache
runny nose
cough
tiredness
aching muscles and limbs.

Certain symptoms are more likely to suggest a throat infection caused by bacteria.

What causes throat symptoms?
Throat symptoms may be caused by a wide array of conditions, including infectious diseases, allergies, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. Certain types of head and neck cancers may also cause throat symptoms that include difficulty swallowing, sore throat, and the development of throat growths or sores.
Infectious causes of throat symptoms

Throat symptoms can be caused by a variety of infectious diseases including:

• Chickenpox
• Common cold (viral respiratory infection)
• Croup (viral illness)
• Influenza (flu)
• Mononucleosis
• Pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat often caused by an infection)
• Strep throat (streptococcal bacteria infection characterized by a sore, red throat and occasionally white spots on the tonsils)
• Tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils often caused by an infection)

Other causes of throat symptoms

Other causes of throat symptoms include environmental factors, allergies, and digestive system conditions:

• Allergies, including hay fever and rhinitis
• Dry air
•Foreign body
•Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus)
• Head and neck cancers
• Postnasal drip
• Smoking and air pollution

Life-threatening causes of throat symptoms

In some cases, throat symptoms may be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency setting. These include:

Anaphylaxis (life-threatening allergic reaction)
• Choking or aspiration of food, fluids, or other substances into the windpipe
• Epiglottitis (inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis)

What is the Pharynx and Tonsils?
The technical name for throat is pharynx.

The pharynx is the uppermost part of the alimentary tract and commonly referred to as the throat. It directs the passage of air and food between the mouth and nose into esophagus and larynx. The tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue that lie in the pharynx.
Location of the Pharynx
It starts from the back of the mouth and nose and extends down into the esophagus. It runs from the base of the skull to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra, which is posterior to the pharynx, and the cricoid cartilage, which lies anterior to the pharynx.

What is the function of the pharynx?
Functions of the pharynx include:
1. Swallowing
2. Breathing
3. Speech
4. Equilibration of the Pressure in the Middle Ear
5. Immunity

The pharynx has three functions based on the cavities which lies adjacent to it.

The nasopharynx is an extension of the nasal cavities and directs air downwards during inhalation and upwards during exhalation.

The oropharynx extends from the back of the mouth and carries ingested food and drinks from the mouth into the esophagus.

The laryngopharynx lies just behind the larynx (voice box) and is the lowermost part of the pharynx. It serves as a common passage for both food (into the esophagus) and air (into the larynx).

Location of the Tonsils

?The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the mucous membrane lining the roof and posterior wall (back wall) of the nasopharynx. It is commonly referred to as the ‘adenoids‘ when inflamed.

?The tubal tonsil is located in the submucosa of the nasopharynx near the opening of the eustachian tube.

?The palantine tonsils lie on either side of the oropharynx in between the palantine arches.

?The lingual tonsils are located at the back of the tongue.

The tonsils form a ring on lymphoid tissue which is referred to as the pharyngeal lymphatic ring (tonsillar ring or Waldeyer’s ring).

Mouth and Throat Disorders

Epiglottitis
Laryngitis
Laryngoceles
Retropharyngeal Abscess
Salivary Gland Disorders
Submandibular Space Infection
Tonsillar Cellulitis and Tonsillar Abscess
Tonsillopharyngitis
Vocal Cord Polyps, Nodules, and Granulomas
Vocal Cord Contact Ulcers
Vocal Cord Paralysis

Common Conditions Involving Pharynx
Itchy throat
Sore throat
Difficulty swallowing – dysphagia
Swollen Uvula
Aerophagia
Enlarged tonsils or inflamed tonsils
Tonsil Stones
Enlarged adenoids
Postnasal drip
Throat injuries
Throat problems are common. You've probably had a sore throat. The cause is usually a viral infection, but other causes include allergies, infection with strep bacteria or the upward movement of stomach acids into the esophagus, called GERD.
Tonsillitis - an infection in the tonsils
Pharyngitis - inflammation of the pharynx
Croup - inflammation, usually in small children, which causes a barking cough
Epiglottitis
Laryngitis

Throat Problems



Diagnosis

Cold and Flu
Gastroenteritis, also called Stomach Flu
Strep Throat or Mononucleosis/Acute pharyngitis/Pharyngitis - sore throat
Bronchitis, Pneumonia or Post Nasal Drip
Croup
Epiglottitis
Canker Sores
Trench mouth
Drug Reactions
Oral thrush


How is it diagnosed?
Begin Here

Symptoms
Diagnosis
Self care

1. Do you have a fever?
No Go to Question 7.*
Yes

2. Do you have body aches, headache, cough or runny nose?
Yes You probably have a COLD or FLU.
Drink plenty of fluids and get plenty of rest. Children should be given nonaspirin medicine for the fever. If the cold lasts longer than two to three days, see your doctor.
No

3. Are you vomiting or do you have nausea or diarrhea?
Yes You may have viral GASTROENTERITIS, also called STOMACH FLU.
Drink plenty of fluids and get plenty of rest. Use an antinausea and/or antidiarrheal medicine . See your doctor if symptoms get worse, if they last longer than a week, or if you become dehydrated.
No

4. When you look at the back of your throat, do you see white patches on your tonsils?
Yes You may have STREP THROAT or MONONUCLEOSIS.
See your doctor.
No

5. Do you have a persistent cough or are you coughing mucus?
Yes These symptoms may be from BRONCHITIS, PNEUMONIA or POST-NASAL DRIP.
These illnesses need prescription treatments. See your doctor.
No

6. Is the person a child with a harsh barking cough?
Yes A dry barking cough often means CROUP or, less commonly, EPIGLOTTITIS.
Make sure the child is drinking plenty of fluids. Relieve fever and other discomfort with children's acetaminophen. See your doctor right away if there is shortness of breath. Croup and other respiratory infections may need treatment by your doctor.

- 7. Do you have small, open sores on your tongue, inside your lips or on the sides or back of your mouth?
Yes
These sores are called CANKER SORES. They usually occur by themselves or with other viral illnesses.
Most of these sores will heal in 7 to 14 days. Use an anesthetic spray or an analgesic medicine. If the sores are severe, last longer than expected, or are accompanied by other symptoms, see your doctor.
No

8. Is the skin in your mouth peeling, and are your tongue and gums swollen and red?
Yes
This may be from TRENCH MOUTH, an infection of the gums, teeth and other tissues. A rare drug reaction, STEVENS-JOHNSON REACTION, may also cause this. See your dentist or doctor. Poor dental hygiene may lead to this disease. Brush your teeth and floss as recommended by your dentist. Use over-the-counter pain medications to relieve discomfort.
No

9. Do you have white patches and redness on your tongue or on the sides or back of your mouth?
Yes
You may have ORAL THRUSH, a yeast infection in your mouth.
This may be a simple infection, or it may come from another, more serious illness. You may be able to control the infection by eating unsweetened yogurt (with live cultures) or taking acidophilus. This may help restore normal bacteria in your body. See your doctor if it returns or doesn't go away.

Sore throat

Why will a patient with a sore throat go to the medical emergency room?
What should you know about prescriptions relevant to this treatment?
Does this treatment recommendation need a physician’s prescription?
What will a label of treatment recommendations prescription look like?
What is a Sore Throat?
What are the symptoms of a sore throat?
What causes sore throats?
What is tonsillitis?
What is mononucleosis?
What tests may be used to find the cause of my sore throat?
What is the treatment for a sore throat caused by bacteria?
What is the treatment for a sore throat caused by a virus?
What about a sore throat that's caused by allergies?
If I have tonsillitis, will I need a tonsillectomy?
How can I avoid catching or passing a sore throat?
Sore Throat | Questions to Ask Your Doctor
What is strep throat?

Can I prevent strep throat?
What are the symptoms?
What happens when I get strep throat?
What increases my risk of getting strep throat?
Who is affected by strep throat?
Who can diagnose strep throat?
How is strep throat diagnosed?
Should I take antibiotics for a sore throat?
What medicines will I need to take?
What complications can develop?
What can I do at home to relieve symptoms of strep throat?
When should I call my doctor?
Here are further guidelines.

Human Anatomy

What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?

Questions

What is the use of the pharynx?
What is the difference between the larynx and the pharynx?
What is the role of the pharynx in the respiratory system?
What makes up the larynx?
Anterior to which vertebrae is the pharynx situated?
What is the nasopharynx?
What are the boundaries of the pharyngeal isthmus?
What are adenoids?
What is the pharyngeal hypophysis?
Where are the openings of the auditory tube?
What are the boundaries of the faucial isthmus?
List the components of the pharyngeal lymphatic ring.
Where is the tonsil?
What is the piriform recess?
Where does a pharyngeal diverticulum usually form?
What is the motor innervation of the pharynx?
How may the interior of the larynx be viewed in vivo?
What is the vertebral level corresponding to the inferior extent of the larynx?
Is the hyoid bone a part of the larynx?
Are the arytenoid cartilages fixed or mobile?
Where are the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages?
How may the larynx be entered in acute respiratory obstruction?
Why have the vestibular folds been termed "false vocal cords"?
Which is the narrowest part of the laryngeal cavity?
What is the commonest cause of laryngeal spasm?
Why does laryngeal edema not extend inferior to the glottis?
What are the afferent fibers involved in the cough reflex?
What are the results of injury (e.g., during thyroid surgery) to a recurrent laryngeal nerve?


What is the Throat?
The throat comprises of air and food passageways lying behind the nasal cavity and mouth and in the neck. It consists (from the top to the bottom) of the pharynx, epiglottis, larynx (voice box with vocal cords) and the upper part of the esophagus and trachea (Picture 1).

Picture 1: Throat parts: pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, esophagus

Parts of the Throat

The pharynx is a muscular tube lying behind the nasal cavity and mouth, carrying air from the nose toward the larynx and food from the mouth toward the esophagus. Pharynx is what your doctor can see through your mouth during “checking your throat”

The epiglottis is a muscular fold that covers the entrance of the larynx during swallowing, thus preventing food from entering the lungs.
The larynx (voice box) is a tube made of muscles and cartilages and carrying air from the nose and throat toward the trachea. When your doctor checks your throat using a small mirror, he can see vocal cords within your larynx. From outside, larynx looks as a vertical tube in the front of your neck, being prominent in its upper part in men (Adam’s apple) and moving up and down during swallowing.
The trachea (windpipe) is a tube made of muscles and cartilages, carrying air from the larynx to bronchi.
The esophagus is a muscular tube carrying food from the pharynx toward the stomach.
Parts of the esophagus and trachea lying behind the breastbone are not considered as parts of the throat.

What is the use of the pharynx?
The pharynx, or throat, is the passageway leading from the mouth and nose to the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx permits the passage of swallowed solids and liquids into the esophagus, or gullet, and conducts air to and from the trachea, or windpipe, during respiration.

What is the difference between the larynx and the pharynx?
The pharynx makes up the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to the nasal cavity, posterior to the mouth and superior to the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx. It is also important in vocalization.

What is the role of the pharynx in the respiratory system?
In humans the pharynx is part of the digestive system and also of the conducting zone of the respiratory system. (The conducting zone also includes the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, and their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs.)

What makes up the larynx?
Figure 53-8 The structures in or near the anterior median line of the neck: (1) symphysis menti, (2) diaphragma oris (mylohyoid muscles) crossed by the digastric muscles, (3) hyoid bone, (4) median thyrohyoid ligament, (5) laryngeal prominence of the thyroid cartilage (overlying the glottis), (6) cricothyroid ligament.

Anterior to which vertebrae is the pharynx situated?
The pharynx is situated anterior to cervical vertebra 1 to 6 (see fig. 53-1). Occasionally the nasopharynx and laryngopharynx are referred to as the epipharynx and hypopharynx, respectively. Similarly, the epitympanic recess and the tympanic cavity inferior to the level of the tympanic membrane are sometimes called the epitympanum and hypotympanum, respectively.

What is the nasopharynx?
53-2 The nasopharynx is the superiormost part of the pharynx, but (at least in its anterior aspect) it may also be regarded as the posterior portion of the nasal cavity.

What are the boundaries of the pharyngeal isthmus?
The pharyngeal isthmus (between the nasopharynx and oropharynx) is bounded by the soft palate, palatopharyngeal arches, and posterior wall of the pharynx.

What are adenoids?
Adenoids (Gk, gland-like) are hypertrophied (naso)pharyngeal tonsils on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. They may cause respiratory obstruction. Their removal (adenoidectomy), which was first undertaken in 1868, is generally combined with tonsillectomy.

What is the pharyngeal hypophysis?
The pharyngeal hypophysis, situated on the posterior wall of the pharynx, develops at the pharyngeal end of the stalk of the craniopharyngeal pouch (Rathke, 1838). Like the sellar hypophysis, it is an endocrine gland (P. McGrath, J. Endocrinol., 42:205, 1968) and contains several types of secretory cells (C. B. Gonzalez, G. F. Valdes, and D. R. Ciocca, Acta Anat., 97:224, 1977).

Where are the openings of the auditory tube?
The so-called auditory tube, described by Eustachi (1563) but known even before the time of Christ, would be better named the pharyngotympanic tube. Its cartilaginous part is a diverticu1um of the pharynx that opens posterior to the inferior nasal concha (see fig. 53-4). The osseous part is a prolongation of the tympanic cavity opening from the anterior wall of the cavity. The tube is closed at rest but opens during swallowing and phonation, perhaps by a "milking" action of the levator and tensor (S. Seifand A. L. Dellon, Cleft Palate J., 15:329,1978; see also V. K. Misurya, Arch. Otolaryngol., 102: 265,1976). A detailed account of the tube is available in J. Terracol, A. Corone, and Y. Guerrier, La trompe d'Eustache,'Masson, Paris, 1949.

What are the boundaries of the faucial isthmus?
The faucial (or oropharyngeal) isthmus is bounded by the soft palate, palatoglossal arches, and tongue.

List the components of the pharyngeal lymphatic ring.
The pharyngeal lymphatic ring (Waldeyer, 1884) comprises the nasopharyngeal, tubal, palatine, and lingual tonsils. It is presumed to be a protective collar against infections and organisms that might enter through the nose and mouth.

Where is the tonsil?
The (palatine) tonsils are located between diverging pillars on each side of the pharynx, namely the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches. Tonsillectomy, an operation described by Celsus in the first century A.D., is now performed either by dissection or by a special instrument known as a guillotine.

What is the piriform recess?
The piriform recess (or sinus or fossa), in which foreign bodies may become lodged, is the part of the cavity of the laryngopharynx situated on each side of the inlet of the larynx (see fig. 53-3).

Where does a pharyngeal diverticulum usually form?
A pharyngeal diverticulum usually forms posteriorly through the fibers of the inferior constrictor (between the thyropharyngeal and cricopharyngeal fibers). Increased intrapharyngeal pressure is regarded as an important factor in the production of a "pulsion diverticulum" through a weak area ("Killian's dehiscence") between the parts of the inferior constrictor. Moreover, swallowing in the presence of cricopharyngeal incoordination may be important in allowing mucosal herniation through a weak area in the pharyngeal wall (W. S. Payne and A. M. Olsen, The Esophagus, Lea & Febiger, Philadelpha, 1974). Regurgitation and difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) may result, so that surgical excision may be indicated. Normally, a sphincteric zone is described immediately inferior to it, although also supplemented by, the inferior constrictor (C. Zaino et al., The Pharyngoesophageal Sphicter, Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1970).

What is the motor innervation of the pharynx?
The motor innervation of the pharynx is chiefly through the pharyngeal plexus, which is formed by the pharyngeal branches of cranial nerves X and IX. The vagus nerve provides most of the motor innervation. These motor fibers are derived from the accessory nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is mostly sensory.

How may the interior of the larynx be viewed in vivo?
The interior of the larynx may be viewed in vivo either indirectly through a laryngeal mirror or directly through a laryngoscope (see figs. 53-11C and D and 53-12). During the nineteenth century, the stethoscope, ophthalmoscope, laryngoscope, gastroscope, cystoscope, rectoscope, and bronchoscope were invented, in that order.

What is the vertebral level corresponding to the inferior extent of the larynx?
The larynx ends opposite the C6 vertebra, where the pharynx and larynx become continuous with the esophagus and trachea, respectively.

Is the hyoid bone a part of the larynx?
The hyoid bone is generally not included as a part of the larynx. The larynx is suspended from the hyoid bone, which is in turn suspended from the base of the skull. The styloid process, usually 30 mm in length, may be as long as 80 mm. The stylohyoid ligament, which connects it to the lesser horn of the hyoid bone, may become partly or even completely calcified, or it may become a chain of ossicles (J. R. Chandler, Laryngoscope, 87:1692, 1977).

Are the arytenoid cartilages fixed or mobile?
53-16 The arytenoid cartilages are extremely mobile. Arytenoid means shaped like a vase.

Where are the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages?
The corniculate cartilages (Santorini, 1724) are in the aryepiglottic folds and on the apices of the arytenoid cartilages, with which they form a posteriorward-projecting horn (or cornu; hence the name). The cuneiform cartilages (Wrisberg, 1786) are also in the aryepiglottic folds, immediately anterior to the corniculate. These cartilages form elevations that may be visible on laryngoscopy (see fig. 53-12). A small, unimportant nodule in the posterior border of the thyrohyoid membrane is known as the cartilago triticea (L., grain-like).

How may the larynx be entered in acute respiratory obstruction?
In acute respiratory obstruction, the infraglottic cavity may be entered through the cricothyroid ligament (cricothyrotomy).

Why have the vestibular folds been termed "false vocal cords"?
The vestibular folds are frequently referred to as "false vocal cords" because they do not produce voice sounds.

Which is the narrowest part of the laryngeal cavity?
The rima glottidis, i.e., the interval between the vocal folds, is the narrowest part of the laryngeal cavity.

What is the commonest cause of laryngeal spasm?
The presence of a foreign body is the commonest cause of laryngeal spasm.

Why does laryngeal edema not extend inferior to the glottis?
Mucosal swelling does not spread inferior to the glottis because the mucosa is closely adherent to the vocal folds.

What are the afferent fibers involved in the cough reflex?
Afferent vagal fibers from the larynx (superior laryngeal nerves), trachea, and bronchi reach the medulla. Then a deep inspiration is followed by closure of the vocal folds, forceful expiration, and sudden opening of the vocal folds. Foreign matter is usually removed by the rapidly moving air.

What are the results of injury (e.g., during thyroid surgery) to a recurrent laryngeal nerve?
Unilateral severance of a recurrent laryngeal nerve causes paralysis of the intrinsic muscles, except for the cricothyroid. However, the abductor (posterior cricoarytenoid) is usually affected first (Semon's rule), so that the involved vocal fold remains in the median plane, except when jostled by the normal fold (Chevalier Jackson).

Treatment or management
Sore throat
Gargle With Warm Salt Water
Vitamin C
Salting (food)
Advil® PM
Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, or penicillin are used to treat strep throat.
Assured Mucus Relief Expectorant Tablets, 15 ct.
Theraflu
Phenol spray Generic Name: phenol (FEE-nole) Brand Name: Chloraseptic
Gargle With Warm Salt Water

What Is Salt Water Gargle?
How To Gargle With Salt Water?
What does salt water do for a sore throat?
How much salt do you put in water to gargle?
How do you make a salt water?
Why do you gargle?



Gargle With Warm Salt Water

What Is Salt Water Gargle?
Gargling with warm salt water is an easy and time tested natural remedy to treat sore throat. It works on the simple chemical process of osmosis. In this process, the liquid moves from the concentrated form to the diluted form.

How To Gargle With Salt Water?
First of all, prepare a salt water solution by adding a pinch of salt to a cup of warm water. Stand near the wash basin and take a sip of the solution. Now, gradually move your head towards the ceiling with the solution inside your mouth. Now try to produce a moaning sound; you will notice that the salt water will begin to start bubbling in your throat.

Do it for at least 20 seconds first. You may increase the time if you can manage it. Once you are done with it, spit out the water. Remember not to swallow the water. Repeat this process until you finish the entire cup.

Once you have finished the entire solution, rinse your mouth with plain water. Drink some warm water. This will give a lot of relief to your inflamed throat. To speed up the healing process you need to repeat this at least four to five times a day.

What does salt water do for a sore throat?
Because salt is more soluble in warmer water, it is recommended for sore throats that gargling with warm salt water as frequently as you can – or up to 8 times a day, to help reduce swelling and soreness. Unfortunately, many sore throat infections are also often lodged down in tonsillar crypts.

How much salt do you put in water to gargle?
Avoid alcohol, coffee and caffeinated sodas, which can make dehydration worse. Soothe a sore throat. A saltwater gargle — 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon salt dissolved in an 8-ounce glass of warm water — can temporarily relieve a sore or scratchy throat. Children younger than 6 years are unlikely to be able to gargle properly.

How do you make a salt water?
Add salt mix to make up a seawater-strength solution as indicated on the packaging. This usually means about half a cup of the mix per gallon of water. Stir the mixture thoroughly until all the salt has dissolved. Check the salt concentration with a salinity probe.

Why do you gargle?
Gargling rinses the throat and floods the Mucus from the throat to the tongue (from where one can spit or clean it off). For the cough due to inflammation in throat, the water soothes the inflammation and this eases the throat. warm water with a pinch of salt is advisable for gargle when one has cough.

Why will a patient with a sore throat go to the medical emergency room?
Pain of sore throat will trouble the patient.
Pain due to sore throat brings patient to medical emergency room.
Keep phenol spray (generic name: phenol, brand name: Chloraseptic) ready.

This will give immediate pain relief to the patient.

Here are further guidelines.

What should you know about prescriptions relevant to this treatment?
Not all such treatment recommendations need a prescription.
Certain pharmacies and pharmacists may ask for a prescription.
Forward this question to pharmacist.

Does this treatment recommendation need a physician’s prescription?
If a prescription is required, it will look like this.

Dosage for adults

Amoxicillin
Take one capsule by mouth 3 times a day.
Continue this medication for 10 days from the day of prescription.

Advil PM
Take one tablet by mouth 2 times a day.
Continue this medication for 10 days from the day of prescription.
If you are working 9AM-5PM, take one tablet in the evening and one tablet at night by mouth for 10 days.

Alka-Seltzer Plus Night Severe Cold + Flu

CONTAINS
Acetaminophen (pain reliever-fever reducer)
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride (nasal decongestant)
Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide (cough suppressant)
Guaifenesin (expectorant)

Take throat lozenges by mouth 3 times a day.

Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of salt per 1 cup [8 ounces] of water) 3 times a day.

Take phenol spray (generic name: phenol, brand name: Chloraseptic) 3 times a day.
Direction for use: Test one spray on hand for safety. If it does not hurt or irritate, go ahead like this. Shake the phenol spray. Open your mouth. Focus on area of throat that is painful; spray on both sides of the throat.

or Strepsils Plus Throat Spray 20ml

What will a label of treatment recommendations prescription look like?
Prescription number:
Name, address of the patient:
Name, address of the Physician: Dr. Asif Qureshi
5042 N. Winthrop Ave. #237, Chicago, Illinois 60640.
Fill date: March 30, 2015
Name of Medication: Amoxicillin 500 mg capsule.
Take one capsule by mouth 3 times a day.
Quantity: 20
Refills: 0
Use by April 10, 2015.
This label will be on one of your medication.

If prescription is not required, pharmacist will give the above medication to you without a prescription.
Name and address of the patient and physician will not be required.
You can take these medications from over the counter.

What is a Sore Throat?
A sore throat refers to pain, itchiness, or irritation of the throat. You may have difficulty swallowing food and liquids, and the pain may get worse when you try to swallow. Throat pain is the primary symptom of a sore throat. However, other symptoms may include a dry throat, swollen glands in the neck, white patches on the tonsils, and hoarseness.

A sore throat can affect people of all ages—however, the risk of a sore throat is higher in some people. This includes children, smokers, allergy sufferers, and people with a compromised immune system. Sharing a close space with others also increases the risk of upper respiratory infections that can present initially as a sore throat.

What are the symptoms of a sore throat?
A sore throat means that your throat hurts and is irritated, swollen, or scratchy. It usually hurts worse when you swallow. Depending on the cause of your sore throat, you may have other symptoms in addition to sore throat, such as the following:
•Fever
•Headache
•White patches in your throat or on your tonsils
•Red and swollen tonsils
•Abdominal pain (usually in children)
•Vomiting (usually in children)

Sore Throats: causes & cures

A sore throat is one of the most common of all health problems. There?s no one who hasn?t had to endure a sore throat at some point in their life more likely several times.

What causes sore throats?
Viruses
Bacteria
Allergy
Irritation
Tumors
GERD

Viral infections

Viral illnesses that cause a sore throat include:

•Common cold
•Flu (influenza)
•Mononucleosis (mono)
•Measles
•Chickenpox
•Croup — a common childhood illness characterized by a harsh, barking cough

Bacterial infection

A bacterial infection can also cause a sore throat. These types of infections include:
•strep throat, which is an inflammation of the throat caused by the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria
•diphtheria, which causes throat inflammation
•whooping cough, which affects the respiratory mucous membrane

Environmental Factors

Not all sore throats are viral or bacterial. There are several other causes of throat pain. If you’re allergic to mold, pet dander, pollen, or other irritants, exposure to these allergens can trigger post-nasal drip. This is when excess mucus accumulates in the back of your throat. This accumulation can irritate your throat and cause pain or inflammation. Dry air can also make your throat feel raw and scratchy. Smoking cigarettes or exposure to cigarette smoke can trigger persistent sore throats, as well as throat strain from yelling or too much talking.

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease may also cause your sore throat. This is a digestive condition characterized by the back flow of stomach acid into the esophagus. This condition causes an array of symptoms, such as a sore throat, hoarseness, heartburn, and nausea. Other Causes

In very rare cases, a sore throat may be a sign of HIV or throat cancer.

Diagnosing a Sore Throat

Most sore throats do not require medical attention. However, see a doctor if your sore throat lasts for longer than one week and if you experience:
•difficulty breathing
•joint pain
•difficulty swallowing
•an earache
•a rash
•fever over 101 degrees F
•bloody mucus
•a lump in the throat
•hoarseness for longer than two weeks

Determining the cause of your sore throat can help your doctor treat your symptoms. Your doctor will do a physical examination and examine your throat with a lighted instrument. He or she will look for signs of inflammation or white patches, which might indicate strep throat. Your doctor will also feel your neck for swollen glands and check your breathing.

Because strep throat is a common cause of sore throats, your doctor may swab the back of your throat and examine the sample for the Streptococcal bacteria. He or she may also run a blood test to determine whether you have a viral or bacterial infection.

If your doctor is unable to diagnose your sore throat, he or she will refer you to an allergist or an ear, nose, and throat specialist. These specialists will determine whether allergens or a throat disorder is the cause of your sore throat.

Note that it can be difficult to diagnose a sore throat in infants and toddlers. In this age group, refusal to eat is a common sign of throat irritation.

Tonsillitis
What is tonsillitis?
Tonsillitis is when the tonsils (at the back of your mouth on each side of your throat) become infected by bacteria or a virus. It causes the tonsils to swell and can cause a sore throat and other symptoms. Signs of strep throat and tonsillitis are often alike.

What is mononucleosis?
Mononucleosis (mono) is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. One of the main signs of mono is a sore throat that may last for 1 to 4 weeks. Other symptoms include large swollen glands in your neck and armpits, fever, headache and feeling tired.

What tests may be used to find the cause of my sore throat?
Your doctor may do a rapid strep test, a throat culture or both. A rapid strep test will give results fast (usually within about 15 minutes). But the test won't tell if your sore throat is caused by a bacterium other than Streptococcus or if it's caused by a virus. A throat culture takes longer (between 24 and 48 hours) but it's more accurate. If your doctor thinks you may have mono, he or she will probably do a blood test.

What is the treatment for a sore throat caused by bacteria?
How to Treat a Sore Throat

If your sore throat is caused by bacteria, your ________ doctor will probably prescribe an antibiotic. You will most likely begin to feel better in a few days, but it is very important to take all the antibiotics your doctor prescribes. This reduces the risk that your sore throat will return and also helps prevent antibiotic resistance.

The treatment for a sore throat depends on the cause. However, you can treat many sore throats at home. Home treatment options include:
•gargling with warm salt water
•drinking plenty of warm fluids, such as teas, soup, and water
•avoiding allergens and irritants, such as smoke and chemicals
•taking throat lozenges
•reducing inflammation with ibuprofen or acetaminophen

Phenol spray

Generic Name: phenol (FEE-nole)
Brand Name: Chloraseptic
Treating sore throat pain, sore mouth, pain associated with canker sores, and minor mouth irritation. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Phenol spray is an oral anesthetic and analgesic combination. It works by numbing the painful or irritated areas.

If a bacterial infection causes your sore throat, your doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics to kill the infectious organisms. You should take your medication for 10 days or as prescribed by your doctor to treat the bacterial infection. A sore throat may recur if you stop treatment early. If you have a viral infection, your doctor may want to let the virus run its course. During that time, he or she may prescribe medications, such as decongestants and pain relievers, to ease your symptoms. In some cases, your doctor may want to try an antiviral drug to fight the virus. Complications of a Sore Throat

In the case of persistent bacterial throat infections, your doctor may recommend a tonsillectomy to surgically remove the tonsils. This is a last resort treatment that should only be considered when sore throats do not respond to antibiotics.

What is the treatment for a sore throat caused by a virus?
Antibiotics don't work against viruses. Infections caused by viruses usually just have to run their course. Most symptoms caused by a cold- or flu-type virus go away in a week to 10 days.

Symptoms caused by mono can last for 4 weeks or more. If you have mono, your doctor will probably suggest that you get plenty of rest and that you not exercise too hard.

What about a sore throat that's caused by allergies?
If a sore throat is a symptom of hay fever or another allergy, your doctor can help you figure out how to avoid the things that trigger your allergies. You may also need to take medicine for your allergies.

Easing the pain of a sore throat

•Take acetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol), ibuprofen (one brand name: Motrin), or naproxen (one brand name: Aleve) to relieve pain. Children should not take aspirin. Aspirin can cause a serious illness called Reye's syndrome when it is given to children younger than 18 years of age.
•Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of salt per 1 cup [8 ounces] of water).
•Suck on throat lozenges or hard candy.
•Suck on flavored frozen desserts (such as Popsicles).
•Use a humidifier in your bedroom or other rooms you spend lots of time in.
•Drink lots of liquids. They help keep your throat lubricated and prevent dehydration.

If I have tonsillitis, will I need a tonsillectomy?
Tonsillectomy is a surgery that removes the tonsils. Most people who have tonsillitis don't need a tonsillectomy. You might need a tonsillectomy if you get severe tonsillitis often or if your tonsils are too large and cause problems with your breathing. Your doctor can tell you if a tonsillectomy is needed.

How can I avoid catching or passing a sore throat?
How to Prevent a Sore Throat

The best ways to avoid catching or passing the viruses and bacteria that can lead to a sore throat are to wash your hands regularly, avoid touching your eyes or mouth and cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing.

Many underlying causes of sore throats are infectious, and there are certain steps you can help you prevent future infection. Repeatedly washing your hands throughout the day kills germs and bacteria that can cause viral and bacterial infections. Additional steps that you can take to prevent a sore throat include:
•Do not share drinking glasses or utensils with others.
•Use hand sanitizers whenever soap and water are not available.
•Limit contact with commonly touched surfaces.
•Reduce exposure to allergens, such as pollen, dust, and mold.
•Avoid cigarette smoke.
•Keep a humidifier in your house to eliminate dryness.

Sore Throat | Questions to Ask Your Doctor

When should I go to the doctor with a sore throat?
What is causing my sore throat?
Is there anything I can do to make myself more comfortable?
I have a fever and a sore throat. Could I have strep throat?
Are cold mist humidifiers better for me than warm mist humidifiers?
How long will it take before I know what is causing my sore throat?
Should I go to work if I have a sore throat?


What is strep throat?
Strep throat is caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus. The pain of strep throat often feels much like sore throats caused by other bacteria or by viruses. What's important and different about strep throat is that if it isn't treated it can sometimes result in kidney inflammation or rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can lead to a rash, inflamed joints and, in severe cases, damage to the valves of the heart.

What causes it?
Strep throat is caused by streptococcal (strep) bacteria, most often by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABS). Other types of strep that can sometimes infect the throat are groups C and G strep bacteria.

A strep infection causes the throat (pharynx) and the tonsils or adenoids to become irritated, inflamed, and painful.

How is strep throat treated?
Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, or penicillin are used to treat strep throat. Antibiotics work only against bacterial infections such as strep throat. They will not help sore throats caused by allergies or viral infections such as colds.

Antibiotics are commonly used to:

•Kill the bacteria and shorten the time you are contagious. You are typically no longer contagious 24 hours after you start antibiotics.

•Prevent rare complications. Although uncommon, strep bacteria can spread to other parts of your body, causing ear or sinus infections or an abscess behind or around the tonsils (peritonsillar abscess). Antibiotics may also prevent the infection from triggering your immune system to attack itself and cause serious conditions such as rheumatic fever.

•Relieve discomfort and speed healing to some degree.

Antibiotic treatment can begin immediately if a strep infection is confirmed by a rapid strep test. But there is no harm in waiting for the results of a throat culture to confirm strep throat before starting antibiotic treatment. In fact, it is better to wait until strep throat has been confirmed so that antibiotics are not used unnecessarily. Overuse of antibiotics can make them ineffective.

Although waiting to treat strep throat may prolong the time you have the illness, delaying treatment for a few days doesn't increase the risk of rheumatic fever or other complications.1

Your doctor also may recommend nonprescription medicines such as acetaminophen or anesthetic throat sprays to help relieve the pain and discomfort caused by strep throat. Acetaminophen will also reduce fever.
Congestion, Sore Throat & Cough

Assured Mucus Relief Expectorant Tablets, 15 ct.

Product Details

Helps loosen phlegm to make coughs more productive! Immediate acting mucus relief tablets contain 400 mg of Guaifenesin to relieve chest congestion and rid the bronchial passageway of bothersome mucus.

Assured Multi-Symptom Day & Night Cold Formula, 12-ct.
Verify you are at least 18 years of age.

Product Details

Relieve all your symptoms from colds in the day or nighttime with multi-symptom cold formula cool caplets! Nighttime formula has 325mg acetaminophen (pain reliever/fever reducer), 2mg chlorpheniramine maleate (antihistamine), 10mg dextromethorphan HBr (cough suppressant), and 5mg phenylephrine HCI (nasal decongestant) per caplet. Non-drowsy daytime formula has 325mg acetaminophen (pain reliever/fever reducer), 10mg dextromethorphan HBr (cough suppressant), and 5mg phenylephrine HCI (nasal decongestant) per caplet. Case includes 24 – 12-ct. boxes of Assured™ Multi-symptom Day & Night Cold Formula (6 daytime cool caplets, 6 nighttime cool caplets per box).

Advil® PM

What are the active ingredients in Advil® PM caplets?
Each Advil® PM caplet contains 200 mg of ibuprofen and 38 mg of diphenhydramine citrate, a gentle sleep aid. The ibuprofen relieves pain, while the diphenhydramine helps you get a full night’s sleep. The combination of these ingredients not only reduces your pain, it shortens the time it takes to fall asleep and increases the duration of your sleep. The result: a better night's sleep.
https://pm.advil.com/faqs/search?search_api_views_fulltext=Ingredients&=Go

Theraflu

https://www.theraflu.com/products/

Throat Injuries
The throat represents the internal and external body parts that descend from the tonsils down to the opening of trachea. It can be injured internally through swallowing something too big or sharp; it can also be injured externally, such as by a blow to the throat or a strangulation injury that damages the throat.

What is a Throat Injury?
A throat injury can be due to penetrating trauma to the throat or to a blunt trauma to the throat. Any throat injury that results in a break in the skin can do extensive damage because there are major arteries and veins that pass through the throat and can cause serious bleeding. A wound to the throat should be looked at carefully to see how deep it is so you can determine if there are any major vessels involved.
Blunt trauma to the throat can cause injury to the trachea, esophagus, spine or even the brain stem. If the person has had a severe blunt trauma to the throat, they should be asked the same questions as a person who may have had a concussion because there may actually be a brain injury with throat trauma.
Throat injury can damage the trachea and can cause difficulty breathing, swallowing or hoarseness of the throat. If the vocal cords are damaged, speaking will be difficult and there can be a hoarse throat or a complete lack of ability to speak if the vocal cords are more than just bruised.
Blunt trauma to the throat can affect the cervical spine. If there is any pain on moving the neck, the patient shouldn’t be moved until the cervical spine is cleared by x-ray.
You may have to immobilize the neck until the clearing x-rays can be done. Because of the number of important organs (the thyroid, vocal cords), blood vessels (carotid artery, jugular vein), and nerves (the spinal nerves of the cervical spine) involved in the throat, any kind of blunt or penetrating trauma can do a great deal of damage, even with a seemingly minor injury.

What are the Causes of a Throat Injury?
As mentioned, throat injuries can be blunt trauma injuries or penetrating trauma injuries, such as a gunshot wound. They are complicated by the fact that many delicate and important structures reside in the small space of the throat so that damage to some aspect of the throat is likely. Causes of throat injury can include:
•Automobile injuries, being struck by a blunt object or being cut by metal or glass.
•Sports-related injuries, such as being struck by another player’s extremities or helmet.
•Altercations, like being punched in the throat or kicked in the throat.
•Accidental falls, such as landing on a sharp or blunt object.
•Gunshot wounds, which can easily be fatal
•Knife wounds, which usually strike a vital part of the throat

The throat has no particular bony cage or protection so it is open to trauma in many different ways.

Symptoms of a Throat Injury

Some of the symptoms are the same as with any soft tissue trauma. Others are specific to the throat and the structures of the throat. There is the thyroid gland, major blood vessels and nerves, the trachea, the esophagus and the cervical spine to think about
•There can be signs and symptoms of a traumatic brain injury if the brainstem is affected.
•There can be shortness of breath and air escaping from a penetrating wound if the dome of the lungs is injured.
•There can be severe shortness of breath if the trachea has swollen or been penetrated and is bleeding. Air cannot get through to the lungs and the person begins to suffocate.
•There can be coughing up of blood in about 25 percent of cases.
•There can be severe bleeding that can exsanguinate the individual if the carotid artery or jugular veins are severed.
•The patient can have dysphonia due to damage to the vocal cords, either from blunt or penetrating trauma.
•Rapid breathing is a common phenomenon.
•In certain cases, there can be subcutaneous air, in which air from the lungs is dissected into the subcutaneous tissue. This feels like crackles under the skin. This can be seen in up to 85 percent of injuries to the tracheal area.
•Stridor, a pattern of noisy breathing, can be heard when the patient breathes and has had trauma to the upper airway.
•Coughing may be present if the trachea has been damaged.
•There may be a positive Hamman’s sign, which is crackling under the skin associated in time with the heartbeat.

In total, the symptoms can be any of the following:
•Difficulty swallowing
•Hoarseness
•Stridor
•A sensation of fullness in the throat
•Spitting up blood
•Subcutaneous air
•Visible throat swelling
•Loss of normal landmarks because of swelling
•Bleeding in the mouth or externally
•Labored breathing

Risk Factors for Throat Injury

More men than women are injured in a throat injury, in part because they engage in high risk behaviors. Many high risk behaviors include driving too fast, driving recklessly, engaging in high risk sports such as boxing and football, and being prone to altercations with people who might strike them with their fists, their feet or their weapon. People who practice martial arts are at higher risk of sustaining a throat injury.

Diagnosing a Throat Injury

The diagnosis of a throat injury depends on a careful knowledge of the anatomy of the area of the throat. In such cases, the ABCs of diagnosis and first aid are followed. Is the patient’s airway patent? Is there stridor or a hoarse voice? Is there visible swelling in the area of the trachea? Is the patient pink or are they cyanotic? In such cases of evidence of respiratory distress, one can assume that there has been swelling, dislocation or bleeding of the trachea or other aspect of the airway.
If there is bleeding from a laceration or puncture wound, the doctor must make a determination of which major vessels, if any, are involved. If the patient is stable, an angiogram to assess the carotid artery and jugular veins integrity. An unstable patient will be assumed to have a major vessel injury and will be treated immediately with surgical intervention.
The cervical spine should be immobilized if there is any chance of cervical pain. When in the emergency department, a lateral cervical spine x-ray should be done in order to rule out a major cervical injury. Following that, the c-spine can be removed from immobilization and a complete cervical spine series should be performed.
Orthopedics can be involved if there is positive evidence of a cervical spine bony injury.
If the voice is hoarse, a tube with a camera (a laryngoscope) can be dropped into the oral cavity and the vocal cords can be visualized to see if the cords are fractured, dislocated or perhaps just swollen from direct trauma.
If there is the possibility of a hematoma or other structural problem that cannot be assessed from the outside evaluation, a CT examination or MRI exam need to be done to see the internal structures of the head and neck. This could help the surgical procedures done on the patient and can assess things like the patency of the trachea, the integrity of the esophagus and the structure of the thyroid gland.

Treatment of a Throat Injury

There is first aid treatment for a throat injury and definitive treatment at an emergency room or hospital.

Treatment required on the spot.

•Contact 911 as these situations can go badly quite quickly.
•Keep the person sitting but semi-upright to keep blood flow to a minimum in the area.
•Tilt the head back. This will open the airway.
•If the victim stops breathing, do rescue breathing.
•Apply direct pressure to any bleeding areas.
•Check the person’s breathing periodically.
•Put ice on the sides of the neck. This will reduce the swelling.
•Immobilize the neck.
•If there are signs of shock, elevate the legs and keep the patient warm.
•If the victim vomits, roll him to one side and sweep the vomit out of his mouth so the airway won’t be compromised.
•Monitor the patient’s status continuously until help arrives.

When the patient arrives at the emergency room, they will need an IV to stabilize the blood pressure. Assessment and management of the area can involve intubation or possibly a cricothyrotomy, which is a hole placed in the neck to create an airway when the airway above it has occluded.

When the breathing is adequate, the doctor turns to the bleeding. Ice is applied to quell internal bleeding and direct pressure is applied to the bleeding wound until it can be evaluated and treated, possibly in the operating room.

Hematomas are evacuated in the emergency room and things like the vocal cords can be repaired by an ENT surgeon. If there is a cervical bony injury, the cervical spine needs to be immobilized, possibly with surgery to fuse the injured bony fragments. This would involve care by the orthopedic surgeon.

If the thyroid gland is damaged, as much of the gland should be spared as possible during surgery in the hope that the victim does not come down with post-injury hypothyroidism.

Complications of Throat Injuries

If the injury is minor and the medical care appropriate, the patient can suffer no ill effects from the traumatic injury.

Complications can include:

•Paralysis from a cervical spine fracture
•Permanent damage to the vocal cords with resultant dysphonia
•Brain injury from extended shock. This would happen if there was injury to the carotid arteries or jugular veins
•Stroke from injury to the carotid arteries
•Hypothyroidism from permanent damage to the thyroid gland
•Tracheal abnormalities

The throat is an extremely vulnerable place to be injured and many of the injuries, if not treated promptly and correctly, can lead to life-threatening sequelae and permanent injury. Unfortunately most of these injuries happen in young people who have many potentially good years ahead of them.
1.What are the symptoms of a throat injury?
2.What are the causes of a throat injury?
3.What are the risk factors of a throat injury?
4.Diagnosing a throat injury
5.What is the treatment of a throat injury?
6.What are the complications of a throat injury?

Symptoms of an injured throat

Hoarseness or loss of voice
Breathing difficulties
Inflammation
Bleeding
Deformities around the neck area
Difficult swallowing

Management of throat injuries

1.Once an individual is badly injured in the throat area, you will know because he/she holds on to the throat similar to choking. It is important to attend to the individual immediately.
2.Instruct bystanders to clear the area where the individual is and request someone to call for emergency assistance while you perform the initial first aid treatment.
3.Lay the individual carefully in a comfortable position. It must be in supine position and slightly angled to the left side.
4.Tilt the head back in a gentle manner in order to open up the airway.
5.If the individual stops breathing, you can start to perform rescue breathing.
6.In case there is external bleeding present, you have to apply direct pressure on the area to control the bleeding as well as prevent it from blocking the airway.
7.The breathing of the individual must be observed by monitoring the breaths per minute.
8.Reduce the swelling by applying ice on the sides of the neck.
9.Make sure that the affected area must be immobilized since it might be linked with a neck injury.
10.If there is excessive loss of blood and signs of shock are present, you have to elevate the legs of the individual and keep him/her warm.
11.Once the individual vomits, roll him/her on one side and sweep the vomit from his/her mouth so that there are no obstructions on the airway that can impede the breathing. Always remember not to provide an individual with an injured throat with anything to drink. By allowing him/her to swallow something, it will only block the airway passage and cause more damage.
12.Continue to monitor the condition of the individual until the medical team arrives and takes over

Treating throat injuries

Fractured Larynx

What is a fractured larynx?
Fractured Larynx is a medical condition in which there is a fracture of the voice box. This condition usually arises due to high impact automobile accidents or a direct trauma to the throat during sporting activities like boxing or wrestling. In children, this may be caused due to a fall.

Management of cut-throat injuries

Here are further guidelines.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Recommendations To Alleviate The Symptoms Of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (gerd).
1 Avoid Fatty Foods, Caffeinated Beverages (colas, Coffee, Etc.), Orange Juice, Lemon Juice, Chocolate, Mint, Spicy Foods, Tomato-Based Foods, Garlic And Onions
2 Stop Smoking
3 Stop Alcohol Use
4 Lose Weight If Overweight
5 Elevate The Head Of The Bed By Placing 4-To 8-Inch Blocks Under • The Bed Posts At The Head Of The Bed (adding Additional Pillows Is Insufficient)
6 Eat Smaller Meals
7 Avoid Wearing Tight-Fitting Clothes
8 Avoid Eating Within Four Hours Of Bedtime
9 Avoid Lying Down Within Three Hours Of Meals

What are the types of physicians according to human healthcare setting?
There are more than 18 types of specific physicians.

What types of physicians are required at this point within and outside the state?
  1. Physician Internet Human health services. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

  2. Physician guide for at least 18 types of physicians. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

  3. Physician primary care
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

  4. Physician intensive care unit
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

  5. Physician medical emergency room
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

  6. Physician medical emergency responder
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

  7. Physician surgeon medical emergency
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

  8. Physician surgeon elective surgery
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

  9. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

  10. Physician guide to physician or physicians
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

  11. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

  12. Physician forensic psychiatry
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

  13. Physician Forensic Pathology
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

  14. Physical Therapist
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

  15. Physician director of public health of the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

  16. Physician director of health of the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorhealth.html

  17. Physician medical superintendent of a hospital in the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianmedicalsuperintendent.html

  18. Physician of public health in the state.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianpublichealthworld.html

Anesthesiologist
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiologist
Types of Careers in Anesthesiology
Physician anesthetist medical emergency
Physician anesthetist, medical emergency, and physician anesthetist, elective surgery

Physician anesthetist, medical emergency, and physician anesthetist, elective surgery

Can you circulate a presentation relevant to you being a physician anesthetist, medical emergency, and a physician anesthetist, elective surgery?
What best describes you—physician anesthetist, medical emergency, physician anesthetist, elective surgery, or both—in terms of your abilities to guide all specific types of physicians and other professions at the executive level?
What is the difference between a physician anesthetist, medical emergency, and a physician anesthetist, elective surgery?

What should you remind other anesthesiologists in the state or outside the state?
What should you know before you go ahead with this medical specialty training?
What is an anesthesiologist?
What should an anesthesiologist do in case the diagnosis is wrong or the wrong patient has been placed at a specific location?
What will happen if the anesthesiologist does not follow these guidelines?
Questions from training program resource.
Questions every anesthesiologist must ask and verify before going ahead with general anesthesia.
What abilities should you have as an anesthesiologist?
What are the types of Careers in anesthesiology?
What is Anesthesia?
What determines the type of anesthesia used?
What is an anesthetic?
Will someone be looking after me while I am under anesthesia?
Who administers anesthesia?
Are there different types of anesthesia?
What is general anesthesia?
What should you remind other anesthesiologists in the state or outside the state?
Remind all including existing anesthesiologists that there is only one best resource around the world for training for an anesthesiologist. Take a look at this:
www.qureshiuniversity.com/anesthesiologist.html. These guidelines have been established by Doctor Asif Qureshi.

If you add one question with answer to existing guidelines, your name will be displayed at this resource with appreciation and with recommendations for credits to the state department of health.

What should you know before you go ahead with this medical specialty training?
You are first a physician before you are any other entity in this professional field.
Many physicians are required in every state. Few of this type of medical specialists are required in the state or outside the state.
Training for this specialty proceeds like this: first, a requirement for a state department of health and hospital is displayed; than training occurs. You have to be a highly competent physician who can reach correct diagnoses and treatment of human beings in various healthcare settings.

What is an anesthesiologist?
An anesthesiologist is a doctor (MD or DO) who practices anesthesia. Anesthesiologists are physicians specializing in perioperative care, development of an anesthetic plan, and the administration of anesthetics and postoperative care.

Anesthesiologists also supervise critical care units of human health care in the state or outside the state.

What should an anesthesiologist do in case the diagnosis is wrong or the wrong patient has been placed at a specific location?
Record the wrong diagnosis truthfully.
Report that the wrong patient has been placed.
The anesthesiologist should recommend cancellation of the procedure.

What will happen if the anesthesiologist does not follow these guidelines?
The anesthesiologist should be charged with felony/criminal charges.

Questions from training program resource.

What state department of health has nominated the physician to be an anesthesiologist?
Have all questions been answered before imparting training for this physician to be an anesthesiologist?
In what precise state and location in a specific hospital will this anesthesiologist work?
What is the profile of existing physicians and staff at this location?
What real-world human health care experience should a physician who needs to be trained as an anesthesiologist have?
In what location will the individual work in this hospital in the state relevant to various operating room locations?
How many total operating room locations are there in the hospital?
How is performance measured?
Will the physician have to work in the operating room or intensive care unit?
Can anyone be harmed by this type of endeavor?

Once these questions are answered, then training should occur as per the requirement.

Questions every anesthesiologist must ask and verify before going ahead with general anesthesia.

What is the profile (name, date of birth, mailing address, language spoken, prominent mark, attendant with contact details, primary care physician, diagnosis) of the patient?
Did you verify the identity of the patient?
How did you verify the identity of the patient?
What is the diagnosis of the patient?
Who verified the diagnosis of the patient?
Is the diagnosis for this patient correct?
What is the recommended treatment (medication, procedure)?
Why general anesthesia is required for this patient?
What exact type of procedure is required?
How will the procedure help or alleviate the symptoms and signs, or cure the patient?
Is emergency general anesthesia or nonemergency general anesthesia required for the patient?


Ending questions.

Was the general anesthesia for this patient justified?
Yes/No.

Did any harm occur during the process of procedure or general anesthesia?
Yes/No

What abilities should you have as an anesthesiologist?
You should know everything about general anesthesia.
You should know everything about the critical care unit (CCU).
Pre-anesthesia consultation
Post-anesthesia care unit (PACU)
Postoperative care
Postoperative follow-up
Rapid sequence intubation
Mechanical ventilation - critical care medicine
Weaning from mechanical ventilation
Negligent death in the intensive care unit


What are the types of Careers in anesthesiology?
Anesthesiologist
Anesthesiologist’s assistant
Anesthesia technician
Certified anesthesia technician
Certified anesthesia technologist

Anesthesiology
Types of Careers in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiologist

An anesthesiologist is a physician; a highly trained medical specialist who makes anesthesia related medical decisions and is responsible for the safety and well being of the patient. This includes maintaining the patient in a state of controlled unconsciousness, providing pain relief and monitoring the patient's critical life functions as they are affected throughout surgical, obstetrical or other medical procedures.

The anesthesiologist's role extends beyond the operating room. The anesthesiologist is responsible for the preoperative assessment of the patient, making medical judgments about the best anesthesia plan for that individual based on his or her current health, what medications they are taking, the type of surgery, etc. The anesthesiologist is also responsible for the well being of the patient postoperatively while the person emerges from the effects of the anesthesia. Additionally anesthesiologists help stabilize critically ill or injured patients, in intensive care units. They are often involved in the management of acute postoperative pain, chronic and cancer pain; in cardiac and respiratory resuscitation; in blood transfusion therapies; and in respiratory therapy.

As long as there is a demand for surgery and relief from pain, there will be a need for qualified anesthesiologists. The number of surgeries has been on the rise, totaling more than 40 million a year, almost evenly split between hospitals and outpatient facilities.

Anesthesiologist Assistant

Anesthesiologist Assistants (AAs) are highly skilled health professionals who work under the direction of licensed anesthesiologists to implement anesthesia care plans. AAs work exclusively within the anesthesia care team environment as described by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. An AA may not practice outside the field of anesthesia or apart from the supervision of an anesthesiologist.

The specific job descriptions and duties of AAs may differ according to local practice. State law or board of medicine regulations or guidelines may further define the job descriptions of AAs. The constant ingredient, no matter what the local regulation, is that AAs always practice under the medical direction of a qualified anesthesiologist.

Anesthesiologist assistants and certified registered nurse anesthetists are both defined as "non-physician anesthetists" within the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services section of the Code of Federal Regulations.

The professional organization for AAs is the American Academy of Anesthesiologist Assistants (AAAA) www.anesthetist.org.

Anesthesia Technician

An Anesthesia Technician (AT) is not a doctor or a nurse. The role of the AT is to support the work done by the professional anesthesia personnel. ATs are responsible for managing the anesthesia equipment and for its proper maintenance.

Depending on individual expertise and training, the task of the AT, Certified Anesthesia Technician (Cer.A.T.) and Certified Anesthesia Technologist (Cer.A.T.T.) may include equipment maintenance and servicing such as cleaning, sterilizing, assembling, calibrating and testing, troubleshooting, requisitioning and recording of inspections and maintenance. They may operate a variety of mechanical, pneumatic and electronic equipment used to monitor, evaluate and manage the patient undergoing anesthesia.

The scope of practice and duties assigned to an AT will vary from state to state and from one facility to another. Most ATs are employed at larger acute care hospitals, particularly in trauma, transplant, and teaching facilities, but can also be found in outpatient surgery clinics.

Technical Skills

Must be able to operate, maintain and repair biomedical equipment and anesthetic devices such as ventilators and catheters.

Certified Anesthesia Technician

The Certified Anesthesia Technician (Cer.A.T.) is a technician who has successfully completed the examination requirements established by the ASATT. The Cer.A.T. is an allied healthcare professional who is an essential member of the anesthesia patient care team, as observed by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) and the Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN). The Cer.A.T. performs duties under the supervision of the licensed anesthesia care providers.

Certified Anesthesia Technologist

A Certified Anesthesia Technologist (Cer.A.T.T.) is a technician who has successfully completed both the Certified Anesthesia Technician and Technologist Examinations per the requirements established by the ASATT. The Cer.A.T.T. is distinguished from the Cer.A.T. by additional levels of training and experience.

What do anesthesiologists do?
Anesthesiologists help ensure the safety of patients undergoing surgery. The anesthesiologist provides care for the patient to prevent the pain and distress they would otherwise experience. This may involve general anesthesia (“putting the patient to sleep”), sedation (intravenous medications to make the patient calm and/or unaware) or regional anesthesia (injections of local anesthetic near nerves to “numb up” the part of the body being operated on (i.e. nerve blocks or spinal/epidural injections)).

Can’t the anesthesiologist just do the injection (or put the patient to sleep) and then leave?
No. That would be unsafe. The anesthesiologist, or someone working with him or her (a resident, a fellow, or a nurse anesthetist) must remain with the patient. This is needed so that the patient status can be monitored (heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, level of awareness during sedation), and changes made as needed (so as to prevent or manage major problems that could arise during the surgery).

Here are further guidelines.
What is Anesthesia?
Anesthesia is freedom from pain. Each year, millions of people in the United States undergo some form of medical treatment requiring anesthesia. Anesthesia, in the hands of qualified professionals like

Anesthesia is a way to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using medicine called anesthetics. It can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate and rhythm.

Anesthesia may be used to:
Relax you.
Block pain.
Make you sleepy or forgetful.
Make you unconscious for your surgery.

Other medicines may be used along with anesthesia, such as ones to help you relax or to reverse the effects of anesthesia.

What determines the type of anesthesia used?
The type of anesthesia used depends on several things:

Your past and current health. This includes other surgeries you have had and the health problems you have, such as heart disease or diabetes. Tell your doctor if you or any family members have had an allergic reaction to anesthetics or other medicines.
The type of surgery. For example, you may need general anesthesia to ensure your comfort and safety during certain types of surgery.
The results of tests, such as blood tests or an electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG).

Your doctor or nurse may prefer one type of anesthesia over another for your surgery. In some cases, your doctor or nurse may let you choose which type to have. Sometimes, such as in an emergency, you don't get to choose.

Anesthetic

What is an anesthetic?
An anesthetic is a medicine that helps block pain. It may help a person relax, become sleepy or forgetful, and/or become unconscious for surgery.

Anesthesia specialists use these medicines and close monitoring to help keep people safe and comfortable during surgery and other medical procedures.

There are three main types:

Local anesthetics numb a small part of the body, such as the nose or mouth. They are given as a shot. Or they are applied topically.

Regional anesthetics numb a larger part of the body. They are given as a shot around major nerves or the spinal cord. General anesthetics make a person unconscious. They are given as a gas or as a shot directly into the bloodstream (IV, through a vein).

Some topical anesthetics are over-the-counter medicines. These medicines can be used as home treatment for minor injuries.

Will someone be looking after me while I am under anesthesia?
At least one member of the anesthesia team will be with you at all times while you are in the operating room under anesthesia. They will be monitoring your blood pressure, heart rhythm and rate, and the oxygen levels in your blood.

Are there different types of anesthesia?

There are three basic types of anesthesia: General anesthesia produces a loss of sensation throughout the entire body.

Regional anesthesia produces a loss of sensation to a specific region of the body.

Local anesthesia produces a loss of sensation to a small specific area of the body.

A preoperative interview with your anesthesia professional will determine which anesthetic is best for you.

Nitrous Oxide and the Inhalation Anesthetics
Inhalation Anesthetics

Who administers anesthesia?
What is general anesthesia?
Here are further guidelines.
Before Your Surgery
During Your Surgery
After Your Surgery

Negligent death in the intensive care unit

How do you investigate a negligent death in the intensive care unit?
Let's investigate this.
On October 20, 2014, a policeman injured in a stone pelting died at SKIMS, Soura, in Kashmir, Asia. Waseem Ahmad Bhat was injured in a stone pelting incident at Duck Park, Fore Shore Road, Nigeen Hazratbal, on July 29, 2014, when locals clashed with a police party.

Where had the physicians been educated who did the assessment and treated the injured on the spot, in the intensive care unit, and during the stay in hospital?
Their educational resource needs to be reminded they did not teach them to do a proper assessment of patients in various healthcare settings.

Questions that need to be answered.

What exactly happened on July 29, 2014, at Duck Park, Fore Shore Road, Nigeen Hazratbal, Srinagar, Kashmir, in which policeman Waseem Ahmad Bhat was injured – minute by minute, second by second?
How many total police officers were present at that point and how many stone pelters were there?
What were the issues?
What is the profile of the physicians who treated him from July 29 to October 20, 2014?
What physicians assessed Waseem Ahmad Bhat on the spot on July 29, 2014?
What physicians assessed Waseem Ahmad Bhat on arrival at the SKIMS intensive care unit on July 29, 2014?
What was the condition of Waseem Ahmad Bhat when the injury occurred?
What was the condition of Waseem Ahmad Bhat when he was received in the intensive care unit?
What treatment was given from July 29 to October 20, 2014 to Waseem Ahmad Bhat?
What senior physicians supervised the treatment?
Who was supervising the intensive care unit at SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir, from 1994 to 2014?
How did this individual or individuals supervise the intensive care unit at SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir, from 1994 to 2014 and how did this individual contribute intellectually to enhance the intensive care unit, Kashmir?


State police empowered by other departments in the state and outside the state should get answers to these questions.
Termination of services with further punishments of physicians and those who harmed must go ahead.

Place two police officers around the clock at SKIMS Intensive care unit with everyday reporting. Computerize all the intensive care records under supervision of state police and the court.
Here are further guidelines.

Antibiotics

What should a physician, pharmacist, nurse, antibiotics pharmaceutical manufacturer, and administrators in the state and outside the state know about antibiotics?
What is the difference between a physician, pharmacist, nurse, antibiotics pharmaceutical manufacturer and an administrator/guide in the state and outside the state?
What is an antibiotic?
What are the types or categories of antibiotics?
How does one choose an antibiotic?
Questions relevant to specific antibiotics
What is the exact name of the antibiotic?
Questions for the local pharmacy.
What types of oral antibiotics are available?
What types of intravenous antibiotics are available?
When can home intravenous antibiotics be given?
How do you do home intravenous antibiotics treatment?
Manufacture of antibiotics
How are antibiotics manufactured?
At what locations in the world are antibiotics manufactured?
How does the state regulate antibiotic manufacture?
How do you verify that intravenous antibiotics that have been manufactured are effective before circulating them in various communities?
Questions relevant to the patient.
Antibiotics


What should a physician, pharmacist, nurse, antibiotics pharmaceutical manufacturer, and administrators in the state and outside the state know about antibiotics?
Annotation or definition
Antibiotics and patient care
Antibiotics antagonism
Classes, types or categories
Drug-drug interactions
History
Medical uses
Medicinal chemistry
Other alternatives
Pharmacodynamics
Production
Questions relevant to a specific antibiotic.
Questions for local pharmacy.
Questions relevant to patient.
Questions relevant to medical conditions that require antibiotics.
References.
Resistance.
Route of administration.
Verification of effectiveness.
Side-effects.
Status of new antibiotics development.


What is the difference between a physician, pharmacist, nurse, antibiotics pharmaceutical manufacturer and an administrator/guide in the state and outside the state?
A physician has the ability to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings.
A physician takes decides if medication is required.
A nurse gives the patient oral or injectable medicines in cases where a physician has asked her/him to do so.
A pharmacist dispenses the medication (from pharmacy store to nurse).
A pharmaceutical manufacturer produces medicines, including antibiotics, in coordination with others.
An administrator in the state and outside the state should be able to guide at least 811 professions to be recognized as an administrator.
An administrator/guide in the state and outside the state should have at least basic abilities of teacher, lawyer, engineer, or physician.

What is an antibiotic?
With advances in medicinal chemistry, most modern antibacterials are semisynthetic modifications of various natural compounds.

An antibiotic is an agent that either kills or inhibits the growth of a microorganism.

Antibiotics, also known as antibacterials, are types of medications that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria. The Greek word anti means "against", and the Greek word bios means "life" (bacteria are life forms).

Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Bacteria are microscopic organisms, some of which may cause illness. The word bacteria is the plural of bacterium.

Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the body's immune system can usually destroy them. We have special white blood cells that attack harmful bacteria. Even if symptoms do occur, our immune system can usually cope and fight off the infection. There are occasions, however, when it is all too much and some help is needed.....from antibiotics.

The first antibiotic was penicillin. Such penicillin-related antibiotics as ampicillin, amoxicillin and benzylpenicilllin are widely used today to treat a variety of infections - these antibiotics have been around for a long time.

Antibiotics have saved millions of lives since they were first introduced in the 1940s and 1950s.

What are the types or categories of antibiotics?
Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin (Garamycin) and tobramycin (Tobrex)
Cephalosporins such as cephalexin (Keflex).
Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), and ofloxacin (Floxin).
Macrolides such as erythromycin (E-Mycin), clarithromycin (Biaxin), and azithromycin (Zithromax).
Penicillins such as penicillin and amoxicillin.
Sulfonamides such as co-trimoxazole (Bactrim) and trimethoprim (Proloprim).
Tetracyclines such as tetracycline (Sumycin, Panmycin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin).

These are the main classes or categories of antibiotics.

How does one choose an antibiotic?

Questions to be answered.

What is the cause of infection?
How did you verify the cause of infection?
How good is the quality and accuracy of the laboratory?
Do the symptoms and signs correlate with infection?
Is the individual allergic to any medication or antibiotic?
What is most likely cause of the infection?
Is the medication available?
Will the medication have any side effects?
Should the patient receive oral or intravenous antibiotics?
When are intravenous antibiotics required?
What should be the dosage of oral antibiotics?
What should be the dosage of intravenous antibiotics?
How do you compare oral and intravenous antibiotics?
What should you know about Intravenous cephalosporins?


Questions relevant to specific antibiotics



We will mainly take the cephalosporins category, for example intravenous cephalosporins, and the fluoroquinolones category, for example intravenous ciprofloxacin, for further details.

What is the exact name of the antibiotic?
Cephalosporins are one category of antibiotics.
There has to be specific name for the antibiotic.

Questions for the local pharmacy.

What types of oral antibiotics are available?
What types of intravenous antibiotics are available?

When can home intravenous antibiotics be given?

Intravenous antibiotics at home have to be done under the supervision of a local experienced physician.

How do you do home intravenous antibiotics treatment?

Place an IV catheter in the vein of the patient’s forearm.

Liquid antibiotics are delivered through a tube connected to the IV line.



Manufacture of antibiotics

How are antibiotics manufactured?
At what locations in the world are antibiotics manufactured?
How does the state regulate antibiotic manufacture?
How do you verify that intravenous antibiotics that have been manufactured are effective before circulating them in various communities?
Here are further guidelines.

Questions relevant to the patient.


What is the name and date of birth of the patient?
Where is the patient now?
Does the patient have a fever?
What was the last known temperature?

Is the patient taking oral antibiotics or IV antibiotics?
What medications has the patient been taking for the past week?
Who is the treating doctor?
When did the treating doctor last see the patient?

When are intravenous antibiotics required?

Intravenous antibiotics are usually required only to treat more serious bacterial infections, such as:
Any specific focus of human body infection that causes fever and does not get treated with oral antibiotics.
Abscess along with fever.
Bacterial meningitis.
Septicaemia (blood poisoning).
Infection of the outer layer of the heart (endocarditis).
Lower respiratory tract infection.
An infection that develops inside a bone (osteomyelitis).

Antibiotics to prevent infection before specific medical procedures Antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary for people who have had their spleen removed.

What are the vital signs on the date and time of diagnosis and treatment?
Date:
Location:
Time:
Consciousness:
Pulse:
Blood pressure:
Respiratory rate:
Temperature:

How do you categorize the condition of the patient?
Undetermined
Good
Fair
Serious
Critical

What are further plans relevant to the individual?
Treatment at home.
Treatment in a hospital.
Treatment in a critical care unit.
Medication details.

What is the treatment?
Use oxygen through a nebulizer at home until the patient stabilizes. Use intravenous antibiotics until the temperature is normal.

What are various reference materials for antibiotics?
This resource is one of the reference materials for antibiotics.
What are antibiotics?
How do antibiotics work?
What are antibiotics for?
What are the side-effects of antibiotics?
How do you choose antibiotic treatment?
How to use antibiotics
How do antibiotics work?
Although there are a number of different types of antibiotic they all work in one of two ways:
A bactericidal antibiotic kills the bacteria. Penicillin is a bactericidal. A bactericidal usually either interferes with the formation of the bacterium's cell wall or its cell contents.

A bacteriostatic stops bacteria from multiplying.

What are antibiotics for?
An antibiotic is given for the treatment of an infection caused by bacteria. Antibiotics target microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and parasites. However, they are not effective against viruses.

If you have an infection it is important to know whether it is caused by bacteria or a virus. Most upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold and sore throats are generally caused by viruses - antibiotics do not work against these viruses.

If antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly there is a risk that the bacteria will become resistant - the antibiotic becomes less effective against that type of bacterium.

A broad-spectrum antibiotic can be used to treat a wide range of infections. A narrow-spectrum antibiotic is only effective against a few types of bacteria. There are antibiotics that attack aerobic bacteria, while others work against anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic bacteria don't.

Antibiotics may be given beforehand, to prevent infection, as might be the case before surgery. This is called 'prophylactic' use of antibiotics. They are commonly used before bowel and orthopedic surgery.

How to use antibiotics

Antibiotics are usually taken by mouth (orally); however, they can also be administered by injection, or applied directly to the affected part of the body.

Most antibiotics start having an effect on an infection within a few hours. It is important to remember to complete the whole course of the medication to prevent the infection from coming back.

If you do not complete the course, there is a higher chance the bacteria may become resistant to future treatments - because the ones that survive when you did not complete the course have had some exposure to the antibiotic and may consequently have built up a resistance to it. Even if you are feeling better, you still need to complete the course.

Some antibiotics should not be consumed with certain foods and drinks. Others should not be taken with food in your stomach - these would normally be taken about an hour before meals, or two hours after. It is crucial that you follow the instructions correctly if you want the medication to be effective. If you are taking metronidazole do not consume alcohol.

Dairy products should not be consumed if you are taking tetracyclines, as they might affect the absorption of the medication.

Antibiotics
Ciprofloxacin

Antihistamines
Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride
What are antihistamines?

Antibiotics

Ciprofloxacin

* Why is this medication prescribed?
* How should this medicine be used?
* What special precautions should I follow?
* What special dietary instructions should I follow?
* What should I do if I forget a dose?
* What side effects can this medication cause?
* What storage conditions are needed for this medicine?
* What other information should I know?

Types of Antibiotics

Although there are well over 100 antibiotics, the majority come from only a few types of drugs. These are the main classes of antibiotics.

* Penicillins such as penicillin and amoxicillin

* Cephalosporins such as cephalexin (Keflex)

* Macrolides such as erythromycin (E-Mycin), clarithromycin (Biaxin), and azithromycin (Zithromax)

* Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), and ofloxacin (Floxin)

* Sulfonamides such as co-trimoxazole (Bactrim) and trimethoprim (Proloprim)

* Tetracyclines such as tetracycline (Sumycin, Panmycin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin)

* Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin (Garamycin) and tobramycin (Tobrex)

Why is this medication prescribed?

Ciprofloxacin is used to treat or prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also used to treat or prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack) in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin extended-release (long-acting) tablets are used only to treat certain types of urinary tract infections. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

How should this medicine be used?

Ciprofloxacin comes as a tablet, a suspension (liquid), and an extended-release tablet to take by mouth. The tablet and suspension are usually taken twice a day, in the morning and evening, with or without food. The extended-release tablets are usually taken once a day. Cipro XR brand extended-release tablets may be taken with or without food. Proquin XR brand extended-release tablets should be taken with a main meal of the day, preferably the evening meal. Take ciprofloxacin at around the same time(s) every day. The length of your treatment depends on the type of infection you have. Your doctor will tell you how long to take ciprofloxacin. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take ciprofloxacin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

One brand or type of ciprofloxacin cannot be substituted for another. Be sure that you receive only the brand or type of ciprofloxacin that was prescribed by your doctor. Ask your pharmacist if you have any questions about the type of ciprofloxacin you were given.

Do not take ciprofloxacin with dairy products or calcium-fortified juices alone. However, you may take ciprofloxacin with a meal that includes these foods or drinks.

Swallow the tablets whole; do not split, crush, or chew them. If you cannot swallow tablets whole, tell your doctor.

If you are taking the suspension, shake the bottle very well for 15 seconds before each use to mix the medication evenly. Swallow the correct dose without chewing the granules in the suspension. Close the bottle completely after each use. Do not give the suspension to a patient through a feeding tube.

You should begin feeling better during the first few days of your treatment with ciprofloxacin. If your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse, call your doctor. If you are being treated for a urinary tract infection, call your doctor if you develop fever or back pain during or after your treatment. These symptoms may be signs that your infection is worsening.

Take ciprofloxacin until you finish the prescription, even if you feel better. Do not stop taking ciprofloxacin unless you experience the symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture described in the IMPORTANT WARNING section or the symptoms of allergic reaction described in the SIDE EFFECTS section. If you stop taking ciprofloxacin too soon or if you skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

Other uses for this medicine

In the event of biological warfare, ciprofloxacin may be used to treat and prevent dangerous illnesses that are deliberately spread such as plague, tularemia, and anthrax of the skin or mouth. Talk to your doctor about the risks of using this medication for your condition.

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before taking ciprofloxacin,

* tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic or have had a severe reaction to ciprofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the US), gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) (not available in the US), moxifloxacin (Avelox), nalidixic acid (NegGram), norfloxacin (Noroxin), ofloxacin (Floxin), and sparfloxacin (Zagam) (not available in the US); or any other medications, or if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in ciprofloxacin tablets or suspension. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.

* tell your doctor if you are taking tizanidine (Zanaflex). Your doctor will probably tell you not to take ciprofloxacin while you are taking this medication.

* tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section and any of the following: anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven); certain antidepressants; antipsychotics (medications to treat mental illness); caffeine or medications that contain caffeine (Excedrin, NoDoz, Vivarin, others); clozapine (Clozaril, Fazaclo); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); diuretics ('water pills'); glyburide (DiaBeta, in Glucovance, Micronase, others); certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide (Procanbid), quinidine, and sotalol (Betapace, Betapace AF, Sorine); methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall); metoclopramide (Reglan); certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, others); phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek); probenecid (in Col-Probenecid, Probalan); ropinirole (Requip); or theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl, others). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects. Many other medications may also interact with ciprofloxacin, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list.

* if you are taking antacids containing aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta, Tums, others); didanosine (Videx); calcium, iron, zinc, or vitamin supplements; or sucralfate (Carafate), you will need to allow some time to pass between when you take a dose of any of these medications and when you take a dose of ciprofloxacin. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how many hours before or after you take ciprofloxacin you may take these medications.

* tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had a prolonged QT interval (a rare heart problem that may cause irregular heartbeat, fainting, or sudden death) or an irregular heartbeat, and if you have or have ever had nerve problems, a low level of potassium in your blood, cerebral arteriosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels in or near the brain that can lead to stroke or mini-stroke), seizures, or liver disease.

* tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking ciprofloxacin, call your doctor.

* you should know that ciprofloxacin may cause confusion, dizziness, lightheadedness, and tiredness. Do not drive a car, operate machinery or participate in activities requiring alertness or coordination until you know how this medication affects you.

* plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light (tanning beds and sunlamps) and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Ciprofloxacin may make your skin sensitive to sunlight or ultraviolet light. If your skin becomes reddened, swollen, or blistered, like a bad sunburn, call your doctor.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Do not drink or eat a lot of caffeine-containing products such as coffee, tea, energy drinks, cola, or chocolate. Ciprofloxacin may increase nervousness, sleeplessness, heart pounding, and anxiety caused by caffeine.

Make sure you drink plenty of water or other fluids every day while you are taking ciprofloxacin.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

If you miss a dose of ciprofloxacin, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.Do not take more than 2 doses of the tablets or suspension or more than one dose of the extended-release tablets in one day.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Ciprofloxacin may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

* nausea
* vomiting
* stomach pain
* heartburn
* diarrhea
* feeling an urgent need to urinate
* headache
* vaginal itching and/or discharge

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, or those mentioned in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop taking ciprofloxacin and call your doctor immediately:

* severe diarrhea (watery or bloody stools) that may occur with or without fever and stomach cramps (may occur up to 2 months or more after your treatment)
* rash or blisters
* hives
* itching
* tingling or swelling of the face, neck, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
* difficulty breathing or swallowing
* hoarseness or throat tightness
* wheezing
* rapid, irregular, or pounding heartbeat
* fainting
* fever
* joint or muscle pain
* unusual bruising or bleeding
* extreme tiredness
* lack of energy
* loss of appetite
* pain in the upper right part of the stomach
* yellowing of the skin or eyes
* dark urine
* flu-like symptoms
* seizures
* dizziness
* confusion
* nervousness
* restlessness
* anxiety
* difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
* nightmares or abnormal dreams
* not trusting others or feeling that others want to hurt you * hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
* depression
* thoughts about dying or killing yourself
* uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
* pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness in a part of the body

Ciprofloxacin may cause problems with bones, joints, and tissues around joints in children. Ciprofloxacin should not normally be given to children younger than 18 years of age unless they have certain serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics or they have been exposed to anthrax in the air. If your doctor prescribes ciprofloxacin for your child, be sure to tell the doctor if your child has or has ever had joint-related problems. Call your doctor if your child develops joint problems such as pain or swelling while taking ciprofloxacin or after treatment with ciprofloxacin. Talk to your child's doctor about the risks of giving ciprofloxacin to your child.

Ciprofloxacin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online [at http://www.fda.gov/MedWatch/index.html] or by phone [1-800-332-1088].

What storage conditions are needed for this medicine?

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store the tablets and extended-release tablets at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the suspension in the refrigerator or at room temperature, closed tightly, for up to 14 days. Do not freeze ciprofloxacin suspension. Throw away any suspension that is left over after 14 days and any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

In case of emergency/overdose

In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.

What other information should I know?

Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to ciprofloxacin.

Do not let anyone else take your medication. Your prescription is probably not refillable. If you still have symptoms of infection after you finish taking ciprofloxacin, call your doctor.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies. Brand names

* Cipro®

* Cipro® XR

* Proquin® XR

Antihistamines
Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride

What are antihistamines?

Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, itchy rashes (especially hives) may also be helped by an antihistamine.
Here are further guidelines.
Alphabetical listing of human diseases and medical conditions.
How many human medical emergencies are there?
At least 1,096.

How many human medical conditions are there?
At least 7,943.
Here are further guidelines.

Alphabetical listing of Human medical emergencies.

How many human medical emergencies are there?
At least 1,096.
Here are further guidelines.

Alphabetical listing of human healthcare settings.

Human Health Care Settings

What is the most essential human health care setting?
Internet human health care setting.
An Internet human health care setting guides all other human health care settings.

Why should you focus on various human health care settings instead of medical specialties?
Here are various examples.

If you are in an emergency room as the doctor on duty, you cannot mention that this medical emergency belongs to a specific specialty and you cannot diagnose and treat this patient.

You have to be able to diagnose and treat all medical conditions in various health care settings.

If you are on duty in a community health center, you cannot mention that this medical issue belongs to a specific specialty and you cannot diagnose and treat this patient.

Internet human health care needs highly experienced doctors.
After you practice in various health care settings, including medical emergency room, wards, critical care unit, labor room, operating room, you should enhance Internet human health care.

Other human health care settings are dependent on Internet human health care.

What are examples of various human health care settings?
Ambulatory human health care
Community health center
Critical care
Coroner investigations
Emergency room health care
Emergency call center
Education of new medical students
Education of existing medical doctors
Hospital ward
Home health care
Internet human health care services
Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms
Medicolegal cases
On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment
Operating rooms
Public health
Patient education
Rehabilitation Services
Research
State health care administrative issues
Space Medicine
Here are further guidelines.

Alphabetical listing of human medical conditions details.
Alphabetical listing of human medical conditions details.
Alphabetical listing of doctors’ abilities.
Alphabetical listing of doctors’ abilities.

Arterial Blood Gases
Arterial Blood Gases
Blood Chemistry Panel
Chemical Composition of the Human Body
Children's health

Career Counseling Relevant to Human Healthcare

Career counseling: Where do you start and where do you end?
Start with reading these facts.

What profession are you interested in among the listed professions?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/occupations.html

If you plan to be a human healthcare professional, what specific profession should you select?
First, select a training program for a specific physician.

What does a specific physician do?
Correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings.
Issue based advice.
Public health advice.
Medical research.
Medical education.
Service rule adherence.
Administrative directives.
Resource issues (also known as budget issues)
If there is a competent specific physician, then paramedics can thrive.

In what state do you plan to be physically located?
This question should be answered ahead of time.

Who ideally should provide career counseling relevant to human healthcare?
An experienced specific physician must provide career counseling relevant to human healthcare.

Where do you start and where do you end career counseling relevant to human healthcare?
Start with a specific physician.
First verify through the Internet the specific physician guidelines and the specific physician who authored these guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html
Remind your nearest medical college that they need to follow these guidelines authored by Doctor Asif Qureshi.

What are the categories of human healthcare professionals inside and outside the state?
Published specific physician
Published non-specific physician
Non-published healthcare employee
Class IV employee

What should a specific physician do in the case of events/conferences related to human healthcare inside or outside the state?
First resolve, deliberate, debate, and collaborate on issues through the Internet.
Circulate your presentation in English language in a question-and-answer format through the Internet.

How do you become a successful specific physician?
You have to research, research, and research.
You have to read, read, and read the relevant guidelines.
You have to discuss with others who are comparatively better relevant to required specific physicians.

What if you belong to any schedule caste, schedule tribe, or specific category of religion?
You must reveal this ahead of time so that adjustments can be made accordingly.

What type of physician would you like to be?
Select from various human healthcare settings.

What types of physicians are required at this point within and outside the state?
  1. Career counseling physician relevant to human healthcare

  2. Critical care unit physician

  3. Director of public health physician of the state

  4. Director of health physician of the state

  5. Emergency medical room physician

  6. Emergent medical responder physician

  7. Forensic psychiatry physician

  8. Forensic pathology physician

  9. Hospitalist physician (takes care of hospital ward patients)

  10. Internet human health services physician

  11. Medical superintendent physician of a hospital in the state

  12. Physician guide for at least 18 types of physicians

  13. Primary care physician

  14. Physician surgeon medical emergency

  15. Physician surgeon elective surgery

  16. Physician anesthetist medical emergency

  17. Physician anesthetist elective surgery

  18. Physician guide to physician(s)

  19. Physical therapist physician

  20. Physician of public health in the state
Each job title has seniority.

On August 8, 2017, individuals claiming to be physician specialists and/or physician super specialists were not able to guide the specific physicians mentioned at:

Types of Physicians
If due to any reason you cannot get into a specific physician training program mentioned above, go to a human healthcare professional other than a specific physician.

Human healthcare professionals other than a specific physician

Biochemistry laboratory technician
Medical emergency room technician
Nurse critical care
Nurse emergency medical room
Nurse emergency medical responder
Nurse connected to http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html physician Internet human health services
Occupational therapist
Prosthetic and orthotic engineering
Nuclear medicine technician
Rehabilitation therapist
Dental assistant/technician
Ophthalmic assistant
Allied health workers guidelines
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/alliedhealthprofessionsworld.html

This is relevant to allopathic medicine.

What is allopathic medicine?
Allopathic medicine refers to medical practice (also called Western medicine, evidence-based medicine, or modern medicine).

What are grand rounds in medical education?
Grand rounds are like continuing medical education for specific physicians.
Nowadays, these can be accomplished via the Internet.

What should you do if required training programs are not available in your state?
Ask for specific physician training.

What directives are there for newspaper editors, television news directors, and similar entities?
Do not advertise or mislead individuals with MBBS or MD or fellowships or scholarships to be doctors, even if you are offered payments.
You will be charged with misleading people.
Do not advertise about any entity that has inflicted irreparable harms on others even if you are offered payments to do so. Sooner or later, you will be charged with reinforcing criminals and receiving payments for advertisements from harmful resources.

Why was there need to elaborate on these issues?
On August 4, 2017, Srinagar Soura Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar SMHS Hospital senior physicians and executives in human health could not display a roster of specific physicians. There has been no experienced physician, guide, or career counseling prior to August 4, 2017, relevant to the required physician ER, ICU, wards, ER surgery, elective surgery, primary care, medical superintendents, public health, forensic psychiatrists, forensic pathologists, labs, and/or administrative issues.

This proves that existing physicians in Kashmir have wasted their time and public resources.
This proves they were selected fraudulently from time to time to enhance a nefarious agenda of fraudulent, corrupt, and fraudulently placed regimes.

What are examples of pooled resources?
Doctor Asif Qureshi placing all guidelines, including those for specific physicians, is an example of pooled resources.

Can you make me wiser?
How can you make me wiser?

Asks Doctor Asif Qureshi, founder of Qureshi University and able to guide more than 600 professions (as of August 6, 2017), inside and outside the state, including specific physicians, teachers, engineers, and lawyers.

Medical college issues in various states around the world.

How many medical colleges are in North American states, Asian states, African states, Latin American states, Australian states, and dependencies at this point?
141 medical colleges that are allopathic existed in North American states on August 7, 2017.
All existing medical colleges in various states need to be reminded about www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html resources and the way the Internet has changed, such as www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html human health care, medical education, patient care, administrative issues in human healthcare in the state and outside the state, and medical research.

Circulate this to all. You must record and preserve these guidelines from www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html every 24 hours.
Here are further guidelines.

Complaints and problems
Complaint
Complaints against human healthcare provider
Is there a difference between a complaint and a problem?
Yes.

How should you evaluate a complaint or problem?
Is it a complaint or a problem?


Problem

Is this about one or many problems?
If this is a problem, what type of problem is this?


What best describes the problem?
This is one problem in one document.
These are many problems in one document.
This is from one individual on one document.
This is from many individuals on one document.

Complaint

Is this one complaint or many complaints in one document?
If this is a complaint, what type of complaint is this?


What best describes the complaint?
This is one complaint in one document.
These are many complaints from one individual in one document.
These are many complaints from many individuals in one document.
This is a criminal complaint document.
Many individuals are involved in this criminal complaint from the other side.
This is a civil complaint document.
This is a medical nonemergency.
This is a medical emergency.
This is a medical emergency medicolegal case.
This is a medical nonemergency medicolegal case.
If there is any other description, please describe.

What essential department in the state has the duty to resolve this complaint or problem?
Who has the duty to resolve this complaint or problem in the state or outside the state?

Here are further guidelines.
Complaint
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/complaint.html

Problem
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/problem.html
Complaints against human healthcare provider

Critical, emergency, and non-emergency medical complaints.

Questions you must be ready to answer.

  1. What will happen if you do not take non-emergency human issues relevant to you seriously?

  2. How many critical medical complaints are there?

  3. What are the critical medical complaints?

  4. How many emergency medical complaints are there?

  5. What are emergency medical complaints?

  6. How many non-emergency medical complaints are there?

  7. What are non-emergency medical complaints?

  8. What are examples of medical symptoms by human organ systems, age, and gender?

  9. What is on the list of all medical complaints?

  10. How many human medical emergencies are there?

  11. What are the medical emergencies in alphabetical order?

  12. What are the medical emergencies as per medical specialty?

  13. How many human medical conditions are there?

  14. What are the medical conditions in alphabetical order?

  15. What must you do once you are placed for specific physician services?

  16. What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

  17. What should you elaborate about a symptom or sign?


What will happen if you do not take non-emergency human issues relevant to you seriously?
This can become an emergency. This can become a medical emergency.
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/patient.html

How many critical medical complaints are there?
13

What are the critical medical complaints?
The 13 issues elaborated are critical.
  1. Any abnormality in vital signs, like consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate at rest, and high-grade temperature with complications. .
  2. Unconsciousness at a public location.
  3. Sudden unconsciousness at home.
  4. Trauma

  5. Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction

  6. Burns

  7. Drowning

  8. Human Pregnancy Emergencies

  9. Medico-legal cases with criminal activities, including women’s pregnancy issues

  10. Seizures

  11. Mobility Concerns

  12. Swallowing Dysfunction in Critical Illness

  13. Survival Needs
If consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, behavior, and mobility relevant to age are normal without any acute external or internal injury, and proper survival and civilized conditions exist at home, the patient can recover from the medical condition at home.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

What issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/onthespotemergency.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/symptoms.html

How many emergency medical complaints are there?
155

What are emergency medical complaints?
. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html#A–Zs

How many non-emergency medical complaints are there?
1305

What are non-emergency medical complaints?
Here are further guidelines.

What are examples of medical symptoms by human organ systems, age, and gender?
1. Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)
2. Circulatory System
3. Digestive System
4. Endocrine System
5. Integumentary system
6. Lymphatic (immune) system
7. Muscular system
8. Reproductive System
9. Respiratory System
10. Skeletal System
11. Urinary system


What is on the list of all medical complaints?
Here are further guidelines.

What medical emergency cases go to an emergency surgeon or emergency anesthetist in a hospital operating room?
Out of 1,150 human medical emergencies, only 27 go to an emergency surgeon and/or an emergency anesthetist in operating room.

What are examples of emergency cases that go to an emergency surgeon and/or emergency anesthetist in a hospital operating room?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalservices.html#Emergency Surgeon and Emergency anesthetist

What is the deprivation of human survival needs (not having human survival needs)?
What are basic/normal human survival needs?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/survivalneeds.html

How many human medical emergencies are there?
There are fewer than 1,096 human medical emergencies.
If you know the human medical conditions, then you will be able to diagnose and treat them.

What are the medical emergencies in alphabetical order?
What are the medical emergencies as per medical specialty?

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinediagnosistreatment.html

How many human medical conditions are there?
There are more than 7,943 human medical conditions.

What are the medical conditions in alphabetical order?
Here are further guidelines.

Is patient conscious and oriented in time, space, and person relevant to age?

Unconsciousness or Coma
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/coma.html

Conscious Patient Assessment

Is this a medical emergency or medical nonemergency?

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/assessment.html

Introduce yourself if you do not know the patient.

How should a physician introduce him-/herself to the patient?

Here is an example:

Hello, I am Doctor Asif Qureshi. I have few questions about your health.

Then try to elaborate on the patient’s chief complaint. Some questions you may ask:

What should you elaborate about a symptom or sign?

When did the issue start?
When did it start?
How did it start?
Where did it start?
What do you think causes it?
What do I think caused it?
How long has this been going on?
What makes the issue better or worse?
What does it feel like?
Where exactly do you feel the issue?
Does it travel anywhere?
What other feelings or sensations do you get?
How bad is the issue?
Does this impair your normal, everyday activities?
If there is a sequence of issues, what happens first?
Is this issue continuous, repeating, or sporadic?
Are there any associated symptoms?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalhistory.html

Mobility

What best describes mobility of the patient relevant to age?

When was the patient able to move normally?

Symptoms or Signs

What should you elaborate about a symptom or sign?

Is it a medical emergency?
Do you know what are emergency medical symptoms, signs, or complaints?
What are emergency medical symptoms, signs or complaints?
Does this need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
When did it start?
How did it start?
Where did it start?
What is the most likely diagnosis?
What do you think causes it?
Why do you think this happened?

Harms Evaluation/Medico-legal

When did it happen?
How did it happen?
Where did it happen?
Who all are involved?
What are their profiles?
Which, whose profile is required?
Why did they do this?
What should be done?


http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalhistory.html

Human medical conditions

What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

What is it?
What causes it?
What are the risk factors?
What's normal?
How is it diagnosed?
What are the types of this medical condition?
What are the symptoms?
What are the signs?
What are the clinical findings?
What are the lab or investigation findings?
What are the workable treatment options?
What is the best setting or location to treat this medical condition?
What do you think can help?
When is counseling required?
When is medication required?
How long should medication last?
What type of medication is available?
When is surgical intervention indicated?
How could this be prevented?


Questions every specific type of physician must be able to answer.

How many total medical conditions are there?
How many human healthcare settings are there?
What are examples of human healthcare settings?
How many human systems are there?
What are the types of specific physicians in human healthcare settings with seniority?
What do you call a person who can guide all types of specific physicians in addition to executives of other professions?
What are the duties of a physician director of a specific state’s public health?
What are the duties of the director of emergencies of a specific state?
What problems, complaints, incidents, and issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?

What medical conditions should a medical doctor be able to diagnose and treat?
What is a medicolegal case?
When can a patient recover from medical condition at home?
How should an emergency medical doctor categorize the condition of a patient?

Critical Care Ambulance

Critical care ambulance: What is it?
An ambulance with critical care equipment and staff compared to an advanced life support ambulance.
A critical care ambulance is for diagnosing and monitoring, with treatment, critically injured or ill patients.

What should you ensure with a critical care ambulance?
Make sure a physician medical emergency responder is with the critical care ambulance.

Physician medical emergency responder
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

Why was there need to elaborate on these issues?
On August 16, 2017, it was circulated in Kashmir that critical care ambulances will be soon with hospitals in Kashmir.
Make sure a properly educated physician medical emergency responder is with every critical care ambulance.
Every ambulance must have a physician medical emergency responder with it.

What staff is required with a critical care ambulance?
Physician medical emergency responder
Emergency Medical Technician–Basic (EMT-B): The EMT-B can provide basic life support services for the patient.
Paramedic: The paramedic can provide advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), pediatric advanced life support (PALS), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) services and additional services, such as monitoring of patients on a ventilator.
Critical Care Registered Nurse (CCU-RN): The CCU-RN can provide nursing services as well as ACLS, PALS, and CCU skills to the patient.

What equipment is required for a critical care ambulance?
Advanced life support (ALS) ambulance equipment

Drug box
Portable and on-board suction
Endo tracheal intubation equipment
EKG/defibrillator/external pacing
700-pound-rated power stretcher

This equipment along with equipment of a critical care ambulance

Monitor with pulse oximetry, ECG, temperature, heart rate, NIBP, AIBP and trending
End Tidal CO2 qualitative mainstream monitor
High capacity on-board oxygen supply
Other equipment as per requirement.
An air ambulance has the same resources as a critical care ambulance.

What kind of communications should a critical care ambulance have?
A two-way radio communications system.
Computer with Internet connected to www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

Do you have an emergency patient on the spot?

What do you have to do?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/onthespotemergency.html

Critical Care unit

Critical care unit record


Intensivist
Who is an intensivist?
Intensivist: A physician who specializes in the care of critically ill patients, usually in an intensive care unit (ICU).

An intensivist, also known as a critical care physician, is a medical doctor with special training and experience in treating critically ill patients.

Intensivists are physicians who direct and provide medical care in a hospital's intensive care unit (ICU), working with the attending physician of record and other staff such as critical care nurses, pharmacists, respiratory therapists, nutritionists, rehabilitation services, social workers, case managers and especially spiritual care - as well as physician specialists

How are intensivists different than other specialists, such as cardiologists, who treat critically ill patients?
Intensivists provide a comprehensive approach to caring for ICU patients rather than focusing on specific body systems, such as cardiologists or pulmonologists. In many instances, they have the primary responsibility for the patient rather than acting as a consultant, as many specialists do. Depending on the intensivist program, critical care physicians provide round-the-clock ICU care rather than being on call off-site or spending most of their time seeing office patients, in surgery or treating patients in other parts of the hospital.

How is an intensivist-led ICU different than a traditional ICU?
In a traditional approach, primary care physicians have the chief responsibility for treating their critically ill patients. They often bring in specialists as needed, such as a nephrologist if the patient has a kidney problem or pulmonologist if the patient is placed on a ventilator.

There are some clear drawbacks to this approach. For one, primary care doctors have little experience with critically ill patients, who are often suffering from multi-system problems or diseases. These doctors might average a handful of such patients a year. They also cannot devote large amounts of their time to monitoring and managing ICU patients since they may have other hospital patients as well as many patients to see throughout the day at their offices. As a result, care is generally fragmented and poorly coordinated.

Intensivists, on the other hand, spend their time each day in the ICU treating the critically ill. They are trained and experienced in dealing with the complex issues of the sickest patients as well as treating, or when possible, averting complications that often arise quickly.

Hospitalist



What is a Hospitalist?
A Hospitalist is a physician that is trained to specifically treat and be responsible for patients in the hospital. These doctors practice in the hospital 24 hours a day, seven days a week to provide immediate and ongoing care without delay.

What about my Primary Care Physician?
The Hospitalist will coordinate your care with your primary care physician. By working together, the hospitalist will have a full understanding of your current health and medical history. The Hospitalist will examine you and coordinate all other exams, tests, and treatments while you are in the hospital. Upon discharge from the hospital your medical care will transition back to your primary care physician.

What is a Pediatric Hospitalist?
Pediatric hospitalists are pediatricians who work in hospitals providing care for children ages 0-18.

Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

Intensivist
Critical Care unit
Critical care unit record
What should be included in the critical care unit record for the patient?
What is the profile of the patient?

Name:
Date of birth:
Address:
Family:
Emergency contact person:

What is the location of the critical care unit?

_______________________________________________

For example: Critical care unit, SKIMS, Soura, Srinagar, Kashmir, Asia.

What brings the patient to the critical care unit?

_______________________________________________

What is the day, date, time of arrival to a critical care unit?

_______________________________________________

For example: Tuesday, November 25, 2014, 12:10 pm

What is the profile of the physician supervisor of the critical care unit?

_______________________________________________

Who brought the patient to the critical care unit?

_______________________________________________

What is the health status of the patient on the day, date, and time of arrival to the critical care unit?

_______________________________________________

Who are the physician, nurse, social worker, and technologists to look after the patient?

_______________________________________________

Who are among supervising physician, nurse, social worker, and technologist to look after the patient?

_______________________________________________

What is the diagnosis for this patient?

_______________________________________________

What is the treatment plan for this patient?

_______________________________________________

How often will there be a follow-up from a physician?

_______________________________________________

Does the critical care unit have a computer with www.qureshiuniversity.org connected to the Internet?

_______________________________________________

If you have any issue, email admin@qureshiuniversity.org or call 7735616102 Chicago, Illinois, North America, and you will get answers within 24 hours.

Endocrinologist

What is the most common condition relevant to endocrinology?
Diabetes type 2.

Here are guidelines for patients older than 18 years.

When was your last blood sugar test done?
A year ago.

What were the values of your last blood sugar?
Normal.

How often should you get your blood sugar checked if you are more than 18 years old and have not been diagnosed with diabetes?
If yearly blood sugar is normal, a check of blood sugar every two years is reasonable.
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/endocrinologyworld.html
Forensic Psychiatrist
What does a forensic psychiatrist do?
A forensic psychiatrist’s expertise is required on more than 111 issues.

What is the most important duty of a forensic psychiatrist?
Fitness for duty evaluation is one of the duties of a forensic psychiatrist.

How many forensic psychiatrists are there around the world?
A forensic psychiatrist is a rare entity around the world.

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

Forensic Pathologist
What is a forensic pathologist?
Forensic pathologists, or medical examiners, are specially trained physicians who examine the bodies of people who died suddenly, unexpectedly, or violently. The forensic pathologist acts as the case coordinator for the medical and forensic scientific assessment of a given death,

How does the forensic pathologist use the history, external physical examination, autopsy and laboratory studies to determine the cause and manner of death?
The history is the beginning of the investigation and is of utmost importance in making the determination of cause of death.

Where do forensic pathologists work?

State department of health.

Forensic psychiatrist and forensic pathologist difference.

What is the difference between a forensic psychiatrist and forensic pathologist?
A forensic psychiatrist has more abilities and knowledge than a forensic pathologist.

What are other names for forensic pathologist?
Coroner
Medical Examiner

Origin of term medical examiner is from Scotland. It later was introduced into various American states.
Origin of word coroner is from England. It later was introduced into various American states.

Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicmedicineinternational.html

Identify Unidentified Dead Individual.
Forensic Medical Management Services.
Identify Unidentified Dead Individual.
Criminal Death Investigation.
Here are further guidelines.
An unidentified individual can be living or dead.
Here are guidelines about identifying an unidentified dead individual.

What departments in the state or outside the state investigate such cases?
State department of police.
State departments of health.
State department of law.
Physician or expert from abroad.

Who among human healthcare professional physicians helps in such cases?
A forensic pathologist.
A forensic psychiatrist does analysis from a distance of the fitness for duty of various professionals.
A forensic psychiatrist guides from a distance.
These are all physicians with specific abilities.

Immediate directives.

What are various immediate directives?
Do not tamper with the crime scene.
Maintain records at least at two different locations.
Immediately place a photograph of deceased with relevant available facts on the Internet.
No question can remain unanswered.

What information do police get?
The unidentified dead body has been found.

What does police, coroner, prosecutor, state department of law in the state and outside the state have to do?
Identify the dead individual.
No question can remain unanswered.
Cause of death.

How do you do quickly identify the dead body?
Age: The deceased is about 52/53 years old.
Approximate Date of Death: November 10, 2014
Build: Thin
Cause of death: Sabotage
Complexion: Black, brown, white. (Brown)
Crime Number: Global 1
Dead body location at this point: November 10, 2014, Pantha Chowk, Srinagar, Kashmir, Asia mortuary for identification.
Dress: Wearing brown pants and white shirt.
Exact date and time of death: Forensic analysis required
Ethnic group: African/Asian/North American/South American/Australian/Combination. (Asian)
Face: Oval
Findings on forensic analysis: Criminal scenario.
Found on: November 10, 2014
Gender: Male
Hair: Black and grey
Height: The deceased is about 5 feet 7 inches tall.
Identification marks: Not available
Identity card: Available/Not available
Location Dead body found: Khonmoh area on the outskirts of Srinagar, Kashmir, Asia.
Photograph on the day after death:
Police location investigating: Police station Pantha Chowk, Srinagar, Kashmir, Asia.
Sources of information: Police station Pantha Chowk was informed by some locals that a body was lying near Nallah Gurrail in Khonmoh area on November 10, 2014.
Questions that need to be answered.

What is the profile of the police officer/Officers who verified the findings?
Name:
Date of birth:
Professional rank:
Profile:
Location of police station: Police Station Pantha Chowk, Srinagar, Kashmir, Asia.

What has been the residential mailing address of the deceased from birth up to the point of death?

Cause of Death

What is the cause of death in this case?

What should not be written in cause of death?
Here are various examples.
The deceased was 18 years of age and was reportedly mentally unsound.
Mentally unsound is not a diagnosis.

Where were these types of findings reported?
They are not scientific or professional relevant to forensic medicine, policing, or the state department of law.
Here are examples of various unscientific, unprofessional reports.
http://www.greaterkashmir.org/news/2014/Nov/12/man-found-dead-in-awantipora-55.asp

What can be the cause of death for an unidentified individual?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicmedicineinternational.html

Behavioral Therapy

What is behavioral therapy?
Who can benefit from behavioral therapy?
Is behavioral therapy effective?


What is behavioral therapy?
This form of therapy seeks to identify and help change potentially self-destructive or unhealthy behaviors. It functions on the idea that all behaviors are learned and that unhealthy behaviors can be changed. The focus of treatment is often on current problems and how to change them.

Behavior therapy is focused on helping an individual understand how changing their behavior can lead to changes in how they are feeling.

Behavior therapy is a structured approach that carefully measures what the person is doing and then seeks to increase chances for positive experience. Common techniques include:

Self-Monitoring — This is the first stage of treatment. The person is asked to keep a detailed log of all of their activities during the day. By examining the list at the next session, the therapist can see exactly what the person is doing.

Example — Bill, who is being seen for _________, returns with his self-monitoring list for the past week.

Schedule of Weekly Activities — This is where the patient and therapist work together to develop new activities that will provide the patient with chances for positive experience.

Example — Looking at her self-monitoring sheet, Bill and her therapist determine that watching so much television alone gives little opportunity for positive social interaction. Therefore, they decide that Bill will have dinner out with a friend once a week after work and join a bowling league.

Role Playing — This is used to help the person develop new skills and anticipate issues that may come up in social interactions.

Example — One of the reasons that Bill stays home alone so much is that he is shy around people. He does not know how to start a conversation with strangers. Bill and his therapist work on this by practicing with each other on how to start a conversation.

Behavior Modification — In this technique the patient will receive a reward for engaging in positive behavior.

Example — Bill wants a new fishing rod. He and his therapist set up a behavior modification contract where he will reward himself with a new fishing rod when he reduces his TV watching to one hour a day and becomes involved in three new activities.

Types of behavioral therapy

There are a number of different types of behavioral therapy:

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is extremely popular. It combines behavioral therapy with cognitive therapy. Treatment is centered around how someone’s thoughts and beliefs influence their actions and moods. It often focuses on a person’s current problems and how to solve them. The long-term goal is to change a person’s thinking and behavioral patterns to healthier ones.

Cognitive behavioral play therapy

Cognitive behavioral play therapy is commonly used with children. By watching children play, therapists are able to gain insight into what a child is uncomfortable expressing or unable to express. Children may be able to choose their own toys and play freely. They might be asked to draw a picture or use toys to create scenes in a sandbox. Therapists may teach parents how to use play to improve communication with their children.

System desensitization

System desensitization relies heavily on classical conditioning. It’s often used to treat phobias. People are taught to replace a fear response to a phobia with relaxation responses. A person is first taught relaxation and breathing techniques. Once mastered, the therapist will slowly expose them to their fear in heightened doses while they practice these techniques.

Aversion therapy

Aversion therapy is often used to treat problems such as substance abuse and alcoholism. It works by teaching people to associate a stimulus that’s desirable but unhealthy with an extremely unpleasant stimulus. The unpleasant stimulus may be something that causes discomfort. For example, a therapist may teach you to associate alcohol with an unpleasant memory.

Mental Health

How can we improve our mental health?
Associate with truthful, well behaved, public service-oriented people in the state and outside the state.
Anyone can get stressed. Fix the causes of stress.
Talk about or express your feelings.
Exercise regularly.
Eat healthful meals.
Get enough sleep.
Spend time with friends and loved ones.
Develop new skills.
Relax and enjoy your hobbies.
Set realistic goals.
Talk to your primary health professional.
Form and maintain healthy relationships.
Remember that it is better to be alone than to be in a sick relationship.
Use your abilities to reach your potential.
Deal with life’s challenges
Identify sources of harms and fix sources of harms on you and your surroundings.
Make sure that truthful, well behaved, competent, public service-oriented administrators and associates are in the state and outside the state for public services.
Here are further guidelines.

Emergency medicine specialist
Emergency Medicine/Global Medicine
Medical Emergency
Patient assessment
Emergency medical room in a hospital
How should an emergency medical room in a hospital be set up/organized in a state?
How many patients does an emergency medical room get every 24 hours?
How can genuine medical emergencies in a medical emergency room be separated from nonemergency medical cases?
Does this patient need to be seen by a physician in a medical emergency room or the patient screening area?
Where is the patient now?
Who gets a medical record with a medical record number?
What is a medical record number?
What does a medical record of a patient for inpatient care contain?
What cases go to a medical emergency room and what cases go to room to screen medical emergencies?
Who guides medical emergency room physicians from a distance and who remains at the location in a medical emergency room?
How many physicians are required for a medical emergency room?
What does the roster for a medical emergency room for physicians, nurses, paramedics, emergency room administrator (assistant medical superindentent) look like?
What is the profile of junior physicians on duty at medical emergency room SMHS hospital Srinagar, Kashmir Asia?
What type of problems and complaints are evaluated in a medical emergency room?
What types of cases are diagnosed and treated in a medical emergency room?
How should you go ahead in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in a medical emergency room?
What is an Emergency medicine specialists?
What is a medical emergency?
What are the types of patient assessment?
What will happen if this medical condition is left without treatment?
What should be displayed on an emergency medical record?
What problems, complaints, incidents, and issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
In what emergency medical category do you fit the condition of the patient you are diagnosing and treating on this date and time?
In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?
How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a conscious patient?
How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of an unconscious patient?
What are examples of emergency relevant to an individual?
What are various symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, and histories that should raise suspicion of a medical emergency?
How should patients be categorized around the world, including in America, in case of a medical emergency?
Is there a difference between emergency and non-emergency medical diagnosis?
What is the difference between non-emergency and emergency medical diagnosis?
What is the role of www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalemergencyworld.html in a medical emergency?
How has Internet human healthcare changed the way hospitals work around the world?
Why you must specifically mention the state relevant to medical superintendent in the state and hospital administration in the state?
What should hospital administration, including medical superintendent, in the state recommend?
What should you know about hospitals in the state?
What should a hospital in the state display on the Internet?

Emergency medical room in a hospital


How should an emergency medical room in a hospital be set up/organized in a state?
A medical emergency room in a state has to be open 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Emergency room beds and screening locations for patients should be separate.
There should be at least four separate rooms in case the patient needs extra care.
Email, fax, and telephone number of emergency medical room should be displayed publicly.
The telephone preferably should be connected to an answering machine with regular monitoring.

How many patients does an emergency medical room get every 24 hours?
An emergency room in a hospital received 300 patients in 24 hours.
Out of the 300 patients, few had genuine medical emergencies.

How can genuine medical emergencies in a medical emergency room be separated from nonemergency medical cases?
A screening location in the emergency room should diagnose and treat nonemergency cases.

Questions you need to answer in this situation.

Does this patient need to be seen by a physician in a medical emergency room or the patient screening area?
Where is the patient now?


Who gets a medical record with a medical record number?
This is usually for inpatient care.
Outpatient care also gets a separate record.

What is a medical record number?
This is the number on a patient’s medical record.
MRD numbers for medical emergency room patient and screening patient are different.

What does a medical record of a patient for inpatient care contain?
Assessment and plan
Chief complaint
History of the present illness
Medical encounters
Medical history
Other information
Physical examination
Prescriptions and Orders
Progress notes
Test results

What cases go to a medical emergency room and what cases go to room to screen medical emergencies?
If the patient is in front of you talking normally, after walking in the location, this patient goes to room to screen medical emergencies.

Here is an example.
Acute bronchial asthma, diabetic hyperosmolar coma, acute angina, open wound and similar diagnoses go to medical emergency room.

Flu, sprain, aches and pains, insomnia, etc., go to room to screen medical emergencies with diagnosis and treatment without admission to a medical emergency room.

Screening next to medical emergency room is like managing an outpatient department (OPD) to limit patient load on emergency room physicians to those with a genuine medical emergency.

Who guides medical emergency room physicians from a distance and who remains at the location in a medical emergency room?
Senior physician guides from a distance.

www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html
A junior physician works in the medical emergency room.

Sometimes distance is like professor of forensic psychiatry Asif Qureshi is in Chicago, Illinois, North America, on November 17, 2014, with the guidelines displayed at www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

Junior physicians are in the medical emergency room SMHS hospital Srinagar, Kashmir, Asia. These junior physicians were nominated: Dr. Tazim, Dr. Manzoor Ahmed, Dr. Parvez Ahmad, Dr. Shahida.

How many physicians are required for a medical emergency room?
There should be at least 17 physicians with the publicly displayed profile. Emergency contact details should be in the medical emergency room in a hospital with rotation eight hours duty.

What does the roster for a medical emergency room for physicians, nurses, paramedics, emergency room administrator (assistant medical superindentent) look like?
Day On duty physicians/Nurses/Paramedics/Assistant medical superintendents
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Guide to junior physicians: Doctor Asif Qureshi.

Total profile of Physicians/Nurses/Paramedics/Medical superintendent.

What is the profile of junior physicians on duty at medical emergency room SMHS hospital Srinagar, Kashmir Asia?
Your email, contact information, profile is required.

What type of problems and complaints are evaluated in a medical emergency room?
What types of cases are diagnosed and treated in a medical emergency room?
How should you go ahead in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in a medical emergency room?

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

What is an Emergency medicine specialists?
Emergency Physicians must have the skills of many specialists—the ability to resuscitate a patient (critical care medicine), manage a difficult airway (anesthesia), suture a complex laceration (plastic surgery), reduce (set) a fractured bone or dislocated joint (orthopedic surgery), treat a heart attack (cardiology), work-up a pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding (Obstetrics and Gynecology), stop a bad nosebleed (ENT), place a chest tube (cardiothoracic surgery), and to conduct and interpret x-rays and ultrasounds (radiology).

What is a medical emergency?
If a human being has any problem, symptom, complaint, or situation listed below, it is a medical emergency.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalemergency.html

What best describes the problem, symptom, complaint, or situation in the list?

_________________________

What type of assessment does this patient need?

_________________________

What are the types of patient assessment?
Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.
Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.
Patient 60-second assessment in trauma.
Patient 10-minutes assessment in a medical emergency room.
Patient-focused history and physical exam.
Comprehensive patient assessment.


What will happen if this medical condition is left without treatment?

_________________________

The individual can die.
The individual can have a disability.
The individual can have severe pain.
The individual can have irreparable harm.

Does this situation need a doctor?

_________________________

What should be displayed on an emergency medical record?
Details of the patient.
Details of the diagnosing and treating medical doctor.


Details of the patient.

What should be your first question in case a patient is referred to you?

Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.

Where is the patient now?

_________________________

How old is the patient?

_________________________

What is the gender of the patient?

_________________________

Who is reporting this emergency?

_________________________

What are the sources of medical history?

_________________________

Patient.
Family.
Patient not responding to medical history questions.
Community member.
Police officer.
Referral from medical doctor.
Other.

How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?

_________________________

Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

A medical emergency with an individual victim.
A multiple casualty incident.
Do you think this is a multiple causality incident?
If it is a multiple causality incident, the guidelines are different.

Check vital signs, mobility, and survival needs.

Consciousness of a human being has to be included in vital signs.

Vital Signs

Consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature.

Consciousness is extremely essential in reaching a correct diagnosis and treatment.

What are the vital signs on the date and time of diagnosis and treatment?

Date: Time: Consciousness: Pulse: Blood pressure: Respiratory rate: Temperature: Pain Assessment Scales
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

How do you categorize the condition of the patient?

_________________________

Undetermined
Good
Fair
Serious
Critical

Is this an emergency?

_________________________

What is the category of this emergency?

_________________________

Is this a medical emergency?

_________________________

In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

_________________________
Here are various examples.
Critical care
Coroner investigations
Emergency room health care
Emergency call center
Hospital ward
Home health care
Internet human health care services
Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms
Medicolegal cases
On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment
Operating rooms
Other


Who has the duty to manage this emergency?

_________________________

What best describes this human emergency?

_________________________

Medical emergency
Surgical emergency
Trauma emergency
Pediatric emergency
Obstetrical/gynecological emergency
Medico legal case
Patient assessment

Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.



What problems, complaints, incidents, and issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
Unconsciousness at a public location.
Sudden unconsciousness at home.
Trauma
Survival Needs
Seizures
Burns
Drowning
Human Pregnancy Emergencies
Here are further guidelines.
What is the reason for consultation?

_________________________

What seems to be the problem?

_________________________

How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?

_________________________

Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

_________________________

What best describes your problem?

_________________________

Patient Name:________________________

Referred by:_________________________

Mailing Address:_____________________

Telephone:___________________________

Your Email Address:__________________

Date of Birth:_______________________

Gender: Male Female

Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

Emergency Contact Name:______________

Relationship:________________________

Phone:_______________________________

Your Height:_________________________

Your Weight:_________________________

Race::_______________________________

White
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Pacific Islander
Asian
Asian/American

Conscious

Can the patient talk?
Can the patient respond to verbal questions accurately?
Can the patient do spontaneous eye opening?
Does the patient respond to painful stimulus?
Is the patient conscious, oriented in time, space, and person?
Conscious means able to see, hear, and talk.
In pediatric patients younger than six months of age, the ability to make any verbal noise or cry is equivalent to talking.

What is the location of patient at the point of the medical emergency?
Can the patient talk relevant to age?
Can the patient walk relevant to age?
Are consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, and respiratory rate normal relevant to age?
What is the cause of the existing emergency medical scenario?

Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.

Emergency medical history

What questions should you ask in emergency medical history?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalhistory.html

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/vitals.html
Mobility
Survival Needs
Details of the diagnosing and treating medical doctor.

What is the name, date of birth, phone number, and other contact information of the person diagnosing and treating this patient?

_____________________________________________

What is the date and time you are diagnosing and treating this patient?

_____________________________________________

What is the location of the patient at the time you are diagnosing and treating this patient?

_____________________________________________

What best describes the location of diagnosis and treatment of this case?
1. On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.
2. Emergency room diagnosis and treatment.
3. In the hospital diagnosis and treatment.
4. Long-distance health care advice.
5. Other
_____________________________________________
Can you reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being?

_____________________________________________

What is the diagnosis of this patient?

_____________________________________________

How did your reach this diagnosis?

_____________________________________________

What is the treatment for this patient?

_____________________________________________

Does the patient need to be transferred to a medical emergency room?

_____________________________________________

In America up to February 12, 2012, most emergency medical records did not have these facts.

In what emergency medical category do you fit the condition of the patient you are diagnosing and treating on this date and time?

Undetermined, Good, Fair, Serious, Critical.

If on-the-spot diagnosis of a patient declared in serious or critical condition, arrange a bed in the Intensive Care unit.

Date of Examination:_________________________

Physician Name:_________________________

Physician Address:_________________________

Is it a Medical Emergency?

___________________________

In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

___________________________

Do any recent causes lead to this problem; for example, trauma, missed medication, inadequate survival needs, stress, or other issue?

___________________________

What are further details?

___________________________

Does any past medical history lead to this problem?

___________________________

Is there any recent history within past few minutes or hours of any of the following:
1.Unconsciousness at a public location.
2.Sudden unconsciousness at home.
3.Trauma.
4.Survival needs issues.
5.Seizures.
6.Burns.
7.Drowning.


___________________________

If there is even one recent history of the above, on the spot diagnosis and treatment is required.

Is the victim's condition life or limb threatening?

___________________________

Could the victim's condition worsen and become life or limb-threatening on the way to the hospital?

___________________________

Could moving the victim cause further injury?

___________________________

Does the victim need the skills or equipment of paramedics or emergency medical technicians?

___________________________

Would distance or traffic conditions cause a delay in getting the victim to the hospital?

___________________________

What have been his activities for the last 10 years?

___________________________

Does the individual use or abuse any of these substances?
Alcohol.
Drugs.
Tobacco.

___________________________

Is the individual on any medication?

___________________________

Questions doctor on duty needs to answer.

Is it a medical emergency?

___________________________

What is the diagnosis?

___________________________

In what setting/location does this medical condition need treatment?
Treatment required on the spot.
Treatment required in the medical emergency room.
Treatment required in the intensive care unit.
Treatment required in the ward.
Treatment required in the operating room.
Treatment required at home.
Treatment required Internet health care.
Treatment required in OPD consultation.

___________________________

What treatment do you recommend for this patient?

___________________________

What are other treatment options for this patient?
No other treatment option.
Other treatment options are enumerated.

___________________________

Prescription
How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a conscious patient?
Are you the person reporting a medical emergency for yourself?
Emergency
How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of an unconscious patient?
Are all vital signs normal? Can the person move relevant to age? Has the person been provided with survival resources? Does the person or caregiver complaint of anything? Are these justified complaints?
Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment

Healthcare for specific physicians.

Does a specific physician need human healthcare?
Yes.

What should specific physicians be advised?
Do not hesitate to reveal your own human healthcare issues.

What issues are there currently?
Here are further guidelines.

Hospital labs errors or variable test reports.

What should physicians know about errors or variable test reports from hospital laboratories?
Verified findings of hospital laboratory errors or variable test reports.
Do not reach a diagnosis based only on hospital lab reports.
Consider all medical history, clinical presentation, and follow up findings before reaching diagnoses of patients.

Hospital ward patient in the state.

How should a physician speak to the hospital ward patient?
This should be documented in the hospital ward medical record.

What brings you to the hospital?
How are you feeling now?
What complaints or problems did you have that led to hospital ward admission?
What complaint(s) or problems(s) do you have now?
Do you know your diagnosis?
What is your diagnosis?
How did the physician reach this diagnosis?
Who has diagnosed you?
What complaint(s) did you have that made you a hospitalized patient?
What date and time were you diagnosed?
Are you satisfied with your diagnosis?
What treatment are you on?
Are you improving with the existing treatment?
What are the findings from the physical examination of the patient?
Do you know when you will be discharged from hospital ward?
Has the state provided all survival needs for the patient at home?
Who has verified these findings?
What is the advice for the patient on discharge from the hospital ward?

Common Medical Emergencies
Dispatching for an emergency
Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment
Emergency Diagnosis Code
Emergency medical record
Emergency Department record
Emergency medical responder
Emergency medical record
Emergency Medicine
Health Care
List of medical emergencies
Medico legal cases
Patient assessment
Surgical Emergencies
Symptoms & Signs A-Z List
State Offices and Agencies of Emergency Management
What are various symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, and histories that should raise suspicion of a medical emergency?
How are most patients categorized in American triage locations up to February 12, 2012?

Immediately life threatening
Urgent, but not immediately life threatening
Less urgent

How should patients be categorized around the world, including in America, in case of a medical emergency?
Undetermined, Good, Fair, Serious, Critical.

Fair, serious, or critical will always get a medical diagnosis that needs emergency treatment.

This can be only done by an emergency medical doctor able to reach the correct diagnosis and provide treatment.

Is there a difference between emergency and non-emergency medical diagnosis?
Yes, there is.

What is the difference between non-emergency and emergency medical diagnosis?
This example will make you understand.
Diabetes is a non-emergency medical diagnosis.
Diabetes with hyperosmolar coma or diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical diagnosis.

What is the role of www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalemergencyworld.html in a medical emergency?
Guide the following:
Doctor in a medical emergency.
Emergency responder in a medical emergency.
Emergency call center in a medical emergency.
Watcher, relative, or acquaintance of the victim in a medical emergency.
Victim himself or herself in a medical emergency.
Guide the state department of health worldwide.
When Is It Really an Emergency?
What types of patients get admitted to emergency room (ER), operating Room (OR), intensive care unit (ICU), and hospital wards and need Internet health care or outpatient (OPD) health care?
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalemergencyworld.html

Hospitals around the world and Internet human healthcare.

How has Internet human healthcare changed the way hospitals work around the world?
If a physician at any location needs further consultations or reference, www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html has all guidelines in question-and-answer format in the English language.
This gets researched and updated every day.

Before the existence of Internet human healthcare, a junior physician had to consult a senior physician or head of the department relevant to patient care. With the existence of Internet human healthcare, a junior physician at any location on this planet can – with a few clicks at this resource: www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html – get guidance in question-and-answer format in the English language.

Some still think this is a website. This is far more than a website with highly effective intellectual property resource.

Hospital

Hospital
Hospital Supplies
Hospitalized Patient
Human Rights Violations
Human Vital Signs
Health Care Law
Health Alerts
Health Calculators
Health-care electronics
Health Care Issues
Health Insurance
Human
Human health symptoms & signs A-Z List.
Human health emergency symptoms & signs A-Z List.
Human Pregnancy Emergencies
Human health and aerospace.
Health care guidelines for correct diagnose and treatment.
Health care guidelines for hospital faculty and postgraduates.
Health care research.
Health care continuing education for existing medical doctors.
Health care and state department of health.
Health care and the media.

Hospital administration in the state
Medical superintendent in the state
Why you must specifically mention the state relevant to medical superintendent in the state and hospital administration in the state?
All these services are relevant to essential departments and administration in the state.

What is the professional rank of an individual physician who takes care of administration of a hospital in the state?
A physician with professional rank of medical superintendent.

What are other names of medical superintendent of a hospital in the state?
Chief physician

Medical superintendent



What is a medical superintendent?
A medical superintendent is a physician who supervises the 24-hour operations of healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and nursing homes.
This includes human resources needs, products and services resources needs, as well as patient care.

What should hospital administration, including medical superintendent, in the state recommend?
All medical conditions have to be diagnosed and treated at one hospital in a specific area in the state.
You cannot have separate hospitals for internal medicine and surgery, maternity, chest conditions, psychiatry, orthopedics, or similar subspecialties.
Remind physicians to serve in primary health care and Internet healthcare.

What should you know about hospitals in the state?
Hospitals in the state are state government-run hospitals.
Many departments in the state have duty relevant to hospitals.
This resource – www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html – has guidelines for all hospitals in states around the world.

Questions medical superintendent of a hospital needs to answer.

What is the profile of all physicians in the hospital?
Are all physicians in the hospital competent?
Can a physician answer relevant questions?
What is the profile of all workers in the hospital?
Does the hospital have required products and services?
What is the requirement of the hospital relevant to human resources, starting with physicians?
What is the requirement of the hospital relevant to products and services?
How can patient care be improved further?


Hospital Profile

What should be specifications of a hospital in a state?
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

What should a hospital in the state display on the Internet?

Area relevant to hospital: What is the plinth area of hospital buildings and the land area of the hospital?
Building specifications: What should be included in building specifications?
Continent and state location: For example: Kashmir, Asia.
Number of patient beds: How many patient beds are there in the hospital?
Number of beds for on-duty physicians: How many physicians’ on-duty beds are there?
Number of Physicians: What is the profile of the physicians in the hospital?
Number of Nurses: What is the profile of the nurses in the hospital?
Number of paramedics: What is the profile of paramedics in the hospital?
Profile of medical superintendent: What is the profile of the medical superintendent of the hospital?

Medical Supply Issues
Medical Supply Department Inside and Outside the State
What should happen if a state needs specific medical supplies?
Forward the requisition to the state medical supply department.
In some regions this is known as the state medical supply corporation.

What medical supplies are required in every state?
  1. Medicines/Drugs

  2. Cotton Medical Supplies

  3. Bandages

  4. IV Fluids

  5. Medical equipment

  6. Diagnostic medical equipment

  7. Office supplies other than medical supplies

What is on the list of drugs?
Every year a list of available drugs is circulated.
See 2017’s list of available drugs.

Medical education for specific physicians and medical supplies are two different issues.
Medical supply departments get reimbursed separately.
Medical education resources get reimbursed separately.

Who must supervise various medical supplies inside and outside the state?
Director of public health physician of the state.
Director of health physician of the state.
Medical superintendent physician of a hospital in the state.
Subordinates in the state department of health.

What should you do before you procure any biochemistry laboratory equipment, including a chemistry analyzer?
Ask them to answer questions relevant to normal values of human blood chemistry.
Ask about any controversies and/or discrepancies of normal values from laboratory to laboratory and how you plan to fix them.
False positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative test result issues.

What is on the list of prescription medicines/drugs available through the state department of health?
This medicine/drug list from every state must be available through the Internet.
  1. Anti-Infective Drugs

  2. Hormones, Diabetes And Related Drugs

  3. Heart And Circulatory Drugs

  4. Respiratory Drugs

  5. Gastrointestinal Drugs

  6. Genitourinary Drugs

  7. Central Nervous System Drugs

  8. Pain Relief Drugs

  9. Neuromuscular Drugs

  10. Supplements

  11. Blood Modifying Drugs

  12. Topical Drugs

  13. Miscellaneous Categories (includes Supplies And Devices)

Prescription Drugs List



Anti-Infective Drugs

Can you name the Anti-Infective Drugs?

Oral

  1. Albenza

  2. Amoxicillin

  3. Ampicillin

  4. Augmentin

  5. Bactrim

  6. Cef Tin

  7. Cefzil

  8. Cipro

  9. Cleocin

  10. Copegus

  11. Diflucan

  12. Doxycycline Hyclate

  13. Duricef

  14. Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate

  15. Flagyl

  16. Grifulvin V

  17. Intelence

  18. Keflex

  19. Lamisil

  20. Levaquin

  21. Macrobid

  22. Minocin

  23. Nizoral

  24. Noxafil

  25. Omnicef

  26. Peginterferon alfa-2a

  27. Penicillin V Potassium

  28. Plaquenil

  29. Rebetol

  30. Sporanox

  31. Suprax

  32. Tetracycline

  33. Valtrex

  34. Vfend

  35. Zithromax

  36. Zovirax

  37. Zyvox


Drug, anti-infective: Something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright.

Anti-infective is a general term that encompasses antibacterials, antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoans and antivirals.



Can you name the Respiratory Drugs?
Respiratory Drugs: Brand and Generic Names
Proventil/Ventolin (Brand) Albuterol (Generic)
Maxair (Brand) Pirbuterol (Generic)

Heart And Circulatory Drugs
Generic Type Brand
Amiodarone Antiarrhythmic
Amlodipine Antihypertensive
Atenolol Antihypertensive
Atorvastatin Antihyperlipidemic
Benazapril Antihypertensive
Digoxin Antiarrhythmic
Diltiazem Antihypertensive
Dobutamine Vasopressor
Dopamine Vasopressor
Enalapril Antihypertensive
Enoxaparin Anticoagulant
Epinephrine Vasopressor
Ezetimibe Antihyperlipidemic
Ezetimibe-simvastatin Antihyperlipidemic
Felodipine Antihypertensive
Fenofibrate Antihyperlipidemic
Furosemide Diuretic
Gemfibrozil Antihyperlipidemic
Heparin Anticoagulant
Hydrochlorothiazide Diuretic
Lidocaine Antiarrhythmic
Lisinopril Antihypertensive
Losartan Potassium Antihypertensive
Lovastatin Antihyperlipidemic
Metolazone Diuretic
Metoprolol Antihypertensive
Nifedipine Antianginal
Nitroglycerin Antianginal
Norepinephrine Vasopressor
Phenylphrine Vasopressor
Pravastatin Antihyperlipidemic
Ramipril Antihypertensive
Rosuvastatin Antihyperlipidemic
Simvastatin Antihyperlipidemic
T.P.A Thrombolytic
Triamterene-hctz Diuretic
Verapamil Antianginal
Warfarin Anticoagulant

What medicines/drugs are available over the counter?



Oral antibiotics in certain situations must be kept available over the counter.
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalsuppliesworld.html

Health care and hospital administration.
Guidance for Hospital Administration, Hospital Faculty
Medical superintendent

What services does the medical superintendent of a hospital have to supervise in the state?
Hospital heating system in winter.
Hospital cooling system in summer.
Human resources, particularly competent physicians relevant to hospital.
Education resources relevant to human health on the Internet.
Remind physicians to serve in primary health care and Internet healthcare.
Hospital Emergency Management
Hospital Admissions
Hospital Departments
Hospital Quality and Safety
Hospital Medical Records
Hospital Human Resources
Hospital Supplies
Hospital History and Physical
Hospital Medical malpractice
Hospital Follow Up Visits
Hospital Blood Transfusion Services
Hospital Materials Management
Hospital Controlled Substance
Hospital Laundry Services
Hospital Kitchen Services
Hospital Laboratories
Hospital Pharmacy
Hospital Critical Care Unit
Hospital Labor rooms
Hospital Operating Rooms
Hospital Operative Reports
Hospital Staffing Effectiveness
Hospital Phone Calls, Emails
Hospital Absence Policy
Hospital Libraries
Hospital Electricity system
Hospital Emergency light system
Hospital Water supply (plumbing) system/boiler
Hospital Fire fighting system
Hospital Elevator system
Hospital Escalator system
Hospital Gas service system
Hospital Monitoring system
Hospital Janitorial system
Hospital Transportation and Parking
Hospital Laundry System
Hospital Vending machine System
Hospital Sewage system
Hospital Telephone system
Hospital Cooling/heating system
Hospital Wifi system/Dish
Hospital Stairs
Hospital Lounge
Hospital Work places
Hospital Autoclaves
Hospital Video Surveillance
Hospital Incinerator
Hospital Online Resources

Hospital heating system in winter.
What should you know about the hospital heating system in winter in the state?
The hospital heating system in winter in the state is like any building heating system in winter.

When should the central heating system in hospitals start every year in a cold climate?
The central heating system in hospitals in cold climate should start on November 15 every year .

What complaints are there relevant to this service in the state?
1. Service started after November 15 of the year.
3. From November 15 onwards, this service runs only for some hours.
3.Temperature range in room is not between 10-18 degrees centigrade.
4.Resources in the state are not enough relevant to his service.

To keep the desired room temperature, the building should be insulated with insulated doors and windows, with proper ventilation.

What should be the range of room temperature in the building throughout the year?
Room temperature should be maintained in the range of 10-18 degree centigrade.
From November 15 onwards, a central heating system is needed.
In summer, air conditioners or coolers are needed.
Blowers and room heaters are not sufficient.


Home office
Home Medical Equipment
Human Resources health care
Human
Imaging Centers
Intellectual Disability
Life stressors
Life
Long-distance health care consultation.
Laboratory
Medical Doctor
Medical Tests and Tools A to Z
Medical Tests & Procedures
Medical student
Medications
    What are various classes of drugs for humans?
Medical Devices
Medical emergencies as per medical specialty.
Medical emergencies in alphabetical order.
Medical conditions in alphabetical order.
Most common medical conditions.
Most common medical emergencies.
Medical dictionary.
Most common human health symptoms and signs.
Medical Associations
Medical Malpractice
Medical Equipment
Mortuary science
Needs Assessment
New hospital: Why is there a need for a new hospital in this area?
Nikkah Counseling
Nutrition and Public Health
Nurse
Nursing Student
New Students
    MD Program Admissions
    College of Nursing
    Optometrists
    College of Pharmacy
    College of Dental Medicine
Professional regulator
Primary Health Care
Patient assessment

Nephrologist

What is a Nephrologist?
The definition of a nephrologist is a doctor who has had special training in kidney diseases.

A nephrologist is a physician who studies and deals with nephrology. Nephrology is the adult and pediatric study of the kidneys and its diseases. The nephrologist deals with the diagnosis and management of kidney disease. The kidneys are vital for maintaining normal fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

Doctors use laboratory values to interpret your medical condition. With respect to kidney disease, the BUN and the creatinine help your nephrologist (as well as your internist and family physician) determine if your kidneys are working correctly. These two tests are commonly ordered for many reasons and are invaluable tools to help your doctor assess your condition. Let’s define what BUN (pronounced by spelling out the letters “B”, “U”, and “N”) and creatinine mean from a simple country nephrologist’s perspective.

Creatinine is a molecule made by the muscles in your body. Creatinine is produced at a constant rate. Creatinine, for the purposes of this discussion, is cleared (or removed) from the kidney filters unchanged by the rest of the body’s metabolism. If the kidneys are having trouble getting rid of the creatinine, the molecules accumulate in the body and the laboratory number increases.

Let’s say a normal creatinine is 1. Patients require kidney dialysis when the value becomes 4-5 and they complain of symptoms consistent with needing dialysis. In other words, the kidney filters are messed up and you now need an alternative method to remove toxins and water from your body — this method of removal we call kidney dialysis.

To be more specific with respect to the function of the kidneys and take into account the differences among human beings, we use an equation called creatinine clearance to calculate how well a person’s kidneys are working. Creatinine is a component of the calculation. Why do we go through all this trouble to serve you?

Creatinine can be an inaccurate marker of kidney function in certain circumstances. For example, men have more muscle mass than women on average and therefore produce more creatinine. This fact must be taken into account when determining if the level of creatinine is high or low. If men have more muscle mass, their creatinine should be higher at baseline because more muscle means more creatinine around. In addition, that’s why the lab differentiates whether a person is African American or not when giving results for the creatinine clearance or GFR (glomerular filtration rate) to determine a patient’s kidney renal function.

BUN or blood urea nitrogen is a term to describe the breakdown products of protein in your body. This value is affected by many things including:

¦blood loss through the gastrointestinal tract
¦the use of steroids for patients with COPD and emphysema
¦the level of hydration in the body
¦in patients receiving intravenous nutrition in the hospital who are prescribed too much protein.

Kidney doctors via consultation help other physicians including critical care doctors and hospitalists prescribe TPN (total parenteral nutrition) for the patients they serve if the patient is suffering from complex electrolyte disorders.

A high BUN suggests toxins are not removed from the body. A low BUN suggests malnutrition. Because BUN is given to us in terms of concentration, we also use this laboratory value to determine a patient’s volume status. If the value is high we consider a patient might be dehydrated, for example.

Therefore, we look at BUN with respect to the other laboratory values to make meaning of the term. For example, the BUN can be low when a patient is not eating. In other words, when a patient does not eat enough, there may not be enough protein in the body to convert to BUN, resulting in a low value. In this setting, there is a risk for malnutrition. That’s why the renal panel or kidney panel includes a patient’s albumin, which is a better marker of nutritional status.

In conclusion, we nephrologists look at the removal of creatinine from the body when making decisions regarding kidney dialysis instead of the clearance of BUN from the body. BUN is used to help us make an assessment of the condition of the kidneys but the creatinine is better because the BUN is affected by so many things. So if the creatinine clearance is low (suggesting the need for dialysis) and the BUN is low (at first glance suggesting the patient is not in need of dialysis because there too few toxins in the body to make dialysis worth it), patients may still need kidney dialysis to not only remove fluid from the body but also clear toxins not represented by the BUN.
Here are further guidelines.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/nephrologyworld.html

Palliative Care Services


Pain and Palliative Care Services

What type of individual gets palliative care services?
In order to answer this question, diagnosis of the individual is essential with scientific rationale.

Questions to answer in this context.

What is the diagnosis of the individual?
How did you reach this diagnosis?
Who verified the diagnosis?
How was the diagnosis verified?
What is the profile of the treating physician?
When did the physician last see the patient?
How much time has elapsed since the physician last saw the patient in person or talked to the patient at least on the telephone?
Patient Consultation

What best describes your problem?
The new problem is not a medical emergency.
Follow-up medical consultation.
Problem that is a medical emergency (In case of a medical emergency, your local emergency service is the first responder. Guidelines for your local emergency responder are at this location: http:www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencyworld.html).
Annual health assessment.
Patient been referred to you by others.
Patient been referred by you to others.
Patient Education
Physician Profiles
Parenting Advice
Physical examination
Physical Exercise
Pathology
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Psychiatrist

What is a Psychiatrist?
A psychiatrist is a physician (a medical doctor--either an MD or a DO) who specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders.
http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/psychiatryworld.html

Public Health

Who has the duty relevant to public health emergencies in the state and outside the state?
Physicians in the state and outside the state.
Administrators in the state and outside the state.
In addition to individualized health care, physicians have to get involved in public health emergencies and public health nonemergencies.

http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/publichealthworld.html

Rehabilitation Services
Research
Preferred Drug List
Recommendations
Resident/patient or relative of patient.
Resident services medical doctor
    Why is a resident services medical doctor required?
    For yearly health assessment and follow-up.
    For emergency services.
    To guide resident services.
    Here are further guidelines.
Random health screening/assessment
Reference ranges for human blood tests
Rural Health Clinics
Renal Dialysis Clinics
Skin Problems
School Health Program

Cardiologist

What is a Cardiologist?
Cardiologists are internal medicine physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases of the cardiovascular system. Cardiologists can also help patients who are in good health learn about the risk factors for and the prevention of heart disease. Although all cardiologists are clinical internists who medically manage their patients, they may also sub-specialize in several different areas, including:

Adult clinical cardiology, which focuses on the diagnosis, medical management, and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Pediatric cardiology, which focuses on heart problems in children.

Interventional cardiology, which focuses on interventional diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease (i.e., balloon angioplasty and stent placement).

Advanced cardiac imaging, such as echocardiography, cardiac CT, and cardiac MRI, and nuclear medicine, which focus on diagnostic imaging of the heart and blood vessels.

Electrophysiology, which focuses on the electrical conduction system of the heart.

A Team Approach

Cardiologists are the central part of the cardiovascular care team. With a complex health condition like heart disease, it is important to find the right match between patient and specialist. Cardiovascular disease is often first suspected and diagnosed by a primary care physician, who then refers the patient to a cardiologist. The cardiologist evaluates the symptoms and medical history and then recommends diagnostic testing. When necessary, the cardiologist then brings in other members of the cardiovascular care team, who work together to ensure the best outcome for each patient. Patients remain under the care of the cardiologist even when they are referred to other specialists.

The Basis of ECG Diagnosis

Practical Clinical Skills

Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG)
Heart Sounds
Blood Pressure
Lung Sounds























  • ECG Quiz
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/cardiologyworld.html

    Gynecologist

    What is a gynecologist?
    A gynecologist is a physician who specializes in the female reproductive system, which includes the cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, vagina and vulva. Menstrual problems, contraception, sexuality, menopause and infertility issues are diagnosed and treated by a gynecologist; most gynecologists also provide prenatal care, and some provide primary care.

    Menstrual problems include amenorrhea (the absence of menstrual periods), dysmenorrhea (painful menstrual periods) and menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods). Menorrhagia is a common indication for hysterectomy, which is the surgical removal of the uterus. Ovarian cysts, endometriosis and human papillomavirus are other conditions that may be detected by a gynecologist, as are incontinence, prolapse of the pelvic organs and infections in any area of the female reproductive system. A gynecologist may detect fungal, bacterial, viral or protozoal infections.

    Gynecologists most frequently perform an examination known as a pap smear, which is a test that uses an instrument called a speculum to detect abnormalities in the female reproductive system, including cervical and ovarian cancers. Pap smears are conducted bimanually and often are accompanied by a rectovaginal examination, which allows for a complete examination of the pelvic area. An ultrasound may be used to confirm any abnormalities detected by a Pap smear or rectovaginal exam.

    Most gynecologists are also obstetricians. An obstetrician is a specialist in the management of pregnancy, labor, and the time immediately following childbirth known as puerperium. An obstetrician/gynecologist, also known as an OB/GYN, covers areas ranging from preventive care to detection of sexually transmitted diseases to family planning. They may also be involved in adolescent gynecology and endocrinology or deal with behavioral problems among young women.

    The four subspecialties for an OB/GYN are gynecologic oncology, maternal/fetal medicine, reproductive endocrinology and infertility, and urogynecology/reconstructive pelvic surgery.

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/obstetricsgynecologyworld.html
    Here are further guidelines.

    Physician
    Primary Care Physician
    Primary care physician training program
    Annotation or definition of primary health care.

    Primary health care: What is it?
    Nonemergency medical services.

    There are some other definitions of primary healthcare you should be aware of.

    What will happen if you ignore nonemergency medical services (primary health care)?
    This can become medical emergency.
    If you completely ignore nonemergency medical services (primary health care), there can be many medical emergencies.

    Profession

    Annotation or definition.

    What profession is been described in these guidelines?
    Physician.

    What are other names for this profession?
    Doctor.
    Doctor of medicine.
    Medical doctor.
    Medical practitioner.
    Research physician.
    If you have extra abilities, you can get a professional title of a psychiatrist, cardiologist, orthopedic, surgeon, etc.

    How does the program work?
    You will first become a physician/general practice.
    In case you need to further enhance your abilities, more programs are available.

    What is a physician?
    An individual who can diagnose and manage complex human medical problems in various healthcare setting.

    An individual who can give health care advice relevant to healthcare complaint, diagnosis and treatment of a human being in various health care settings.

    In America, all medical practitioners are physicians.
    In Australia and New Zealand, only specialists are referred to as physicians. This needs to be standardized.
    Physician belongs to activity sectors or academic discipline of medicine, human healthcare.

    An individual who can reach a correct diagnosis and treat a human being in various health care settings.

    You are first a physician, than a specialist, and then a super specialist.

    How many types of physicians are there?
    There are more than 64 types of physicians.

    What are the types of physicians?
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianspecialties.html

    What type of physician can guide all other physicians?
    A forensic psychiatrist.
    A forensic psychiatrist evaluates fitness for duty of all other professions, including other physicians.

    Who is a highly skilled physician among all types of physicians?
    Forensic psychiatrist.
    An individual gets training like this physician/psychiatrist/forensic psychiatrist.

    Who is the least skilled physician among all types of physicians?
    Physician/General Practice.

    Primary care providers

    Your primary care provider may also be called a general practitioner, family doctor, physician or clinician. Your primary care physician will guide you and your family on a variety of health care and wellness needs.

    In what human healthcare setting do you prefer to serve as physician?
    You have to select at least one of the human healthcare settings.

    How do you get educated for these medical specialties: physician, psychiatrist, forensic psychiatrist?
    First, you get educated as a physician, then psychiatrist, and then forensic psychiatrist.

    How long does it take to become a physician/general practice?
    This depends on your desire to learn.
    This depends on your motivation for public service to serve as a physician/general practice.
    Previously, it would take at least five years of postgraduate study to become physician.
    With computers and the Internet, this can take less than five years.

    What do you have to do to remain motivated, with desire to serve as a physician/general practice?
    Associate with good charactered, well behaved, competent physicians.
    Read about human healthcare every day.
    You have to look forward to continue reading until more than age 90 about new research findings in human healthcare.

    What are the facts relevant to physician/general practice?
    Specialty code: 01
    Type description: Physician/general practice
    Provider taxonomy code: 208D00000X
    Provider taxonomy description type, classification specialization: Allopathic & osteopathic physicians/general practice.

    What are you required to do as a physician/general practice?
    What are the duties of a primary care physician?
    Annual health assessment
    Appointment reminders.
    Alternative treatment options recommendations.
    Counseling services
    From time to time, you will be asked to issue a Healthcare screening certificate.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcarescreeningcertificate.html
    Follow-up
    Needs Assessment
    New patient relevant to primary health care (nonemergency).
    Refer residents or patients to other physicians with relevant abilities.
    Referrals (essential departments in various states.)
    Reminder of health improvement-related programs or services.
    Stress Counselling


    What are the maximum types of required physicians in every state?
    Physician/general practice.

    What are other names for physician/general practice?
    Primary care physician.

    For any physician who claims to be a specialist, it is mandatory to have the abilities of a physician/general practice.

    How should you as a physician issue a healthcare screening certificate?
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcarescreeningcertificate.html

    What have been various findings from physicians who claim to be specialists?
    They cannot reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings and claim falsely to be medical specialists.

    The prerequisite of any physician is correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings.

    What should be the directive for all physicians?
    Internet human healthcare is essential.
    You must show that you are enhancing Internet human healthcare without copying others’ resources.

    What questions is a physician likely to be asked relevant to his or her profession?
    Are you a physician?
    What type of physician are you?
    I am a physician, psychiatrist, forensic psychiatrist.
    I am a physician, general practice.
    You are first a physician, then a specialist, and then a super specialist.

    In what human healthcare setting do you plan to work?
    You have to get oriented to all human healthcare settings.
    You have to select one best human healthcare setting in which you would like to work as a physician.

    Internet human healthcare is one of the most important human healthcare setting.

    Every state department of health must nominate at least 100 physicians for Internet human healthcare.

    What should you know about existing physicians in various states?
    Every state has 5,000 to 12,000 physicians. Few of these existing physicians can answer questions relevant to their work.
    Few of these physicians are able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings.
    These are the reasons why existing training programs of physicians, specialists, and super specialists need to be reformed or modified.
    You can get educated at home or home office with computer and Internet with this resource: www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html.

    On July 19, 2014, this was reported relevant to physicians.
    California has 95,000, New York has 68,000, etc. Is that correct?
    What types of physicians are they?
    How many total physicians are there in the state today?
    How many physicians/general practice are there in the state?
    How many physicians/psychiatrist/forensic psychiatrists are there in the state?
    How many other types of physicians are there in the state?
    How many physicians offer Internet human healthcare in the state?
    How many different types of physicians does the state department of health recognize?
    Are they able to answer relevant questions?

    Answers to these questions will help in establishing further training programs.

    How often do I update (www.qureshiuniversity.org)Qureshi University?
    Almost everyday.

    What is the proof that various communities need many physicians /general practice?
    From 2001 to 2014, the area in walkable distance of 5042 N. Winthrop Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60640 has not had any competent physicians /general practice. If any individual or individuals had put up a banner of physicians/general practice, they were not able to answer relevant questions. Once it was discovered that they were namesake physicians, they closed the practice.
    The secretary of health, director of health in the state from 1999-2014 is not an experienced physician and not an experienced administrator in public service in the state.

    Who has the duty to place competent physicians/general practice at various locations in the communities?
    The state department of health.

    This resource can educate various individuals to be competent physicians.
    This resource can recommend to the state department of health requirements for competent physicians.
    If any competent physician exists, this resource can highlight that competent physician.

    Is it difficult to become a doctor or a surgeon?
    It is difficult to become a doctor.
    Surgical skills need extra months or years of training.

    What should you know about existing doctors?
    They are not able to provide human health care services that doctors are expected to provide.

    How do you define this profession?
    I will quote an example.

    What is a doctor?
    A medical doctor should get involved in Internet human healthcare, public health, patient education, research, educating new and existing doctors, administrative issues, and individualized doctor consultation.
    A medical doctor is expected to diagnose and treat all medical emergencies, all medical disabilities, and all nonemergency and nondisability medical conditions.

    A doctor who performs medical operations is called a surgeon.
    If an individual cannot reach a correct diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings of a human being, he or she cannot be a surgeon.

    What other professions should you differentiate from this profession?
    Doctor of philosophy.
    Doctor of education.
    Doctor of music.

    Why should you learn these questions?
    At some point in your life, these questions will be helpful.
    You will be asked various questions like those displayed here.

    What is a hospital?
    A hospital usually has a combination of emergency room services, critical care unit, operating room, ambulatory care, laboratory, and X-rays.

    Hospital
    Here are further guidelines.

    Primary Health Care
    Questions you need to answer
    Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.

    Gastroenterology

    1. Who should ideally do an assessment of a patient?

    2. How many organ systems are there in the human body?

    3. Can you name the organ systems of the human body?

    4. How many digestive system organs are there in the human body?

    5. Can you name the digestive system organs in the human body?

    6. Can you label the parts of the human digestive tract?

    7. Quiz Human Digestive System

    8. What should specific physicians know about this organ of the human body?

    9. What is Gastroenterology?

    10. What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?

    Who should ideally do an assessment of a patient?
    The physician should ideally do an assessment of the patient.

    Physician primary care
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

    Physician intensive care unit
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

    Physician medical emergency room
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

    Physician medical emergency responder
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

    Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

    Physician forensic psychiatry
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

    How many organ systems are there in the human body?
    11

    Can you name the organ systems of the human body?
    1. Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)

    2. Cardiovascular System/Circulatory System

    3. Digestive System

    4. Endocrine System

    5. Integumentary system

    6. Lymphatic (immune) system

    7. Muscular system

    8. Reproductive System

    9. Respiratory System

    10. Skeletal System

    11. Urinary system

    How many digestive system organs are there in the human body?
    11

    Can you name the digestive system organs in the human body?
    1.Mouth
    2.Salivary glands
    3.Pharynx
    4.Esophagus
    5.Stomach
    6.Small intestine
    7.Large intestine / Large Intestine, Rectum and Anal canal
    8.Liver
    9.Gallbladder
    10.Mesentery
    11.Pancreas

    What should specific physicians know about this organ of the human body?

    Anatomical location and shape of this organ of the human body
    Arterial supply
    Structural Biochemistry/Cell Signaling Pathways/Digestive System
    Digestive Diseases : Symptoms and Signs
    Digestive Diseases
    Gastroenterology Emergencies http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/gastroenterology.html Embryogenesis development
    History
    Nerve supply
    Physiology
    Society and culture
    Structure
    Venous drainage

    What is the development of this organ in the human body?
    What is the physiology of this organ of the human body?
    What is the structure of this organ of the human body?
    What is the anatomical location and shape of this organ of the human body?
    What organ system does this organ of the human body belong to?
    What arteries connect to this organ of the human body?
    What is the arterial supply of this organ in the human body?
    What are the venous connections of this organ in the human body?
    What is the venous drainage of this organ in the human body?
    What is the nerve supply of this organ in the human body?
    What are the social and cultural implications of this organ of the human body?
    What is the history of this organ of the human body?
    Who must know everything about this medical condition?
    What recent diagnostic tests are available for this organ of the human body?
    What recent treatment for various medical conditions is available for this organ of the human body?
    What have been various research findings?
    What risks are there in the stenting procedure?

    What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
    What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
    What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    What should you elaborate about a human organ?
    What is the gross anatomy of this human organ?
    What are the attachments of this human organ?
    What is the arterial, venous supply to this human organ?
    What is the nerve supply to this human organ?
    What is the lymphatic supply to this human organ?
    What are the functions of this human organ?
    What medical conditions are associated with any problems with this human organ?


    What is Gastroenterology?
    Gastroenterology: The medical specialty devoted to the study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the digestive system.

    Digestive Diseases : Symptoms and Signs
    Digestive Diseases
    Gastroenterology Emergencies
  • What is a Gastroenterologist?

  • Digestive system diseases human symptoms
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    Assessment of a patient by a physician.
    What are the issues?
    1. Abdominal Ascites

    2. Abdominal Fullness Or Bloating

    3. Abdominal Pain In Adults

    4. Abdominal Pain, Age 12 And Older

    5. Abscess, Anal

    6. Abscess, Perianal

    7. Abscess, Perirectal

    8. Acute Abdominal Ascites

    9. Acute Abdominal Pain In Children

    10. Anorexia (R63.0)

    11. Belching (R14)

    12. Bleeding From The Bottom

    13. Bleeding From The Digestive Tract

    14. Bloating (R14)

    15. Blood In Stool:

    16. Burping

    17. Changes In Bowel Habit (usually Constipation Or Diarrhoea)

    18. Chronic Abdominal Pain In Children

    19. Constipation (K59.0)

    20. Diarrhea (A09, K58, K59.1)

    21. Difficulty Swallowing

    22. Dyspepsia (K30)

    23. Dysphagia (R13)

    24. Fecal Incontinence

    25. Flatulence (R14)

    26. Gallstones

    27. Heartburn

    28. Haematemesis

    29. Hematochezia

    30. Incontinence.

    31. Indigestion

    32. Lactose Intolerance

    33. Losing Weight Unexpectedly

    34. Melena (K92.1)

    35. Nausea (R11)

    36. Nausea And Vomiting.

    37. Odynophagia

    38. Pain In The Belly

    39. Pain Or Discomfort In Your Abdomen

    40. Passing Gas

    41. Proctalgia Fugax

    42. Pyrosis (R12)

    43. Rectal Malodor

    44. Reflux

    45. Regurgitation

    46. Steatorrhea

    47. Vomiting (R11)

    48. Worsening Heartburn, Indigestion Or Stomach Pain

    Can you label the parts of the human digestive tract?

    Digestive Diseases
    Digestive system diseases
    Oral disease
    Oesophageal disease
    Gastric disease
    Intestinal disease / Small intestine / Large intestine
    Rectum and anus
    Digestive gland disease
      Hepatic
      Pancreatic
      Gallbladder and biliary tract


    A
    1. Abdominal Adhesions

    2. Acid Indigestion

    3. Acid Reflux

    4. Acid Regurgitation

    5. Adhesions

    6. Alagille Syndrome

    7. Anal Fissure

    8. Anatomic Problems of the Colon

    9. Antacids

    10. Anus and Rectum

    11. Appendicitis

    12. Appendix

    13. Autoimmune Hepatitis

      B


    14. Bacteria and Foodborne Illness

    15. Barium Enema (See Lower GI Series)

    16. Barium Swallow (See Lower GI Series)

    17. Barrett’s Esophagus

    18. Basics, Digestive System

    19. Bile Ducts

    20. Biliary Atresia

    21. Biopsy, Liver

    22. Bleeding in the Digestive Tract

    23. Bowel and Intestines

    24. Bowel Control (Fecal Incontinence)

    25. Bowel Control Problems: What You Need to Know

    26. Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy

    27. Bowel Incontinence

    28. Bowel Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)

    29. Bristol Stool Form Scale

      C


    30. Celiac Disease

    31. Celiac Sprue

    32. Children and Digestive Problems

    33. Cirrhosis

    34. Cirrhosis of the Liver

    35. Cirrhosis, Primary Biliary

    36. Colitis (See Ulcerative Colitis)

    37. Collagenous Colitis

    38. Colonoscopy

    39. Colon Polyps

    40. Colostomy

    41. Constipation

    42. Constipation in Children

    43. Continent Ileostomy

    44. Copper Storage Disease (See Wilson Disease)

    45. Crohn’s Disease

    46. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

      D


    47. Dehydration

    48. Delayed Gastric Emptying (See Gastroparesis)

    49. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease (for health care professionals)

    50. DH (See Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease)

    51. Diagnostic Tests

    52. Diarrhea

    53. Diarrhea

    54. Dietary Fiber and Digestive Diseases

    55. Digestion

    56. The Digestive Diseases Dictionary

    57. Directory of Digestive Diseases Organizations

    58. Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

    59. Drug Information

    60. Dumping Syndrome

    61. Duodenal Ulcers

    62. Dysentery (See Diarrhea)

    63. Dyspepsia (See Indigestion)

      E


    64. Eating and Digestive Diseases

    65. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

    66. Endoscopy

    67. Enterocele (See Hernia)

    68. ERCP

    69. Esophagus F



    70. Fecal Incontinence

    71. Feeding Tube (See Gastroparesis)

    72. Fiber

    73. Fistula

    74. Flatulence

    75. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    76. Foodborne Illness

    77. Food Poisoning

      G


    78. Gallbladder

    79. Gallstones

    80. Gas

    81. Gas, Heartburn, and Indigestion

    82. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    83. Gastrin

    84. Gastritis

    85. Gastroenteritis

    86. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)

    87. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    88. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents

    89. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants

    90. Gastroparesis

    91. GER

    92. GERD

    93. Gluten-free Diet (See Celiac Disease)

    94. Gluten Intolerance (See Celiac Disease)

    95. Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (See Celiac Disease)

      H


    96. Hepatitis A

    97. Hepatitis B

    98. Hepatitis C

    99. Heartburn

    100. Heartburn, Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER), and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    101. Hemochromatosis

    102. Hemorrhoids

    103. Hepatitis Publications

    104. Hepatolenticular Degeneration (See Wilson Disease)

    105. Hernia

    106. Hiatal Hernia

    107. Hirschsprung Disease

    108. H. pylori and Peptic Ulcers

      I


    109. IBD (See Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

    110. IBS (See Irritable Bowel Syndrome)

    111. Ileoanal Reservoir

    112. Ileostomy

    113. Imaging Studies (See Diagnostic Tests)

    114. Incontinence, Fecal

    115. Indigestion

    116. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

    117. Inguinal Hernia

    118. Intestinal Adhesions (See Abdominal Adhesions)

    119. Intestinal Gas (See Gas in the Digestive Tract)

    120. Intestinal Obstruction (See Abdominal Adhesions)

    121. Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction

    122. Iron Overload Disease (See Hemochromatosis)

    123. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    124. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

      J


    125. Jaundice (See Biliary Atresia)

      K


    126. Kasai Procedure (See Biliary Atresia)

      L


    127. Laboratory Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)

    128. Lactose Intolerance

    129. Laxatives (See Constipation)

    130. Liver

    131. Liver Biopsy

    132. Liver Cirrhosis

    133. Liver Transplantation

    134. Lower GI Series

    135. Lymphocytic Colitis

      M


    136. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (See Bleeding in the Digestive Tract)

    137. Medications

    138. Ménétrier Disease

    139. Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis

    140. Milk Intolerance (See Lactose Intolerance)

    141. Milk, Problems Digesting

      N


    142. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    143. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (See NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers)

    144. Nontropical Sprue (See Celiac Disease)

    145. NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers

      O


    146. Ostomy

      P


    147. Pancreas

    148. Pancreatitis

    149. PBC (See Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)

    150. Peptic Ulcers

    151. Piles (See Hemorrhoids)

    152. Polyps

    153. Porphyria

    154. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)

    155. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)

    156. Proctitis

    157. PSC (See Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis)

    158. Pseudo-obstruction

    159. Pyrosis (See Heartburn)

      R


    160. Rapid Gastric Emptying

    161. Regional Enteritis (See Crohn’s Disease)

    162. Regional Ileitis (See Crohn’s Disease)

      S


    163. Salivary Glands

    164. Short Bowel Syndrome

    165. Sigmoidoscopy

    166. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    167. Statistics, Digestive Diseases

    168. Stoma (See Bowel Diversion Surgeries: Ileostomy, Colostomy, Ileoanal Reservoir, and Continent Ileostomy)

    169. Stomach

    170. Stomach Flu (See Viral Gastroenteritis)

    171. Stomach Infection (See Bacteria and Foodborne Illness)

    172. Stomach Ulcers

    173. Stool Diary

    174. Summary of Recommendations for Adult Immunization

      T


    175. Testing for Celiac Disease

    176. Tests for Digestive Diseases

    177. Transplantation

    178. Traveler’s Diarrhea (See Diarrhea)

      U


    179. Ulcerative Colitis

    180. Ulcers

    181. Upper GI Endoscopy

    182. Upper GI Series

    183. Upset Stomach (See Indigestion)

      V


    184. Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B

    185. Viral Gastroenteritis

    186. Viral Hepatitis

    187. Virtual Colonoscopy

      W


    188. Whipple's Disease

    189. Wilson Disease

      X


    190. X-ray Tests (See Diagnostic Tests)

      Y

    191. Your Digestive System and How It Works
      Why is digestion important?
      How is food digested?
      How is the digestive process controlled?


      Z


    192. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Quiz Human Digestive System

    Gastroenterology
    Gastroenterology Research
    Gastrointestinal Disorders
    Functional disorders
    Structural disorders

    Functional disorders

    Functional disorders are those in which the bowel looks normal but doesn't work properly. They are the most common problems affecting the colon and rectum, and include constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The primary causes for functional disorders include:

    Eating a diet low in fiber
    Not getting enough exercise
    Traveling or other changes in routine
    Eating large amounts of dairy products
    Being stressed
    Resisting the urge to have a bowel movement
    Resisting the urge to have bowel movements due to pain from hemorrhoids
    Overusing laxatives (stool softeners) that, over time, weaken the bowel muscles
    Taking antacid medicines containing calcium or aluminum
    Taking certain medicines (especially antidepressants, iron pills, and strong pain medicines such as narcotics)
    Being pregnant

    Constipation

    Constipation is the difficult passage of stools (bowel movements) or the infrequent (less than three times a week) or incomplete passage of stools. Constipation is usually caused by inadequate "roughage" or fiber in the diet, or a disruption of the regular routine or diet. Constipation causes a person to strain during a bowel movement. It might include small, hard stools, and sometimes causes anal problems such as fissures and hemorrhoids. Constipation is rarely the sign of a more serious medical condition.

    Treatment of constipation includes increasing the amount of fiber you eat, exercising regularly, and moving your bowels when you have the urge (resisting the urge causes constipation). If these treatment methods don't work, laxatives are a temporary solution. Note that the overuse of laxatives can actually aggravate symptoms of constipation. Always follow the package instructions on the laxative medicine, as well as the advice of your doctor.

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (also called spastic colon, irritable colon, or nervous stomach) is a condition in which the colon muscle contracts more readily than in people without IBS. A number of factors can trigger IBS including certain foods, medicines, and emotional stress. Symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and cramps, excess gas, bloating, and a change in bowel habits such as harder, looser, or more urgent stools than normal. Often people with IBS have alternating constipation and diarrhea.

    Treatment includes avoiding caffeine, increasing fiber in the diet, monitoring which foods trigger IBS (and avoiding these foods), minimizing stress or learning different ways to cope with stress, and sometimes taking medicines as prescribed by your health care provider.

    Structural disorders

    Structural disorders are those in which the bowel looks abnormal and doesn't work properly. Sometimes, the structural abnormality needs to be removed surgically. The most common structural disorders are those affecting the anus, as well as diverticular disease and cancer.

    Anal disorders

    Hemorrhoids

    Hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels that line the anal opening caused by chronic excess pressure from straining during a bowel movement, persistent diarrhea, or pregnancy. There are two types of hemorrhoids: internal and external.

    Internal hemorrhoids

    Internal hemorrhoids are normal structures cushioning the lower rectum and protecting it from damage by stool. When they fall down into the anus as a result of straining, they become irritated and start to bleed. Ultimately, internal hemorrhoids can fall down enough to prolapse (sink or protrude) out of the anus.

    Treatment includes improving bowel habits (such as avoiding constipation, not straining during bowel movements, and moving your bowels when you have the urge), using elastic bands to pull the internal hemorrhoids back into the rectum, or removing them surgically. Surgery is needed only for a small number of patients with very large, painful, and persistent hemorrhoids.

    External hemorrhoids

    External hemorrhoids are veins that lie just under the skin on the outside of the anus. Sometimes, after straining, the external hemorrhoidal veins burst and a blood clot forms under the skin. This very painful condition is called a pile.

    Treatment includes removing the clot and vein under local anesthesia in the doctor's office.

    Anal fissures

    Anal fissures are splits or cracks in the lining of the anal opening. The most common cause of an anal fissure is the passage of very hard or watery stools. The crack in the anal lining exposes the underlying muscles that control the passage of stool through the anus and out of the body. An anal fissure is one of the most painful problems because the exposed muscles become irritated from exposure to stool or air, and leads to intense burning pain, bleeding, or spasm after bowel movements.

    Initial treatment for anal fissures includes pain medicine, dietary fiber to reduce the occurrence of large, bulky stools, and sitz baths (sitting in a few inches of warm water). If these treatments don't relieve pain, surgery might be needed to decrease spasm in the sphincter muscle.

    Perianal abscesses

    Perianal abscesses can occur when the tiny anal glands that open on the inside of the anus become blocked, and the bacteria always present in these glands cause an infection. When pus develops, an abscess forms. Treatment includes draining the abscess, usually under local anesthesia in the doctor's office.

    Anal fistula

    An anal fistula often follows drainage of an abscess and is an abnormal tube-like passageway from the anal canal to a hole in the skin near the opening of the anus. Body wastes traveling through the anal canal are diverted through this tiny channel and out through the skin, causing itching and irritation. Fistulas also cause drainage, pain, and bleeding. They rarely heal by themselves and usually need surgery to drain the abscess and "close off" the fistula.

    Other perianal infections

    Sometimes the skin glands near the anus become infected and need to be drained. Just behind the anus, abscesses can form that contain a small tuft of hair at the back of the pelvis (called a pilonidal cyst).

    Sexually transmitted diseases that can affect the anus include anal warts, herpes, AIDS, chlamydia, and gonorrhea.

    Diverticular disease

    Diverticulosis is the presence of small outpouchings (diverticula) in the muscular wall of the large intestine that form in weakened areas of the bowel. They usually occur in the sigmoid colon, the high-pressure area of the lower large intestine.

    Diverticular disease is very common and occurs in 10 percent of people over age 40 and in 50 percent of people over age 60 in Western cultures. It is often caused by too little roughage (fiber) in the diet. Diverticulosis rarely causes symptoms.

    Complications of diverticular disease happen in about 10 percent of people with outpouchings. They include infection or inflammation (diverticulitis), bleeding, and obstruction. Treatment of diverticulitis includes antibiotics, increased fluids, and a special diet. Surgery is needed in about half the patients who have complications to remove the involved segment of the colon.

    Colon polyps and cancer

    Each year 130,000 Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer, the second most common form of cancer in the United States. Fortunately, with advances in early detection and treatment, colorectal cancer is one of the most curable forms of the disease. By using a variety of screening tests, it is possible to prevent, detect, and treat the disease long before symptoms appear.

    The importance of screening

    Almost all colorectal cancers begin as polyps, benign (non-cancerous) growths in the tissues lining the colon and rectum. Cancer develops when these polyps grow and abnormal cells develop and start to invade surrounding tissue. Removal of polyps can prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Almost all precancerous polyps can be removed painlessly using a flexible lighted tube called a colonoscope. If not caught in the early stages, colorectal cancer can spread throughout the body. More advanced cancer requires more complicated surgical techniques.

    Most early forms of colorectal cancer do not cause symptoms, which makes screening especially important. When symptoms do occur, the cancer might already be quite advanced. Symptoms include blood on or mixed in with the stool, a change in normal bowel habits, narrowing of the stool, abdominal pain, weight loss, or constant tiredness.

    Most cases of colorectal cancer are detected in one of four ways:

    By screening people at average risk for colorectal cancer beginning at age 50
    By screening people at higher risk for colorectal cancer (for example, those with a family history or a personal history of colon polyps or cancer)
    By investigating the bowel in patients with symptoms
    A chance finding at a routine check-up
    Early detection is the best chance for a cure.

    Colitis

    There are several types of colitis, conditions that cause an inflammation of the bowel. These include:

    Infectious colitis
    Ulcerative colitis (cause not known)
    Crohn's disease (cause not known)
    Ischemic colitis (caused by not enough blood going to the colon)
    Radiation colitis (after radiotherapy)
    Colitis causes diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps, and urgency (frequent and immediate need to empty the bowels). Treatment depends on the diagnosis, which is made by colonoscopy and biopsy.

    Summary

    Many diseases of the colon and rectum can be prevented or minimized by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, practicing good bowel habits, and submitting to cancer screening.

    If you have a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, you should have a colonoscopy beginning at age 40, or 10 years younger than your youngest family member with cancer. (For example, if your brother was diagnosed with colorectal cancer or polyps at age 45, you should begin screening at age 35).

    If you have no family history of colorectal cancer and no personal history of other cancers, you should have a colonoscopy at age 50.

    If you have symptoms of colorectal cancer you should consult your doctor right away. Common symptoms include:

    A change in normal bowel habits
    Blood on or in the stool that is either bright or dark
    Unusual abdominal or gas pains
    Very narrow stool
    A feeling that the bowel has not emptied completely after passing stool
    Unexplained weight loss
    Fatigue

    What should a medical doctor know about a medical condition?
    1. What is it?

    2. What causes it?

    3. What are the risk factors?

    4. What's normal?

    5. How is it diagnosed?

    6. What are the types of this medical condition?

    7. What are the symptoms?

    8. What are the signs?

    9. What are the clinical findings?

    10. What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    11. What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    12. What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    13. What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

    14. What are the lab or investigation findings?

    15. What are the workable treatment options?

    16. What is the best setting or location to treat this medical condition?

    17. What do you think can help?

    18. When is counseling required?

    19. When is medication required?

    20. How long should medication last?

    21. What type of medication is available?

    22. When is surgical intervention indicated?

    23. How could this be prevented?
    Doctor of Medicine
    Doctor(Physician)License
    Doctor Consultation

    Drugs
    What is a drug?
    What is Medication?
    How are drugs named?

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/drugsworld.html

    Dental Services
    Dental Services

    Emergency
    Emergency Medications
    Eye Care
    Elderly Health Issues
    Food
    Glossary of Medical Terms
    Guidance for
      Teaching Hospital
        Kashmir (J&K)
      General hospital
      District/County Hospital
      Maternity Hospital
      Children's Hospital
      All-in-One
      Sub District Hospitals
      Primary Health Centers (Centres)
      Subsidery Health Centers (Centres)
      Medical Aid Centers (Centres)
      Sub Centers (Centres)
      Clinics
      Telemedicine
    Western Center = Eastern Centre
    Health Care Provider Taxonomy
    Physician

    Primary care physician consultation


    New patient relevant to primary health care (nonemergency).
    Questions for new patient relevant to primary health care.

    What essential facts are necessary for you to know before you go ahead?
    A primary care provider (PCP) is your main health care provider physician in nonemergency situations.

    What type of physician consultation is this?
    Primary health care physician consultation.

    What should be your answer if the question is not relevant to the patient?
    This question is not relevant to this patient.

    What questions should primary care physicians ask relevant to new patients?

    Questions you need to ask and get answered.

    What best describes the patient?
    Adolescent boy
    Adolescent girl
    Child
    Man
    Woman
    Medicolegal case

    Do I have a medical record of the patient?

    _________________________________________
    If I do not have a medical record of the patient, I need to create your medical record.

    What is the first and last name of the patient?

    _________________________________________

    What is the date of birth of the patient?

    _________________________________________

    What is the gender of the patient?

    _________________________________________

    What is your primary language?

    _________________________________________

    Where is the patient now?

    _________________________________________

    Where is the state-issued identity card with photograph of the patient?

    _________________________________________

    What is the mailing residential address of the patient?

    _________________________________________

    Who else stays with the patient at this residential address?

    _________________________________________

    How long had the patient stayed at this location?

    _________________________________________

    What was the residential mailing address of the patient from birth up to now?

    _________________________________________

    What is the contact information about the patient, including email, telephone, and fax?

    _________________________________________

    What is your relationship status?

    _________________________________________

    What type of insurance do you have?

    _________________________________________

    Who can get your medical information?

    _________________________________________

    What situations about your health care information will be revealed and to whom?

    _________________________________________

    Do you have a primary care physician?

    _________________________________________

    Who is your primary care physician?

    _________________________________________

    What issues are you having relevant to a primary care physician?

    _________________________________________
    You can even mention there are no competent primary care physicians in this area. There are no competent stress counselors in this area.

    What is your mother’s maiden name?

    _________________________________________

    Where is she now?

    _________________________________________

    What has the needs assessment revealed about resident/patient getting survival needs (food, clothing, housing, healthcare, transportation, security, education, communications, consumer goods) in the state, for example state department of food and supplies, state department of human services, etc.?

    _________________________________________

    Who should be contacted in case of emergency relevant to patient with residential mailing address, email, telephone, fax, relationship?

    _________________________________________

    What are the reasons for the consultation?

    _________________________________________

    Problem/complaint

    Do you have any problem today?

    _________________________________________

    What seems to be the problem?

    _________________________________________

    How long has this been a problem?

    _________________________________________

    How severe is the problem?

    _________________________________________
    (Circle appropriate response)
    Mild, moderate, severe, incapacitating; if other, specify.

    How frequent is the problem?

    _________________________________________

    Constant, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, many years; if other, specify.

    What are the aggravating and relieving factors?

    _________________________________________

    Do you think you need any medical specialty consultation?

    _________________________________________

    What medical specialty consultation do you think you need?

    _________________________________________

    Why do you think you need this medical specialty consultation?

    _________________________________________

    Did you have any medical condition listed below in the past?

    _________________________________________

    Accident
    Allergies
    Anemia
    Anxiety
    Arthritis
    Asthma
    Atrial Fibrillation
    Bipolar Disorder
    Blood
    Breast Disease
    Cancer
    Cataracts/Glaucoma
    Clots
    Colon
    Contact lenses/glasses
    Contact/Glasses
    COPD/Emphysema
    Crohn’s
    Depression
    Diabetes
    Eczema
    Fibromyalgia
    Glaucoma
    Gout
    Hearing Aids
    Heart attack
    Heart Attack
    Heart disease
    High Blood Pressure
    High Cholesterol
    Infertility
    Irritable Bowel Synd.
    Kidney Disease
    Kidney Stones
    Liver Disease
    Migraines
    Osteoporosis
    Other:
    Pacemaker
    Pap (Abnormal)
    Polyps
    Prostate Problems
    Reflux
    Rheumatic Fever
    Seizure Severe
    Sexually Transmitted Inf.
    Stress
    Stroke
    Thyroid
    Ulcerative Colitis
    Ulcers
    What should be your answer if the question is not relevant to the patient?
    This question is not relevant to this patient.

    Who is living at home with you?

    _________________________________________

    Do you give or receive ongoing care at home?

    _________________________________________

    Who are the immediate family members of the patient?

    _________________________________________

    These are basic questions; there are many more.


    Healthcare Facilities

    Infrastructure of Human Healthcare Inside and Outside the State
    How has the internet, for example www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html, changed requirements for healthcare facilities?
    Historically, land (at least a hectare) and buildings were required for a medical college.
    Nowadays, for example
    www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html, more can be accomplished in less area.

    Here are guidelines www.qureshiuniverstiy.org/health.html for specific physicians, staff, and human health professionals.

    On August 11, 2017, the University of Illinois College of Medicine in Chicago, IL 60612-7302 was proud to have 4 campuses in Illinois. However, at this time, they did not have any guidelines for specific physicians available through the Internet (for example www.qureshiuniverstiy.org/health.html).

    On August 11, 2017, there were 141 medical colleges in North American states that did not have guidelines for specific physicians available through the Internet (for example, www.qureshiuniverstiy.org/health.html).

    Questions you need to answer.

    Do you claim to be a medical college?
    Who is in charge of medical education at your facility?
    Where have you displayed on the Internet the guidelines in a question-and-answer for specific physicians the way they are displayed at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html (resources authored by Doctor Asif Qureshi)?


    What types of physicians are required at this point within and outside the state?
    1. Physician Internet Human health services. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    2. Physician guide for at least 18 types of physicians. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    3. Physician primary care
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

    4. Physician intensive care unit
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

    5. Physician medical emergency room
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

    6. Physician medical emergency responder
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

    7. Physician surgeon medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    8. Physician surgeon elective surgery
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    9. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

    10. Physician guide to physician or physicians
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

    11. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

    12. Physician forensic psychiatry
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

    13. Physician Forensic Pathology
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

    14. Physical Therapist
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    15. Physician director of public health of the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

    16. Physician director of health of the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorhealth.html

    17. Physician medical superintendent of a hospital in the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianmedicalsuperintendent.html

    18. Physician of public health in the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianpublichealthworld.html

    What are examples of human healthcare facilities inside and outside the state?
    1. Tertiary care hospital

    2. District hospital

    3. Primary health center

    4. Primary health subcenter

    5. Nursing home

    6. Doctor’s office

    7. Pharmacies and drug stores

    8. Medical laboratory

    9. Research resources

    10. Diagnostic labs with specifications

    11. Sub district hospital/CHC

    12. Allopathic dispensary

    13. Healthcare facility specified

    Do not confuse urgent care centers and ambulatory surgery centers; these are part of a hospital.

    One resource had elaborated 15 types of healthcare facilities.
    The above 13 types of healthcare facilities can be further elaborated.

    How has the Internet (for example, www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html), changed the existing healthcare facilities mentioned?
    On any corner of this planet, within these healthcare facilities or outside these healthcare facilities, specific physicians or even a patient’s well-wishers can get updates on specific human healthcare issues at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html.

    What is a healthcare facility?
    A healthcare facility is any location where healthcare is provided.
    Healthcare facilities range from doctor’s offices to large hospitals with elaborate emergency rooms.
    A hospital in a state cannot be the property of a trust or an individual or individuals.

    What should happen if there is a request to establish a new healthcare facility inside or outside the state?
    First, enhance the existing healthcare facilities nearest to the location.
    Ask them to connect to these resources www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    Get answers to the relevant questions.
    Where exactly is a new healthcare facility required in the state?
    What type of new healthcare facility is required in the state?
    Where is the nearest healthcare facility to the location where a new healthcare facility is required?
    What is the written response of the director of the state department of health to these issues?


    Why was there a need to elaborate on these issues?
    Whimsical directives are circulated to construct new healthcare facilities inside and outside the state without a feasibility study and without answering relevant questions ahead of time.

    Who is responsible for enhancing healthcare facilities inside and outside the state?
    Director of health physician of the state.
    For example, the director of health physician of various states can remind others about these resources at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html. The director of health physician of the state must record and preserve these resources for future reference.

    Human healthcare settings
    What is the most essential human health care setting?
    Internet human health care setting.
    An Internet human health care setting guides all other human health care settings.

    What are examples of various human health care settings?
    1. Ambulatory human health care

    2. Community health center

    3. Critical care

    4. Coroner investigations

    5. Emergency room health care

    6. Emergency call center

    7. Education of new medical students

    8. Education of existing medical doctors

    9. Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability

    10. Hospital ward

    11. Home health care

    12. Internet human health care services

    13. Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms

    14. Medicolegal cases

    15. Medical Emergency

    16. On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment

    17. Operating rooms

    18. Public health

    19. Primary care physician consultation

    20. Patient education

    21. Rehabilitation Services

    22. Research

    23. State health care administrative issues

    24. Space Medicine

    Human Health Care Settings
    Here are further guidelines.
    What best describes you?

    Pulmonologist
    What is a pulmonologist/pulmonary specialist?
    A pulmonologist, or pulmonary disease specialist, is a physician who possesses specialized knowledge and skill in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary (lung) conditions and diseases. Pulmonology is classified as an internal medicine subspecialty.

    What are other names for pulmonologist?
    Respiratory physician.
    Pneumonologist.
    Respirologist.

    What is pulmonology?
    Pulmonology is a medical specialty that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine.

    What are other names for pulmonology?
    Chest medicine
    Respiratory medicine

    What human anatomy should a physician know relevant to the human respiratory system?
    Here is a diagrammatic presentation.


    What are the most common complaints patient have with underlying pulmonary conditions?
    Dyspnoea (breathlessness)
    Dyspnoea (breathlessness) in certain situations can be of cardia origin.

    What are the most common conditions of patients who are admitted to hospital having respiratory conditions?
    Bronchial asthma
    Chronic obstructive lung disease

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/pulmonarymedicineworld.html

    Medical Research

    What should you know before you go ahead with any medical research?
    You cannot harm others.

    Career in Medical Research

    What are examples of careers in Medical Research?
    Physician-scientist (research physician).
    PhD in Biomedical Sciences

    How should a Physician-scientist (research physician) or PhD in Biomedical Sciences go ahead with medical Research?
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalresearch.html

    > Neurologist
    Neurologist

    Nursing home care
    Whose duty is it to supervise nursing home care in the state?
    State department of public health.
    State departments of health.

    What is nursing home care in the state?
    Why do people need nursing home care in the state?
    What controversies are associated with nursing home care in the state?
    How can nursing home care admissions be prevented?
    What questions should be answered before recommendations to admit an individual to a nursing home in a state?
    Here are further guidelines.

    Physician caregiver for a physician

    Does a physician need a physician to maintain good health?
    Yes.

    Why is it difficult to find a physician caregiver for a physician in the state or outside the state?
    An existing physician will evaluate the competence of another physician who is likely going to care for him or her.
    Experience has revealed that existing physicians are not able to answer relevant questions and thus are declared unfit to be physicians even if they have been fraudulently licensed physicians.

    Should there be a separate program for physician caregivers for a physician in the state and outside the state?
    Yes.

    Why there should be physician caregiver for a physician in the state and outside the state?
    Experience has shown that a physician does not know that a resident is a physician. The resident who is also a physician asks relevant questions; the physicians having duty are not able to answer relevant questions, thus exposing that incompetent physicians have been placed at various locations.

    What are the best solutions to resolve these issues?
    Nominate a few medical students, existing physicians, who can get educated by physicians, for example Doctor Asif Qureshi, a forensic specialist who can evaluate fitness for duty and at the same time guide as a mentor new medical students and existing physicians.

    Also, nominate social work students and existing social workers for further education.

    Questions for a physician who would like to care for a physician.

    Can you forward your profile?
    Are you a physician?
    What type of physician are you?
    Do you think you can answer my questions relevant to you being a physician?


    These are basic essential questions.
    There are many more.

    Random health screening/assessment

    Is there a difference between random health screening and yearly health screening?
    Yes.

    What is the difference between a random health screening and yearly health screening?

    For random health screening, a day, date, location, time, and duration are fixed to do health screening. Individuals who attend this type of health screening may not be regular patients of the health care resource doing the health screening.

    Random health screening is usually not recommended.

    Health screening or yearly health screening usually mean the same thing.

    What are the disadvantages of random health screening?
    Medical records of the individual cannot be created during random health screening.

    All relevant medical conditions cannot be screened.

    Instead of screening and referring individuals, it is better to get yearly health screenings done.

    When is a random health screening required?
    If there is a complaint or complaints and the community does not have competent doctor or doctors, random health screening is required relevant to the complaint.

    Usually, a junior doctor or doctors are assigned duty in such locations. A senior doctor guides from a distance.

    What is included in a random health screening?
    Questions relevant to human health care services.

    What questions should you ask in a random health assessment or screening?

    Do you have a doctor who does yearly health assessment/screening?

    Do you feel your health care resource is competent?

    Is your doctor or health care resource able to answer relevant questions?


    If there is no doctor in the community who is able to do a yearly health assessment with follow-up, make recommendations to the state department of health or state department of public health to arrange for a competent doctor in the community in a specific area.

    Here is an example.

    What is the location that needs competent doctors?
    The location of 5042 N. Winthrop Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60640, does not have a competent doctor or doctors.

    There are many quacks who display medical doctor advertisement boards on roads in the area, and they are not able to answer relevant questions.

    If random health screening is done and a referral is required, those involved have to go through yearly health assessment again.

    Quacks in the disguise of doctors are in this area.

    Yearly health screening or assessment by a competent doctor is the best method of screening or assessment.

    Here are further guidelines.

    What is Health Screening?
    Health screening or yearly health screening usually mean the same thing.

    Why are Check-Ups Important?

    Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, when your chances for treatment and cure are better. By getting the right health services, screenings, and treatments, you are taking steps that help your chances for living a longer, healthier life. Your age, health and family history, lifestyle choices (i.e. what you eat, how active you are, whether you smoke), and other important factors impact what and how often you need healthcare.

    Tests

    Blood Pressure
    Cholesterol
    Triglyceride
    Body mass index
    Electrocardiogram
    Full blood count
    Liver function tests
    Glucose test
    Urea and electrolytes
    Urinalysis
    Bone Density
    Prostate specific antigen
    Thyroid function tests
    Pulmonary function tests

    Lifestyle

    Smoking
    Exercise
    Alcohol
    Diet/Nutrition

    What Health Services are Recommended?

    Yearly health screening or assessment by a competent doctor is the best method of screening or assessment.
    Here are further guidelines.

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/annualhealthassessmentworld.html

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/Randomhealthscreening.html

    Requirements for becoming a physician
    Does doing a medical residency by a medical doctor in any American hospital guarantee that he/she is able to reach a correct diagnosis and treatment?
    No, it does not.

    Social work
    Resident services in the state.

    Resident Services case manager in the state.

    What is the most important duty of the resident services case manager in the state?
    You have to resolve problems and complaints of residents before this becomes a medical or medicolegal emergency.

    Resident services case managers in the state should be supervised by an experienced physician in the state.

    Social work means problems solving.
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/socialworkworld.html

    Laws Relevant to Human Healthcare Inside and Outside the State

    How many human healthcare laws are there inside and outside the state?
    What should the governor of a state, specific physicians, and others know about human healthcare laws inside and outside the state?
    Conflict of laws: Why must state and international laws prevail?
    Exempt job postings of executive and non-exempt positions: What is the difference?
    Forensic psychiatrist: What does a forensic psychiatrist do?
    Human healthcare government departments in every state: Who is responsible for supervising this department?
    Licensing and certification of specific physicians: What do you do if the state’s professional regulator is incompetent?
    Medical practice acts inside and outside the state: What are the directives from Doctor Asif Qureshi since October 17, 2017?
    Negligence from healthcare providers: What does this mean?
    Patients’ rights: What should a specific physician know?
    What types of specific physician licenses should be approved starting October 21, 2017, inside and outside the state?
    Here are further guidelines.

    State Department of Health
    What are examples of state departments of health around the world?
    State department of health around the world means the Illinois department of health, California department of health, New York department of health, Yukon department of health, and similar states in North America.

    Also, the Kashmir department of health, Karnataka department of health, Jiangsu department of health, German department of health in Asia, and similar states in Latin America, Africa, and Australia.

    Do not identify with any entity that has harmed others.

    Make sure the state department of health director is an experienced physician with a track record of public service.

    What resources that claim to be human health care entities have harmed others?
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareharms.html

    What should the state department of health be able to answer?
    Here are further guidelines.
    Vaccines, Blood & Biologics

    Surgeon
    What should a surgeon know?
    You are first a physician, then a surgeon.
    Always verify correct diagnosis and treatment.
    Becoming a competent physician is difficult.
    Learning specific surgical abilities takes few weeks or months.
    A high school student can learn surgical skills.
    You should be a competent physician before trying to learn surgical skills.
    It is difficult to become competent physician.
    If you are not a competent physician and try to practice with job description of Surgeon, complications and harms can occur.
    You can lose your job.
    You can face criminal charges.
    1. Cardiothoracic surgery

    2. Eye Surgery

    3. General surgery

    4. Neurosurgery

    5. OB/GYN Surgery

    6. Oral and maxillofacial surgery

    7. Orthopaedic surgery

    8. Otolayrngology

    9. Paediatric surgery

    10. Plastic Surgery

    11. Urology

    Here are further guidelines.
    Surgical Skills
    Surgical Procedures

    Stress Counselor
    What is the role of a stress counselor in decreasing stress of an individual?
    This is in the context of the stress of an individual and the role of a stress counselor.
    A stress counselor identifies the causes of stress.
    A stress counselor comes up with various options or suggestions to decrease the stress.
    A stress counselor comes up with various options and suggestions to decrease the stress relevant to the causes of stress.
    A stress counselor has to do considerable research to come up with various options and suggestions to decrease the stress.
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/stresscounselor.html

    Stress and Public Health
    Here are further guidelines.

    Survival Needs

    Survival Needs

    A–Z alphabetical listing of human health symptoms and signs.


    Symptoms & Signs A-Z List
    Signs and Symptoms of Emergency and Urgent Medical Conditions
    List of medical emergencies
    There are more than 7,000 human medical conditions.
    What should you be able to elaborate on a symptom or sign?

    What is it?
    What are the consequences of this symptom or sign?
    What are the salient features of this symptom or sign?
      When did the problem start?
      Where did the problem start?
      How did the problem start?
      What relieves or aggravates the problem?
      How long does this problem last?
      Does this problem occur in any specific situation?
      What are the further details of the situation?
      Is there any other problem associated with this problem?
      What are the further details of the associated problem?
      What medication have you taken for this problem?
      Have you seen any medical doctor for this problem?
      How many medical doctors have you seen for this problem?
      What did the medical doctor diagnose and recommend for this problem?

      What is the diagnosis?
      Is it a medical emergency or non-emergency?
      Is it a medical emergency or medicolegal emergency?
      Is it a medical disability?
      Is it a medical condition without a medical emergency or disability?
      Is there a difference between a medical emergency and disability?
      Yes.

      What is the difference between a medical emergency and disability?
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

      What should a doctor write or announce in his or her documentation of the patient?

      If there is an emergency diagnosis, what is the emergency diagnosis?

      In what setting does this patient need treatment?
      This patient needs on the spot treatment.
      This patient needs treatment in the emergency room.
      This patient needs treatment in a hospital ward.
      This patient needs treatment in the intensive care unit.
      This patient needs treatment in the operation theater.

      If it is not a medical emergency, here are the guidelines.

      It is not a medical emergency.
      It is not a medical emergency because all functions and vitals are normal.
      This patient needs home health care.
      Is it an administrative emergency?
    What other terms are related to this symptom or sign?
    What causes it?
    On-the-spot emergency medical diagnosis and treatment.
    Unconsciousness at a public location.
    Sudden unconsciousness at home.
    Trauma
    Seizures
    Burns
    Drowning
    Here are further guidelines.
    Human symptoms and signs

    How many human symptoms and signs are there?
    700

    What are various examples?

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/symptoms.html
    Listed in alphabetical order
    A
    Abdominal Cramps (Stomach Cramps)
    Abdominal Pain
    Abnormal Menstruation (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Abnormal Taste (Loss of Appetite)
    Abnormal gait (walking)
    Abnormal muscle enlargement (hypertrophy)
    Abnormally round face
    Agitation
    Anxiety
    Apathy
    Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Abnormal Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Abnormally Rapid Breathing (Hyperventilation)
    Absent Periods (Missed Menstrual Period)
    Ache, Back (Back Pain)
    Ache, Ear (Earache)
    Ache, Tooth (Toothache)
    Acid Indigestion (Heartburn)
    Acid Reflux (Heartburn)
    Acute Cough (Cough)
    Ageusia (Loss of Taste Sensation)
    Agitation (Anxiety)
    Alopecia (Hair Loss)
    Altered Mental Status
    Amenorrhea (Missed Menstrual Period)
    Amnesia (Memory Loss)
    Anal Itching
    Anemia
    Anesthesia of the Tongue (Numbness or Tingling Sensation in the Tongue)
    Angioedema (Swollen Tongue)
    Ankle Pain
    Ankle Sprain (Ankle Pain)
    Ankle Swelling (Swollen Ankles and/or Swollen Feet)
    Anorexia (Loss of Appetite)
    Anxiety
    Aphasia (Difficulty With Speech)
    Aphthae (Mouth Sores)
    Appetite, Decreased (Decreased Appetite)
    Appetite, Loss of (Loss of Appetite)
    Apprehension (Anxiety)
    Apraxia (Difficulty With Speech)
    Arm Pain
    Arm Weakness (Weakness)
    Arthralgia (Joint Pain)
    Arthralgia, Elbow (Elbow Pain)
    Arthralgia, Knee (Knee Pain)
    B
    Back Pain
    Backache (Back Pain)
    Bad Breath
    Balance (Dizziness)
    Balance (Vertigo)
    Baldness (Hair Loss)
    Beat (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Belching (Gas)
    Bitter Taste (Loss of Taste Sensation)
    Black Hairy Tongue (Hairy Tongue)
    Black (tar) colored stools
    Black colored skin
    Blackouts (memory time loss)
    Black Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Black Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Blackout (Fainting)
    Blank stare
    Bleeding
    Bleeding from nipple
    Bleeding gums
    Bleeding in eye
    Blind spot in vision
    Blindness
    Blinking eyes
    Bloating or fullness
    Blood in toilet
    Blood on stool surface
    Blood on toilet tissue
    Blood or red colored urine
    Bloody or red colored stools
    Bloody or red colored vomit
    Blue colored skin
    Blue coloured lips
    Blurred vision
    Body aches or pains
    Brittle hair
    Broken bone (single fracture)
    Broken bones (multiple fractures)
    Bruising or discoloration
    Bulging eyesBulging neck veins
    Bulging veins
    Bladder Incontinence (Incontinence, Urine)
    Bleeding Gums
    Blepharoptosis (Ptosis)
    Blepharospasm (Eye Twitch)
    Blindness (Vision Loss)
    Bloating (Gas)
    Blood in Ejaculate (Blood in Semen)
    Blood in Semen
    Blood In Spit (Bloody Sputum)
    Blood In Stool (Rectal Bleeding)
    Blood in the Urine (Dark Urine)
    Blood In Urine
    Blood In Vomit (Vomiting Blood)
    Blood, Vagina (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Bloodshot Eye (Pink Eye)
    Bloody Mucus (Bloody Sputum)
    Bloody Nose
    Bloody Sputum
    Bloody Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Blue, Cyanosis (Cyanosis/Turning Blue)
    Blurred Thinking (Confusion)
    Blurred Vision
    Bottom Itch (Anal Itching)
    Bottom Pain (Buttock Pain)
    Breast Discharge
    Breast Lumps
    Breast Mass (Breast Lumps)
    Breast Pain
    Breast Tenderness (Breast Pain)
    Breathing (Shortness of Breath)
    Breathlessness (Hyperventilation)
    Brittle Fingernails (Brittle Nails)
    Brittle Nails
    Broken Nails (Brittle Nails)
    Bronchospasm (Wheezing)
    Brown Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Bruising, Easy (Easy Bruising)
    B
    Bumps on Skin
    Burning In Throat (Sore Throat)
    Burning Urination
    Butt Pain (Buttock Pain)
    Buttock Pain
    C
    Cachexia (Weight Loss)
    Calf Pain (Leg Pain)
    Can't Sleep (Insomnia)
    Canker Sores (Mouth Sores)
    Cardiomegaly (Enlarged Heart)
    Cardiomyopathy (Enlarged Heart)
    Causes of Buttock Pain (Buttock Pain)
    Causes of Snoring (Snoring)
    Cephalgia (Headache)
    Cervical Pain (Neck Pain)
    Changes in Mental Status (Altered Mental Status)
    Change in vision
    Chills
    Choking
    Choking on food
    Clicking or popping sound from jaw
    Cloudy urine with strong odor
    Cloudy vision
    Coarse hair
    Coated or furry tongue
    Coffee grounds colored vomit
    Cold feet
    Cold hands
    Color change
    Coma
    Compulsive behavior
    Confusion
    Constipation
    Cough
    Cracks at corner of mouth
    Craving alcohol
    Craving to eat ice, dirt or paper
    Crying during sleep
    Curved fingernails
    Curved or bent penis during erection
    Curved spine
    Chest Pain
    Chest Pain with Breathing (Pleurisy)
    Chills
    Chipping Nails (Brittle Nails)
    Chronic Cough (Cough)
    Chronic Pain
    Clear Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Cloudy Thoughts (Confusion)
    Cloudy Urine
    Coccydynia
    Cold Feet
    Cold Fingers
    Cold Hands
    Cold Toes (Cold Feet)
    Concentration Problems (Difficulty Concentrating)
    Confused (Confusion)
    Confusion
    Congested Nose (Nasal Congestion)
    Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
    Constipation
    Contusion (Easy Bruising)
    Convulsions (Seizures)
    Cotton Mouth (Dry Mouth)
    Cough
    Coughing Up Blood (Bloody Sputum)
    Cramps, Menstrual (Menstrual Cramps)
    Cramps, Muscle (Muscle Cramps)
    Cyanosis/Turning Blue
    D
    Dandruff (Flaky Scalp)
    Dark Circles Under the Eyes
    Dark Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Dark Urine
    Deafness (Hearing Loss)
    Decreased Appetite
    Decreased Libido (Low Libido)
    Dental Pain (Toothache)
    Depigmentation of Skin
    Depression
    Diarrhea
    Difficulty Breathing (Shortness of Breath)
    Difficulty breathing through nose
    Difficulty concentrating
    Difficulty falling asleep
    Difficulty finding words
    Difficulty learning new things
    Difficulty moving arm
    Difficulty opening mouth
    Difficulty relaxing muscles after contracting them
    Difficulty sleeping
    Difficulty solving problems
    Difficulty standing
    Difficulty starting urine stream
    Difficulty staying asleep
    Difficulty staying awake during day
    Difficulty stopping urine stream
    Difficulty swallowing
    Difficulty talking
    Difficulty urinating
    Discharge from nipple
    Discharge from penis
    Discharge or mucus in eyes
    Dislikes change in daily routine
    Disorientation
    Distended stomach
    Distorted body image
    Distortion of part of visual field
    Dizziness
    Double vision (with one eye covered)
    Double vision (without one eye covered)
    Drainage or pus
    Drinking excessive fluids
    Drooling
    Drooping eyelid
    Drooping of one side of face
    Drowsiness
    Dry eyes
    Dry mouth
    Dry skin
    Difficulty Concentrating
    Difficulty Sleeping (Insomnia)
    Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia)
    Difficulty Swallowing (Sore Throat)
    Difficulty With Speech
    Diplopia (Double Vision)
    Discharge From the Eyes (Eye Discharge)
    Discharge, Breast (Breast Discharge)
    Discolored Tongue (White Tongue)
    Discolored Urine (Dark Urine)
    Discolored Urine (Cloudy Urine)
    Disorientation (Confusion)
    Disoriented (Confusion)
    Dizziness
    Dizziness (Hyperventilation)
    Dizzy (Dizziness)
    Dizzy (Vertigo)
    Double Vision
    Drainage of Pus
    Drooling
    Drooping Eyelids (Ptosis)
    Drowsiness (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Dry Eye
    Dry Flaky Scalp (Flaky Scalp)
    Dry Heaves (Nausea)
    Dry Mouth
    Dry Nails (Brittle Nails)
    Dry Skin
    Dry Vagina (Vaginal Dryness)
    Dysarthria (Difficulty With Speech)
    Dysgeusia (Loss of Taste Sensation)
    Dysmenorrhea (Menstrual Cramps)
    Dyspareunia (Vaginal Pain)
    Dyspepsia
    Dysphagia
    Dyspnea (Shortness of Breath)
    Dyspraxia (Difficulty With Speech)
    Dysuria (Burning Urination)
    E
    Ear Ache (Earache)
    Early breast development
    Early morning waking
    Easily distracted
    Easy bleeding
    Easy bruising
    Emotional detachment
    Enlarged (dilated) pupils
    Enlarged (dilated) veins
    Enlarged finger tips
    Enlarged or swollen glands
    Episodes of not breathing during sleep
    Erectile dysfunction
    Excessive body hair growth
    Excessive crying
    Excessive exercising
    Excessive facial hair growth (female)
    Excessive facial hair growth (male)
    Excessive mouth watering
    Excessive sweating
    Excessively salty sweat or skin
    Eye crusting with sleep
    Eye irritation
    Eyelashes falling out
    Eyelid redness
    Eyes do not track together
    Eyes rolling back
    Ear Ringing (Ringing in Ears)
    Earache
    Easy Bruising
    Ecchymosis (Easy Bruising)
    Edema (Leg Swelling)
    Ejaculate Blood (Blood in Semen)
    Elbow Pain
    Emesis (Vomiting)
    Enlarged Heart
    Epilepsy (Seizures)
    Epistaxis (Bloody Nose)
    Equilibrium (Dizziness)
    Equilibrium (Vertigo)
    Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence)
    Euphoria
    Excessive Hunger (Increased Appetite)
    Excessive Perspiration (Excessive Sweating)
    Excessive Salivation (Drooling)
    Excessive Sweating
    Exhaustion (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Eye Discharge
    Eye Edema (Swollen Eyes)
    Eye Pain
    Eye Puffiness (Swollen Eyes)
    Eye Redness (Pink Eye)
    Eye Swelling (Swollen Eyes)
    Eye Twitch
    Eye, Dry (Dry Eye)
    Eye, Watery (Watery Eye)
    Eyelid Swelling (Swollen Eyes)
    Eyelid Twitch (Eye Twitch)
    F
    Fainting
    Fatigue
    Fear of air
    Fear of gaining weight
    Fear of water
    Fearful
    Feeling faint
    Feeling of being detached from reality
    Feeling of not being able to get enough air
    Feeling smothered
    Fever
    Fits of rage
    Flaking skin
    Flashbacks
    Flickering lights in vision
    Flickering uncorlored zig-zag line in vision
    Floating spots or strings in vision
    Flushed skin
    Food cravings
    Food getting stuck (swallowing)
    Forgetfulness
    Foul smelling stools
    Frequent bowel movements
    Frequent changes in eye glass prescription
    Frequent chewing
    Frequent infections
    Frequent laxative use
    Frequent nighttime urination
    Frequent squinting
    Frequent urge to have bowel movement
    Frequent urge to urinate
    Frequent urination
    Frightening dreams
    Frightening thoughts
    Fruity odor on breath
    Farting (Gas)
    Fat, Body (Weight Gain)
    Fatigue and Tiredness
    Fear Syndrome (Anxiety)
    Feces (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Feces Color Changes (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Feeling Tired (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Feeling Uptight (Anxiety)
    Feet, Cold (Cold Feet)
    Fever
    Finger Numbness (Numbness Fingers)
    Finger Tingling (Numbness Fingers)
    Fingers, Cold (Cold Fingers)
    Flaky Scalp
    Flatulence (Gas)
    Fluid Retention (Weight Gain)
    Foamy Urine (Cloudy Urine)
    Food Aversion (Loss of Appetite)
    Foot Pain
    Foot Swelling (Swollen Ankles and/or Swollen Feet)
    Forgetfulness (Memory Loss)
    Foul-Smelling Urine (Urine Odor)
    Frequent Bowel Movements (Diarrhea)
    Frequent Urination
    Fungal Nail Infection (Nail Discoloration)
    Fungal Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Fuzzy Thinking (Confusion)
    G
    Gagging
    Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Giddiness
    Grinding teeth
    Gritty or scratchy eyes
    Grooved tongue
    Guarding or favoring joint
    Gum sores
    Gain, Weight (Weight Gain)
    Gas
    Genital Itching (Female) (Vaginal Itching)
    Gingivitis (Bleeding Gums)
    Gingivitis (Painful Gums)
    Gland Swelling (Swollen Lymph Nodes)
    Glossitis (Swollen Tongue)
    Glossitis (White Tongue)
    Glossitis (Sore Tongue)
    Glossodynia (Sore Tongue)
    Golfer's Elbow (Elbow Pain)
    Gray Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Green Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Green Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Green Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Guilt (Depression)
    Gum Tumor (Lump or Mass on Gums)
    Gums, Painful (Painful Gums)
    H
    Hair loss
    Hallucinations
    Headache
    Headache (worst ever)
    Hearing loss
    Hearing voices
    Heartburn
    Heavy menstrual bleeding
    High blood pressure
    Hives
    Hoarse voice
    Holding bowel movements
    Holding objects closer to read
    Holding objects further away to read
    Hot flashesHot, dry skin
    Hunched or stooped posture
    Hunger
    Hyperactive behavior
    Hyperventilating (rapid/deep breathing)
    Hairy Tongue
    Halitosis (Bad Breath)
    Hands, Cold (Cold Hands)
    Headache
    Hearing Loss
    Heart Palpitations (Palpitations)
    Heartbeat Sensations (Palpitations)
    Heartburn
    Heavy, Prolonged, Irregular Periods (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Heel Pain
    Hematemesis (Vomiting Blood)
    Hematochezia (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Hematochezia (Rectal Bleeding)
    Hematospermia (Blood in Semen)
    Hematuria (Blood In Urine)
    Hematuria (Dark Urine)
    Hemoptysis (Bloody Sputum)
    Hiccups
    Hip Pain
    Hoarseness
    Hopelessness (Depression)
    Hot Flashes
    Hyperactivity
    Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)
    Hyperventilation
    Hypogeusia (Loss of Taste Sensation)
    I
    Icterus (Jaundice)
    Impaired Vision (Vision Loss)
    Impaired color vision
    Impaired judgement
    Impaired social skills
    Impulsive behavior
    Inability to care for self
    Inability to move
    Inappropriate behavior
    Increased passing gas
    Increased sensitivity to cold
    Increased sensitivity to heat
    Increased speech volume
    Increased talkativeness
    Increased thirst
    Intentional vomiting (purging)
    Involuntary head turning or twisting
    Involuntary movements (picking, lip smacking etc.)
    Irregular heartbeat
    Irregular menstrual periods
    Itching or burning
    Impotence
    Inability to Think Clearly (Confusion)
    Inability to Urinate (Urinary Retention)
    Inablity to Think Quickly (Confusion)
    Incontinence, Urine
    Increased Appetite
    Increased Respiratory Rate (Hyperventilation)
    Indigestion (Dyspepsia)
    Indigestion, Acid (Heartburn)
    Infertility
    Ingrown Fingernail (Nail Discoloration)
    Ingrown Nail (Nail Discoloration)
    Ingrown Toenail (Nail Discoloration)
    Inhibited Sexual Desire (Low Libido)
    Insomnia
    Intention Tremor (Tremor)
    Irritability (Anxiety)
    Itch
    Itch, Genitals (Female) (Vaginal Itching)
    Itch, Vagina (Vaginal Itching)
    Itching (Itch)
    Itching of the Anus (Anal Itching)
    Itchy (Itch)
    J
    Jaw locking
    Jerking eye movements
    Joint aches
    Joint instability
    Joint locking or catching
    Joint pain
    Jumpiness or easily startled
    Jaundice
    Jaw Pain
    Jogger's Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Joint Aches (Joint Pain)
    Joint Pain
    K
    L
    Labored breathing
    Lack of emotion
    Lack of motivation
    Lack of pleasure
    Lightheadedness
    Loss of balance
    Loss of consciousness
    Loss of coordination
    Loss of height
    Loss of outside 1/3 of eyebrow (unintentional)
    Loss of side vision
    Loss of voiceLow blood pressure
    Low self-esteemLump or bulge
    Lack of Appetite (Decreased Appetite)
    Lack Of Energy (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Lack of Sleep (Insomnia)
    Lacrimation (Watery Eye)
    Laryngeal Voice (Hoarseness)
    Leg (Restless Leg Syndrome)
    Leg Cramps (Muscle Cramps)
    Leg Pain
    Leg Swelling
    Leg Weakness (Weakness)
    Leg, Restless (Restless Leg Syndrome)
    Lethargy (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Leukoplakia (White Tongue)
    Light Headed (Fainting)
    Light Sensitivity (Photophobia)
    Lightening of Skin (Depigmentation of Skin)
    Lightheadedness (Fainting)
    Lingua Villosa (Hairy Tongue)
    Lingua Villosa Nigra (Hairy Tongue)
    Lip Edema (Swollen Lip)
    Lip Swelling (Swollen Lip)
    Long-Term Memory Loss (Memory Loss)
    Loose Bowel Movements (Diarrhea)
    Loose Stool (Diarrhea)
    Loss of Appetite
    Loss Of Balance (Dizziness)
    Loss of Balance (Vertigo)
    Loss Of Bladder Control (Incontinence, Urine)
    Loss Of Control Of Urine (Incontinence, Urine)
    Loss of Hair (Hair Loss)
    Loss of Hearing (Hearing Loss)
    Loss of Memory (Confusion)
    Loss of Memory (Memory Loss)
    Loss of Orientation (Confusion)
    Loss of Peripheral Vision (Tunnel Vision)
    Loss of Sense of Taste (Loss of Taste Sensation)
    Loss of Skin Pigment (Depigmentation of Skin)
    Loss of Sleep (Insomnia)
    Loss of Strength (Weakness)
    Loss of Taste Sensation
    Loss of Temperature Sensation
    Loss of Vision (Vision Loss)
    Loss of Weight (Weight Loss)
    Low Libido
    Low Red Blood Cell Count (Anemia)
    Lower (Low) Back Pain (Back Pain)
    Lower Extremity Pain (Leg Pain)
    Lumbar Pain (Back Pain)
    Lump In Breast (Breast Lumps)
    Lump or Mass on Gums
    L
    Lymphadenopathy (Swollen Lymph Nodes)
    M

    Mammalgia (Breast Pain)
    Mania (Euphoria)
    Maroon Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Mastalgia (Breast Pain)
    Mastodynia (Breast Pain)
    Melena (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Memory Loss
    Memory Loss (Confusion)
    Memory problems
    Metallic taste in mouth
    Missed or late menstrual period
    Mood swings
    Morning alcohol drinking (eye-opener)
    Morning joint stiffness
    Mouth sores
    Muffled voice
    Multiple bruises of different ages
    Muscle cramps or spasms (painful)
    Muscle stiffness (rigidity)
    Muscle twitching (painless)
    Muscle wasting
    Muscle weakness
    Men's Snoring (Snoring)
    Mennorrhagia (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Menorrhea (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Menstrual Cramps
    Menstrual Periods, Abnormal (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Menstruation (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Mental Confusion (Confusion)
    Mental Status Change (Confusion)
    Mental Status Changes (Altered Mental Status)
    Metallic Taste (Loss of Taste Sensation)
    Missed Menstrual Period
    Mouth Dry (Dry Mouth)
    Mouth Odor (Bad Breath)
    Mouth Sores
    Murky Urine (Cloudy Urine)
    Muscle Cramps
    Muscle Pain and Weakness (Weakness)
    Muscle Weakness (Weakness)
    N
    Nasal congestion
    Nasal symptoms and one red eye
    Nausea or vomiting
    Need brighter light to read
    Nervousness
    New onset asthma
    Night sweats
    Nighttime wheezing
    No menstrual periods
    Noisy breathing
    Nosebleed
    Numbness or tingling
    Nail Discoloration
    Nail Fungus (Nail Discoloration)
    Nail Infection (Nail Discoloration)
    Nail Ringworm (Nail Discoloration)
    Nails, Brittle (Brittle Nails)
    Nails, Chipped (Brittle Nails)
    Nasal Congestion
    Nausea
    Neck Pain
    Night Sweats (Excessive Sweating)
    Nipple Discharge (Breast Discharge)
    Nodes Swelling (Swollen Lymph Nodes)
    Noise, Ear (Ringing in Ears)
    Non-acid Dyspepsia (Dyspepsia)
    Non-Cardiac Chest Pain (Heartburn)
    Normal Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Nosebleed (Bloody Nose)
    Not Thinking Clearly (Confusion)
    Numb Tongue (Numbness or Tingling Sensation in the Tongue)
    Numbness (Loss of Temperature Sensation)
    Numbness Fingers
    Numbness or Tingling Sensation in the Tongue
    Numbness Toes
    O
    Overweight
    Obesity (Weight Gain)
    Odor, Vagina (Vaginal Odor)
    Oral Thrush (White Tongue)
    Overactive Bladder (Incontinence, Urine)
    Overbreathing (Hyperventilation)
    Overweight (Weight Gain)
    P
    Pain
    Pale skin
    Palpitations (fluttering in chest)
    Paranoid behavior
    Partial vision loss
    Personality changes
    Poor concentration
    Poor personal hygiene
    Popping or snapping sound from joint
    Post nasal drip
    Pounding heart (pulse)
    Premature ejaculation
    Pressure or fullness
    Pressure or heaviness
    Prolonged bleeding
    Prolonged breathing pauses
    Protruding rectal material
    Protruding vaginal material
    Puffy eyelids
    Pulling out beard
    Pulling out eyebrows
    Pulling out eyelashes
    Pulling out hair
    Pulsating sensation
    Punching or kicking in sleep
    Palpitations
    Palsy (Paralysis)
    Paralysis
    Paranoia
    Paresthesia, Fingers (Numbness Fingers)
    Paresthesia, Toes (Numbness Toes)
    Peeling Skin
    Penile Itching
    Period (Vaginal Bleeding)
    Periodontitis (Painful Gums)
    Peripheral Vision Loss (Tunnel Vision)
    Perspiration (Excessive Sweating)
    Pharyngitis (Sore Throat)
    Phonic Tics (Vocal Outbursts)
    Photophobia
    Pink Eye
    Pleurisy
    Polyphagia (Increased Appetite)
    Poor Appetite (Loss of Appetite)
    Postural Tremor (Tremor)
    Prevent Snoring (Snoring)
    Problems Sleeping (Insomnia)
    Pruritic (Itch)
    Pruritis (Itch)
    Pruritis of the Anus (Anal Itching)
    P
    Ptosis
    Ptyalism (Drooling)
    Puffy Eyes (Swollen Eyes)
    Puking (Vomiting)
    Pus in the Eyes (Eye Discharge)
    Pustule (Drainage of Pus)
    Pyrosis (Heartburn)
    Q
    Quit Snoring (Snoring)
    R
    Rapid Breathing (Hyperventilation)
    Rash
    Rectal Bleeding
    Rectal Itching (Anal Itching)
    Red Blood Cell Count Low (Anemia)
    Red Eye (Pink Eye)
    Red Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Red Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Reduced Sex Drive (Low Libido)
    Reflux, Acid (Heartburn)
    Rest Tremor (Tremor)
    Restless Leg Syndrome
    Ridges on Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Ringing in Ears
    Ringworm of the Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Runny Nose
    Runny Nose (Nasal Congestion)
    Rapid heart rate (pulse)
    Rapid speech
    Recent (short-term) memory loss
    Red (bloodshot) eyes
    Red (strawberry) tongueRed eye (single)
    Red gumsRed or black spots on fingernails
    Red spots
    Red spots inside lower eyelid
    Reduced productivity at work
    Regurgitation of food or liquid
    Repeats phrases
    Repetitive behaviors
    Restless (tossing and turning) sleep
    Restless (urge to move) legs
    Restless or irritability
    Restrictive dietingRinging in ears
    Runny nose
    S
    Sadness
    Scaley skin on eyelids
    See letters, numbers or musical notes as colors
    Seizures (uncontrollable jerking of limbs)
    Sensation of something in eye
    Sense of impending doom
    Sensitive to light
    Sensitive to noise
    Shadow over part of vision
    Shaking
    Shaking chills (rigors)
    Shaking hands or tremor
    Short arms and legs
    Short attention span
    Short stature
    Short, wide neck
    Shortening of limb
    Shortness of breath
    Shuffling gait (feet)
    Single palm crease
    Skin blisters
    Skin bumps
    Skin darkening
    Skin hardening
    Skin irritation
    Skin open sore
    Skin peeling, cracking or scaling
    Skin rash
    Skin redness
    Skin thickening
    Sleep walking
    Slow growth (failure to thrive)
    Slow heart rate (pulse)
    Slow or irregular breathing
    Slow or weak urine stream
    Slow thinking
    Slurred speech
    Small (constricted) pupils
    Smooth tongue
    Sneezing
    Snoring
    Socially withdrawn
    Sore or burning eyes
    Sore throat
    Sore tongue
    Soreness or burning inside of mouth
    Spinning sensation
    Spots on throat
    Spots on tonsils
    Squatting
    Squinting eyes
    Stiff neck
    Stiffness or decreased movement
    Stomach cramps
    Stool leaking (incontinence)
    Straining with bowel movements
    Strange smell or taste
    Sudden flash of lights
    Sudden numbness or weakness on one side of body
    Sudden urge to urinate
    Sunken eyes
    Sunken soft spot on top of head
    Swelling
    Swollen gums
    Swollen lips
    Swollen tongue
    Swollen tonsils
    Sadness (Depression)
    Sagging Eyelids (Ptosis)
    Scalp Flaking (Flaky Scalp)
    Scalp Itching (Flaky Scalp)
    Secondary Amenorrhea (Missed Menstrual Period)
    Seeing Double (Double Vision)
    Seizures
    Semen, Blood (Blood in Semen)
    Sensitivity to Light (Photophobia)
    Shakes (Tremor)
    Shaky Feet (Tremor)
    Shaky Hands (Tremor)
    Shin Pain (Leg Pain)
    Short-Term Memory Loss (Memory Loss)
    Shortness of Breath
    Shortness of Breath (Pleurisy)
    Shoulder Pain
    Sialorrhea (Drooling)
    Sick to Stomach (Nausea)
    Skin Depigmentation (Depigmentation of Skin)
    Skipped Periods (Missed Menstrual Period)
    Sleep Deprivation (Insomnia)
    Sleep Difficulty (Insomnia)
    Sleep Disorder (Insomnia)
    Sleep Disturbances (Snoring)
    Sleep Loss (Insomnia)
    Sleeplessness (Insomnia)
    Sleepy (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Slurred Speech (Difficulty With Speech)
    Smelly Urine (Urine Odor)
    Smelly Vagina (Vaginal Odor)
    Smelly Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Snoring
    Sore Breast (Breast Pain)
    Sore Gums (Painful Gums)
    Sore Throat
    Sore Tongue
    Sores in the Mouth (Mouth Sores)
    Speech Disturbance (Difficulty With Speech)
    Speech Impediment (Difficulty With Speech)
    Spitting Up Blood (Bloody Sputum)
    Sprained Ankle (Ankle Pain)
    STD (Vaginal Discharge)
    Sterility (Infertility)
    Stomach Cramps
    Stomach Upset (Dyspepsia)
    Stool Color & Texture Changes
    Stool, Bloody (Rectal Bleeding)
    Stool, Loose (Diarrhea)
    Stop Snoring (Snoring)
    Stopped-Up Nose (Nasal Congestion)
    Strep Throat (Sore Throat)
    Stress (Anxiety)
    Stuffed up Nose (Runny Nose)
    Stuffy Nose (Runny Nose)
    Stuffy Nose (Nasal Congestion)
    Sudden Memory Loss (Memory Loss)
    Suicidal Thoughts (Suicide)
    Suicide
    Swallowing Problems (Dysphagia)
    Swollen Ankles and/or Swollen Feet
    Swollen Eyes
    Swollen Legs (Leg Swelling)
    Swollen Lip
    Swollen Lymph Nodes
    Swollen Tongue
    Syncope (Fainting)
    T
    Taste of acid in mouth
    Taste words when they are heard
    Tearing in one eye
    Teeth do not fit like they used to
    Tender glands
    Tenderness to touch
    Testicles shrinkage
    Testicular pain
    Thick saliva or mucus
    Thin (pencil) stools
    Throat tightness
    Tightness
    Tilts head to look at something
    Tires quickly
    Trembling
    Trouble distinguishing color shades
    Twisting or rotation of limb
    Tachypnea (Hyperventilation)
    Tailbone Pain (Coccydynia)
    Tarry Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Teary Eye (Watery Eye)
    Temporal Memory Loss (Memory Loss)
    Temporomandibular Joint Pain (Jaw Pain)
    Tennis Elbow (Elbow Pain)
    Thermoanesthesia (Loss of Temperature Sensation)
    Thigh Pain (Leg Pain)
    Thoughts of Suicide (Suicide)
    Throat Pain (Sore Throat)
    Throwing Up (Nausea)
    Throwing Up (Vomiting)
    Tingling Fingers (Numbness Fingers)
    Tingling Toes (Numbness Toes)
    Tinnitus (Ringing in Ears)
    Tiredness (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    TMJ Pain (Jaw Pain)
    Toe Numbness (Numbness Toes)
    Toe Tingling (Numbness Toes)
    Toes, Cold (Cold Feet)
    Tongue Lesions (Sore Tongue)
    Tongue Paresthesias (Numbness or Tingling Sensation in the Tongue)
    Tongue Swelling (Swollen Tongue)
    Tongue Ulcers (Sore Tongue)
    Toothache
    Trembling (Tremor)
    Tremor
    Trouble Swallowing (Dysphagia)
    Tunnel Vision
    Turbid Urine (Cloudy Urine)
    Turning Blue (Cyanosis/Turning Blue)
    Tussis (Cough)
    U
    Unable to bear weight
    Unable to bend foot down
    Unable to blink or close eyelid
    Unable to grip (hands)
    Unable to move arm
    Unable to move joint
    Unable to move leg
    Unable to obtain or maintain erection
    Unable to open mouth (jaw)
    Uncontrollable verbal outbursts
    Unequal pupils (size)Unusual behavior
    Unusual facial expression
    Unusual or suspicious mole
    Unusual taste in mouth
    Unusually short forth fingers
    Upset stomach
    Upward curving (spooning) of nails
    Urine leaking (incontinence)
    Unclear Thinking (Confusion)
    Uncontrollable Bladder (Incontinence, Urine)
    Unsteadiness (Dizziness)
    Unsteadiness (Vertigo)
    Unsteady Gait
    Unusual Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Upset Stomach (Dyspepsia)
    Urinary Frequency (Frequent Urination)
    Urinary Incontinence (Incontinence, Urine)
    Urinary Retention
    Urinating Frequently (Frequent Urination)
    Urine Blockage (Urinary Retention)
    Urine Blood (Blood In Urine)
    Urine Odor
    Urine Smell (Urine Odor)
    V
    Vaginal bleeding
    Vaginal bleeding after menopause
    Vaginal bleeding between periods
    Vaginal discharge
    Vaginal dryness
    Vaginal odor
    Visible bugs or parasites
    Visible deformity
    Visible pulsations
    Vision fading of colors
    Visual halos around lights
    Vaginal Discharge
    Vaginal Dryness
    Vaginal Itching
    Vaginal Odor
    Vaginal Pruritus (Vaginal Itching)
    Vaginal Yeast Infection (Vaginal Itching)
    Vaginitis (Vaginal Itching)
    Verbal Tics (Vocal Outbursts)
    Vertigo
    Vision Changes (Blurred Vision)
    Vision Loss
    Vocal Outbursts
    Vomiting
    Vomiting (Nausea)
    Vomiting Blood
    Vulvar Itching (Vaginal Itching)
    Vulvovaginitis (Vaginal Itching)
    W
    Walking Abnormality (Unsteady Gait)
    Warm to touch
    Watery eyes
    Weakness
    Weakness (generalized)
    Weight gain
    Weight loss (intentional)
    Weight loss (unintentional)
    Welts
    Wheezing
    White patches inside mouth
    White patches on tongue
    Worms in stool
    Watery Eye
    Watery Eyes (Eye Discharge)
    Watery Stool (Diarrhea)
    Weakness
    Weakness in Arms (Weakness)
    Weakness in Legs (Weakness)
    Weariness (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Weight Gain
    Weight Loss
    Wheezing
    Wheezing (Shortness of Breath)
    White Flakes From Scalp (Flaky Scalp)
    White Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    White Spots on the Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    White Tongue
    White Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Winter Itch (Dry Skin)
    Wiped Out (Fatigue and Tiredness)
    Woozy (Vertigo)
    Woozy (Dizziness)
    Worry (Anxiety)
    Worthlessness (Depression)
    X
    Xeroderma (Dry Skin)
    Xerophthalmia (Dry Eye)
    Xerosis (Dry Skin)
    Xerostomia (Dry Mouth)
    Y
    Yeast Infection (Vaginal Itching)
    Yellow Nails (Nail Discoloration)
    Yellow Staining of Skin and Eyes (Jaundice)
    Yellow Stools (Stool Color & Texture Changes)
    Yellow Vaginal Discharge (Vaginal Discharge)
    Yelling out during sleep
    Yellow eyes
    Yellow skin
    Z
    Common Symptoms

    Anxiety
    Bloating or fullness
    Bleeding
    Body aches or pains
    Bruising or discoloration
    Change in bowel habits
    Cloudy urine with strong odor
    Constipation
    Cough
    Diarrhea
    Difficulty swallowing
    Distended stomach
    Dizziness
    Drainage or pus
    Ear ache
    Enlarged or swollen glands
    Fatigue
    Fever
    Frequent urge to urinate
    Headache
    Headache (worst ever)
    Itching or burning
    Joint pain
    Lump or bulge
    Muscle cramps or spasms (painful)
    Nasal congestion
    Nausea or vomiting
    Numbness or tingling
    Pain or discomfort
    Pressure or fullness
    Skin rash
    Sore throat
    Stiffness or decreased movement
    Stress
    Swelling
    Tenderness to touch
    Vaginal discharge
    Visible deformity
    Warm to touch

    Biochemist
    Biochemist

    Disability Specialist
    Disability Specialist

    Medical Malpractice Specialist
    Medical Negligence (Medical Malpractice Specialist)

    Obstetrics & gynecology specialist
    Obstetrics & gynecology specialist

    Programs, resources, and guidelines that enhance human health within and outside the state
    What are examples of programs, resources, and guidelines that enhance human health within and outside the state?
    Take a look at these programs and resources.
    www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html
    These are examples of programs and resources that enhance human health within and outside the state.

    Questions you must ask in these situations.

    Where is your presence on the Internet (i.e., your Internet address)?
    How are your programs, resources, and guidelines better than those listed at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html?
    Where are your programs, resources, and guidelines displayed similar to or better than those at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html?


    What are examples of programs, resources, and guidelines that do not enhance human health within and outside the state?
    Random assessment that does not enhance human healthcare. You need to have a regular primary healthcare provider.
    Programs that ask you to sign an agreement that they are not responsible if harms occur. Such practice is unethical and/or unprofessional.
    Programs that are organized under the heading of healthcare but behind the scenes have ulterior motives.
    Programs intended to extract resources from the system without helping people.
    If programs or resources are presented to you without displaying Internet programs and resources publicly, such programs and resources do not enhance human health within and outside the state.

    Stress issues facing humans within and outside the state.
    Who has duties relevant to circulating press releases for alleviating stress issues within and outside the state?
    Office of the director of public health within and outside the state in various states.

    What are symptoms and signs of human stress?
    Symptoms and signs of human stress depend on the age of the person.
    Stress for those under 18 years of age includes different symptoms and signs.
    There are more than 50 symptoms and signs of stress for a person over 18 years of age.
    1. Mild headache that can be relieved with stress relievers.
    2. Restlessness that can be relieved with stress relievers.
    3. Anger that can be relieved with stress relievers.

    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/stressworld.html

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/lifestressors.html

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/stress.html

    Stress relievers

    What are examples of stress relievers?
    Music relieves a specific type of stress. You have to find music that relieves stress for you.
    Eat a healthy diet.
    Physical activities relieve stress.
    Avoid unhealthy habits, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, using illicit substances, and eating too much.
    Meditate (this includes Zikr and prayer).
    Appropriate humor helps.
    Connect with others.
    Assert yourself.
    Get enough sleep.
    Write down issues that are troubling you and take steps to resolve them.
    Seek counseling when required if you cannot manage stress yourself.
    Physician directors of public health of various states are required to circulate these guidelines to all residents and healthcare providers, including specific physicians.

    Physician directors of public health of various states

    Physician director of public health of specific states

    What are the duties of the physician director of public health of specific states?
    Issues elaborated here are duties of the physician director of public health of specific states.
    Here are further guidelines.

    What needs to be accomplished relevant to the public health of various states?
    Placement of competent physician directors of public health in various states, along with an Internet presence.

    Physician director of public health of the state.

    What is the profile of the physician director of public health in this specific state?
    What are your duties in ?
    How is this person enhancing public health within and outside the state?
    Where is the Internet presence with guidelines from this person relevant to public health within and outside the state?

    What are the duties of physician directors of public health of a specific state?
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

    Questions you need to answer.

    What is the profile of the physician director of public health in this specific state?
    How is this person enhancing public health within and outside the state?
    Where is the Internet presence with guidelines from this person relevant to public health within and outside the state?

    Dermatologist
    What should you know about this medical specialty?
    You are first a physician, than a specialist or super specialist.

    What are the most common human skin disorders?
    1. Acne

    2. Acrodermatitis

    3. Actinic Keratosis

    4. Canker Sore

    5. Carbuncle

    6. Cellulitis

    7. Cold Sore

    8. Corns and Calluses

    9. Cutaneous Candidiasis

    10. Cutis Laxa

    11. Decubitus Ulcer

    12. Dermatomyositis

    13. Diaper Rash

    14. Dyshidrotic Eczema

    15. Eczema

    16. Erysipelas

    17. Fungal Nail Infection

    18. Hemangioma of Skin

    19. Herpes Stomatitis

    20. Hives

    21. Hypohidrosis

    22. Ichthyosis Vulgaris

    23. Impetigo

    24. Ingrown Nails

    25. Keloid

    26. Lichen Planus

    27. Lupus

    28. Molluscum Contagiosum

    29. Mouth Ulcers

    30. Necrotizing Fasciitis

    31. Pemphigoid

    32. Pilonidal Sinus

    33. Psoriasis

    34. Rosacea

    35. Rubeola (Measles)

    36. Sebaceous Cyst

    37. Seborrheic Eczema

    38. Seborrheic Keratosis

    39. Shingles

    40. Skin Cancer

    41. Stasis Dermatitis and Leg Ulcers

    42. Tinea Versicolor

    43. Vitiligo

    44. Warts

    Here are further guidelines.

    Counseling Services

    What are the different types of counseling?
    Crisis
    Counseling Services

    Pharmacist
    Pharmacist

    Oncologist
    Oncologist

    Ophthalmologist
    Ophthalmologist

    Orthopedician
    Orthopedician

    Tertiary referral hospital
    Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Care
    How has Internet human healthcare changed job activities of physicians at a tertiary referral hospital?
    Previously, the emergency room physician, intensivist, or hospital ward physician would forward a call to a senior of the department or a consultant of the specialty.
    Nowadays, with a computer and Internet in the emergency medical room and intensive care unit, a physician specialist can get all guidelines from experienced physician specialist at www,qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

    1 – Definition of Tertiary Care: Specialized consultative care, usually on referral from primary or secondary medical care personnel, by specialists working in a center that has personnel and facilities for special investigation and treatment. (Secondary medical care is the medical care provided by a physician who acts as a consultant at the request of the primary physician.)

    2 – Definition of Primary Care: Basic or general health care traditionally provided by doctors trained in: family practice, pediatrics, internal medicine, and occasionally gynecology.

    3 – Definition of Broad Specialty Care: Specialized health care provided by physicians whose training focused primarily in a specific field, such as neurology, cardiology, rheumatology, dermatology, oncology, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, and other specialized fields.

    What physician specialist gets guidelines through Internet human healthcare?
    Anesthesiologist
    Cardiologist
    Dental services
    Dermatologist
    Emergency medicine specialist
    Endocrinologist
    Forensic pathologist
    Forensic psychiatrist
    Gastroenterologist
    Geriatrician
    Gynecologist
    Hospitalist in hospital ward
    Intensivist
    Internet human healthcare specialist
    Medical superintendent in the state
    Nephrologist
    Neurologist
    Obstetrics & gynecology specialist
    Oncologist
    Ophthalmologist
    Orthopedician
    Pediatric hospitalist
    Physical medicine & rehabilitation specialist
    Physician-surgeon
    Primary care physician
    Psychiatrist
    Public health specialist
    Pulmonologist
    Radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist.

    How has the Internet changed primary, secondary, and tertiary human health care?
    See the above facts and you will understand.
    Moreover, we will first analyze the olden days interpretation of primary, secondary, and tertiary human health care and then correlate how Internet human healthcare is essential.

    Previously, tertiary centers usually included the following: a major hospital that usually has a full complement of services including pediatrics, obstetrics, general medicine, gynecology, various branches of surgery and psychiatry, or a specialty hospital dedicated to a specific subspecialty. Nowadays, an emergency hospital room has guidelines for emergency room physicians 24/7 through Internet human healthcare.
    Intensivists and emergency room specialists all have guidelines through the Internet.

    Internet healthcare has specific guidelines for intensive care unit specialists or intensivist, emergency room physician, hospital ward physician, and operation theater surgeons. Previously, these entities were categorized as one entity whether belonging to secondary or tertiary health care. Now, there are various separate physician specialist guidelines.

    What directives are there for physicians, particularly secondary and tertiary referral hospital physicians?
    All physicians, particularly secondary and tertiary referral hospital physicians must be reminded to participate in primary healthcare and Internet healthcare, and this must go in their annual performance report or annul confidential report.

    Questions that need to be answered.
    What did the physician do relevant to Internet human healthcare?
    How many patients did the physician diagnose, treat, or advise in the past year in a primary health care setting?

    Workers in human health care

    Who are various workers in human health care?
    Medical doctors.
      What physician specialist gets guidelines through Internet human healthcare?
      Anesthesiologist
      Cardiologist
      Dental services
      Dermatologist
      Emergency medicine specialist
      Endocrinologist
      Forensic pathologist
      Forensic psychiatrist
      Gastroenterologist
      Geriatrician
      Gynecologist
      Hospitalist in hospital ward
      Intensivist
      Internet human healthcare specialist
      Medical superintendent in the state
      Nephrologist
      Neurologist
      Obstetrics & gynecology specialist
      Oncologist
      Ophthalmologist
      Orthopedician
      Pediatric hospitalist
      Physical medicine & rehabilitation specialist
      Physician-surgeon
      Primary care physician
      Psychiatrist
      Public health specialist
      Pulmonologist
      Radiologist and nuclear medicine specialist.
    Health Care Administrator
    State Department of Health
    Additional Secretary to Government.
    Chief Medical Officer.
    Commissioner/Secretary to Government.
    Controller, Drug & Food Organization.
    Deputy/Secretary to Government.
    Director Health.
    Under/Secretary to Government.
    Medical students.
    Allied health workers.
    Nurses.
    Pharmacists.
    Coroner

    Types of Physicians
    Specific types of physicians with seniority within and outside the state around the world.
    What types of physicians can Doctor Asif Qureshi guide?
    Doctor Asif Qureshi can guide 18 types of physicians.
    Doctor Asif Qureshi can also guide 600 types of other professionals, including teachers, lawyers, engineers, state police officers, and state military officers.

    What are the types of physicians according to human healthcare setting?
    There are more than 18 types of specific physicians.

    What types of physicians are required at this point within and outside the state?
    1. Physician Internet Human health services. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    2. Physician guide for at least 18 types of physicians. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    3. Physician primary care
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

    4. Physician intensive care unit
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

    5. Physician medical emergency room
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

    6. Physician medical emergency responder
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

    7. Physician surgeon medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    8. Physician surgeon elective surgery
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    9. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

    10. Physician guide to physician or physicians
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

    11. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

    12. Physician forensic psychiatry
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

    13. Physician Forensic Pathology
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

    14. Physical Therapist
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    15. Physician director of public health of the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

    16. Physician director of health of the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorhealth.html

    17. Physician medical superintendent of a hospital in the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianmedicalsuperintendent.html

    18. Physician of public health in the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianpublichealthworld.html

    This is a full-time job, requiring 10 hours of work every 24 hours.
    There are at least 18 types of physicians.
    Take a look at this: www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html
    Internet education—for example www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html—for various types of physicians should be circulated to all medical students and existing physicians.

    Not all professionals who care for patients are physicians. Fields like nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, physical therapy, clinical psychology, laboratory sciences, and medical technology are essential to the health care system. Some of these health professionals — particularly physician assistants or nurse practitioners — may provide many basic medical services in conjunction with physicians.

    Traditional system: How were the old systems of physicians defined?
    Take a look at this.
    Anesthesiology/Critical Care
    Biochemistry
    Cardiology
    Dermatology
    Disability Specialist
    Emergency Medicine
    Endocrinology
    Forensic Medicine International
    Gastroenterology
    Geriatrics
    Hematology
    Internet Healthcare
    Internal Medicine
    Medical Negligence (Medical Malpractice Specialist)
    Microbiology
    Nephrology
    Neurology
    Oncology
    Ophthalmology
    Orthopedics
    Otorhinolaryngology
    Obstetrics & Gynecology
    Primary care physician (Family & General Practice)
      Does the provider use email?
    Pediatrics
    Psychiatry
    Pulmonary Medicine
    Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
    Public Health/Social and Preventive Medicine
    Radiology & Nuclear Medicine
    Surgery
    Curriculum Reform
    English
    Anatomy
    Physiology
    Biochemistry
    Biostatistics
    Pharmacology
    Medical Computer Science
    Microbiology
    Pathophysiology
    Genetics
    Histology
    Neuroscience
    Behavioral Sciences / Psychology / Social Work
    Learning History Taking and Physical Examination
    Clinical Medicine
    Pediatrics
    Ear Nose & Throat/Otorhinolaryngology
    Forensic Medicine
    Ophthalmology
    Preventive and Social Medicine
    Extra Subject: Space Technology and Medicine
    Gynecology & Obstetrics
    Surgery
    Internal Medicine

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalspecialty.html
    Compare today’s existing specific types of physician requirements with traditional systems of physicians and you will see the difference.

    What can vary in today’s existing specific types of physician requirements within and outside the state?
    Seniority can vary. Seniority can range from junior to most senior levels. If the most senior levels can guide other professions, those persons can be the heads of state.

    Continuing Medical Education

    What is continuing medical education?
    Continuing medical education refers to a specific form of continuing education that helps those in the medical field maintain competence and learn about new and developing areas of their field. These activities may take place as live events, written publications, online programs, and audio, video, or other electronic media. Content for these programs is developed, reviewed, and delivered by faculty who are experts in their individual clinical areas.

    How should human healthcare professionals and specific physicians select issues and topics for continued medical education?
    Research findings that others do not know in a question-and-answer format.
    Controversial issues.
    Review of competence of specific physicians.
    Update of requirements for specific types of physicians.

    How has Internet-based medical education changed medical education for aspiring physicians and continued medical education?
    Take a look at this www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html for existing and aspiring physicians seeking continued medical education that can be accomplished at home or home offices nowadays.

    What should individuals know to identify with the mentioned entities?
    Types of Physicians
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html#Types of Physicians
    You must verify types of allopathic physicians required at this point.

    How many types of physicians are there?
    There are at least 18 types of physicians.

    You must name the 18 types of physicians mentioned if you are asked about specific types of physicians.
    The medical superintendent of a specific hospital should make sure the roster of specific physicians required is displayed through the Internet.

    If criminal lobbies join together, that is not continuing medical education.

    On June 25, 2017, I came across an advertisement from SKIMS requiring JVC principal.
    Doctor Asif Qureshi declares I can guide aspiring principals of medical college from a distance. Circulate this to all.

    Where are further guidelines?
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    What do you have to do?
    Every human healthcare professional, including specific physicians, must be ready with answers to the mentioned questions.

    Can you name specific types of physicians?
    How many types of mentioned physicians can you guide?
    What are the duties of the chief medical officer of a specific area of the state?
    What are the duties of block medical officer (BMO) of a specific area of the state?
    What are the duties of the drug inspector of a specific area of the state?
    How have Internet resources at www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html changed the education of aspiring physicians and specific existing physicians?
    Here are further guidelines

    Spot the difference
    Difference
    What is the difference between health, human health, and human healthcare?
    Health is the overall condition of a living organism at a given time.
    Human health is the complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity at a given time.
    Human healthcare is helping to make people's everyday lives more comfortable and healthier.
    Diagnosis and treatment in various healthcare settings and public healthcare advice are human healthcare.
    Human health involves providing products, services, and prescription and non-prescription advice or intervention that help make people's everyday lives more comfortable and healthier.
    All these services are relevant within and outside the state.

    What's the difference between an ER visit and urgent care?
    These words aren’t interchangeable, and a medical mistake could endanger your health. Both sound like they’re meant for an immediate medical condition, but they aren’t for the same types of emergencies. Urgent care centers are designed for similar care to what you’d get from your primary care doctor. If you have a fever, sore throat, vomit, or a shallow cut and can’t make an appointment with your regular physician, head to urgent care. The ER should be reserved for conditions that need quick or advanced treatments that you can only get at a hospital. Difficulty breathing, severe pain in the abdomen or chest, eye or head injuries, and cuts deep enough for stitches should all be treated in an emergency room.

    What's the difference between dementia and Alzheimer’s disease?
    Dementia isn’t a specific disease—it’s an umbrella term for a group of symptoms that affect memory and reasoning. Alzheimer’s is just one of the diseases that could be behind the dementia. It’s impossible to diagnose with 100 percent accuracy without an autopsy, but patients have a slow decline in memory and cognitive function.

    What's the difference between heart attack and sudden cardiac arrest?
    When an artery becomes blocked and can’t deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart, some of the heart’s muscle cells die, causing a heart attack. It could feel like chest pain or pressure, indigestion, or a rapid heartbeat. Sudden cardiac arrest might happen during a heart attack, or it might occur separately. When its electrical system malfunctions, the heart starts beating way too fast, making its chambers quiver and lose ability to deliver blood. You might start to feel dizzy or a racing heartbeat, or no symptoms at all.

    What's the difference between inflammatory bowel disease and irritated bowel syndrome?
    IBS is a functional disorder rather than a disease, meaning your digestive system isn’t working right but still looks normal, with no identifiable cause for your bloating, cramps, and stool problems. IBD, on the other hand, is more serious and is classified as a disease. Along with the symptoms associated with IBS, IBD can also be marked by ulcers, extreme fatigue, rectal bleeding, and more.

    What's the difference between a fracture, a sprain, and a strain?
    A fracture is just another word for a broken bone, no matter how severe. Sprains, meanwhile, aren’t bone-related—they occur when the ligaments that keep your bones in place are torn from being twisted or stretched too far. Strains happen when overstretching damages muscles or the tendons connecting muscle to bone.

    What's the difference between an artery and a vein?
    Your arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your body. Veins then take that blood and return it to the heart for purification.

    What's the difference between an electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram?
    Both are noninvasive tests used to help identify heart problems. An electrocardiogram (EKG) represents the organ’s electrical activity as wavy lines on a piece of paper. Your doctor might use it to check muscle and tissue damage, heartbeat irregularities, or chemical imbalances. An echocardiogram (echo) is an ultrasound that creates a moving picture of your heart pumping to look for tumors, blood clots, infections, and more.

    What's the difference between acid reflux, heartburn, and GERD?
    When acid splashes out of the stomach and into the esophagus, acid reflux occurs. Heartburn is the sensation you feel in your chest when that happens. Severe or chronic acid reflux becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease, which can lead to serious complications like ulcers.

    What's the difference between blood pressure and heart rate?
    Blood pressure is the force against your artery walls from the blood pumping through your body. A measurement includes systolic pressure (the top number), representing the pressure as your heart is forcing the blood out during a heartbeat, and diastolic pressure (bottom number), or the pressure while your heart is relaxed between beats. Heart rate refers to the number of times your heart beats every minute, represented in a single number. A faster heartbeat doesn’t mean higher blood pressure.

    What's the difference between celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder affecting about 1 percent of people. When people with celiac eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, their immune systems attack their small intestines and cause inflammation. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity hasn’t been studied widely, but some people who aren’t diagnosed with celiac disease find that symptoms like bloating, gas, abdominal pain, headaches, and numbness go away after they stop eating gluten. A wheat allergy has to do with the wheat protein itself, meaning gluten from other sources can be eaten without any reaction.

    What's the difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis?
    The cause of your arthritis could result in different symptoms that call for different treatments. Osteoarthritis causes achy joints, but usually no swelling. It usually appears later in life, when the joints have been worn down from repetitive use. Rheumatoid arthritis is a much less common disease in which the immune system attacks the joints. It’s marked by pain, swelling, and fatigue.

    What's the difference between a hangnail and an ingrown nail?
    A hangnail isn’t actually part of your nail—it’s a piece of skin that detaches from the side of your cuticle. You can treat it by snipping it off with clean cuticle scissors. An ingrown nail, on the other hand, develops when the side of your nail burrows into your skin instead of growing over it. Ingrowns usually affect toenails and can result from nails cut short and curved instead of straight, shoes that don’t fit, and injuries. You shouldn’t cut the ingrown portion by yourself, so see a doctor if the condition doesn’t get better to avoid risk of infection or more pain.

    What's the difference between mucous, mucus, and phlegm?
    Mucus is the slimy fluid that you’ll find in your nose and sinuses, while mucous is an adjective, as in the mucous membranes that secrete mucus in your gut and respiratory passages. The mucus captures dirt and dust before they can get to your lungs, and a runny nose is usually a mix of mucus and watery secretions. On the other hand, phlegm is produced in the lower airways, and you’ll notice it if you have a loose cough.

    What's the difference between acne and rosacea?
    When hormones cause the skin to get extra oily, you might end up with an acne breakout, even as an adult. Rosacea can look like pimples but is a chronic inflammatory disease. In addition to the bumps, people with rosacea also commonly have red cheeks or noses, and facial swelling. Acne medications might cause their skin to react instead of calming it down.

    What's the difference between psoriasis and eczema?
    Both skin conditions can cause itchy, scaly, red rashes on the hands, feet, and neck. Psoriasis might also occur on the elbows or knees, and the red patches are covered with silvery scales. Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, usually develops before age five and is often found on the backs of the knees or insides of the arms. Small, pimple-like bumps that might ooze or crust over set it apart from psoriasis.

    What's the difference between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes?
    About 5 to 10 percent of people with diabetes have type 1. Their immune systems destroy insulin-releasing cells, meaning the body eventually has no insulin. The disease usually develops in childhood, and those with type 1 diabetes often have low blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, usually develops later in life and could be delayed or prevented with a healthy diet and exercise. The bodies of those with type 2 diabetes still release insulin, but they can’t use it correctly. As the disease gets worse, the pancreas might start producing less insulin, leading to a deficiency.

    What's the difference between an aneurysm and stroke?
    Aneurysms in the brain are weak, bulging areas in the artery walls that don’t typically cause symptoms. If the aneurysm breaks, though, blood will get into the skull, causing a stroke when the brain doesn’t get the blood it needs. A stroke can also happen if a blocked artery prevents blood from reaching the brain.

    What's the difference between diverticulosis and diverticulitis?
    When gas, liquid, or waste put pressure on the walls of the intestine, little pockets called diverticula might form in a symptom-free condition called diverticulosis. When those pockets get infected and inflamed, diverticulitis occurs. It is more serious, and could cause cramps, diarrhea, constipation, and fever.

    What's the difference between survival rate and relative survival rate?
    A survival rate calculates the number of people who survive a specified cause of death, while leaving out those who had that disease but died of another cause. Relative survival rate, on the other hand, is the ratio of those who have that disease and survive (regardless of cause of death) to those who survive in the general population. So a five-year relative survival rate for breast cancer refers to how likely that person is to survive compared to a cancer-free individual.

    What's the difference between dysphagia, dysphasia, and dysplasia?
    Dysphagia is when it’s hard or impossible to swallow. If this happens rarely, like when you eat too fast or don’t chew your food enough, there’s probably no reason to worry. But if the feeling won’t go away, seek medical attention. Dysphasia is a disorder that develops when a brain injury makes it hard to understand written or spoken words. Meanwhile, dysplasia refers to abnormal development of cells, tissue, an organ, or bone.

    What's the difference between mold and mildew?
    These are both types of fungi that you might find in your home, especially moist areas like bathrooms and basements. Mildew is usually gray or white, flat, and musty-smelling, while molds are darker and can even be hairy. Mildew might cause minor health issues like occasional coughing, but mold can lead to serious long-term respiratory problems. Use a solution of ¾ cup bleach and 1 gallon of warm water to attack mildew or light mold, but leave heavy infestations to a professional.

    What's the difference between drug misuse and abuse?
    Using more than the recommended dose of a drug but still seeking the medical effects is misuse. For instance, a person might pop an extra sleeping pill if the first one isn’t working, or give a prescribed medication to a friend complaining of similar symptoms. Abuse, on the other hand, refers to taking the drug (especially at a high dose) with the goal of getting high. Regardless of intention, though, both misuse and abuse can threaten your health, or even your life, so stick to the dosage your doctor recommends, and ask a physician before starting any new medications.

    What's the difference between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C?
    They might share similar names, but three different viruses cause these inflammatory diseases. The symptoms are usually the same: fever, nausea, vomiting, yellowing skin, joint pain, fatigue, and gray stool. But hepatitis A is spread when microscopic amounts of contaminated fecal matter are ingested, while hepatitis B is spread through bodily fluids like blood or semen, and hepatitis C is only spread through blood.

    What's the difference between hypertension and hypotension?
    Whether too high or too low, the pressure of your blood against your artery walls can cause side effects. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can lead to stroke, heart disease, kidney failure, and more. Hypotension, or low blood pressure, usually won’t cause problems, but a sudden drop could make you feel dizzy, faint, or go into shock.

    What's the difference between podiatrist and orthopedist?
    Podiatrists have a DPM degree, which specializes them in treating foot and ankle conditions. An orthopedic surgeon is an MD or DO qualified to treat the whole musculoskeletal system, including (but not limited to) foot and ankle problems. For foot or ankle pain caused by lower back, knee, or hip problems, an orthopedist might be the better bet.

    What's the differene between sex and gender?
    You might use the terms interchangeably, but these terms have different meanings. Sex refers to biological differences between men and women. Gender, on the other hand, deals with the social differences between male, female, and other gender identities.

    What's the difference between aural and oral?
    They may sound the same, but these words have totally different meanings. Aural refers to the ear or hearing, while oral has to do with the mouth or speaking. (And for the record, oral is said out loud, while verbal can be spoken or written.)

    What's the difference between palpation and palpitation?
    The method health care providers use when examining a body part with their fingers or hands is called palpation. On a different note, a palpitation is when you feel like your heart is fluttering, beating too hard, or skipping a beat. They’re typically caused by stress, caffeine, alcohol, or nicotine and aren’t a reason for concern, but some could be caused by heart disease or another medical condition.

    Economic and budget issues within the state and in other states in terms of relevance to human healthcare.
    Who among physicians should know about economic and budget issues within and outside the state in terms of relevance to human healthcare?
    Physician director of the state’s department of public health.
    Physician director of state’s health department.
    Other similar physicians within and outside the state.
    Heads of various departments of various states.

    If a resident of the state does not have enough from the state government departments to survive ,it can harm human health.

    Questions all heads of government departments within and outside states must be able to answer.

    Here are various examples that have been relevant in various years.
    You can change the year relevant to your situation.
    Here are further facts.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/director.html/#Human Services Director in the state.

    Specific physicians as heads of state.

    Can a specific type of physician who is the head of a state guide other physicians including governors of various states?
    Yes.

    Duties to provide human healthcare within and outside the state.

    Who is responsible for providing human healthcare within and outside the state?
    The state department of public health and state department of health.

    The state department of public health and state department of health are responsible for providing human healthcare to residents of the state. In certain situations, non-residents can get healthcare also. Due to Internet healthcare services, for example www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html, provided by specific physicians, existing specific physicians, and others, other states’ residents can benefit from any location on the planet.

    The state department of public health and state department of health are responsible for assigning duties at specific locations in the state to specific types of physicians at specific locations with required staff in the state to enhance human healthcare, including public health and individualized healthcare.

    The state department of public health and state department of health categorize exempt and non-exempt job duties in human healthcare.

    What is the difference between exempt and non-exempt duties relevant to human resources?
    For exempt duties, there is no need to keep records of the specific hours individuals work or reach specific locations every day for work. Examples of exempt positions are program administrators and people in executive occupations who guide others.

    Exempt duties can be assigned to an individual who can guide various individuals from a distance, such as through the Internet.
    Doctor Asif Qureshi guides various professions http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/professionsworld.html from a distance, including specific types of physicians. Exempt positions get executive remunerations.

    What are examples of departments of public health and departments of health of various states?
    Illinois state department of public health and Illinois state department of health.
    Kashmir state department of public health and Kashmir state department of health.
    Karnataka state department of public health and Kaenataka state department of health.
    Medina department of public health and Medina department of health.
    There are similar departments in various states around the world.

    How many state departments of public health and state departments of health exist around the world?
    On June 19, 2016, there were approximately 330 state departments of public health and 330 state departments of health around the world.
    Every state department of public health and state department of health has a director of the department, such as a physician director of the state department of public health or physician director of the state department of health.

    How are the departments of public health and departments of health structured in every state?

    State department of public health

    Guide, such as Doctor Asif Qureshi, for human healthcare professionals, including the physician director of the state department of public health
    Physician Director of Public Health of a specific state
    Staff of the director of the state department of public health
    Chemist I-III
    Clinical Laboratory Associate
    Clinical Laboratory Technician I and II
    Clinical Laboratory Technologist I and II
    Environmental Health Specialist I-III
    Health Facilities Surveillance Nurse
    Health Facilities Surveyor I-III
    Information Systems Analyst in Public Health 11 in a specific area of the state
    Laboratory Research Scientist
    Medical Administrator of Public Health in the state
    Public Health Educator Associate
    Public Health Educator
    Public Health Program Specialist I and II
    Public Services Administrator of Public Health in a specific area of the state

    State department of health
    Guide, such as Doctor Asif Qureshi, for human healthcare professionals, including the physician director of the state department of health
    Physician Director of Health of a specific state
    Physician Superintendent of a hospital in the state
    Staff of the director of the state department of health.
    Specific type of physician in the state with seniority
    1. Physician primary care
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

    2. Physician intensive care unit
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

    3. Physician medical emergency room
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

    4. Physician medical emergency responder
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

    5. Physician surgeon medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    6. Physician surgeon elective surgery
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    7. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

    8. Physician guide to physician or physicians
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

    9. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

    10. Physician forensic psychiatry
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

    11. Physician Forensic Pathology
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

    12. Physical Therapist
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    Physical Therapy

    1. Annotation or definition

    2. Careers in Physical Therapy

    3. Physical Therapy Equipment

    4. Physical Therapy Exercises

    5. Physical Therapy Exercises / Alphabetical order

    6. Questions that need to be answered.

    7. Schedule an Evaluation

    8. Types of Physical Therapy

    9. Useful Links

    Annotation or definition
    What is Physical Therapy?
    Physical therapy can help anyone who is suffering from musculoskeletal injuries, recovering from surgeries or other difficulties such as balance/walking problems, or neurological problems such as stroke and acquired brain injuries.

    Abbreviated PT. PT is appropriate for many types of patients, from infants born with musculoskeletal birth defects, to adults suffering from sciatica or the after effects of injury or surgery, to elderly poststroke patients.

    Treatment is based on the initial evaluation findings along with ongoing reassessment and evaluation. Treatment may consist of a variety of hands-on joint and soft tissue treatment techniques, exercise techniques and pain reducing modalities. Treatments are designed to increase motion and strength, reduce pain, and most importantly, restore function. Patients are typically involved in an active exercise program at home and are educated in ways to speed recovery and prevent recurrence of the problem.

    10 Reasons Why Physical Therapy is Beneficial

    1.Reduce or eliminate pain. Therapeutic exercises and manual therapy techniques such as joint and soft tissue mobilization or treatments such as ultrasound, taping or electrical stimulation can help relieve pain and restore muscle and joint function to reduce pain. Such therapies can also prevent pain from returning.

    2.Avoid surgery. If physical therapy helps you eliminate pain or heal from an injury, surgery may not be needed. And even if surgery is required, you may benefit from pre-surgery physical therapy. If you are going into a surgery stronger and in better shape, you will recover faster afterwards in many cases.

    3.Improve mobility. If you’re having trouble standing, walking or moving—no matter your age—physical therapy can help. Stretching and strengthening exercises help restore your ability to move. Physical therapists can properly fit individuals with a cane, crutches or any other assistive device, or assess for orthotic prescription. By customizing an individual care plan, whatever activity that is important to an individual’s life can be practiced and adapted to ensure maximal performance and safety.

    4.Recover from a stroke. It’s common to lose some degree of function and movement after stroke. Physical therapy helps strengthen weakened parts of the body and improve gait and balance. Physical therapists can also improve stroke patients’ ability to transfer and move around in bed so that they can be more independent around the home, and reduce their burden of care for toileting, bathing, dressing and other activities of daily living.

    5.Recover from or prevent a sports injury. Physical therapists understand how different sports can increase your risk for specific types of injuries (such as stress fractures for distance runners). They can design appropriate recovery or prevention exercise programs for you to ensure a safe return to your sport.

    6.Improve your balance and prevent falls . When you begin physical therapy, you will get screened for fall risk. If you’re at high risk for falls, therapists will provide exercises that safely and carefully challenge your balance as a way to mimic real-life situations. Therapists also help you with exercises to improve coordination and assistive devices to help with safer walking. When the balance problem is caused by a problem in one’s vestibular system, Physical therapists can perform specific maneuvers that can quickly restore proper vestibular functioning, and reduce and eliminate symptoms of dizziness or vertigo.

    7.Manage diabetes and vascular conditions. As part of an overall diabetes management plan, exercise can help effectively control blood sugar. Additionally, people with diabetes may have problems with sensation in their feet and legs. Physical therapists can help provide and educate these patients on proper foot care to prevent further problems down the road.

    8.Manage age-related issues.

    9.Manage heart and lung disease. While patients may complete cardiac rehabilitation after a heart attack or procedure, you also may receive physical therapy if your daily functioning is affected. For pulmonary problems, physical therapy can improve quality of life through strengthening, conditioning and breathing exercises, and help patients clear fluid in the lungs.

    10.Manage Women’s Health and other conditions.

    Physical Medicine Doctors
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicalmedicineworld.html

    Physical Therapist
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    Physical Therapist Assistant
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicalmedicineworld.html

    Weight Training Exercises
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/weighttrainingexercisesworld.html

    Careers in Physical Therapy
    1. Physician Owned Physical Therapy

    2. Primary Care Physician

    3. Physical Therapist

    4. Physical Therapist Assistant

    5. Physical Therapy Aide

    6. Comparing Careers in Physical Therapy

    Questions that need to be answered.
    What is Physical Therapy?
    What are musculoskeletal disorders?
    What Are Some Kinds of Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue? How many organ systems are there in the human body? Can you name the organ systems of the human body? How many muscular system organs are there in the human body? Can you name the muscular system organs in the human body? How many skeletal system bones are there in the human body? Can you name the skeletal system organs in the human body?
    The musculoskeletal system consists of the body's bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and cartilage
    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the human musculoskeletal system, including the joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back.

    What are musculoskeletal disorders?
    Here are further facts.
    What Are Some Kinds of Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue?
    Here are further facts.

    Physical Therapist Interview Questions
    Are you a physician?
    No.

    Operational and Situational questions

    What led you to pursue physical therapy as a career?
    What are your special interests in physical therapy, if any?
    Describe a typical day at your current/previous job.
    Talk about your experience with long-term care.
    What are some of the challenges of working with geriatric patients?
    How do you handle movement disorders?
    What would you do if one of your patients suddenly became agitated and aggressive?
    What would you do if one of your patients started refusing to work with you?
    How would you handle a patient with (specific post-surgical status)?
    How would you handle a patient with a diagnosis that was unfamiliar to you?
    Describe a situation where you felt you delivered excellent patient care.
    In what ways have you shown sensitivity to potential cultural differences?
    What would you do if a colleague lied about treating a patient?
    What would you consider an inappropriate interaction with a patient?
    Recall a time you worked with a difficult coworker. How would you handle it?
    What’s stressful about being a physical therapist? How do you cope?

    Here are further guidelines.

    Physical Therapist
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    Physical Therapist Assistant
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html


    Types of Physical Therapy
    Exercise
    1. Education

    2. Thigh Exercises

    3. Upper Extremity Exercises

    4. Lower Extremity Exercises

    5. Trunk / Core Exercises

    6. Stretches
    Physical therapy nearly always involves exercise of some kind that is specifically designed for your injury, illness, condition, or to help prevent future health problems.

    Education

    Physical therapy almost always includes education and training in areas such as:
    •Performing your daily tasks safely.
    •Protecting your joints and avoiding reinjury.
    •Using assistive devices such as crutches or wheelchairs.
    •Doing home exercises designed to help with your injury or condition.
    •Making your home safe for you if you have strength, balance, or vision problems.

    Upper Extremity Exercises

    Physical Therapy Exercise - Bench dip
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Bench press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Bent-over row
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Biceps / triceps cable curls / pushdowns
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Flat bench dumbbell press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - French press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Incline barbell press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Incline dumbbell press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Incline dumbbell row
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Lat pulldown
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Lateral raise
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Prone arm press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Push-up
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Rotator cuff (external rotation of shoulder)
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Seated Dumbbell Press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Seated dumbbell curl
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Seated row
    Physical Therapy Exercise -

    Lower Extremity Exercises

    Physical Therapy Exercise - 50-degree squat hold
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Barbell squat
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Bridge + 1 knee extension
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Dumbbell squat
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Leg curl
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Leg extension
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Leg press
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Lunge
    Physical Therapy Exercise - One-legged step down
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Side-lying hip abduction
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Standing calf raise

    Trunk / Core Exercises

    Physical Therapy Exercise - Abdominal crunch
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Side-lying plank

    Stretches

    Physical Therapy Exercise - Hamstring stretch
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Hip stretch
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Lat stretch
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Low load prolonged stretch: Pecs
    Physical Therapy Exercise - Quad stretch

    Physical Therapy Exercises / Alphabetical order
    1. Abdominal Crunch

    2. Barbell Squat

    3. Bench Dip

    4. Bench Press

    5. Bent-Over Row

    6. Biceps & Triceps – Cable Curls / Pushdowns

    7. Bridge + 1 Knee Extension

    8. Caliper Test

    9. Dumbbell Squat

    10. Endurance Exercise: A Review

    11. Exercise Vs. Physical Activity: A Review

    12. Five-Step Eating Plan

    13. Flat Bench Dumbbell Press

    14. French Press

    15. Hamstring Stretch

    16. Hip Stretch

    17. Incline Barbell Press

    18. Incline Dumbbell Press

    19. Incline Dumbbell Row

    20. Jason: An Inspiring Story

    21. Lat Pulldown

    22. Lat Stretch

    23. Lateral Raise

    24. Leg Curl

    25. Leg Extension

    26. Leg Press

    27. Low Load Prolonged Stretch: Pecs

    28. Lunge

    29. One-Legged Step Down

    30. Overcoming Excuses

    31. Prone Arm Press

    32. Push-Up

    33. Quad Stretch

    34. Rotator Cuff (Rotation Of Shoulder)

    35. 50-Degree Squat Hold

    36. Seated Dumbbell Curl

    37. Seated Dumbbell Press

    38. Seated Row

    39. Side-Lying Hip Abduction

    40. Side-Lying Plank

    41. Standing Calf Raise

    42. Thigh Exercises

    43. Wall Press Exercise

    Thigh Muscle Issues
    Thigh Exercises
    What specific physical therapy exercises have helped?
    1. Bridging / Pelvic Bridging Exercise

    2. Straight Leg Raise Exercise

    3. Supine Knee Extension

    4. Prone hip extension

    5. Stagger feet, lunge

    6. Squats: How to Do a Perfect Squat

    7. Leg extension exercise with 50-pound weights. At least 10 repetitions, three sets per day. Slowly increase the number of repetitions.

    8. Horizontal bench shuttle exercises with 50-pound weights. At least 10 repetitions, two sets per day. Slowly increase the number of repetitions.
    What have been the various findings?
    If you see someone in your community with thigh muscle issues, they waited and ignored the issues until their thigh muscles worsened and they were not able to walk properly. Do not delay.
    Fix issues before they become complicated or the person is not able to walk properly.

    What do you have to do?
    Fix thigh muscle issues before they become complicated or the person is not able to walk.

    Are you having thigh muscle issues?

    Can you give more details?


    What are the findings?
    Professional on duty was able to answer these questions.
    Professional on duty was not able to answer these questions.
    Professional was able to fix these issues.
    Professional was not able to fix these issues.

    Physiotherapy Exercises
    How do you get strong thighs?
    Method 1 Incorporating Exercises that Target the Thighs
    1.Know the muscles you want to improve.
    2.Do goblet squats.
    3.Try three-way lunges.
    4.Perform single leg lateral ski hops.
    5.Do classic deadlifts.
    6.Perform the side-plank hip lift.
    7.Try the bridge.
    8.Straight Leg Raise Exercise
    9.Leg Extensions Without a Machine : Workouts & Exercise Routines
    10.Best Leg Extension Machines Review 2017


    What foods make your legs stronger?
    Here are five of the best foods for healthy bones:
    1.Yogurt. Most yogurts are fortified with vitamin D, and depending on the brand, you could get 30 percent of your daily calcium intake from yogurt. 2.Milk. Though it's a staple in kids' diets, many adults don't drink milk.
    3.Salmon and Tuna.
    4.Spinach.
    5.Fortified foods.


    What relevant guidelines would you like to add that have not been included here?

    Useful Links
    1. https://chphysicaltherapy.com/physical-therapy-exercises/

    Personality Disorders
    Personality disorders screening
    Who specifically should have yearly screening for personality disorders?
    Leaders.
    Managers.
    Individuals in public service.
    Harms can occur if such individual gets involved in public service.

    Here is an example.
    Personality Disorder:
    Patient is conscious, oriented in time, space, and person.
    Vitals are normal and there are no other complaints.
    Does that mean the person is normal?
    The patient can have personality disorder.

    How do you screen personality disorders in yearly health assessment?
    Ask others if he or she lies.
    Lying is a criminal offense.
    Lying can be due to personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or other personality disorders.

    Patient must nominate at least two people to comment about his or her personality.

    Questions you need to ask.

    Do you know this person?
    How do you know this person?
    How would you describe this person’s character, behavior, and competence?
    How would you describe the personality of this person?

    How would you describe your personality?

    I am always truthful.
    I answer questions truthfully to the best of my ability and knowledge.
    I feel that I have a personality disorder or disorders.
    Others have mentioned that I have personality disorder or disorders.
    Others say that I lie (quote incidents).
    Various incidents make me think I have personality disorder or disorders.

    How would 100 of your neighbors within walking distance describe you?
    Alcoholic.
    Cheating traits.
    Civilized/uncivilized.
    Deaf and mute.
    Drug addict.
    Mute.
    Fraudulently placed.
    Good charactered/bad charactered
    Gang association/civilized association.
    Harmful/helpful.
    Hostile/polite.
    Illiterate/highly educated.
    Leadership qualities.
    Liar/truthful.
    Mentally retarded/intelligent.
    Not a good person to know/good person to know.
    Opportunist.
    Oppressor/oppressed.
    Personality disorder/expected behavior.
    Predictable/unpredictable.
    Unskilled/highly skilled.
    Violent.
    Well behaved.

    What are the specific issues, symptoms, signs, or complaints the day, date, and time you are answering these questions?

    What is the day, date, time, and location you are answering these questions?

    What is profile of the individual helping you answer these questions, including assistance with computer and Internet?
    Here are further guidelines.
    Here are further guidelines.
    Who should know about personality disorders?
    Forensic psychiatrist
    Forensic pathologist
    Psychiatrist general psychiatry
    Police patrol officer
    Judge magistrate
    Jail superintendent or warden
    Jail classification officer
    Director, state department of corrections
    Director general of state police
    Chief justice of state, such as California, Illinois, New York, and Alberta in North America
    Others concerned with a specific case

    What should you know about personality disorders?
    Here are various guidelines.

    What are examples of various personality disorders?
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Paranoid personality disorder (ICD10 F60.0).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Schizoid personality disorder (ICD10 F60.1).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Antisocial personality disorder (ICD10 F60.2).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Borderline personality disorder (ICD10 F60.3).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Histrionic personality disorder (ICD10 F60.4).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (ICD10 F60.5).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Avoidant personality disorder (ICD10 F60.6).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Dependent personality disorder (ICD10 F60.7).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Other specific personality disorders (ICD10 F60.8).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Narcissistic personality disorder (ICD10 F60.81).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Other specific personality disorders (ICD10 F60.89).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental personality disorder: Unspecified (ICD10 F60.9).

    Why is screening people for personality disorders essential?
    A person who has a personality disorder will usually not seek a consultation with a physician or psychiatrist.
    Either the patient will be involuntarily admitted to a psychiatry facility or complaints will come from those who have been harmed.

    How should you manage a case of personality disorder?
    If harms have occurred, declare to the community that this person has caused harm so that the person will be transferred to a jail or psychiatry facility. Depending on the extent of the classification of the harm, the officer in the jail or psychiatry facility will determine the proper location for the individual.

    Unaware. The majority of people living with a personality disorder don’t realize they have one, even if they realize they aren’t easy to live with. It’s best to share your concern by giving someone specific examples of problem behaviors and follow up by offering the resources needed to find a doctor, or make or attend an appointment.

    Denial. Most people who are told they have a personality disorder don’t believe it. It isn’t uncommon for them to get angry or defensive. Keep trying to share your concerns if someone is refusing help.

    Resistance. When people first begin to accept there’s a problem, they fight the belief that it’s serious. They resist getting medical treatment and believe they can change their behaviors on their own. At this stage, encourage a family member or friend to make medical help a part of their personal treatment plan.

    Flakiness. Once they start therapy or medication, people with personality disorders often skip or stop treatment without warning. Be there to remind them that no one is perfect, no one is always at the top of their game, and that tomorrow offers new chances to make healthier choices.

    Acceptance. After receiving the support needed to overcome denial, resistance and struggles with staying in treatment, patients with these disorders may come to a place of acceptance. In these situations, treatments are seen as a top priority and appreciated as tools for healthy living.

    What are examples of various personality disorders?
    Antisocial personality disorder
    Avoidant personality disorder
    Borderline personality disorder
    Dependent personality disorder
    Histrionic personality disorder
    Narcissistic personality disorder
    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
    Paranoid personality disorder
    Schizoid personality disorder
    Schizotypal personality disorder
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental disorder: Other specific personality disorders (ICD10 F60.89).
    Behavioral, mental and neurodevelopmental personality disorder: Unspecified (ICD10 F60.9).

    What are some examples of individuals with personality disorders who are involved in criminal activities?
    Here are further facts.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/personalitydisorders.html

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/personalitydisorder.html

    1. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    2. Avoidant Personality Disorder

    3. Borderline Personality Disorder

    4. Dependent Personality Disorder

    5. Histrionic Personality Disorder

    6. Multiple Personality Disorder, see Dissociative Identity Disorder

    7. Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    8. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    9. Paranoid Personality Disorder

    10. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    11. Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    12. Symptoms

      General symptoms of a personality disorder
      Personality disorder symptoms include:

      • Frequent mood swings
      • Stormy relationships
      • Social isolation
      • Angry outbursts
      • Suspicion and mistrust of others
      • Difficulty making friends
      • A need for instant gratification
      • Poor impulse control
      • Alcohol or substance abuse

      Specific types of personality disorders
      The specific types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters based on similar characteristics and symptoms. Many people with one diagnosed personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one additional personality disorder.

      Cluster A personality disorders
      These are personality disorders characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior and include:

      Paranoid personality disorder

      • Distrust and suspicion of others
      • Believing that others are trying to harm you
      • Emotional detachment
      • Hostility

      Schizoid personality disorder

      • Lack of interest in social relationships
      • Limited range of emotional expression
      • Inability to pick up normal social cues
      • Appearing dull or indifferent to others

      Schizotypal personality disorder

      • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs or behavior
      • Perceptual alterations, such as those affecting touch
      • Discomfort in close relationships
      • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
      • Indifference to others
      • "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
      • Believing that messages are hidden for you in public speeches or displays

      Cluster B personality disorders
      These are personality disorders characterized by dramatic, overly emotional thinking or behavior and include:

      Antisocial (formerly called sociopathic) personality disorder

      • Disregard for others
      • Persistent lying or stealing
      • Recurring difficulties with the law
      • Repeatedly violating the rights of others
      • Aggressive, often violent behavior
      • Disregard for the safety of self or others

      Borderline personality disorder

      • Impulsive and risky behavior
      • Volatile relationships
      • Unstable mood
      • Suicidal behavior
      • Fear of being alone

      Histrionic personality disorder

      • Constantly seeking attention
      • Excessively emotional
      • Extreme sensitivity to others' approval
      • Unstable mood
      • Excessive concern with physical appearance

      Narcissistic personality disorder
      Believing that you're better than others

      • Fantasizing about power, success and attractiveness
      • Exaggerating your achievements or talents
      • Expecting constant praise and admiration
      • Failing to recognize other people's emotions and feelings

      Cluster C personality disorders
      These are personality disorders characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior and include:

      Avoidant personality disorder

      • Hypersensitivity to criticism or rejection
      • Feeling inadequate
      • Social isolation
      • Extreme shyness in social situations
      • Timidity

      Dependent personality disorder

      • Excessive dependence on others
      • Submissiveness toward others
      • A desire to be taken care of
      • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment
      • Urgent need to start a new relationship when one has ended

      Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

      • Preoccupation with orderliness and rules
      • Extreme perfectionism
      • Desire to be in control of situations
      • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
      • Inflexibility

      Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder isn't the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder, a type of anxiety disorder.

      When to see a doctor
      If you have any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder, see your doctor, mental health provider or other health care professional. Untreated, personality disorders can cause significant problems in your life, and they may get worse without treatment.

      Helping a loved one
      If you have a loved one who you think may have symptoms of a personality disorder, have an open and honest discussion about your concerns. You may not be able to force someone to seek professional care, but you can offer encouragement and support. You can also help your loved one find a qualified doctor or mental health provider and make an appointment. You may even be able to go to an appointment with him or her.


      Complications

      Complications and problems that personality disorders may cause or be associated with include:

      • Depression
      • Anxiety
      • Eating disorders
      • Suicidal behavior
      • Self-injury
      • Reckless behavior
      • Risky sexual behavior
      • Child abuse
      • Alcohol or substance abuse
      • Aggression or violence
      • Incarceration
      • Relationship difficulties
      • Social isolation
      • School and work problems

    Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of a disregard for other people's rights, often crossing the line and violating those rights. It usually begins in childhood or as a teen and continues into their adult lives.

    Antisocial personality disorder is often referred to as psychopathy or sociopathy in popular culture.

    Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder frequently lack empathy and tend to be callous, cynical, and contemptuous of the feelings, rights, and sufferings of others. They may have an inflated and arrogant self-appraisal (e.g., feel that ordinary work is beneath them or lack a realistic concern about their current problems or their future) and may be excessively opinionated, self-assured, or cocky. They may display a glib, superficial charm and can be quite voluble and verbally facile (e.g., using technical terms or jargon that might impress someone who is unfamiliar with the topic). Lack of empathy, inflated self-appraisal, and superficial charm are features that have been commonly included in traditional conceptions of psychopathy and may be particularly distinguishing of Antisocial Personality Disorder in prison or forensic settings where criminal, delinquent, or aggressive acts are likely to be nonspecific. These individuals may also be irresponsible and exploitative in their sexual relationships.

    Symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Antisocial personality disorder is diagnosed when a person's pattern of antisocial behavior has occurred since age 15 (although only adults 18 years or older can be diagnosed with this disorder) and consists of the majority of these symptoms:

    • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
    • Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
    • Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
    • Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
    • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others
    • Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
    • Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it. There should also be evidence of Conduct Disorder in the individual as a child, whether or not it was ever formally diagnosed by a professional.

    Antisocial personality disorder is more prevalent in males (3 percent) versus females (1 percent) in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, antisocial personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Antisocial Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as antisocial personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose antisocial personality disorder.

    Many people with antisocial personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for antisocial personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes antisocial personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of antisocial personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Treatment of antisocial personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see antisocial personality disorder treatment.

    Avoidant Personality Disorder

    People with avoidant personality disorder experience a long-standing feeling of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. This leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of inadequacy and inhibition, the person with avoidant personality disorder will seek to avoid work, school and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others.

    Individuals with Avoidant Personality Disorder often vigilantly appraise the movements and expressions of those with whom they come into contact. Their fearful and tense demeanor may elicit ridicule from others, which in turn confirms their self-doubts. They are very anxious about the possibility that they will react to criticism with blushing or crying. They are described by others as being "shy," "timid," "lonely," and "isolated."

    The major problems associated with this disorder occur in social and occupational functioning. The low self-esteem and hypersensitivity to rejection are associated with restricted interpersonal contacts. These individuals may become relatively isolated and usually do not have a large social support network that can help them weather crises. They desire affection and acceptance and may fantasize about idealized relationships with others. The avoidant behaviors can also adversely affect occupational functioning because these individuals try to avoid the types of social situations that may be important for meeting the basic demands of the job or for advancement.

    Symptoms of Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to what other people think about them, and social inhibition. It typically manifests itself by early adulthood and includes a majority of the following symptoms:

    • Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection
    • Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked
    • Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed
    • Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations
    • Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy
    • Views themself as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others
    • Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Avoidant personality disorder appears to occur between 0.5 and 1.0 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, avoidant personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Avoidant Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as avoidant personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose avoidant personality disorder.

    Many people with avoidant personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for avoidant personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes avoidant personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of avoidant personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Treatment of avoidant personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. avoidant personality disorder treatment.

    Borderline Personality Disorder


    The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive.

    This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood. The unstable pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self-image and early social interactions. The pattern is present in a variety of settings (e.g., not just at work or home) and often is accompanied by a similar lability (fluctuating back and forth, sometimes in a quick manner) in a person’s emotions and feelings. Relationships and the person’s emotion may often be characterized as being shallow.

    A person with this disorder will also often exhibit impulsive behaviors and have a majority of the following symptoms:

    • Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
    • A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation
    • Identity disturbance, such as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of self
    • Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
    • Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
    • Emotional instability due to significant reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)
    • Chronic feelings of emptiness
    • Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)
    • Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Borderline personality disorder is more prevalent in females (75 percent of diagnoses made are in females). It is thought that borderline personality disorder affects approximately 2 percent of the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, borderline personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    Details about Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.

    The perception of impending separation or rejection, or the loss of external structure, can lead to profound changes in self-image, emotion, thinking and behavior. Someone with borderline personality disorder will be very sensitive to things happening around them in their environment. They experience intense abandonment fears and inappropriate anger, even when faced with a realistic separation or when there are unavoidable changes in plans. For instance, becoming very angry with someone for being a few minutes late or having to cancel a lunch date. People with borderline personality disorder may believe that this abandonment implies that they are “bad.” These abandonment fears are related to an intolerance of being alone and a need to have other people with them. Their frantic efforts to avoid abandonment may include impulsive actions such as self-mutilating or suicidal behaviors.

    Unstable and intense relationships.

    People with borderline personality disorder may idealize potential caregivers or lovers at the first or second meeting, demand to spend a lot of time together, and share the most intimate details early in a relationship. However, they may switch quickly from idealizing other people to devaluing them, feeling that the other person does not care enough, does not give enough, is not “there” enough. These individuals can empathize with and nurture other people, but only with the expectation that the other person will “be there” in return to meet their own needs on demand. These individuals are prone to sudden and dramatic shifts in their view of others, who may alternately be seen as beneficient supports or as cruelly punitive. Such shifts other reflect disillusionment with a caregiver whose nurturing qualities had been idealized or whose rejection or abandonment is expected.

    Identity disturbance.

    There are sudden and dramatic shifts in self-image, characterized by shifting goals, values and vocational aspirations. There may be sudden changes in opinions and plans about career, sexual identity, values and types of friends. These individuals may suddenly change from the role of a needy supplicant for help to a righteous avenger of past mistreatment. Although they usually have a self-image that is based on being bad or evil, individuals with borderline personality disorder may at times have feelings that they do not exist at all. Such experiences usually occur in situations in which the individual feels a lack of a meaningful relationship, nurturing and support. These individuals may show worse performance in unstructured work or school situations.

    You can also learn more about the detailed characteristics of borderline personality disorder.

    How is Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose borderline personality disorder.

    Many people with borderline personality disorder don’t seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person’s life. This most often happens when a person’s coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for borderline personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don’t know what causes borderline personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of borderline personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible — rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be “passed down” to their children.

    Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Treatment of borderline personality disorder typically involves long-term sychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see borderline personality disorder treatment.

    Dependent Personality Disorder

    Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing need for the person to be taken care of and a fear of being abandoned or separated from important individuals in his or her life. This leads the person to engage in dependent and submissive behaviors that are designed to elicit care-giving behaviors in others. The dependent behavior may be see as being "clingy" or "clinging on" to others, because the person fears they can't live their lives without the help of others.

    Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder are often characterized by pessimism and self-doubt, tend to belittle their abilities and assets, and may constantly refer to themselves as "stupid." They take criticism and disapproval as proof of their worthlessness and lose faith in themselves. They may seek overprotection and dominance from others. Occupational functioning may be impaired if independent initiative is required. They may avoid positions of responsibility and become anxious when faced with decisions. Social relations tend to be limited to those few people on whom the individual is dependent.

    Chronic physical illness or Separation Anxiety Disorder in childhood or adolescence may predispose an individual to the development of dependent personality disorder.

    Symptoms of Dependent Personality Disorder

    Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive fear that leads to "clinging behavior" and usually manifests itself by early adulthood. It includes a majority of the following symptoms:

    • Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others
    • Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life
    • Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval
    • Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy)
    • Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant
    • Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
    • Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends
    • Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of himself or herself

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Dependent personality disorder is the most commonly diagnosed personality disorder in mental health clinics.

    Like most personality disorders, dependent personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Dependent Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as dependent personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose dependent personality disorder.

    Many people with dependent personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for dependent personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Dependent Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes dependent personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of dependent personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Dependent Personality Disorder

    Treatment of dependent personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see dependent personality disorder treatment.

    Symptoms of
    Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and feel uncomfortable when they are not. While often lively, interesting and sometimes dramatic, they have difficulty when people aren't focused exclusively on them. People with this disorder may be perceived as being shallow, and may engage in sexually seductive or provocating behavior to draw attention to themselves.

    Individuals with Histrionic Personality Disorder may have difficulty achieving emotional intimacy in romantic or sexual relationships. Without being aware of it, they often act out a role (e.g., "victim" or "princess") in their relationships to others. They may seek to control their partner through emotional manipulation or seductiveness on one level, whereas displaying a marked dependency on them at another level.

    Individuals with this disorder often have impaired relationships with same-sex friends because their sexually provocative interpersonal style may seem a threat to their friends' relationships. These individuals may also alienate friends with demands for constant attention. They often become depressed and upset when they are not the center of attention.

    People with histrionic personality disorder may crave novelty, stimulation, and excitement and have a tendency to become bored with their usual routine. These individuals are often intolerant of, or frustrated by, situations that involve delayed gratification, and their actions are often directed at obtaining immediate satisfaction. Although they often initiate a job or project with great enthusiasm, their interest may lag quickly.

    Longer-term relationships may be neglected to make way for the excitement of new relationships.

    Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

    • Is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention
    • Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior
    • Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
    • Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to themself
    • Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
    • Shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion
    • Is highly suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances
    • Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Histrionic personality disorder is more prevalent in females than males. It occurs about 2 to 3 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, histrionic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Histrionic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as histrionic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose histrionic personality disorder.

    Many people with histrionic personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for histrionic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes histrionic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of histrionic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Treatment of histrionic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see histrionic personality disorder treatment.

    Symptoms of
    Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Also Known as Multiple Personality Disorder

    The presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self). At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. Inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts or chaotic behavior during Alcohol Intoxication) or a general medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures). Note: In children, the symptoms are not attributable to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play. •What is Dissociation? Do people really have multiple personalities? •The Differences Between Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia and Multiple Personality Disorder •General Treatment Guidelines for Multiple Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others. People with this disorder often believe they are of primary importance in everybody's life or to anyone they meet. While this pattern of behavior may be appropriate for a king in 16th Century England, it is generally considered inappropriate for most ordinary people today.

    People with narcissistic personality disorder often display snobbish, disdainful, or patronizing attitudes. For example, an individual with this disorder may complain about a clumsy waiter's "rudeness" or "stupidity" or conclude a medical evaluation with a condescending evaluation of the physician.

    In laypeople terms, someone with this disorder may be described simply as a "narcissist" or as someone with "narcissism." Both of these terms generally refer to someone with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    In order for a person to be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) they must meet five or more of the following symptoms:

    • Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
    • Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
    • Believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
    • Requires excessive admiration
    • Has a very strong sense of entitlement, e.g., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
    • Is exploitative of others, e.g., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends
    • Lacks empathy, e.g., is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
    • Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
    • Regularly shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Narcissistic personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and is thought to occur in less than 1 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, narcissistic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    Learn more about the symptoms and characteristics of someone with narcissitic personality disorder.

    How is Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as narcissistic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose personality disorder.

    Many people with narcissistic personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for narcissistic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes narcissistic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of narcissistic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. This

    When rules and established procedures do not dictate the correct answer, decision making may become a time-consuming, often painful process. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder may have such difficulty deciding which tasks take priority or what is the best way of doing some particular task that they may never get started on anything.

    They are prone to become upset or angry in situations in which they are not able to maintain control of their physical or interpersonal environment, although the anger is typically not expressed directly. For example, a person may be angry when service in a restaurant is poor, but instead of complaining to the management, the individual ruminates about how much to leave as a tip. On other occasions, anger may be expressed with righteous indignation over a seemingly minor matter.

    People with this disorder may be especially attentive to their relative status in dominance-submission relationships and may display excessive deference to an authority they respect and excessive resistance to authority that they do not respect.

    Individuals with this disorder usually express affection in a highly controlled or stilted fashion and may be very uncomfortable in the presence of others who are emotionally expressive. Their everyday relationships have a formal and serious quality, and they may be stiff in situations in which others would smile and be happy (e.g., greeting a lover at the airport). They carefully hold themselves back until they are sure that whatever they say will be perfect. They may be preoccupied with logic and intellect.

    Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

    A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

    • Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
    • Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
    • Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
    • Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
    • Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
    • Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
    • Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
    • Shows significant rigidity and stubbornness

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder is approximately twice as prevalent in males than females, and occurs in about 1 percent of the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Many people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder

    Treatment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Paranoid Personality Disorder

    People with paranoid personality disorder are generally characterized by having a long-standing pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. A person with paranoid personality disorder will nearly always believe that other people's motives are suspect or even malevolent. Individuals with this disorder assume that other people will exploit, harm, or deceive them, even if no evidence exists to support this expectation. While it is fairly normal for everyone to have some degree of paranoia about certain situations in their lives (such as worry about an impending set of layoffs at work), people with paranoid personality disorder take this to an extreme -- it pervades virtually every professional and personal relationship they have.

    Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder are generally difficult to get along with and often have problems with close relationships. Their excessive suspiciousness and hostility may be expressed in overt argumentativeness, in recurrent complaining, or by quiet, apparently hostile aloofness. Because they are hypervigilant for potential threats, they may act in a guarded, secretive, or devious manner and appear to be "cold" and lacking in tender feelings. Although they may appear to be objective, rational, and unemotional, they more often display a labile range of affect, with hostile, stubborn, and sarcastic expressions predominating. Their combative and suspicious nature may elicit a hostile response in others, which then serves to confirm their original expectations.

    Because individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder lack trust in others, they have an excessive need to be self-sufficient and a strong sense of autonomy. They also need to have a high degree of control over those around them. They are often rigid, critical of others, and unable to collaborate, and they have great difficulty accepting criticism.

    Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

    • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her
    • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates
    • Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her
    • Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
    • Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
    • Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack
    • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Paranoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and occurs somewhere between 0.5 and 2.5 percent in the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, paranoid personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Paranoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as paranoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose paranoid personality disorder.

    Many people with paranoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for paranoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes paranoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of paranoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Treatment of paranoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships. A person with schizoid personality disorder often has difficulty expression emotions and does so typically in very restricted range, especially when communicating with others.

    A person with this disorder may appear to lack a desire for intimacy, and will avoid close relationships with others. They may often prefer to spend time with themselves rather than socialize or be in a group of people. In laypeople terms, a person with schizoid personality disorder might be thought of as the typical "loner."

    Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder may have particular difficulty expressing anger, even in response to direct provocation, which contributes to the impression that they lack emotion. Their lives sometimes seem directionless, and they may appear to "drift" in their goals. Such individuals often react passively to adverse circumstances and have difficulty responding appropriately to important life events. Because of their lack of social skills and lack of desire for sexual experiences, individuals with this disorder have few friendships, date infrequently, and often do not marry. Employment or work functioning may be impaired, particularly if interpersonal involvement is required, but individuals with this disorder may do well when they work under conditions of social isolation.

    Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

    • Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
    • Almost always chooses solitary activities
    • Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
    • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
    • Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
    • Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
    • Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Schizoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females. Its prevalence in the general population is not known.

    Like most personality disorders, schizoid personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as schizoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizoid personality disorder.

    Many people with schizoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for schizoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes schizoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Treatment of schizoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others. A person with schizotypal personality disorder may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior.

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often have ideas of reference (e.g., they have incorrect interpretations of casual incidents and external events as having a particular and unusual meaning specifically for the person). People with this disorder may be unusually superstitious or preoccupied with paranormal phenomena that are outside the norms of their subculture.

    Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often seek treatment for the associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other dysphoric affects rather than for the personality disorder features per se.

    Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

    • Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)
    • Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or "sixth sense"; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)
    • Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions
    • Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)
    • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
    • Inappropriate or constricted affect
    • Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar
    • Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
    • Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self

    As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.

    Schizotypal personality disorder appears in less than 3 percent of the general population.

    Like most personality disorders, schizotypal personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

    How is Schizotypal Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

    Personality disorders such as schizotypal personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizotypal personality disorder.

    Many people with schizotypal personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

    A diagnosis for schizotypal personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

    Causes of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Researchers today don't know what causes schizotypal personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizotypal personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.

    Treatment of Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Treatment of schizotypal personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.


    Doctor(Physician)License
    Medical Education Resources for Specific Types of Aspiring and Existing Physicians
    Where are medical education resources for specific types of aspiring physicians and existing physicians?
    Here are further guidelines: www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    Where are guidelines for specific patients or their relatives and well-wishers?
    Here are further guidelines: www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    Medical college or medical education resources relevant recommendations in various states.

    What are various medical colleges or medical education resources relevant recommendations in various states?
    Courses: Do not elaborate like MBBS, MD, MS, Mch, DM, MS PG, PG Diploma, DM

    What are requirements for specific types of physicians in various states around the world?
    Take a look at this.
    At least 16 types of specific physicians.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html#
    Specific types of physicians with seniority within and outside the state around the world.

    There are 16 types of specific physician required at this point in every state.
    Your MBBS, MD, MS, Mch, DM, MS PG, PG Diploma, and DM courses do not explain all of these 16 specific types of physicians.

    Existing physicians at various locations around the world.

    What is known about existing individuals claiming to be specific physicians?
    Everyone knows you people have been selected with fraud, deceit, bribery, and cheating.
    You must publicly prove your competence by circulating human healthcare guidelines at least through the Internet.
    If any human healthcare emergency issues come up, these are your duties to prove that you are competent and can guide others.

    Slowly early retirement must be sought for those individuals who cannot publicly at least through the Internet prove their competence. This was circulated on September 10, 2016.

    Who is circulating these guidelines?
    Name of physician: Doctor Asif Qrueshi
    Date of birth: March 30, 1967
    Address: 5042 N. Winthrop Ave. #237, Chicago, Illinois 60640, verified on April 19, 2016
    Physician specified license valid for: Indefinitely
    Doctor Asif Qureshi has been a licensed physician since 1993. His original physician license was issued in Karnataka, Asia.
    Physician type: Guide to mentioned physicians
    1. Physician primary care aspiring

    2. Physician primary care existing

    3. Physician intensive care unit aspiring

    4. Physician intensive care unit existing.

    5. Physician medical emergency room aspiring

    6. Physician medical emergency room existing

    7. Physician medical emergency responder aspiring

    8. Physician medical emergency responder existing

    9. Physician surgeon medical emergency aspiring

    10. Physician surgeon medical emergency existing

    11. Physician surgeon elective surgery aspiring

    12. Physician surgeon elective surgery existing

    13. Physician anesthetist medical emergency aspiring

    14. Physician anesthetist medical emergency existing

    15. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients) aspiring

    16. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients) existing

    17. Physician forensic psychiatry aspiring

    18. Physician forensic psychiatry existing

    19. Physician forensic pathology aspiring

    20. Physician forensic pathology existing

    21. Physician Internet aspiring

    22. Physician Internet existing

    Physician hospitalists (take care of hospital ward patients) must be able to enhance other human healthcare settings annually, such as primary healthcare, Internet human healthcare, medical emergency room healthcare, and other settings, to get their License of Physician hospitalist (taking care of hospital ward patients).

    Guidelines for future review for others physicians have been placed in writing on the Internet.
    Abilities to guide other professions are elaborated on at the mentioned resources (more than 909 professions):
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/professionsworld.html
    Type of posting: Exempt posting

    Every state has enough buildings for human healthcare resources.
    Quality of medical education resources for aspiring and existing specific physicians needs to be enhanced.
    Here are further guidelines www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    Here are further guidelines.

    A–Z alphabetical listing of human health emergency symptoms and signs.
    Emergency Medicine/Global Medicine
    Medical Emergency
    Patient assessment
    Medical emergencies.
    Where is the patient now?

    ________________________________________

    What seems to be the issue or issues?

    ________________________________________

    What are examples of emergency relevant to an individual?
    What are various symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, and histories that should raise suspicion of a medical emergency?


    There are at least 155 such symptoms, signs, statements, questions, issues, histories, and scenarios.
    1. Agitated Patient (Acute stress reaction.)

    2. Attempted suicide.

    3. Attempted homicide.

    4. Abuse.

    5. Abdominal Pain.(Stomach pain)

    6. Altered sensorium.

    7. Any sudden or severe pain.

    8. Animal bites (may require rabies or tetanus shot).

    9. Armed Robbery.

    10. Allergic reactions.

    11. Breathing difficulties.

    12. Behavior that is dangerous to self or others and cannot be managed.

    13. Bleeding from any orifice or any part of human body that will not stop.

    14. Bleeding which does not stop after applying pressure.

    15. Being beaten by someone.

    16. Burns.

    17. Bites.

    18. Bloody Sputum

    19. Broken bones.

    20. Behavior-related emergencies.

    21. Change in mental status (such as unusual behavior, confusion, and difficulty arousing).

    22. Changes in vision.

    23. Chest pain.

    24. Choking.

    25. Cough with fever.

    26. Coughing up or vomiting blood.

    27. Confusion or changes in mental status

    28. Cuts and abrasions.

    29. Chest or upper abdominal pain or pressure lasting two minutes or more.

    30. Diarrhea

    31. Difficulty breathing.

    32. Difficulty speaking.

    33. Disoriented.

    34. Difficulty getting up.

    35. Difficulty in passing urine.

    36. Difficulty in passing feces.

    37. Domestic Violence

    38. Dramatic change in facial expression or demeanor.

    39. Drowning or near drowning

    40. Dental emergencies.

    41. Emergency diagnosis and treatment in neonatal period.

    42. Emergency diagnosis and treatment after neonatal period.

    43. Earaches and ear infections.

    44. Electrical injury shock.

    45. Emergency Food

    46. Environmental factors (hostile environment).

    47. Evidence of pain or discomfort that is not easily explained.

    48. Fainting.

    49. Fever.

    50. Foreign bodies in nose or ears.

    51. Fainting or loss of consciousness.

    52. Fainting, sudden dizziness, weakness, seizure.

    53. Feeling of committing suicide or murder.

    54. Fever with breathlessness. (Onset of fever of 101 degrees or higher.)

    55. Functional impairment (not taking care of self. inability to gain relevant skills and knowledge relevant to age).

    56. Human Rights Violations

    57. Head or spine injury.

    58. Head injury.

    59. Human Pregnancy Emergencies

    60. Hypothermia - frostbite.

    61. Head pain that lasts longer than five minutes.

    62. Holding abdomen.

    63. Infection at injury site.

    64. Intentional enforced harms.

    65. Involuntary admission to a psychiatric facility

    66. Loss of consciousness.

    67. Loss of consciousness not related to a seizure

    68. Loosening of social inhibitions.

    69. Likely to be harmful to self or others.

    70. Low abdominal pain.

    71. Medicine overdose.

    72. Major burns.

    73. Medicolegal cases

    74. Nosebleeds.

    75. New or sudden onset of incontinence.

    76. No pulse

    77. Onset of limping, inability to walk, or difficulty in movement.

    78. Pain.

    79. Palpitations.

    80. Poisoning.

    81. Poisoning including overdoses of medication.

    82. Persistent or severe vomiting.

    83. Persistent unexplained fever even with Tylenol use.

    84. Puncture wounds.

    85. Personality disorders (harmful to others). Panic attacks.

    86. Psychosis(delusions, hallucinations, catatonia, thought disorder, loss of contact with reality).

    87. Rape.

    88. Pregnancy-related emergencies.

    89. Possible serious bone fractures.

    90. Rapid change in behavior or an increase in challenging behavior such as aggression or self-injurious behavior.

    91. Rashes.

    92. Rash lasting several days or getting worse.

    93. Scratching (Intense)

    94. Severe sore throat/difficulty swallowing.

    95. Survival Needs

    96. Starvation

    97. Suicidal feelings.

    98. Surgical Emergencies

    99. Significant trauma (to the head, stomach, chest)

    100. Syncope.

    101. Seizures.

    102. Seizure lasting over five minutes or continuous seizures

    103. Severe asthmatic attack when prescribed medications do not work

    104. Severe injuries as a result of accidents such as broken bones

    105. Severe reactions to a medication with difficulty breathing or itching.

    106. Severe reactions to insect bites or other previously unknown allergic reactions

    107. Sore throat & fever

    108. Sunburn.

    109. Severe neck or back injury.

    110. Sexual intercourse due to conspiracy.

    111. Severe or persistent vomiting.

    112. Severe or persistent vomiting or diarrhea.

    113. Severe headache.

    114. Severe burns.

    115. Severe pain in any part of the body that does not subside.

    116. Serious drug reactions with psychiatric or non-psychiatric medications.

    117. Syncope or unconsciousness.

    118. Sudden or severe pain.

    119. Sudden loss of vision.

    120. Suicidal or homicidal feelings.

    121. Sudden asthma attack that does not stop.

    122. Sudden numbness or not being able to move an arm, leg, or one side of the body.

    123. Sever headache with fever or vomiting.

    124. Sudden injury or trauma due to a motor vehicle crash, burns, smoke inhalation, near drowning, wound, etc.

    125. Substance abuse.

    126. Sudden severe pain anywhere in the body.

    127. Sudden dizziness, weakness, or change in vision.

    128. Swallowing a poisonous substance.

    129. Shock symptoms, e.g., confusion, disorientation, cool/clammy, pale skin.

    130. Severe or persistent vomiting or diarrhea.

    131. Sleeping most of the day; unusual difficulty in arousing; unusual fatigue.

    132. Stroke or suspected stroke (paralysis, numbness, confusion)

    133. Swelling that is new

    134. Trauma with unconsciousness.

    135. Trauma with cuts, sprains, or abrasions.

    136. Trauma with open fracture.

    137. Trauma with pain on mobility.

    138. Trauma with swelling.

    139. Unable to detect breathing

    140. Unconsciousness.

    141. Unconsciousness with diabetes.

    142. Unconsciousness at a public location.

    143. Sudden unconsciousness at home.

    144. Unable to move

    145. Uncontrolled bleeding

    146. Upper abdominal pain.

    147. Uncontrolled bleeding.

    148. Unusual abdominal pain.

    149. Unusual or persistent abdominal pain.

    150. Unexplained stupor, drowsiness or disorientation.

    151. Violence

    152. Violence or other rapid changes in behavior.

    153. Vomiting

    154. Vomiting or coughing blood.

    155. Vomiting and diarrhea.
    What will happen if you do not diagnose and treat a medical emergency properly?
    It can lead to death.
    It can lead to disability.
    It can lead to other harms.
    It can lead to medical malpractice.
    It can lead to legal malpractice.

    Techniques
    Techniques Relevant to Human Healthcare for Specific Physicians
    Existing Medical and Surgical Techniques
    New Medical Techniques
    New Surgical Techniques
    Categories of techniques

    What are various categories of techniques?
    Alphabetical listing of techniques.
    Techniques relevant to specific professions.
    Techniques relevant to specific departments inside and outside the state.
    Techniques can also be categorized as per departments in the state, subjects, age, and profession.
    Here we are elaborating on techniques useful for specific physicians.

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/techniques.html

    Take a look at this.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/technique.html

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/techniques.html

    Difference between a technique and a trick.

    What should you know before you decide to learn any technique?
    Difference between a technique and a trick.

    Is there difference between a technique and a trick?
    Yes.

    What is the difference between a technique and a trick?
    A technique relevant to the situation is justified.
    A trick is not justified.
    A trick is an unfair or unpleasant thing that you do in order to harm someone.
    Do not even think of using any trick.
    Sooner or later you and others will be caught and punished.

    Surgical procedures

    What are the various surgical procedures?
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/listofsurgicalprocedures.html
    Surgical emergencies
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgicalemergencies1.html

    Elective surgery
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/electivesurgery.html

    Surgical Skills

    Do you know various surgical skills?
    What are various surgical skills?


    What is a surgical technique?
    A systematic surgical procedure by which a medical condition is treated.

    What questions should you answer in case you introduce new surgical technique?
    Is this a new surgical technique or already listed in surgical skills practiced by others on human beings?


    New Surgical Technique

    Is there any specific name for this new surgical technique?
    What is the name of this new surgical technique?
    Have you discussed with other doctors the benefits, complications, and harms due to this new surgical technique?
    For what type of patients is diagnosis and treatment with this new surgical technique useful?
    How is this surgical technique going to improve the condition of the patient?
    How is this surgical technique performed, from beginning to end?
    For what medical condition is this surgical technique the only option of treatment?
    What issues is this medical condition causing the patient?
    What complications can occur due to this surgical technique?

    Emergency Diagnosis and Treatment
    What are the types of patient assessment?
    Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.
    Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.
    Patient 60-second assessment in trauma.
    Patient 10-minutes assessment in a medical emergency room.
    Patient-focused history and physical exam.
    Comprehensive patient assessment.


    What is a medical emergency?
    If a human being has any problem, symptom, complaint, or situation listed below, it is a medical emergency.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalemergency.html

    What best describes the problem, symptom, complaint, or situation in the list?

    _________________________

    What type of assessment does this patient need?

    _________________________

    What will happen if this medical condition is left without treatment?

    _________________________

    The individual can die.
    The individual can have a disability.
    The individual can have severe pain.
    The individual can have irreparable harm.

    Does this situation need a doctor?

    _________________________

    What should be displayed on an emergency medical record?
    Details of the patient.
    Details of the diagnosing and treating medical doctor.


    Details of the patient.

    What should be your first question in case a patient is referred to you?

    Patient 60-second assessment by call center/Internet/telemedicine.

    Where is the patient now?

    _________________________

    How old is the patient?

    _________________________

    What is the gender of the patient?

    _________________________

    Who is reporting this emergency?

    _________________________

    What are the sources of medical history?

    _________________________

    Patient.
    Family.
    Patient not responding to medical history questions.
    Community member.
    Police officer.
    Referral from medical doctor.
    Other.

    How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?

    _________________________

    Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

    _________________________

    How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

    _________________________

    A medical emergency with an individual victim.
    A multiple casualty incident.
    Do you think this is a multiple causality incident?
    If it is a multiple causality incident, the guidelines are different.

    Check vital signs, mobility, and survival needs.

    Consciousness of a human being has to be included in vital signs.

    Vital Signs

    Consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature.

    Consciousness is extremely essential in reaching a correct diagnosis and treatment.

    What are the vital signs on the date and time of diagnosis and treatment?

    Date: Time: Consciousness: Pulse: Blood pressure: Respiratory rate: Temperature:
    ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
    ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
    ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

    How do you categorize the condition of the patient?

    _________________________

    Undetermined
    Good
    Fair
    Serious
    Critical

    Is this an emergency?

    _________________________

    What is the category of this emergency?

    _________________________

    Is this a medical emergency?

    _________________________

    In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

    _________________________
    Here are various examples.
    Critical care
    Coroner investigations
    Emergency room health care
    Emergency call center
    Hospital ward
    Home health care
    Internet human health care services
    Labor, delivery, and recovery rooms
    Medicolegal cases
    On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment
    Operating rooms
    Other


    Who has the duty to manage this emergency?

    _________________________

    What best describes this human emergency?

    _________________________

    Medical emergency
    Surgical emergency
    Trauma emergency
    Pediatric emergency
    Obstetrical/gynecological emergency
    Medico legal case
    Patient assessment
    Patient 60-second on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.

    What problems, complaints, incidents, and issues need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
    Unconsciousness at a public location.
    Sudden unconsciousness at home.
    Trauma
    Survival Needs
    Seizures
    Burns
    Drowning
    Human Pregnancy Emergencies
    Here are further guidelines.
    What is the reason for consultation?

    _________________________

    What seems to be the problem?

    _________________________

    How much time has elapsed from the start of the emergency until now?

    _________________________

    Does one individual or many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

    _________________________

    How many individuals have medical emergencies at this location?

    _________________________

    What best describes your problem?

    _________________________

    Patient Name:________________________

    Referred by:_________________________

    Mailing Address:_____________________

    Telephone:___________________________

    Your Email Address:__________________

    Date of Birth:_______________________

    Gender: Male Female

    Primary Care Physician Name, Address and Phone:__________________

    Emergency Contact Name:______________

    Relationship:________________________

    Phone:_______________________________

    Your Height:_________________________

    Your Weight:_________________________

    Race::_______________________________

    White
    Black/African American
    Hispanic/Latino
    Pacific Islander
    Asian
    Asian/American

    Conscious

    Can the patient talk?
    Can the patient respond to verbal questions accurately?
    Can the patient do spontaneous eye opening?
    Does the patient respond to painful stimulus?
    Is the patient conscious, oriented in time, space, and person?
    Conscious means able to see, hear, and talk.
    In pediatric patients younger than six months of age, the ability to make any verbal noise or cry is equivalent to talking.

    What is the location of patient at the point of the medical emergency?
    Can the patient talk relevant to age?
    Can the patient walk relevant to age?
    Are consciousness, pulse, blood pressure, and respiratory rate normal relevant to age?
    What is the cause of the existing emergency medical scenario?

    Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.

    Emergency medical history

    What questions should you ask in emergency medical history?
    How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a conscious patient?
    Are you the person reporting a medical emergency for yourself?
    Emergency
    How do you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of an unconscious patient?
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalhistory.html

    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/vitals.html
    Mobility
    Survival Needs
    Details of the diagnosing and treating medical doctor.

    What is the name, date of birth, phone number, and other contact information of the person diagnosing and treating this patient?

    _____________________________________________

    What is the date and time you are diagnosing and treating this patient?

    _____________________________________________

    What is the location of the patient at the time you are diagnosing and treating this patient?

    _____________________________________________

    What best describes the location of diagnosis and treatment of this case?
    1. On-the-spot diagnosis and treatment.
    2. Emergency room diagnosis and treatment.
    3. In the hospital diagnosis and treatment.
    4. Long-distance health care advice.
    5. Other
    _____________________________________________
    Can you reach a correct diagnosis and treatment of a human being?

    _____________________________________________

    What is the diagnosis of this patient?

    _____________________________________________

    How did your reach this diagnosis?

    _____________________________________________

    What is the treatment for this patient?

    _____________________________________________

    Does the patient need to be transferred to a medical emergency room?

    _____________________________________________

    In America up to February 12, 2012, most emergency medical records did not have these facts.

    In what emergency medical category do you fit the condition of the patient you are diagnosing and treating on this date and time?

    Undetermined, Good, Fair, Serious, Critical.

    If on-the-spot diagnosis of a patient declared in serious or critical condition, arrange a bed in the Intensive Care unit.

    Date of Examination:_________________________

    Physician Name:_________________________

    Physician Address:_________________________

    Are all vital signs normal?

    ________________________________________

    Can the person move relevant to age?

    ________________________________________

    Has the person been provided with survival resources?

    ________________________________________

    Does the person or caregiver complaint of anything?

    ________________________________________

    Are these justified complaints?

    ________________________________________

    Is it a Medical Emergency?

    ___________________________

    In what type of setting does this patient need treatment?

    ___________________________

    Do any recent causes lead to this problem; for example, trauma, missed medication, inadequate survival needs, stress, or other issue?

    ___________________________

    What are further details?

    ___________________________

    Does any past medical history lead to this problem?

    ___________________________

    Is there any recent history within past few minutes or hours of any of the following:
    1.Unconsciousness at a public location.
    2.Sudden unconsciousness at home.
    3.Trauma.
    4.Survival needs issues.
    5.Seizures.
    6.Burns.
    7.Drowning.


    ___________________________

    If there is even one recent history of the above, on the spot diagnosis and treatment is required.

    Is the victim's condition life or limb threatening?

    ___________________________

    Could the victim's condition worsen and become life or limb-threatening on the way to the hospital?

    ___________________________

    Could moving the victim cause further injury?

    ___________________________

    Does the victim need the skills or equipment of paramedics or emergency medical technicians?

    ___________________________

    Would distance or traffic conditions cause a delay in getting the victim to the hospital?

    ___________________________

    What have been his activities for the last 10 years?

    ___________________________

    Does the individual use or abuse any of these substances?
    Alcohol.
    Drugs.
    Tobacco.

    ___________________________

    Is the individual on any medication?

    ___________________________

    Questions doctor on duty needs to answer.

    Is it a medical emergency?

    ___________________________

    What is the diagnosis?

    ___________________________

    In what setting/location does this medical condition need treatment?
    Treatment required on the spot.
    Treatment required in the medical emergency room.
    Treatment required in the intensive care unit.
    Treatment required in the ward.
    Treatment required in the operating room.
    Treatment required at home.
    Treatment required Internet health care.
    Treatment required in OPD consultation.

    ___________________________

    What treatment do you recommend for this patient?

    ___________________________

    What are other treatment options for this patient?
    No other treatment option.
    Other treatment options are enumerated.

    ___________________________

    Prescription
    Here are further guidelines.
    http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/medicalemergencysymptoms.html

    New Medical Colleges’ Opening Issues in Various States
    Should you open new medical colleges in any state from June 4, 2017, onwards?
    No.

    Why should no new medical colleges be opened?
    Existing medical colleges in various states are in horrible conditions.
    Existing healthcare services in every state are in horrible conditions.
    The curriculum is not up to date.
    Specific physicians are not being educated relevant to existing requirements.
    Specific physicians are not publicly guiding the public, aspiring physicians, and existing physicians.

    Why was there need to elaborate on these issues?
    On June 4, 2017, news was circulated from Srinagar, Kashmir, that 5 new medical colleges were being opened in Kashmir, with an intake capacity of 100 MBBS students. This is more than enough proof that those who circulated this information do not know the existing requirement of specific medical doctors. MBBS must be discarded. Requirements for the mentioned specialists must be circulated.

    What is the requirement at this point of every state relevant to specific medical doctors?
    18 specific types of physicians are required.
    Direct selection of the 18 specific types of physicians must proceed.

    What types of physicians are required at this point within and outside the state?
    1. Physician Internet Human health services. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    2. Physician guide for at least 18 types of physicians. http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/health.html

    3. Physician primary care
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/primarycarephysician.html

    4. Physician intensive care unit
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/criticalcareworld.html

    5. Physician medical emergency room
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicinedoctor.html

    6. Physician medical emergency responder
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/emergencymedicalresponder.html

    7. Physician surgeon medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    8. Physician surgeon elective surgery
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/surgeryworld.html

    9. Physician anesthetist medical emergency
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/anesthesiologist.html

    10. Physician guide to physician or physicians
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/healthcareworld.html

    11. Physician hospitalist (takes care of hospital ward patients)
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/hospitalist.html

    12. Physician forensic psychiatry
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpsychiatrist.html

    13. Physician Forensic Pathology
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/forensicpathologist.html

    14. Physical Therapist
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicaltherapist.html

    15. Physician director of public health of the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorpublichealth.html

    16. Physician director of health of the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physiciandirectorhealth.html

    17. Physician medical superintendent of a hospital in the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianmedicalsuperintendent.html

    18. Physician of public health in the state.
      http://www.qureshiuniversity.org/physicianpublichealthworld.html

    I can guide all of them.
    Declares Doctor Asif Qureshi.
    A forensic psychiatrist is a rare entity.
    All subordinates must do research every day relevant to their specific profession.

    Interview specific human healthcare executives inside and outside the state.

    Samia Rashid has been circulated as the principal of the government medical college in Srinagar.

    Let’s interview her.

    What are the duties of the director of public health of the state?

    What are the duties of the director of health of the state?

    What are the duties of the principal of the medical college, for example the principal of the government medical college in Srinagar?

    How many specific physicians are in the state at this point relevant to the 18 mentioned specific medical specialties on June 4, 2017?

    Where are the profiles of all the medical doctors displayed on the Internet for the 18 medical specialties on June 4, 2017, in the state?

    How many and what specific types of physicians can you guide?

    What are the various human healthcare issues in the state that need to be fixed immediately?

    Samia Rashid: What did you understand from complaint at http://www.nazianazirqazi.org/ facts?

    How do you plan to improve healthcare services in the state?

    You are required to answer these questions publicly before 1 PM on June 7, 2017.


    Samia Rashid failed to answer questions relevant to her profession on or before 1 PM on June 7, 2017.
    Even as of June 22, 2017, Samia Rashid was not able to answer the relevant questions.

    Samia Rashid, you are being given another chance to prove your competence.
    You are required to answer these questions publicly through the Internet on or before 1 PM your local time on June 29, 2017.

    What are the duties of the director of public health of the state?

    What are the duties of the director of health of the state?

    What are the duties of the principal of the medical college, for example the principal of the government medical college in Srinagar?

    How many specific physicians are in the state at this point relevant to the 18 mentioned specific medical specialties on June 29, 2017?

    Where are the profiles of all the medical doctors displayed on the Internet for the 18 medical specialties on June 29, 2017, in the state?

    How many and what specific types of physicians can you guide?

    What are the various human healthcare issues in the state that need to be fixed immediately?

    Samia Rashid: What did you understand from complaint at http://www.nazianazirqazi.org/ facts?

    How do you plan to improve healthcare services in the state?

    What are the types of physicians?

    What are the types of physicians according to human healthcare setting?

    What are the duties of the medical superintendent of a hospital in the state?

    What are the duties of the supervisor of the medical emergency room in the state?

    How many medical emergency locations are there in the state?

    What are the duties of the supervisor of the critical care unit in the state?

    How many critical care units are located in the state?

    Who has the responsibility to supervise primary care physicians in the state?

    Who has the responsibility to supervise medical emergency responders in the state?

    What are examples of various medicolegal cases inside and outside the state?

    What should happen if Samia Rashid again fails to answer these questions?

    The nomination of new principal of the government medical college in Srinagar.
    Samia Rashid cannot serve as any kind of physician.
    Samia Rashid cannot even enter any hospital premises.
    Samia Rashid should be declared incompetent pending further investigations and as additional harms unfold.

    Who must be named the new principal of the government medical college in Srinagar?
    A person who can answer these questions publicly through the Internet.
    This requires a person who has extensive experience in human healthcare as a physician in the real world.

    Interview with A. G. Ahangar Soura Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, July 12, 2017.

    How do you prove there are criminal lobbies within the system?

    A. G. Ahangar, in your interview uploaded July 2, 2017, you seem to have praised Sheikh Abdullah, Farooq Abdullah, Omar Abdullah, and Mehbooba Mufti: Where have they displayed specific guidelines July 2, 2017, for specific physicians who deserve praise?

    Where on the Internet is a roster from SKIMS relevant to physicians on duty in the ER, ICU, wards, ER surgery, elective surgery, primary care, medical superintendents, public health, forensic psychiatrists, forensic pathologists, labs, and administrative issues?

    A. G. Ahangar SKIMS Srinagar: If the medical superintendent of SKIMS is there, why do we need a person like you?

    A. G. Ahangar SKIMS Srinagar: Do you know those who participated in the portal hypertension CME on July 2, 2017, have various criminal complaints against them?

    A. G. Ahangar: What do you understand about a criminal complaint against you and those with whom you have associated?

    A. G. Ahangar: What did you understand from the complaint at http://www.nazianazirqazi.org/facts?


    We will stop this here; once we get answers to these questions, we will proceed again.

    A. G. Ahangar Soura Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, you are required to answer these questions publicly by 1 PM on or before Tuesday July 18, 2017.

    The failure of A. G. Ahangar Soura Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, to answer these questions publicly by 1 PM on or before Tuesday July 18, 2017, will result in all duties being mainly managed by the superintendent of the Soura Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, with additional staff.

    What is the audience for these resources?
    Entire world population.

    Who has established these resources?
    Doctor Asif Qureshi
    Doctor Asif Qureshi can guide all types of physicians. In addition to physicians, Doctor Asif Qureshi can guide a teacher, lawyer, engineer, and other executives in the state and outside the state.
    When was this resource last updated?
    Last Updated: January 3, 2018