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Human Organ Systems functions
Is there a difference between human organ system functions and abilities?

What is the difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
Human pulse, blood pressure, temperature, consciousness, and respiratory rate are signs of human organ system functions.
These signs exist from birth onwards. These are signs of human organ system functions; they are not abilities.
Abilities are learned gradually after birth.

This example will make you understand.
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.

If an individual does not have English language reading, speaking, understanding, and writing abilities, that does not mean there is impairment of human organ system functions.
These are all learned abilities.
If an individual is educated properly, he or she will learn these abilities.

What should be goals of your school education?
Learn abilities.
General abilities are learned at school.
Professional abilities are learned in professional training programs.

At this resource, www.qureshiuniversity.com, there are general abilities guidelines and professional abilities guidelines.

How many abilities does an individual learn from birth up to 18 years?

What are various examples of human abilities?
  1. Ability to Adapt

  2. Ability to delegate

  3. Able to concentrate

  4. Able to coordinate

  5. Accepting Differences

  6. Accepting responsibility

  7. Accumulate

  8. Action planning

  9. Action planning

  10. Activities of Everyday Living

  11. Adaptability

  12. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers.

  13. Adjusting controls

  14. Adjusting functional parts

  15. Administrative Skills

  16. Administer

  17. Administrative

  18. Advise

  19. Age-specific English language

  20. Age-specific social skills (Social Sciences)

  21. Algebra

  22. Aligning fixture

  23. Ambitious

  24. Amuse

  25. Analysis and Research

  26. Analytical Ability

  27. Analytical Reasoning

  28. Analyze data or facts

  29. Analyzing

  30. Analyzing—seeing implications and relationships, picking and investigations

  31. Answer

  32. Appoint

  33. Appraise

  34. Arbitrate

  35. Arrange

  36. Arrange social functions

  37. Arrive on time

  38. Articulate

  39. Artistic

  40. Asking questions—learning to formulate good questions, to

  41. Assertive

  42. Assertiveness

  43. Assertiveness in interviews

  44. Assign

  45. Assigning/Delegating

  46. Assist

  47. Attend

  48. Audit

  49. Audit records

  50. Auditory Processing

  51. Auditory Reception

  52. Authorize

  53. Balancing principles

  54. Basic Clerical skills

  55. Basic mechanics

  56. Basic Skills (Essential skills)

  57. Bathing

  58. be selective in asking

  59. Behavioral Interview Questions

  60. Behavioral Skills

  61. Behavioral Skills (supervisors)

  62. Being between alternatives

  63. Brushing your teeth is a learned human ability.

  64. Bookkeeping

  65. Budget

  66. Budgeting

  67. Calculate

  68. Calculate, compute

  69. Calculating

  70. Calibrate

  71. Calibrating—learning the basic information about calibration, calibrating a thermometer, balance, timer,

  72. Capable

  73. Career Skills

  74. Caring

  75. Caring for an instrument—knowing how to store it, using

  76. Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)

  77. Character

  78. Cheerful

  79. Choices

  80. Choose

  81. Classify

  82. Classify data

  83. Classifying—identifying groups and categories, deciding

  84. Climbing

  85. Cognitive Skills

  86. Cognitive Skills of the Brain

  87. Cognitive speed

  88. Cooking Abilities

  89. Collect

  90. Collecting data

  91. Communicate

  92. Communicate verbally

  93. Communication Skills

  94. Communications

  95. Community Servicevolunteering

  96. Compare, inspect, or record facts

  97. Comparing—noticing how things are alike, looking for

  98. Competence

  99. Competent

  100. Competitive

  101. Complaint Resolving Skills

  102. Complaint Solving Skills

  103. Completion of Assignments

  104. Complex Problem Solving Skills

  105. Compose

  106. Computer Proficiency

  107. Computer Skills

  108. Computer Skills (e. g., word processing, spreadsheets,

  109. Computing skills

  110. Concentration

  111. Concern for others

  112. conclusions

  113. Conduct

  114. Conducting

  115. Confer

  116. Conflict Resolution

  117. Conflict Resolution Skills

  118. Confront others

  119. Conscientious

  120. Console

  121. Constructing buildings

  122. Constructing—making simple equipment for demonstrations

  123. Consulting

  124. Contacting

  125. Contrast

  126. Contrasting—noticing how things differ, looking for

  127. Contribution to group

  128. Control

  129. Controlling

  130. Controlling budgets

  131. Convince

  132. Cooperation

  133. Coordinating

  134. Correct English usage

  135. Correspond with others

  136. Counsel

  137. Counsel people

  138. Counseling

  139. Counselling Skills

  140. Count, observe, compile

  141. Counting

  142. Create new ideas

  143. Creative

  144. Creative & Visionary

  145. Creativity

  146. Creativity & Communication

  147. Creativity techniques

  148. Credibility

  149. Critical Thinking

  150. Criticizing—constructively criticizing or evaluating a

  151. Curiosity

  152. Customer Service Skills (List)

  153. Customer Service Skills (Top 10)

  154. Cutting

  155. Data processing

  156. Data, drawing conclusions

  157. Data-entry operations

  158. Debate

  159. Decide

  160. Decision making

  161. Decision making skills

  162. Decision-making

  163. Decisive

  164. Defining

  165. Delegate

  166. Deliberate

  167. Demonstrate

  168. Demonstrating—setting up apparatus, describing parts and demonstration; describing the problem, method, data

  169. Dependable

  170. Describe

  171. Design

  172. Designing

  173. Designing—identifying new problems

  174. Detail & Completion

  175. Detail-oriented

  176. Detecting

  177. Determination

  178. Determine

  179. Develop

  180. Develop/Create

  181. Developing methods

  182. Developing questions

  183. Devise

  184. Diagnose

  185. Diagnosing

  186. Dictate

  187. Diplomatic

  188. Direct

  189. Direct others

  190. Directing

  191. Discover

  192. Discreet

  193. Discriminative Thinking

  194. Discuss

  195. Discussing—learning to contribute ideas, listening to

  196. Disease Prevention

  197. Dismantling

  198. dissimilarities, noticing unlike features

  199. Distinguish

  200. Diverting

  201. Do heavy work

  202. Do precise machine work

  203. Do routing office work

  204. Document

  205. Drafting

  206. Dressing and undressing are learned human abilities.

  207. Driving

  208. Eager

  209. Economic/Bus. Sense

  210. Economics

  211. Economy and Budget

  212. Edit

  213. Effective Problem Solving

  214. Efficiency Skills

  215. Efficient

  216. Efficient Planning

  217. Electrical principles

  218. Electronic principles

  219. Elementary Code of Conduct (Grades K-6)

  220. Empathy

  221. Energetic

  222. Enforce

  223. English Greetings

  224. English language reading abilities.

  225. English language speaking abilities.

  226. English language understanding abilities.

  227. English language writing abilities.

  228. English language telephone conversation is an ability.

  229. Entertain

  230. Enthusiasm for Your Work

  231. Enthusiastic

  232. Entrepreneurial Skills

  233. Essential Skills

  234. etc.) Evaluate

  235. Evaluating

  236. Evaluating data

  237. Evaluating—recognizing good and poor features, knowing

  238. Examine

  239. Examining

  240. Exchanging

  241. Execute

  242. Experiment

  243. Experimenting—recognizing a question, planning a

  244. Explain

  245. Explain things to others

  246. Explaining

  247. Explaning—describing to someone else clearly, clarifying

  248. Extrapolating

  249. Facilitation Skills

  250. Faculty

  251. Figuring

  252. Filing

  253. Filing, labeling

  254. Finger dexterity

  255. Fitness for duty

  256. Flexible

  257. Focus and Self-Control

  258. Follow directions

  259. Follow instructions

  260. Following specifications

  261. Forecast

  262. Formal

  263. Formulate

  264. Friendly

  265. Functions, illustrating scientific principles

  266. Gathering data—tabulating, organizing, classifying,

  267. General Office

  268. General Skills

  269. Get along with co-workers

  270. Get along with supervisor

  271. Get results

  272. Getting started after sleep

  273. Giving

  274. Goal setting

  275. Good attendance

  276. Good human behavior

  277. Good human character

  278. Good manners

  279. Good natured

  280. Good Note-Taking

  281. Good sense of timing

  282. Good Study Habits

  283. Grade

  284. Grammar skills

  285. Graphing—putting in graphical form the results of a study

  286. Greet

  287. Guiding

  288. Handle detail work

  289. Handle precise work

  290. Hands-On

  291. Hard skills

  292. Hard-working, productive

  293. Healthy Eating

  294. Healthy life-style

  295. Help others

  296. Helpful

  297. Helping Skills

  298. Hitching

  299. Honest

  300. Horticultural

  301. Housekeeping Skills

  302. how to improve grades

  303. Human behavior

  304. Human relations

  305. Humble

  306. Humor

  307. Hygiene

  308. Hypothesize

  309. Idea Production

  310. ideas of others, keeping on the topic, arriving at

  311. Identify

  312. Imaginative

  313. Imitate

  314. Implement

  315. implications for further work

  316. Improving

  317. Index

  318. Indicate

  319. Industrious

  320. Influence

  321. Influencing

  322. Inform

  323. Informing the public

  324. Ingenious

  325. Initiate

  326. Initiative

  327. Innovate

  328. Inquiring—asking, interviewing, corresponding

  329. Inquisitive

  330. Insightful

  331. Inspect

  332. Inspecting products

  333. Instruct

  334. Instructing others

  335. Intelligent

  336. Interest

  337. Interpersonal Skills

  338. Interpret

  339. Interpreting ideas

  340. Interview

  341. Interview others

  342. Interviewing

  343. Intrapersonal

  344. Intuitive

  345. Invent

  346. Inventing—creating a method, device, or technique

  347. Inventive

  348. Inventory

  349. Investigate

  350. Investigating—formulating questions

  351. Investigation principl

  352. Job Content Skills - what have you done?

  353. Judge

  354. Keep _______ records

  355. Keeping Records

  356. Kind

  357. knowing its rate capacity, transporting it safely

  358. Knowledge

  359. Knowledge and achievement

  360. Knowledge of products

  361. Knowledge of subject

  362. Knowledge of tools

  363. Labor skills

  364. Language

  365. Language ability and auditory reception

  366. Language skills

  367. Lateral Thinking Test

  368. Laundry

  369. Lead

  370. Leadership

  371. Leadership Skills

  372. Leading

  373. Learn quickly

  374. Learning

  375. Learning Skills

  376. Learning to learn

  377. Lecture

  378. Life Skills

  379. Lift heavy equipment

  380. List

  381. Listen

  382. Listening

  383. Listening Skills

  384. Listening—being attentive, alert, questioning

  385. Living

  386. Locate answers or information

  387. Logic and Reasoning

  388. Logical

  389. Loyal

  390. Lubricating/cleaning parts

  391. Machinery

  392. Maintaining equipment

  393. Maintaining favorable image

  394. Maintaining machinery

  395. Maintaining morale

  396. major points, exhibiting patience, being willing to

  397. Making Connections

  398. Making effective presentations

  399. Manage

  400. Manage resources

  401. Managing skills are learned human abilities.

  402. Managing

  403. Managing feelings

  404. Managing ______ or budgets

  405. Managing people

  406. Manual work

  407. Marketable/useful

  408. Marshal

  409. Match

  410. Mathematical

  411. Mathematical skills

  412. Mature

  413. Measure

  414. Measuring production

  415. Media process

  416. Mediate

  417. Mediate problems

  418. Meet

  419. Meet deadlines

  420. Meeting

  421. Meeting deadlines

  422. Meeting the public

  423. Memory

  424. Memory and learning

  425. Methodical

  426. Modest

  427. Monitoring

  428. Monitoring Performance

  429. Motivate

  430. Motivate people

  431. Motivated

  432. Motivational

  433. Motivator

  434. Multicultural Awareness

  435. Multilingual

  436. Natural

  437. Negotiate

  438. Negotiate agreements

  439. Negotiating

  440. Negotiating principles

  441. Negotiating Skills

  442. Negotiating strategies

  443. Negotiation

  444. Networking

  445. Numeracy

  446. Numeracy Skills

  447. Nurturing

  448. Observe

  449. Observing indicators

  450. Observing—being accurate, alert, systematic

  451. Odd hours

  452. of attack, setting up hypotheses

  453. Open-minded

  454. Operate communications systems

  455. Operating

  456. Operating basic

  457. Operating tools

  458. Optimistic

  459. or experiment, being able to interpret the graph for

  460. or other instrument

  461. Oral Communication Order

  462. Ordering parts

  463. Orderly thinking

  464. Organization Skills

  465. Organization/Details/Multi-tasking

  466. Organizing

  467. Organizing or managing projects

  468. Organizing—putting items in order, establishing a system,

  469. Original

  470. out causes and effects, locating new problems

  471. Outgoing

  472. Outlining—employing major headings and subheadings, using

  473. Packing

  474. Pain Disability Questionnaire

  475. parts

  476. Patient

  477. Performing manual tasks

  478. People Skills

  479. Persistent

  480. Personal Safety

  481. Personal Skills

  482. Personnel practices

  483. Perspective Taking

  484. Persuade

  485. Persuading

  486. Persuading & negotiating

  487. Persuading, influencing and negotiating skills

  488. Physical

  489. Physically strong

  490. piece of work, a scientific procedure, or conclusion

  491. Plan

  492. Planning

  493. Planning ahead—seeing possible results and probable modes

  494. Planning/organizing

  495. Pleasant

  496. Plot

  497. Plumbing principles

  498. Polite

  499. Polite

  500. Politeness Guidelines

  501. Positive Attitude

  502. Post

  503. Practice new skills

  504. Prescribe

  505. Presentation Skills

  506. principles

  507. Problem-solving skills

  508. procedure, collecting data, recording data, analyzing procedures

  509. Processing Speed

  510. Prognosticate

  511. Project management

  512. Projecting

  513. projects

  514. Promote

  515. Proper settings, keeping it clean, handling it properly

  516. Provide

  517. Public speaking

  518. Question

  519. Questions

  520. Questioning in the English language is an ability

  521. Rank

  522. Rate

  523. Reading

  524. Reason

  525. Reasoning

  526. Reasoning and idea production

  527. Recognize problems

  528. Recognizing problems

  529. Recommend

  530. Recommending

  531. Reconcile

  532. Record

  533. recording

  534. recording completely

  535. Recording—tabulating, charting, working systematically

  536. Regulate

  537. Relating

  538. relationships

  539. Relay

  540. Reliable

  541. Remember information

  542. Removing parts

  543. Repairing engines

  544. Repairing equipment

  545. repeat

  546. Replacing defective

  547. Report

  548. Reporting—orally reporting to a class or teacher in

  549. Representing

  550. Request

  551. Research

  552. Research design

  553. Research Skills

  554. Researching

  555. Researching—locating a problem, learning background,

  556. Resiliency

  557. Resource Management Skills

  558. Resourceful

  559. Respond to emergencies

  560. Responsibility

  561. Responsible

  562. Reviewing

  563. Reviewing products

  564. Reviewing—identifying important items

  565. Run meetings

  566. Safety rules

  567. Sanitation

  568. Scan

  569. Schedule

  570. Scheduling

  571. School Skills

  572. Scrutinize

  573. Searching—locating sources, using several sources, being

  574. Secondary Code of Conduct (Grades 7-12)

  575. Secretarial Skills

  576. Self-Care Abilities Listing

  577. Segregate

  578. Select

  579. Self care abilities

  580. Self Discipline

  581. Self Esteem

  582. Self responsibility

  583. Self-awareness

  584. Self-care abilities

  585. Self-Care Abilities Listing

  586. Self-confidence

  587. Self-confident

  588. Self-controlled

  589. Self-Directed, Engaged Learning

  590. Self-Discipline

  591. Self-Management Skills

  592. Self-motivated

  593. Self-motivation

  594. Self-reliant

  595. Sense of humor

  596. Sensitive

  597. Sensory abilities

  598. sequential, logical organization

  599. Service learning

  600. Serving

  601. Setting standards

  602. setting up investigations, analyzing data, drawing

  603. Setting-up

  604. Settle

  605. Sharing

  606. similarities, noticing identical features

  607. Sincere

  608. Smell

  609. Sociable

  610. Social Media Skills

  611. Social Skills

  612. Soft skills

  613. Solve

  614. Solving problems

  615. Sort

  616. Seeing

  617. Hearing

  618. Speaking

  619. Sitting

  620. Sleeping

  621. Speaking in public

  622. Speaking Situations

  623. Speech

  624. Speech Analysis Questions

  625. Speech and Language

  626. Speech Clarity

  627. Speech Disorders and Language Disorders

  628. Speech Therapy

  629. Spoken communication

  630. Spoken English

  631. Spontaneous

  632. Statistics

  633. Steady

  634. Stress Management

  635. Stress Management (Rel

  636. Striving for excellence

  637. Study

  638. Study Skills

  639. Subject knowledge

  640. Suggest

  641. Summarize

  642. Supervise

  643. Supervising others

  644. Supervisory

  645. Supply

  646. Synthesize

  647. Synthesizing

  648. Systems Skills

  649. Tabulate

  650. Tactful

  651. Take inventory

  652. Take pride in work

  653. Take risks

  654. Taking on Challenges

  655. task, its limitations

  656. Teach

  657. Teaching & Counseling

  658. Teaching Skills

  659. Team Management Skills

  660. Teamwork

  661. Teamwork

  662. Teamwork/Cooperation

  663. Teamworking

  664. Technical & Information Skills

  665. Technical Skills

  666. Technical/Manual Skills

  667. Techniques to reach your goals.

  668. Telecommunications

  669. Telephone answering message guidelines

  670. Telephone Conversations

  671. Telephone Manners

  672. Telephone protocol

  673. Tenacious

  674. Test

  675. The Ability to Set Attainable Goals

  676. Thinking

  677. Thinking skills (including problem solving, making decisions, planning, o

  678. rganizing tasks, finding information, and making good use of memory).

  679. Thrifty Time

  680. Time management

  681. Tolerant

  682. Top 10 Skills for High-School Students

  683. Train

  684. Transferable Skills Checklist

  685. Translate

  686. Transpose

  687. Travel frequently

  688. Trust

  689. Trustworthy

  690. Tutor

  691. Truthfulness is a human ability.

  692. Understand

  693. Use computer search programs

  694. Usher

  695. Using an instrument—knowing the instrument’s parts, how

  696. Verbal/Written Communi

  697. cation Verify

  698. Verifying

  699. Versatile

  700. Visual perception

  701. Visual Processing

  702. Wait upon

  703. Walking Skills

  704. Weigh

  705. Well-organized

  706. Willingness to learn

  707. Wise use of resources

  708. Work as a team member

  709. Work Ethic

  710. Work in an office/outdoors

  711. Work in office

  712. Work in small studios Work in varied climate

  713. Work independently

  714. Work indoors/outdoors

  715. Work long hours

  716. Work nigh shifts

  717. Work odd hours

  718. Work on assembly line

  719. Work on long-term

  720. Work on weekends

  721. Work outdoors

  722. Work outdoors/indoors

  723. Work under hazardous

  724. Work under stress

  725. Work very long hours

  726. Work with committees

  727. Work with people

  728. Work without direction

  729. Working

  730. Working with others.

  731. Workplace Essential Skills

  732. Write clearly

  733. Writing

  734. Writing in the English language

  735. Writing news releases

  736. Writing—writing a report of an experiment or

  737. Written communications

What should a doctor of medicine know about human abilities?
Is there a difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
What is the difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
How many organ systems does the human body have?
What are the organ systems of the human body?
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
What are the differences between abilities of a newborn and abilities of an 18-year-old human?
What abilities must an 18-year-old human have?
What should you know about human abilities relevant to age?
What should you know about human organ systems’ functions?
How is a human body organized?
What are the human organs and their function?
Is there a difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
What is the difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
What are the signs of the 11 human organ systems’ functions?
When is fitness for duty required?
What are Essential Skills?
What is ability?(What is skill?)
What is technique?
What are skills?
Why are skills important?
What are the different types of skills?
What is ability, and where do individual differences in ability come from?
What are the various types of cognitive ability?
What are the various types of emotional ability?
What are the various types of physical ability?
What is intelligence?
Can we Increase our Intelligence?
What is IQ (Intelligence Quotient)?
How does cognitive ability affect job performance and organizational commitment?
What is abilities assessment?
How are abilities assessed?
What do physical ability tests look like?
What about Functional Capacity Evaluations?
What is spatial ability?
Why is spatial ability important?
What is a Skills Center?
What do you have to do to improve your skills?
What are other names for self-care abilities?
What are other names for transferable skills?
What English grammar should you know relevant to abilities?
What should a doctor of medicine know about Human organ systems and functions?
What organs comprise make this human organ system?
What are the functions of this human organ system?
What are various self-care abilities?
At what age should self-care abilities be learned?
Is a human born with abilities or are abilities learned?
What abilities should every child learn before age 5?
What abilities should every child learn before age 12?
What abilities should every human learn before age 18?
What are various abilities relevant to specific professions?
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
What are vital signs?
What should be included in the levels of consciousness?
What is body temperature?
What is the pulse rate?
What is the respiration rate?
What is blood pressure?
What special equipment is needed to measure blood pressure?
Human Organ Systems functions
What should a doctor of medicine know about human abilities?
Abilities categories
Alphabetical listing of human abilities
Aging effects on human body abilities
Behavioral Skills List
Child Development
Cognitive Abilities (Cognitive Ability/Brain Function/Skills involved)
Complaint Solving Skills
Difference between abilities and human organ system functions
English grammar relevant to abilities
Fitness for duty
Human organ system functions
Human organs/structures
Human organ system's functional impairment
Human organ system's functional capacity evaluation
Human healthcare
Human rights violations
Mastering skills
Physical abilities
Psychomotor abilities
Sensory abilities
Skills Assessment
Transferable skills analysis
Vital signs of human organ system’s function
Alphabetical listing of human abilities
Cognitive Abilities (Cognitive Ability/Brain Function/Skills involved)
Physical abilities
Psychomotor abilities
Sensory abilities
Alphabetical order
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers.
Analytical Ability
Abilities (text format)
Ability to delegate
Auditory Processing
Basic Skills (Essential skills)
Behavioral Interview Questions
Career Skills
Complaint Solving Skills
Creativity techniques
Computer Skills
Communication Skills
Complex Problem Solving Skills
Conflict Resolution Skills
Counselling Skills
Essential Skills
English Language Abilities
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.
Economy and Budget
Facilitation Skills
General Skills
Hard skills
Interpersonal Skills
Labor skills
Learning Skills
Life Skills
Leadership Skills
Leadership Skills Course
Listening Skills
Learning Skills
Logic and Reasoning
Management Skills
Numeracy Skills
Oral Communication
Organization Skills
People Skills
Personal Skills
Politeness Guidelines
Presentation Skills
Processing Speed
Project management
Resource Management Skills
Secretarial Skills
Self-care abilities
School Skills
Social skills
Soft skills
Stress Management
Study Skills
Systems Skills
Technical Skills
Team Management Skills
Transferable Skills Checklist
Technical/Manual Skills
Visual Processing
Willingness to learn
Writing in the English language
Workplace Essential Skills
Child Development
What is child development?
Child development is a process every child goes through. This process involves learning and mastering skills like sitting, walking, talking, skipping, and tying shoes. Children learn these skills, called developmental milestones, during predictable time periods.

Children develop skills in five main areas of development:
  1. Cognitive Development
    This is the child's ability to learn and solve problems. For example, this includes a two-month-old baby learning to explore the environment with hands or eyes or a five-year-old learning how to do simple math problems.

  2. Social and Emotional Development
    This is the child's ability to interact with others, including helping themselves and self-control. Examples of this type of development would include: a six-week-old baby smiling, a ten-month-old baby waving bye-bye, or a five-year-old boy knowing how to take turns in games at school.

  3. Speech and Language Development
    This is the child's ability to both understand and use language. For example, this includes a 12-month-old baby saying his first words, a two-year-old naming parts of her body, or a five-year-old learning to say "feet" instead of "foots".

  4. Fine Motor Skill Development
    This is the child's ability to use small muscles, specifically their hands and fingers, to pick up small objects, hold a spoon, turn pages in a book, or use a crayon to draw.

  5. Gross Motor Skill Development
    This is the child's ability to use large muscles. For example, a six-month-old baby learns how to sit up with some support, a 12-month-old baby learns to pull up to a stand holding onto furniture, and a five-year-old learns to skip.
What is a developmental milestone?
A developmental milestone is a skill that a child acquires within a specific time frame. For instance, one developmental milestone is learning to walk. Most children learn this skill or developmental milestone between the ages of 9 and 15 months.

Milestones develop in a sequential fashion. This means that a child will need to develop some skills before he or she can develop new skills. For example, children must first learn to crawl and to pull up to a standing position before they are able to walk. Each milestone that a child acquires builds on the last milestone developed.

To find out more information about age-appropriate developmental milestones click on a specific age below. If you are concerned your child has not met a developmental milestone, click here to learn more.

What are typical milestones, or skills, children learn at different ages?
We now know that our brains are not fully developed at birth. In fact, a baby's brain weighs about one quarter (1/4) of what an adult's brain weighs!

The brain grows very rapidly during the first several years of life. During this time, your child is learning all sorts of new skills.

Because children usually acquire developmental milestones or skills during a specific time frame or "window", we can predict when most children will learn different skills. The pages below describe the types of skills children usually learn at different ages. If you are concerned your child has not met a developmental milestone, click here to learn more.

Childhood Development:

What if my child does not meet a developmental milestone?
Each child is an individual and may meet developmental milestones a little earlier or later than his peers. You may have heard people say things like, "he was walking before he turned 10 months, much earlier than his older brother" or "she didn't say much until she was about 2 years old and then she talked a blue streak!" This is because each child is unique and will develop at his or her own pace.

However, there are definitely blocks of time when most children will meet a milestone. For example, children learn to walk anytime between 9 and 15 months of age. So, if your child is 13 months of age and not yet walking, there is no need to worry if he is crawling and pulling to a stand. He has acquired the skills he needs to learn to walk and may begin walking soon. However, if you have a child 15 months of age who is not yet walking, it would be a good idea to talk with your child's pediatrician to make sure there aren't any medical or developmental problems since age 15 months is outside of the normal "window" or time frame in which children learn to walk.
How can I help my child meet these developmental milestones?
As parents, we all want our children to succeed and be the best they can be. We know from research that two factors influence how your child succeeds and grows: genes and environment.

One of the factors that influence our child's development is their genetic makeup or "genes." Some people refer to this as "nature." Genes are the genetic material we pass onto our children. Children are born with their "genes" in place. These genes act like a blueprint for what characteristics a child may have. For example, genes determine if a child will have blue eyes or brown eyes; they also determine if he will be left- or right-handed.

The other factor that influences child development is the environment. This includes experiences children have in their home, school and community environments. Some people refer to this as "nurture." The environment can either improve or harm a child's genetic blueprint. For example, malnourished children who live in third world countries may not reach their IQ potential because of the impact of their environment on their brain development.

We often think we need to run out and buy special toys, music and games to stimulate our child's development, but we have to remind ourselves that it is more important to provide the following, every-day activities you can do with your child to encourage brain development.
  • Give your child lots of love and attention. No matter what a child's age, holding, hugging, and listening are important ways to show your child they matter.
  • Interact with your child by talking, singing, playing, eating, and reading with your child. Your child will grow up feeling special and important to you. You will also learn a lot about your child's interests and skills.
  • Read, read, read. Research has shown that children who are read to by their parents have a larger vocabulary than other children. Reading also provides children with new perspectives about the world we live in.
  • Learn some simple parenting skills for helping your child to learn how to behave. The most important parenting skills are having consistent rules, rewarding behaviors you want to see your child do more of, and having consequences for behaviors you do not want your child to continue to do.

  • Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.
Meaning Units
Communication The exchange of thoughts and ideas by speech or writing
Multicultural Awareness The ability to understand and work with diversity
Multilingual The ability to communicate in a language other than one's own
Management skills The ability to guide or organize other people in order to implement various _______ and initiative and resolve conflicts among others
Teamwork/Cooperation Cooperative effort within a group in order to achieve a desired goal
Creativity To give rise to imaginative or artistic abilities as well as the ability to find novel solutions to problems
Ability to Adapt The ability to change and adjust to a new situation
Empathy The ability to understand or feel another person's ideas and emotions
Stress Management (Relaxation)  Control over the stressors that face each person, and the effects of stress
Work Ethic A principle of correct or good conduct to attain a level of integrity in one's work ability
Self Discipline Training or control over one's conduct for personal improvement as well as the ability to forgo immediate pleasure for long term goals
Responsibility The desire to achieve personal accountability
Discriminative thinking The ability to discern factual from opinionated information
Grammar skills The effective use of grammatical rules and guidelines in order to express one's ideas in correct form
Analytical Reasoning The ability to use the defined principles of logic and effectively engage in abstract thinking to achieve mastery or understanding
Economic/Business Sense Use of principles governing business and economic relationships
Mathematical skills Ability to use and apply the basic theories of the associative properties and arrangements of numbers and basic understanding of math and its uses
Computer Skills Ability to use computer technology effectively, including word-processing and spreadsheets
Telecommunication Communication occurring between two or more distant sources (fax machines, etc.)
Skills Listed By Type
Analytical Skills
Behavioral Skills
Behavioral Skills (supervisors)
Communication Skills (List)
Communication Skills (Top 10)
Customer Service Skills (List)
Customer Service Skills (Top 10)
Efficiency Skills
Entrepreneurial Skills
General Skills
Hard Skills
Helping Skills
Interpersonal Skills
Leadership Skills (List)
Management / Leadership Skills
Management Skills
Monitoring Performance
Organizational Skills
Problem Solving Skills
Presentation Skills
Personal Skills
Research Skills
Resource Management Skills
Social Media Skills
Soft Skills (List)
System Skills
Teaching Skills
Technical Skills
Ability to delegate
What are Directives?
What is delegation?
Who is allowed to delegate authority?
Who decides what authority to delegate or sub-delegate?
How long does a delegated authority last?
How do I make an amendment?
What are some common examples of delegation?
What do I need to know about the delegation regulation?
How do orders and delegation differ?
Who can delegate, which acts can be delegated and who can accept delegation?

Pick the right person best suited for the task.
Make sure the person can work independently.
Make sure the person understands exactly what it is you want them to do.
Determine what tasks will need more monitoring than others.
Once the project or task is completed, carefully review.
Here are further guidelines.
Difference between abilities and human organ system functions
What are skills?
A skill is the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job.

What are cognitive skills?
Attention Skills
Auditory Processin
Executive Functions
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.
Logic and Reasoning
Processing Speed
Visual Processing

Cognitive abilities are brain-based skills we need to carry out any task from the sim­plest to the most com­plex. They have more to do with the mech­a­nisms of how we learn, remem­ber, problem-solve, and pay atten­tion rather than with any actual knowl­edge. For instance, answer­ing the tele­phone involves at least: per­cep­tion (hear­ing the ring tone), deci­sion tak­ing (answer­ing or not), motor skill (lift­ing the receiver), lan­guage skills (talk­ing and under­stand­ing lan­guage), social skills (inter­pret­ing tone of voice and inter­act­ing prop­erly with another human being).

Men­tal func­tions or cog­ni­tive abil­i­ties are based on spe­cific neu­ronal net­works or brain struc­tures. For instance mem­ory skills rely mainly on parts of the tem­po­ral lobes and parts of the frontal lobes (behind the forehead).

Attention Skills: A student's ability to attend to incoming information can be observed, broken down into a variety of sub-skills, and improved through properly coordinated training. We train and strengthen the three primary types of attention:
•Sustained Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task, and the amount of time we can focus.
•Selective Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task while being subjected to related and unrelated sensory input (distractions).
•Divided Attention: The ability to remember information while performing a mental operation and attending to two things at once (multi-tasking).

Executive Functions

Abilities that enable goal-oriented behavior, such as the ability to plan, and execute a goal. These include:
Flexibility: the capacity for quickly switch­ing to the appropriate mental mode.
Theory of mind: insight into other people’s inner world, their plans, their likes and dis­likes.
Anticipation: prediction based on pattern recognition.
Problem-solving: defining the problem in the right way to then generate solutions and pick the right one.
Decision making: the abil­ity to make deci­sions based on problem-solving, on incomplete information and on emo­tions (ours and oth­ers’).
Working Memory: the capac­ity to hold and manipulate information “on-line” in real time.
Emotional self-regulation: the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions for good performance.

Sequencing: the ability to break down complex actions into manageable units and prioritize them in the right order.

Inhibition: the ability to withstand distraction, and internal urges.

Memory: The ability to store and recall information:
Long-Term Memory: The ability to recall information that was stored in the past. Long-term memory is critical for spelling, recalling facts on tests, and comprehension. Weak long-term memory skills create symptoms like forgetting names and phone numbers, and doing poorly on unit tests.

Short-Term / Working Memory: The ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness while simultaneously performing a mental operation. Students with short-term memory problems may need to look several times at something before copying, have problems following multi-step instructions, or need to have information repeated often.

Logic and Reasoning: The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. Deductive reasoning extends this problem-solving ability to draw conclusions and come up with solutions by analyzing the relationships between given conditions. Students with underdeveloped logic and reasoning skills will generally struggle with word math problems and other abstract learning challenges. Symptoms of skill weaknesses in this area show up as questions like, "I don't get this", "I need help...this is so hard", or "What should I do first?"

Auditory Processing: The ability to analyze, blend, and segment sounds. Auditory processing is a crucial underlying skill for reading and spelling success, and is the number one skill needed for learning to read. Weakness in any of the auditory processing skills will greatly hinder learning to read, reading fluency, and comprehension. Students with auditory processing weakness also typically lose motivation to read.

Ability to mobilize our muscles and bodies.
Ability to manipulate objects.

Visual Processing: The ability to perceive, analyze, and think in visual images. This includes visualization, which is the ability to create a picture in your mind of words or concepts. Students who have problems with visual processing may have difficulty following instructions, reading maps, doing word math problems, and comprehending.

Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli (smell, touch, hearing, etc.)

Processing Speed: The ability to perform simple or complex cognitive tasks quickly. This skill also measures the ability of the brain to work quickly and accurately while ignoring distracting stimuli. Slow processing speed makes every task more difficult. Very often, slow processing is one root of ADHD-type behaviors. Symptoms of weaknesses here include homework taking a long time, always being the last one to get his or her shoes on, or being slow at completing even simple tasks.

English grammar relevant to abilities
What English grammar should you know relevant to abilities?
Take a look at this.

Word abilities is plural of word ability.
Abilities are learned.
An individual is not born with abilities.
Skills is a synonym for abilities.
Here are further guidelines.
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
Blood pressure
Respiratory rate

In some regions, consciousness and pain are not considered vital signs.

What are the differences between abilities of a newborn and abilities of an 18-year-old human?
A newborn does not have any learned abilities.
A newborn has five findings: Breathing effort, Heart rate, Muscle tone, Response to smell or foot slap, Skin color.
A doctor of medicine calls this Apgar scoring.
Apgar scoring determines the health of a newborn. These findings are due to human organ systems’ functions.
Sucking reflex, defecation, urination, and crawling are monitored later.

A human learns more than 600 abilities from birth up to 18 years.

What abilities must an 18-year-old human have?
Take a look at this.

Some of the abilities of an 18-year-old human are professional abilities also.

Highly-skilled professions like doctor of medicine, engineer, lawyer, and teacher need further training for abilities beyond 18 years.

What should you know about human abilities relevant to age?
Cognitive abilities
Physical abilities
Psychomotor abilities
Sensory abilities
English grammar relevant to abilities
Human organ systems functions and relevance to abilities
Human organ system functions
What should you know about human organ systems’ functions?
Human organ systems functions exist from birth.

How is a human body organized?
Cells are the basic unit of life.
Tissues are clusters of cells that perform a similar function.
Organs are made of tissues that perform one specific function.
Organ systems are groups of organs that perform a specific purpose in the human body.

The purpose of the 11 organ systems is for the human body to maintain homeostasis.

Organs and Functions

What are the human organs and their function?
Adrenal glands - Fight or flight emergency explosive action and mental clarity.
Appendix - No longer in direct use, theorized to help Immune system.
Bladder - Temporally collects liquids from food waste.
Brain - A neural network of interdependent systems to send signals to muscles.
Epidermis - protect against pathogens, oxidant stress (UV light) and chemicals.
Esophagus - Muscular tube through which food travels to the stomach.
Eyes - Conversion of photons into a data stream for the optic nerve.
Gall bladder - Fat conversion/digestion with high powered chemicals.
Heart - Pump to move blood around the body.
Kidney - Regulate acidity, blood pressure, salt/water balance, signal hormones.
Large intestine - Absorb water and last remaining nutrients from waste.
Liver - Filter out the blood of impurities and toxins.
Lungs - Absorption of Oxygen and release of Carbon Dioxide.
Mouth - Temporary storage area for food while it is evaluated and crushed.
Ovaries - In Females, secrete estrogen, progesterone and create ovums.
Pancreas - Break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in food.
Parathyroid - Control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.
Pleura - Lubricant and structure to convert muscle movements to inhale/exhale.
Prostate gland - In Males, Assist in the preparation of semen.
Rectum - About 12cm of temporary storage site for feces.
Small intestine - Primary absorption of nutrients and minerals in food.
Spine - Bendable support structure for upper body, protects wires from brain to lower body.
Spleen - Secondary backup systems to regulate blood and immune system.
Stomach - Dissolve and churn eaten foods with acids.
Testes - In Males, create sperm containing the DNA code to build another human.
Thyroid gland - Configuration for energy storage, dial in sensitivity to hormones.
Tongue - Evaluate and reposition food in the mouth and push down esophagus.
Uterus - Hold and supply nutrients to the ovum while it grows into a human.

Adrenal glands
Blood vessels
Bronchial tubes
Gall bladder
Large intestine
Lymph nodes
Lymph vessels
Mammary glands
Nasal passages
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland
Prostate gland
Pituitary gland
Small intestine
Spinal cord
Sweat glands
Thyroid gland
Urinary bladder
Vas deferens
Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.
How many organ systems does the human body have?
The human body has 11 organ systems.

What are the organ systems of the human body?
Take a look at this.
Organ Systems of the Body

Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)
Circulatory System
Digestive System
Endocrine System
Integumentary system
Lymphatic (immune) system
Muscular system
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Skeletal System
Urinary system
Brain & Central Nervous System (Nervous system) Nerve Cells (Neurons)
Support Cells (Neuroglia)
Spinal Cord (Central Nervous System)
Brain (Central Nervous System)
Nerves (Peripheral Nervous System)
Sensory System
Motor System
The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and controls various systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment. Neuroscience,
Neurology (disease),
Psychiatry (behavioral),
Ophthalmology (vision),
Otolaryngology (hearing, taste, smell)
Circulatory System Heart, blood vessels, blood Rapid flow of blood throughout the body’s tissues Cardiology (heart), hematology (blood)
Digestive System Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder Digestion and absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water Gastroenterology
Endocrine System All glands secreting hormones: Pancreas, testes, ovaries, hypothalamus, kidneys, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, intestinal, thymus, and pineal Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body Endocrinology
Integumentary system Skin Protection against injury and dehydration; defense against foreign invaders; regulation of temperature Dermatology
Lymphatic (immune) system The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolize lymph, the fluid found in between cells.

Immune system
White blood cells, lymph vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus, and other lymphatic tissues

Defense against foreign invaders; return of extracellular fluid to blood; formation of white blood cells
The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid). Oncology, immunology
Muscular system (listed by action site):
Muscles that act on the arm (or humerus bone)
Muscles that act on the shoulder
(or scapula bone)
Muscles that act on the forearm
(or radius & ulna bones)
Muscles that act on the wrist & hand
(or carpals, metacarpals & phalanges)
Muscles that act on the ant. thigh
(or anterior femur bone)
Muscles that act on the post. thigh
(or posterior femur bone)
Muscles that act on the leg
(or tibia and fibula bones)
Muscles that act on the anke & foot
(or tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges)
Muscles that act on the back
(or posterior vertebral column)
Muscles that act on the neck & head
(or vertebral column and skull)
Muscles that act on the abdomen
(or anterior vertebral column)
Muscles that act on the mandible
(for mastication or chewing)
Muscles that act on the face
(for facial expression; now adding)
Muscles that act on the chest
(for breathing; now drawing)
Cartilage, ligaments, tendons, joints, skeletal muscle
Support, protection, and movement of the body Orthopedics (bone and muscle disorders and injuries)
Reproductive System Male: Testes, penis, and associated ducts and glands

Female: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands Production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female
Production of eggs; provision of a nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus Gynecology (women), andrology (men), sexology (behavioral aspects) embryology (developmental aspects), obstetrics (partition)
Respiratory System Nose, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hydrogen-ion concentration Pulmonology
Skeletal System Lower Limbs
Ribs and Sternum
Upper Limbs
Orthopedics (bone and muscle disorders and injuries)
Urinary system The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body. Nephrology (function), urology (structural disease)
Circulatory System:
Cardiovascular organs: heart, blood vessels, blood

Digestive System:
Primary organs: mouth, stomach, intestines, rectum
Other organs: teeth, tongue, liver, pancreas

Endocrine System:
Endocrine structures: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thymus, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland

Integumentary System
Integumentary structures: skin, nails, hair, sweat glands

Lymphatic: Lymphatic organs: lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, tonsils

Nervous System:
Structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves

Reproductive System:
Male organs: testes, scrotum, penis, vas deferens, prostate
Female organs: ovaries, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

Respiratory System:
Respiratory organs: lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi

Muscular System

Skeletal System:
Structures: bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilage

Urinary/Excretory Systems
Structures: kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters

The human body is composed of interactive systems. Most organs in the body are necessary, a few like tonsils are not.  There are specific functions for each of the organs in the systems, but they cannot operate by themselves.

Below is a chart that will help you review the different systems with your students.




respiratory lungs, nasal passages,   bronchi, pharynx, trachea, diaphragm, bronchial tubes intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide from body
nervous  spinal cord, brain, nerves, skin, eyes, ears, tongue, nose control of body activities and the reaction to stimuli
digestive stomach, liver, teeth, tongue, pancreas, intestine, esophagus break down of food and absorption for use as energy
excretory kidneys, bladder ureters, skin controls water and salt balance
 endocrine pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, gonads production of hormones and body regulation
skeletal and muscular bones, muscles protection and movement
circulatory blood, blood vessels, heart, lymph transport of nutrients, metabolic wastes, water, salts, and disease fighting cells
 integumentary skin protection of body from injury and bacteria, maintenance of tissue moisture, holds receptors for stimuli response, body heat regulation

Fitness for duty
Is there a difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?

What is the difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
Functional capacity evaluation measures 11 human organ system functions relevant to age.
Fitness for duty measures general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a profession.

Functional Capacity Evaluation measures 11 human organ system functions relevant to age.

1.What is the health status of this individual relevant to age?
Here is an example.
100% mentally fit.
95% physically fit.

What are the signs of the 11 human organ systems’ functions?

At birth, breathing effort, heart rate, muscle tone, response to smell or foot slap, skin color.
After birth, various signs of organ system functions are visible relevant to age.

Here is a list in alphabetical order.
Ability to hear, see, talk (consciousness): Normal/abnormal
Breathing: Normal/abnormal
Blood pressure: Normal/abnormal
Eating: Normal/abnormal
Emotion: Angry, polite, hostile
Getting started after sleep: Problem/no problem
Learning: Problem/no problem
Medicolegal issues (survival needs, harms from others, or stress)
Pain: Yes (evaluate severity/no pain)
Performing manual tasks: Problem/no problem
Pulse: Normal/abnormal
Respiratory rate: Normal/abnormal
Sitting: Normal/abnormal
Skin: Normal/abnormal
Sleeping: Normal/abnormal
Stools: Normal/abnormal
Temperature: Normal/abnormal
Urination: Normal/abnormal
Walking: Normal/abnormal

These signs of human organ systems functions are all relevant to age.
An 18-year-old human should have normal function of all these signs of human organ systems.
Abilities relevant to specific profession or professions need fitness for duty analysis.
See fitness for duty details.

In case of any issues or problem, see further details.
Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)

2. What work is available?

Is the individual mentally and physically fit relevant to a specific profession?

Fitness for duty measures general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a profession.

Fitness for duty
Various examples have been quoted.

When is fitness for duty required?
Fitness of duty can be required while an individual is on existing duty or when an individual needs to be placed at a specific position, including executive, senior, supervisor, and entry level.

What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
Personality disorder (liar, etc).
Harmful to self or others.
Lack of knowledge of specific profession.
Insufficient knowledge of specific profession.
Criminal traits.
Lack of desire for public service.

Fitness for duty

1 . What is the profile of the individual and where is this individual now whose fitness of duty is required?
Take a look at this.

2. How would you rate the human organ system’s functions of this individual for mental fitness and physical fitness on the scale of 1-100?
100% mentally fit.
95% physically fit.

3. For what profession does this individual need to be fit for duty?
Governor of the state.
Head of the state.

4. Does the fitness for duty require analysis for executive, senior, supervisory, or entry-level professional duties in the state or outside the state?

5. Is this individual able to understand, read, write, and speak the English language?

6. How would you rate this individual’s English language abilities on a scale of 1–10, with 10 being the best?

7. How would you rate the truthfulness of this individual on a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the best?

8. How would you rate this individual’s politeness (speech, manners, behavior) in the last five years on a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the best?

9. Does the individual have general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a specific profession or professions?
Take a look at this.
Everything is displayed at this location.

10. Can this individual guide one profession or many professions?
Many professions.

11. What is the proof that this individual can guide one profession or many professions?
Here are various facts.

12. Can this individual guide a teacher, lawyer, engineer, or doctor?

13. Can this individual answer questions relevant to the existing duty of a specific profession or professions?

14. Does this individual have specific technical abilities?

15. Is this individual able to answer relevant questions from time to time relevant to existing duty?

16. How would you describe this individual’s fitness for existing duty and further placement?
Fit for existing duty.
Recommendations for further placement.

These are basic questions; there are many more.

These questions are answered under the pretext of fitness for duty.
What is ability?

A natural or acquired skill or talent.

Synonyms: aptitude, capability, capacity, competence, competency, comprehension, dexterity, endowment, facility, faculty, intelligence, might, potentiality, qualification, resourcefulness, skill, strength, talent, understanding

What is technique?

A systematic procedure, formula, or routine by which a task is accomplished.

What are the different types of skills?

Take a look at this.
This resource has guidelines for thousands of skills ranging from general purpose skills to work-specific skills.
What body system helps humans turn the food they eat into energy? (Digestive.)
What body system helps humans breathe? (Respiratory.)
What body system controls other body systems? (Nervous.)
What body system provides structure for the body? (Skeletal.)
What body system allows us to move? (Muscular.)
What body system includes a transport system (blood) and a pump (the heart) that keeps the transport system moving? (Circulatory.)
Can you think of two body systems that work together? (Examples include the respiratory and circulatory, muscular and skeletal, digestive and circulatory, and nervous and any other system.) What part of the nervous system is essential for it to work properly? (Brain.)
What event could disrupt one or more body systems? (Injury or disease could disrupt one or more body systems.)
What parts of the respiratory system would need to be blocked to not allow any air into this system? (The mouth, nose, or trachea.)
What is the person's level of functioning?
What treatments or interventions can maximize functioning?
What are the outcomes of the treatment? How useful were the interventions?
How would I rate my capacity in mobility or communication?
What health care and other services will be needed?
How well do we serve our clients? What basic indicators for quality assurance are valid and reliable?
How useful are the services we are providing?
How _____-effective are the services we provide? How can the service be improved for better outcomes at a lower _____?
What are the needs of persons with various levels of disability - impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions?
How can we make the social and built environment more accessible for all person, those with and those without disabilities ?
Can we assess and measure improvement?

Body Functions are physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions).
Body Structures are anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs and their components.
Impairments are problems in body function or structure such as a significant deviation or loss.
Activity is the execution of a task or action by an individual. Participation is involvement in a life situation.
Activity Limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities.
Participation Restrictions are problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations.
Environmental Factors make up the physical, socal and attitudinal environment in which people live and conduct their lives.

Body Structure (s)
0 no change in structure
1 total absence
2 partial absence
3 additional part
4 aberrant dimensions
5 discontinuity
6 deviating position
7 qualitative changes in structure, including accumulation of fluid
8 not specified
9 not applicable

Body Function:
Mental Functions
Sensory Functions and Pain
Voice and Speech Functions
Functions of the Cardiovascular, Haematological, Immunological and Respiratory Systems
Functions of the Digestive, Metabolic, Endocrine Systems
Genitourinary and Reproductive Functions
Neuromusculoskeletal and Movement-Related Functions
Functions of the Skin and Related Structures

Structure of the Nervous System
The Eye, Ear and Related Structures
Structures Involved in Voice and Speech
Structure of the Cardiovascular, Immunological and Respiratory Systems
Structures Related to the Digestive, Metabolic and Endocrine Systems
Structure Related to Genitourinary and Reproductive
Structure Related to Movement
Skin and Related Structures

Activities and Participation

Learning and Applying Knowledge
General Tasks and Demands
Self Care
Domestic Life
Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships
Major Life Areas
Commmunity, Social and Civic Life

What is abilities assessment?

You have to prove your performance in the real world.

You should have abilities/skills relevant to the real world.

Always show abilities, skills, and knowledge relevant to specific profession or professions in the real world, particularly through advertising or media.

You must prove your competence in the real world.

You should be able to answer relevant questions in the real world from time to time relevant to your profession.

How are abilities assessed?

Unlike tests of skills, personality, interests or values – all of which are influenced by changes over time – abilities are assessed through the actual performance of manual and mental tasks which measure how easily the test-taker can perform those tasks.

What is spatial ability?

Spatial ability is the capacity to understand and remember the spatial relations among objects. This ability can be viewed as a unique type of intelligence distinguishable from other forms of intelligence, such as verbal ability, reasoning ability, and memory skills. Spatial ability is not a monolithic and static trait, but made up of numerous subskills, which are interrelated among each other and develop throughout your life.

Why is spatial ability important?

Visual-spatial skills are of great importance for success in solving many tasks in everyday life.

What is a Skills Center?
What do you have to do to improve your skills?
Here are further guidelines.
Personal Skills List

Self-Management Skills:

Clear thinking
Detail oriented
Fair minded
Sense of humor
Thinks quickly
Transferable Skills Checklist
What are other names for transferable skills?
Transferable skills are known by a variety of terms - key skills, core skills, soft skills, generic skills, generic competences. Transferable skills have been defined quite simply as "skills developed in one situation which can be transferred to another situation". They are the kinds of skills which are necessary for effective performance by individuals, not only in the workplace but in life in general. Some examples of such skills include team working, communication skills, problem solving and planning skills.

What are transferable skills?
Transferable skills are skills that you can take with you from one situation to another, from one job to another.
Transferable skills (also called “life skills”) may be defined as a set of qualities that can be applied to any field or career, regardless of where they were first learned.

Your transferable skills are often:
Acquired through a class (e.g., an English major who is taught technical writing)
Acquired through experience

Working With People
Working With Things
Working With Data/Information


Key Transferable Skills

Working with People
Other Transferable Skills
(Dealing with things)
Creative, Artistic
Dealing with Data
Add any other Transferable Skills that you think are important
Using Words, Ideas
Checklist of Transferable Skills

Adapt to Situations: Learn a new task and/or work in a different area with different co- workers.
Analyze: Break a problem down to see what is really going on.
Assemble Products: Put things together with your hands.
Calculate Numbers: Use a calculator, cash register or computer to answer numerical questions.
Communicate: Speak and/or write well and get your ideas across to other easily.
Confident: Believe in and feel good about yourself.
Considerate: Always think about how others may feel about things, especially before you say or do things that my affect them.
Creativity: Use your imagination to come up with new ideas or to solve problems.
Decision Making: Make good judgements about what to do in a difficult situation, even when the supervisor is not present.
Delegate: Assign tasks to others to complete.
Dependable: Can be counted on to do what you said you would do (i.e. show up for work on time, do your job duties well, etc).
Efficient: Perform tasks in the fastest and simplest ways that they can be done.
Energetic: Lots of energy to use at work and at play. Explain: Tell others why you do certain things they way you
do or why you think the way you do. Flexible: Can carry out many different responsibilities, sometimes with very little advanced notice.
Handle Complaints: Deal effectively with complaints made by customers or constructive criticism from your _________.
Helpful: Enjoy helping people solve their problems.
Interpret: Look at things and make sense of them, figure out what makes things work,why there is a problem, etc.
Learn Quickly: Do new things and carry out new responsibilities easily by watching other or by following instructions.
Listen: Listen/pay attention to what others are saying, without daydreaming or forming judgement about them.
Loyal: Committed and devoted to things/people that mean a lot to you (i.e. your best friend, your job/supervisor).
Motivate Others: Help keep others' spirits up and encourage them to do their best.
Operate Equipment: Turn equipment on and off as well as how to use it safely and wisely. (If you don't know how to operate certain things, you always ask for help.)
Order Goods/Supplies: Keep track of items and how to order them.
Organize: Arrange people/plan events/put things in order so that they run smoothly.
Pleasant: Nice person for others to talk to and be with.
Precise: Make sure that things are done accurately, correctly and exactly.
Punctual: Always on time for things.
Record Data: Write thorough and accurate notes/numbers.
Resourceful: Thing of new, creative and different ways to do things when there are no obvious solutions available.
Self-assured: Feel very confident and positive about yourself and your abilities.
Service Customers: Be friendly, patient and polite with customers and try your best to service their needs/wants.
Set Goals: Set goals for yourself to achieve and plan ways to achieve them.
Supervise: Watch others to make sure that everything is ok and/or that they are doing their jobs well.
Take Instructions: Follow instructions well, ask questions when you do not fully understand instructions.
Think Ahead: Plan your day and keep problems/accidents from happening.
Time Management: Plan your time so that you don't forget to do things, you're almost always/always on time, and you know how to prioritize and give yourself enough time to do the things that you need to do.
Trouble-shoot: Figure out what the problem is, why there is a problem, or prevent a problem before it happens.
Trustworthy: Can be trusted to get the job done, to look after things or keep secrets that are very important to other people.

Transferable Skills

These skills are general skills that can be useful in a variety of jobs. For example, writing clearly, good language skills, or the ability to organize and prioritize tasks would be desirable in many jobs. These are called transferable skills because they can be transferred from one job-or even career-to another.

Key Transferable Skills

o Meeting deadlines
o Planning
o Speaking in public
o Controlling budgets
o Supervising others
o Accepting responsibility
o Instructing others
o Solving problems
o Managing budgets
o Managing people
o Meeting the public
o Negotiating
o Organizing or managing projects
o Written communications

Dealing with data

o Analyze data or facts
o Investigate
o Audit records
o Keep records
o Budget
o Locate answers or information
o Calculate, compute
o Manage money
o Classify data
o Negotiate
o Compare, inspect, or record facts
o Count, observe, compile
o Research
o Detail-oriented
o Synthesize
o Evaluate
o Take inventory

Working with people

o Administer
o Patient
o Negotiate
o Persuade
o Confront others
o Teach
o Pleasant
o Counsel people
o Sensitive
o Demonstrate
o Sociable
o Tolerant
o Diplomatic
o Supervise
o Help others
o Tactful
o Insightful
o Interview others
o Instruct
o Listen
o Trust
o Understand
o Outgoing
o Kind

Using Word, Ideas

o Research
o Articulate
o Inventive
o Logical
o Ingenious
o Write clearly
o Design
o Develop/Create
o Edit
o Correspond with others
o Remember information
o Communicate verbally
o Create new ideas
o Speak in public


o Arrange social functions
o Motivate people
o Competitive
o Negotiate agreements
o Decisive
o Plan
o Delegate
o Run meetings
o Direct others
o Self-controlled
o Explain things to others
o Self-motivated
o Get results
o Solve problems
o Mediate problems
o Take risks

Creative, Artistic

o Artistic
o Music appreciation
o Play instruments
o Perform, act
o Drawing, art
o Expressive
o Dance, body movement
o Present artistic ideas

Other Transferable Skills

o Using my hands, dealing with things
o Assemble or make things
o Build, observe, and inspect things
o Construct or repair buildings
o Operate tools and machinery
o Drive or operate vehicles
o Good with my hands
o Use complex equipment
o Endure long hours
o Follow directions
o File records
o Learn quickly

Creative, Artistic Skills

Draw, sketch, render
Music Appreciation
Perform, act
Play Instruments
Present artistic ideas

Analytical Skills

Analyze data or facts
Audit records
Calculate, compute
Classify data
Compare, inspect, record facts
Count, observe, compile
Locate answers/information
Take inventory

Key Transferable Skills

Accept responsibility
Control budget
Increase sales or efficiency
Instruct other
Manage people
Meet deadlines
Meet the public
Organize/manage projects
Solve problems
Speak in public
Supervise others
Written communications


Arrange social functions
Direct others
Explain things to others
Get results
Mediate problems
Motivate people
Negotiate agreements
Run meetings
Self motivated
Solve problems
Take risks

Other Transferable Skills:

Assemble or make things
Build, observe, inspect things
Construct or repair buildings <
br> Drive or operate vehicles Good with my hands
Operate tools/machinery
Repair things
Use complex equipment
Use my hands

Using Words and Ideas:

Communicate verbally
Correspond with others
Create new ideas
Remember information v Research
Speaking in public
Write clearly

Working with People:

Care for
Confront others
Counsel people
Help others

Job Content Skills - what have you done?

Adapting new procedure
Administering programs
Advising people
Analyzing data
Analyzing problems
Assembling apparatus
Becoming actively involved
Being thorough
Budgeting expenses
Calculating numerical data
Checking for accuracy
Coaching individuals
Comparing results
Compiling statistics
Conducting meetings
Coordinating schedules/times
Coping with deadlines
Delegating responsibility
Developing plans for projects
Dispensing information
Drafting reports
Editing work
Encouraging others
Evaluating programs
Expressing ideas orally to individuals or groups
Finding/gathering information
Handling complaints
Handling detail work
Imagining new solutions
Inspecting physical objects
Interacting with people at
various levels
Interviewing prospective employees
Investigating problems
Knowledge of concepts and principles
Listening to others
Locating missing information
Maintaining accurate records
Maintaining emotional control under stress
Making decisions
Managing an organization
Managing people
Mediating between people
Meeting new people
Motivating others
Negotiating, arbitrating conflicts
Operating equipment
Organizing files
Organizing tasks
Performing numeric analysis
Persuading others
Picking out important
Planning agendas/meetings
Planning organizational needs
Preparing written
Prioritizing work
Promoting events
Proposing ideas
Providing customer service
Public speaking
Reading volumes of materials
Recommending course of action
Recommending ideas
Rehabilitating people
Relating to the public
Running meetings
Screening telephone calls
Selling ideas/products
Setting up demonstrations
Setting work/committee goals
Teaching/Training Individuals
Thinking in a logical manner
Taking independent action

Personal Development and Personal Empowerment
Self-Motivation and Emotional Intelligence
Time Management and Removing Distractions to help you achieve more
Avoiding Stress
Anger Management
Relaxation Techniques
Building Confidence and Self-Esteem

Verbal Communication

o Speak well in public appearances
o Confront and express opinions without offending
o Interview people to obtain information
o Handle complaints ___in person ___over phone
o Present ideas effectively in speeches or lecture
o Persuade/influence others to a certain point of view
o Sell ideas, products or services
o Debate ideas with others
o Participate in group discussions and teams
o Perform

Nonverbal Communication

o Listen carefully and attentively
o Convey a positive self image
o Use body language that makes others comfortable
o Develop rapport easily with groups of people
o Establish culture to support learning
o Express feelings through body language
o Promote concepts through a variety of media
o Believe in self worth
o Respond to non-verbal cues
o Model behavior or concepts for others

Written Communication

o Write technical language, reports, manuals
o Write poetry, fiction plays
o Write grant proposals
o Prepare and write logically written reports
o Write copy for sales and advertising
o Edit and proofread written material
o Prepare revisions of written material
o Utilize all forms of technology for writing
o Write case studies and treatment plans
o Demonstrate expertise in grammar and style


o Teach, advise, coach, empower
o Conduct needs assessments
o Use a variety of media for presentation
o Develop educational curriculum and materials
o Create and administer evaluation plan
o Facilitate a group
o Explain difficult ideas, complex topics
o Assess learning styles and respond accordingly
o Consult and recommend solutions
o Write well organized and documented reports


o Study data or behavior for meaning and solutions
o Analyze quantitative, physical and/or scientific data
o Write analysis of study and research
o Compare and evaluate information
o Systematize information and results
o Apply curiosity
o Investigate clues
o Formulate insightful and relevant questions
o Use technology for statistical analysis


o Identify appropriate information sources
o Search written, oral and technological information
o Interview primary sources
o Hypothesize and test for results
o Compile numerical and statistical data
o Classify and sort information into categories
o Gather information from a number of sources
o Patiently search for hard-to-find information
o Utilize electronic search methods

Plan and Organize

o Identify and organize tasks or information
o Coordinate people, activities and details
o Develop a plan and set objectives
o Set up and keep time schedules
o Anticipate problems and respond with solutions
o Develop realistic goals and action to attain them
o Arrange correct sequence of information and actions
o Create guidelines for implementing an action
o Create efficient systems
o Follow through, insure completion of a task

Counsel and Serve

o Counsel, advise, consult, guide others
o Care for and serve people; rehabilitate, heal
o Demonstrate empathy, sensitivity and patience
o Help people make their own decisions
o Help others improve health and welfare
o Listen empathically and with objectivity
o Coach, guide, encourage individuals to achieve goals
o Mediate peace between conflicting parties
o Knowledge of self-help theories and programs
o Facilitate self-awareness in others

Interpersonal Relations

o Convey a sense of humor
o Anticipate people's needs and reactions
o Express feelings appropriately
o Process human interactions, understand others
o Encourage, empower, advocate for people
o Create positive, hospitable environment
o Adjust plans for the unexpected
o Facilitate conflict management
o Communicate well with diverse groups
o Listen carefully to communication


o Envision the future and lead change
o Establish policy
o Set goals and determine courses of action
o Motivate/inspire others to achieve common goals
o Create innovative solutions to complex problems
o Communicate well with all levels of the organization
o Develop and mentor talent
o Negotiate terms and conditions
o Take risks, make hard decisions, be decisive
o Encourage the use of technology at all levels


o Manage personnel, projects and time
o Foster a sense of ownership in employees
o Delegate responsibility and review performance
o Increase productivity and efficiency to achieve goals
o Develop and facilitate work teams
o Provide training for development of staff
o Adjust plans/procedures for the unexpected
o Facilitate conflict management
o Communicate well with diverse groups
o Utilize technology to facilitate management

Economy and Budget

o Calculate, perform mathematical computations
o Work with precision with numerical data
o Keep accurate and complete ______ records
o Perform accounting functions and procedures
o Compile data and apply statistical analysis
o Create computer generated charts for presentation
o Use computer software for records and analysis
o Forecast, estimate
o Appraise and analyze
o Create and justify organization's budget to others


o Communicate well with key people in organization
o Identify and purchase necessary resource materials
o Utilize computer software and equipment
o Organize, improve, adapt office systems
o Track progress of projects and troubleshoot
o Achieve goals within budget and time schedule
o Assign tasks and sets standards for support staff
o Supervise
o Demonstrate flexibility during crisis
o Oversee communication, email and telephones

Create and Innovate

o Visualize concepts and results
o Intuit strategies and solutions
o Execute color, shape and form
o Brainstorm and make use of group synergy
o Communicate with metaphors
o Invent products through experimentation
o Express ideas through art form
o Remember faces, accurate spatial memory
o Create images through, sketches, sculpture, etc.
o Utilize computer software for artistic creations

Construct and Operate

o Assemble and install technical equipment
o Build a structure, follow proper sequence
o Understand blueprints and architectural specs
o Repair machines
o Analyze and correct plumbing or electrical problems
o Use tools and machines
o Master athletic skills
o Landscape and farm
o Drive and operate vehicles
o Use scientific or medical equipment

76 Transferable Skills

Information Management Skills:

Ability to ...
    Sort data and objects
    Compile and rank information
    Apply information creatively to specific problems or tasks
    Synthesize facts, concepts and principles
    Understand and use organizing principles
    Evaluate information against appropriate standards
Design and Planning Skills: Ability to ...
    Identify alternative courses of action
    Set realistic goals
    Follow through with a plan or decision
    Manage time effectively
    Predict future trends and patterns
    Accommodate multiple demands for commitment of time, energy and resources
    Assess needs
    Make and keep a schedule
    Set priorities
Valuing Skills: Ability to ...
    Assess a course of action in terms of its long-range effects on the general human welfare
    Make decisions that will maximize both individual and collective good
    Appreciate the contributions of art, literature, science and technology to contemporary society
    Identify one's own values
    Assess one's values in relation to important life decisions
Human Relations and Interpersonal Skills:

Ability to ...
    Keep a group "on track" and moving toward the achievement of a goal
    Maintain group cooperation and support
    Delegate tasks and responsibilities
    Interact effectively with peers, superiors, and subordinates
    Express one's feelings appropriately/understand the feelings of others
    Use argumentation techniques to persuade others
    Make commitments to people
    Be willing to take risks
    Teach a skill, concept or principle to others
    Analyze behavior of self and others in group situations
    Demonstrate effective social behavior in a variety of settings and under different circumstances
    Work under time and environmental pressures
Research and Investigation Skills: Ability to ...
    Use a variety of sources of information
    Apply a variety of methods to test the validity of data
    Identify problems and needs
    Design an experiment plan or model that systematically defines a problem
    Identify information sources appropriate to special needs or problems
    Formulate questions relevant to clarifying a particular problem, topic or issue
Communication Skills: Ability to ...
    Listen with objectivity and paraphrase the content of a message
    Use various forms and styles of written communication
    Speak effectively to individuals or groups use media formats to present ideas imaginatively
    Express one's needs, wants, opinions and preferences without offending the sensitivities of others
    Identify and communicate value judgments effectively
    Describe objects or events with a minimum of factual errors
    Convey a positive self-image to others
Critical Thinking Skills:

Ability to ...
    Identify quickly and accurately the critical issues when making a decision or solving a problem
    Identify a general principle that explains interrelated experiences or factual data
    Define the parameters of a problem
    Identify reasonable criteria for assessing the value or appropriateness of an action or behavior
    Adapt one's concepts and behavior to changing conventions and norms
    Apply appropriate criteria to strategies and action plans
    Take given premises and reason to their conclusion
    Create innovate solutions to complex problems
    Analyze the interrelationships of events and ideas from several perspectives
Management and Administration Skills:

Ability to ...
    Analyze tasks
    Identify people who can contribute to the solution of a problem or task
    Identify resource materials useful in the solution of a problem
    Delegate responsibility o f completion of a task
    Motivate and lead people
    Organize people and tasks to achieve specific goals
Personal/Career Development Skills:

Ability to ...
    Analyze and learn from life experiences - both one's own and others'
    Relate the skills developed in one environment (e.g., school) to the requirements of another environment (e.g., work)
    Match knowledge about one's own characteristics and abilities to information about job or career opportunities
    Identify, describe and assess the relative importance of one's needs, values, interests, strengths and weaknesses
    Develop personal growth goals that are motivating
    Identify and describe skills acquired through formal education and general life experiences
    Identify one's own strengths and weaknesses
    Accept and learn from negative criticism
    Generate trust and confidence in others
    Take risks
    Accept the consequences of one's actions
    "______" oneself to prospective _______
Interpersonal Skills
What are Interpersonal Skills?
A List of Interpersonal Skills Includes:
Verbal Communication - What we say and how we say it. Non-Verbal Communication - What we communicate without words, body language is an example.
Listening Skills - How we interpret both the verbal and non-verbal messages sent by others.
Negotiation - Working with others to find a mutually agreeable outcome. Problem Solving - Working with others to identify, define and solve problems.
Decision Making – Exploring and analysing options to make sound decisions.
Assertiveness – Communicating our values, ideas, beliefs, opinions, needs and wants freely.

Interpersonal Skills—skills that are about your attitude, work ethic, reliability, flexibility, personal interaction with co-workers/customers/others.
What is Negotiation?

Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument.

In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organisation they represent). However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.

Stages of Negotiation

In order to achieve a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured approach to negotiation. For example, in a work situation a meeting may need to be arranged in which all parties involved can come together. The process of negotiation includes the following stages:

3.Clarification of goals
4.Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome
6.Implementation of a course of action

1. Preparation

Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place to discuss the problem and who will attend. Setting a limited time-scale can also be helpful to prevent the disagreement continuing.

This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. In the work example above, this would include knowing the ‘rules’ of your organisation, to whom help is given, when help is not felt appropriate and the grounds for such refusals. Your organisation may well have _______ to which you can refer in preparation for the negotiation.

Undertaking preparation before discussing the disagreement will help to avoid further conflict and unnecessarily wasting time during the meeting.

Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument.

In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organisation they represent). However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.

Specific forms of negotiation are used in many situations: international affairs, the legal system, government, industrial disputes or domestic relationships as examples. However, general negotiation skills can be learned and applied in a wide range of activities. Negotiation skills can be of great benefit in resolving any differences that arise between you and others.

Our negotiation pages:

Describe the common stages in the process of negotiation.
Describe the different types of negotiation.
Outline key points for successful negotiation.
Explain the difference between interests and positions in the negotiation process.
Recognise why effective communication is essential to negotiation.

Why Negotiate?

It is inevitable that, from time-to-time, conflict and disagreement will arise as the differing needs, wants, aims and beliefs of people are brought together. Without negotiation, such conflicts may lead to argument and resentment resulting in one or all of the parties feeling dissatisfied. The point of negotiation is to try to reach agreements without causing future barriers to communications.

Stages of Negotiation

In order to achieve a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured approach to negotiation. For example, in a work situation a meeting may need to be arranged in which all parties involved can come together. The process of negotiation includes the following stages:

3.Clarification of goals
4.Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome
6.Implementation of a course of action

1. Preparation

Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place to discuss the problem and who will attend. Setting a limited time-scale can also be helpful to prevent the disagreement continuing.

This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. In the work example above, this would include knowing the ‘rules’ of your organisation, to whom help is given, when help is not felt appropriate and the grounds for such refusals. Your organisation may well have _______ to which you can refer in preparation for the negotiation.

Undertaking preparation before discussing the disagreement will help to avoid further conflict and unnecessarily wasting time during the meeting.

2. Discussion

During this stage, individuals or members of each side put forward the case as they see it, i.e. their understanding of the situation. Key skills during this stage are questioning, listening and clarifying. Sometimes it is helpful to take notes during the discussion stage to record all points put forward in case there is need for further clarification. It is extremely important to listen, as when disagreement takes place it is easy to make the mistake of saying too much and listening too little. Each side should have an equal opportunity to present their case.

3. Clarifying Goals

From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides of the disagreement need to be clarified. It is helpful to list these in order of priority. Through this clarification it is often possible to identify or establish common ground.

4. Negotiate Towards a Win-Win Outcome

This stage focuses on what is termed a Win-Win outcome where both sides feel they have gained something positive through the process of negotiation and both sides feel their point of view has been taken into consideration.

A Win-Win outcome is usually the best result. Although this may not always be possible, through negotiation, it should be the ultimate goal.

Suggestions of alternative strategies and compromises need to be considered at this point. Compromises are often positive alternatives which can often achieve greater benefit for all concerned compared to holding to the original positions.

5. Agreement

Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides’ viewpoints and interests have been considered. It is essential to keep an open mind in order to achieve a solution. Any agreement needs to be made perfectly clear so that both sides know what has been decided.

6. Implementing a Course of Action

From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented to carry through the decision.

Failure to Agree

If the process of negotiation breaks down and agreement cannot be reached, then re-scheduling a further meeting is called for. This avoids all parties becoming embroiled in heated discussion or argument, which not only wastes time but can also damage future relationships.

At the subsequent meeting, the stages of negotiation should be repeated.

Any new ideas or interests should be taken into account and the situation looked at afresh. At this stage it may also be helpful to look at other alternative solutions and/or bring in another person to mediate.

Informal Negotiation

There are times when there is a need to negotiate more informally. At such times, when a difference of opinion arises, it might not be possible or appropriate to go through the stages set out above in a formal manner.

Nevertheless, remembering the key points in the stages of formal negotiation may be very helpful in a variety of informal situations.

In any negotiation, the following three elements are important and likely to affect the ultimate outcome of the negotiation:

3.Interpersonal Skills


All negotiation is strongly influenced by underlying attitudes to the process itself, for example attitudes to the issues and personalities involved in the particular case or attitudes linked to personal needs for recognition.


The more knowledge you possess of the issues in question, the greater your participation in the process of negotiation. In other words, good preparation is essential.

Do your homework and gather as much information about the issues as you can.

Furthermore, the way issues are negotiated must be understood as negotiating will require different methods in different situations.
Here are further guidelines.

Organizational Skill
Organizational Skills—skills that demonstrate your abilities to get a job done, planning, develop new ways of doing things, initiate improvements to a job, assist others in getting a task done, efficiency on the job.

Secretarial Skills

Secretarial Skills—write business letters, data entry, operate office machines including computers, keep inventory, order supplies, scheduling people or rooms.

Technical/Manual Skills

Technical/Manual Skills—skills that list your computer hardware and software abilities, machines you can operate, things you can put together, items you can handle, stack, lift, turn, repair or place

ABILITY TO HANDLE CONFLICT : Can you handle stressful, tense situations and make th em come out right?

What is intelligence?
The ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences
The ability to solve problems
The capacity to adapt and learn from experiences
Includes characteristics such as
creativity and interpersonal skills The mental abilities that enable one to adapt to, shape, or select one’s environment
The ability to judge, comprehend, and reason
The ability to understand and deal with people, objects, and symbols
The ability to act pu rposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment

As you think about what intelligence is, you should ask the following questions:
To what extent is intelligence genetic?
To what extent is intelligence stable?
How do cognitive abiliti es interact with other aspects of functioning?
Are there true sex differences?
Is intelligence a global capacity (similar to “good health”) or can it be differentiated into various dimensions (called “factors” or “aptitudes”)?
Are there a number of “intell igences”?
How do you measure intelligence?
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) : Measure of intelligence that takes into account a child’s mental and chronological age IQ Score = MA / CA x 100 Mental age (MA) : the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age Chronological age (CA) : the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test People whose mental age is equal to their chronological age will always have an IQ of 100. If the chronological age exceeds mental age – below - averag e intelligence (below 100). If the mental age exceed the chronological age – above - average intelligence (above 100).

The normal distribution: most of the population falls in the middle range of scores between 84 and 116.

Very Superior I ntelligence ( gifted ) - Above 130

Superior Intelligence - 120 to 129

High Average Intelligence - 110 to 119

Average Intelligence - 90 to 109

Low Average Intelligence - 80 to 89

Borderline Intellectual Functioning - 71 to 79

Mild Mental Retardation - 55 to 70

Moderate Retardation - 40 to 54

Severe Mental Retardation - 25 to 39

Profound Mental Retardation - Below 25

Are IQ tests culturally biased?
Pain Disability Questionnaire
Cognitive Skills

Reasoning and Problem Solving:
Speed of Processing:


Rote memorization
Gist (e.g. recall the plot of Jane Eyre)
Procedures (e.g. draw a right triangle)


Selective attention: filter out distractions, ignore irrelevant information
Sustained attention: focus for long periods of time
Divided attention: focus on more than one thing)


Fine motor control
Hand-eye coordination
Gross motor control

Executive functions

Inhibit irrelevant or automatic responses
Flexibility: change direction if not working; adopt multiple approaches
Strategy use: ability to reflect on strategy and select appropriate strategy
Automaticity: make skills automatic

Language skills

Listening skills: ability to take in and process auditory information
Reading: recognition of sight words and decoding new words
Comprehension: understanding what is read or said
Formulation: ability to access and organize information to express it

Thinking skills

Reasoning about concrete items versus abstract ideas
Analyzing/evaluating arguments
Developing a logical argument
Inductive reasoning: using specific examples/observations and forming a more general principal
Deductive reasoning: use stated general premise to reason about specific examples
Generate hypotheses: intuition, aesthetics, emotion
Hypothesis testing: test ideas through experience or manipulation of variables
Application: use knowledge in a new area
Appreciation: recognition of value of something
Responding to novelty: ability to react appropriately in a novel situation
Self-reflection: ability to think about oneself in relation to the material

Test Time Limit
Arithmetic 5
Language Skills 5

Sample Test Questions


This is a test of your ability to do arithmetic problems involving the addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of whole numbers.
Look at the examples below. Each is followed by four possible answers, plus None . You are to do each problem and then blacken the circle below the correct answer. If the correct answer is not given, mark None .

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers.


1. 2 + 3 = 4 5 6 7 None
2. 4 – 1 = 1 2 3 4 None
3. 19 x 2 = 21 17 37 43 None
4. 30 ÷ 2 = 15 16 12 10 None

Remember, mark None if the correct answer is not given.
1. 5
2. 3
3. None
4. 15

Look at the sample sentence below. Part of the sentence is underlined. The underlined section may contain errors in spelling, punc tuation, capitalization, grammar, or usage.

Following the sentence are three ch anges to replace the underlined section. Select the best answer and darken the circle in front of it. If the underlin ed section contains no error, darken the circle in front of No Change

1. The staff meeting will be held on Tusday

No Change


Cognitive Skills of the Brain

Because the brain in the central hub for the all of the body’s functions, understanding how this organ works can be helpful in terms of understanding Traumatic Brain Injury.

Cognitive Skills of the Brain

Because the brain in the central hub for the all of the body’s functions, understanding how this organ works can be helpful in terms of understanding Traumatic Brain Injury.

There are six components inside of the brain; the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum and the brain stem. Read below to understand the functions of each part of the brain, the roles they play in the body’s overall health, and observed problems in behavior or well being if that particular part of the brain is injured.

Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe links and integrates all components of behavior at the highest level. Emotion and social adjustment and impulse control are also localized here. Injury to parts of the frontal lobe may cause an inability to move part of the body or the whole side of the body. Speech may become halting, disorganized or be stopped except for single explosive words. Personality may change. Social rules of behavior may be disregarded. The executive functions, planning, abstract reasoning, impulse control, sustained attention and insight are all located here. The frontal lobe is highly susceptible to injury.


  • Initiation
  • Problem solving
  • Judgment
  • Inhibition of behavior
  • Planning/anticipation
  • Self-monitoring
  • Motor planning
  • Personality/emotions
  • Awareness of abilities/limitations
  • Organization
  • Attention/concentration
  • Mental flexibility
  • Speaking (expressive language)

Observed Problems

  • Emotion (i.e., depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, and social inappropriateness).

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe is largely responsible for construction ability and language. Injury to the front parts of this lobe may cause someone to lose sensation on parts of the body. With an injury in this area, one may become disoriented. Recall of long term memories may be mixed up in time or sequencing. They may become easily lost or confuse left and right. They may have difficulty recognizing or naming what they see. Injury may also produce disorders in the ability to read, write or perform math calculations. This area also includes conscious sensation and voluntary motion.

  • Sense of touch
  • Differentiation: size, shape, color
  • Spatial perception
  • Visual perception
  • Academic skills (reading)

Observed Problems

  • Sensation (i.e., touch, taste, and smell)

Occipital Lobe

Injury to this area usually results in “blindness” to part or all of the visual field. Usually people experience “holes” or “blind spots” in what they see. There may be problems picking things out of space or they may misperceive pictures or objects. Recognition of colors may also be disturbed.


  • Vision
  • Reading (perception and recognition of printed words)

Observed Problems

  • Depth perception
  • Color perception
  • Difficulty tracking moving objects
  • Partial or total blindness

Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe perceives and recognizes verbal material. It is among the most frequently injured parts of the brain during head injury. A person may have difficulty screening out distractions. Injury to the upper temporal area can cause someone to misunderstand what is said. They may make sounds like words but which are not recognizable as words at all. They may also misunderstand body language. Emotional changes such as unexplained panic or unexpected tearfulness may be noted. Left temporal area includes production of speech, naming and verbal memory. The right temporal area includes musical abilities, foreign languages, visual memory, and comprehension of the environment.


  • Memory
  • Hearing
  • Understanding language (receptive language)
  • Organization and sequencing
  • Musical awareness

Observed Problems

  • Thinking (i.e., memory and reasoning)
  • Language (i.e., communication, expression, and understanding)


Obtaining a general understanding of the brain and its functions is important to understanding the rehabilitation process. It is very important, however, to understand that the rehabilitation professional is concerned with the whole person. The identification of individual problems gives the rehabilitation team areas in which to focus treatment plans, all of these plans are designed to work toward the rehabilitation of the whole person. Each problem area affects other areas and many times resolving one problem has a major impact on other problems. For example, reestablishing postural balance and eliminating dizziness greatly enhances concentration and attention which allows for improved cognition and problem solving.


  • Coordination of voluntary movement
  • Balance and equilibrium
  • Some memory for reflex motor acts

Observed Problems

  • Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
  • Loss of ability to walk
  • Inability to reach out and grab objects
  • Tremors
  • Dizziness (vertigo)
  • Slurred speech (scanning speech)
  • Inability to make rapid movements

Brain Stem

The brain stem plays a vital role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness. All information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from our brain. Like the frontal and temporal lobes, the brain stem is located in an area near bony protrusions making it vulnerable to damage during trauma.


  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
  • Swallowing
  • Reflexes to seeing and hearing (startling response)
  • Controls sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature (autonomic nervous system)
  • Affects level of alertness
  • Ability to sleep
  • Sense of balance (vestibular function)

Observed Problems

  • Decreased vital capacity in breathing, important for speech
  • Swallowing food and water (dysphasia)
  • Difficulty with organization/perception of the environment
  • Problems with balance and movement
  • Dizziness and nausea (vertigo)
  • Sleeping difficulties (insomnia, sleep apnea)

  • Here are further guidelines.

    Locus coeruleus

    The locus coeruleus (also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the brainstem) involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

    The locus coeruleus is the principal site for brain synthesis of norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The locus coeruleus and the areas of the body affected by the norepinephrine it produces are described collectively as the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system or LC-NA system. Norepinephrine may also be released directly into the blood from the adrenal medulla.

    In adult humans (19-78) the locus coeruleus has 22,000 to 51,000 total pigmented neurons that range in size between 31,000 and 60,000 µm3

    In stress
    In opiate withdrawal
    Rett syndrome
    Neurodegenerative diseases

    Here are further guidelines.
Health Care
Developmental Disabilities
Learning Disabilities
Doctor Consultation
Functional Abilities Essential for Nursing Practice
Functional Capacity Evaluations
Physical abilities
Age-specific physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living.
Profession-specific physical abilities.
Physical Ability Tests

What are examples of physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living and age?
What are examples of physical abilities relevant to job-specific physical abilities and age?

Take a look at this.
What are examples of physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living and age?

Basic ADLs

What are activities of daily living (ADLs)?

Bathing and showering (washing the body)
Brushing teeth/combing/styling hair)
Climbing stairs
Eating/feeding (including chewing and swallowing)
Functional mobility (moving from one place to another while performing activities)
Getting started after sleep
Personal hygiene and grooming
Toilet hygiene (completing the act of Urinating/defecating)

Needs Help
Cannot Do

Instrumental ADLs

What are instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)?

Ability to use telephone
Food Preparation
Keeping track of Resources
Managing medication
Maintaining the home
Using transportation

Needs Help
Cannot Do

Is there a difference between evaluation of physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living and job-specific physical abilities?

Physical Ability Tests
Muscular Tension Tests - Tasks requiring pushing, pulling, lifting
Muscular Power Tests - Tasks requiring the individual to overcome some initial resistance (e.g., loosening a nut on a bolt)
Muscular Endurance Tests - Tasks involving repetitions of tool use (e.g., removing objects from belts)
Cardiovascular Endurance Tests - Tasks assessing aerobic capacity (e.g., climbing stairs) Flexibility Tests - Tasks where bending, twisting, stretching or reaching of a body segment occurs (e.g., installing lighting fixtures)
Balance Tests - Tasks in which stability of body position is difficult to maintain (e.g., standing on rungs of a ladder)

Basic Law Enforcement Academy

Date of Birth:_______________
Date of Test:_______________
Class Session:_______________
TAC Officer(s):_______________

The Physical Ability Test score for each test item is recorded and added on the individual participant’s sheet. The passing score is 160, with the range of scores for each test between 30 and 50.

Example: The below measures are merely for illustration and are only approximate values.
Sit-Ups 34 = 40 Points.
Push-Ups 38 = 50 Points (Note that 34 and above receives the same maximum points)
1.5-Mile Run 14:31 = 30 Points.
300 Meter Dash 60 sec. = 45 Points.
Total Test battery score is 200 points.

Physical Ability Testing Card

300 Meter Sprint (Seconds)71 63.5 56
Push Ups, Maximum (Repetitions)21 28 35
Sit Ups, 60 second (Repetitions)30 34 38
1.5 Mile Run (Minutes)14:31 14:02 13:35
Psychomotor abilities
Psychomotor ability is the capability or capacity to develop or learn a skill that involves both physical and psychological abilities.

Psychomotor abilities are skills such as hand-eye coordination, balance, and reaction time that arise from a unity of cognitive and physical functions.

Developing a psychomotor ability requires the development of both the cognitive and physical aspects of that ability.

Many different skills and activities require the development of psychomotor abilities. Basic skills learned during early development, such as walking and jumping, required the development of such abilities. Many skills developed later in life for personal or professional reasons, such as typing on a keyboard or driving, also involve developing psychomotor abilities. Such abilities are based on applying a combination of more foundational psychomotor abilities, such as hand-eye coordination, multi-limb coordination, orientation, and control of movement speed.

The cognitive, associative, and autonomic stages are the three main parts of the development of new psychomotor abilities. In the cognitive stage, the learner very deliberately attempts to direct his physical movements based on his conceptualized cognitive ideas, usually resulting in slow and awkward movements. The associative stage involves less thought and is marked by an increase in automatic movements. By the autonomic phase, the necessary movements have been committed to "muscle memory," and the learner no longer needs to think about them in order to perform them. The learner can still improve and refine the learned movements through practice, though, so it is not necessary to achieve perfection the first time.
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Sensory abilities
Can you name our five senses?

Here are your five senses.
Our five senses:

How many senses does a human being have?

We are taught that, as we stumble through the world, we have touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight to guide us. It turns out that we have been underestimating ourselves. Scientists count between fourteen and twenty actual senses, most of which aren't taught in _______. See what information you're really working with.

1. The sense of pain
2. The sense of time
3. The sense of movement
4. The sense of where you are in the world
5. The sense of where your body is compared to itself
6. The sense of temperature
7. The sense of pressure
8. The sense of itchiness
9. The sense of hunger and thirst
10. The sense of when you have to go to the bathroom.

Abilities — Sensory Abilities
Abilities that influence visual, auditory and speech perception
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance. Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.

What is your favorite smell?
What is your favorite taste?
What is your favorite sight?
What is your favorite sound?
What is your favorite touch?
100 Very Cool Facts About The Human Body
Human Body Systems

100 trillion cells
206 bones
600 muscles
22 internal organs
<a name="Bones"> <font size="7"> Bones </font><br> List of bones of the human skeleton<br><br> A typical adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones. Anatomical variation may also result in the formation of more or fewer bones. More common variations include cervical ribs or an additional lumbar vertebra.<br><br> The 206 Bones of the Human Body
Human Body (206)
Axial Skeleton (80) Appendicular Skeleton (126)
Skull (28) Torso (52) Upper Extremity (32 x 2 = 64) Lower Extremity (31 x 2 = 62)
Paired Bones (11 x 2 = 22)
  1. Nasal
  2. Lacrimal
  3. Inferior Nasal Concha
  4. Maxiallary
  5. Zygomatic
  6. Temporal
  7. Palatine
  8. Parietal
  9. Malleus
  10. Incus
  11. Stapes
Paired Bones (12 x 2 = 24)
  1. Rib 1
  2. Rib 2
  3. Rib 3
  4. Rib 4
  5. Rib 5
  6. Rib 6
  7. Rib 7
  8. Rib 8 (False)
  9. Rib 9 (False)
  10. Rib 10 (False)
  11. Rib 11 (Floating)
  12. Rib 12 (Floating)
  1. Scapula
  2. Clavicle
  3. Humerus
  4. Radius
  5. Ulna
  6. Scaphoid
  7. Lunate
  8. Traquetrum
  9. Pisiform
  10. Hamate
  11. Capitate
  12. Trapezoid
  13. Trapezium
  14. Metacarpal 1
  15. Proximal Phalange 1
  16. Distal Phalange 1
  17. Metacarpal 2
  18. Proximal Phalange 2
  19. Middle Phalange 2
  20. Distal Phalange 2
  21. Metacarpal 3
  22. Proximal Phalange 3
  23. Middle Phalange 3
  24. Distal Phalange 3
  25. Metacarpal 4
  26. Proximal Phalange 4
  27. Middle Phalange 4
  28. Distal Phalange 4
  29. Metacarpal 5
  30. Proximal Phalange 5
  31. Middle Phalange 5
  32. Distal Phalange 5
  1. Hip (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis)
  2. Femur
  3. Patella
  4. Tibia
  5. Fibula
  6. Talus
  7. Calcaneus
  8. Navicular
  9. Medial Cuneiform
  10. Middle Cuneiform
  11. Lateral Cuneiform
  12. Cuboid
  13. Metacarpal 1
  14. Proximal Phalange 1
  15. Distal Phalange 1
  16. Metacarpal 2
  17. Proximal Phalange 2
  18. Middle Phalange 2
  19. Distal Phalange 2
  20. Metacarpal 3
  21. Proximal Phalange 3
  22. Middle Phalange 3
  23. Distal Phalange 3
  24. Metacarpal 4
  25. Proximal Phalange 4
  26. Middle Phalange 4
  27. Distal Phalange 4
  28. Metacarpal 5
  29. Proximal Phalange 5
  30. Middle Phalange 5
  31. Distal Phalange 5
  1. Frontal
  2. Ethmoid
  3. Vomer
  4. Sphenoid
  5. Mandible
  6. Occipital
  1. Hyoid
  2. Sternum
  3. Cervical Vertebrae 1 (atlas)
  4. C2 (axis)
  5. C3
  6. C4
  7. C5
  8. C6
  9. C7
  10. Thorasic Vertebrae 1
  11. T2
  12. T3
  13. T4
  14. T5
  15. T6
  16. T7
  17. T8
  18. T9
  19. T10
  20. T11
  21. T12
  22. Lumbar Vertebrae 1
  23. L2
  24. L3
  25. L4
  26. L5
  27. Sacrum
  28. Coccyx
Below is a listing of the cranial nerves and their functions:

Cranial nerve Function
1. Olfactory NerveSmell
2. Optic NerveVision
3. Oculomotor NerveEye Movement; Pupil Dilation
4. Trochlear Nerve Eye Movement
5. Trigeminal Nerve Somatosensory information (touch, pain) from the face and head; muscles for chewing
6. Abducens NerveEye Movement
7. Facial Nerve Taste
8. Vestibulocochelear Nerve Taste
9. Glossopharyngeal NerveTaste
10. Vagus Nerve Sensory, Motor and Autonomic Functions of Viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate, etc.)
11. Spinal Accessory Nerve Controls muscles used in head movement
12. Hypoglossal Nerve Controls muscles of the tongue

Human anatomy by category
Head Anatomy
Neck Anatomy
Shoulder Anatomy
Back Anatomy
Chest Anatomy
Abdominal Anatomy
Hip Anatomy
Upper Leg Anatomy
Knee Anatomy
Lower Leg Anatomy
Ankle Anatomy
Foot Anatomy
Upper Arm Anatomy
Elbow Anatomy
Forearm Anatomy
Wrist Anatomy
Hand Anatomy
Skin Anatomy
Internal Organ Anatomy
Internal Organs Anatomy
Gall bladder
Large intestine
Small intestine
Human Health Care Settings
Human Body Quiz
Internet Human Health Care Services
Job Related Skills
Role of Minerals in the Body
Skills Training
Types of human deformities
What should a doctor of medicine know about Human organ systems and functions?

He/she should know about:
Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Endocrine system
Integumentary system
Lymphatic (immune) system
Muscular system
Reproductive system
Respiratory system
Skeletal system
Urinary system

What organs comprise make this human organ system?
What are the functions of this human organ system?

Self-care abilities

What are other names for self-care abilities?
Self-management skills

What are various self-care abilities?
Bath taking
Dressing and undressing
Food preparation
Personal belongings
Play and social (indoor)
Room cleaning
Table cleaning

At what age should self-care abilities be learned?

Is a human born with abilities or are abilities learned?
Abilities are learned.
A human is born with organ system functions and signs of organ system functions at birth.
Signs of organ system functions of a newborn are:
Breathing efforts
Color of skin (pink, pale or blue)
Heart rate
Muscle tone

What abilities should every child learn before age 5?
What abilities should every child learn before age 12?
What abilities should every human learn before age 18?

Here are further guidelines.

Ability means capacity to do or act physically, mentally, legally, morally, etc.

What are various abilities relevant to specific professions?
Vital signs of human organ system’s function

What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
What are vital signs?
What should be included in the levels of consciousness?
What is body temperature?
What is the pulse rate?
What is the respiration rate?
What is blood pressure?

What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
Blood pressure
Respiratory rate

What should be included in the levels of consciousness?
Obtunded reflexes

In some regions, consciousness and pain are not considered vital signs.

Annual Physical Examinations
What are recommendations to other medical colleges?

Various medical colleges start with anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pediatrics, ear nose & throat, forensic medicine, ophthalmology, preventive and social medicine and end with medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology.

They must start directly with a medical condition. Each medical condition should be enumerated in at least 40 questions and answers with relevant anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and preventive concepts.
What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human microbiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?

If one needs these questions and answers, Qureshi University is willing to provide them.
Last Updated: April 21, 2017