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What is an Obstetrician?
An obstetrician is a medical doctor who specializes in the management of pregnancy, labor and birth. They also receive specialized education in the area of the female reproductive system and surgical care. Much of their education focuses on the detection and management of obstetrical and gynecological problems.

What is the difference between obstetrics and gynecology?
Obstetrics deals with the care of the pregnant women, the unborn baby, labor and delivery and the immediate period following childbirth. The obstetrician ensures that mother and child get the best prenatal care to ensure labor and delivery is accomplished without complications and that should intervention be needed, it is done quickly and safely.

Gynecology deals with any ailment concerning the reproductive organs; uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries and vagina. A gynecologist may also treat related problems in the bowel, bladder and urinary system since these are closely related to female reproductive organs.

How does Internet human health care help in human pregnancy?

Parenting Advice
Human Pregnancy
Internet human health care and pregnancy
How does Internet human health care help in human pregnancy?
Women and teens have so many questions that they previously had to make an appointment with a doctor to ask and get answers.
Nowadays, Internet human health care makes it possible to get answers to various relevant questions without a doctor’s appointment.

Education of new medical students is possible through Internet human health care.

Existing doctors can get educated through Internet human health care.
Self completion medical history form - Pregnancy
Annotation or Definition

What is human pregnancy?
What should you know about human pregnancy?
How does a woman get pregnant?
How do you conclude in the first trimester that a woman is pregnant?
How long does a normal pregnancy last?
What complications can occur during pregnancy?
What are the symptoms or signs of complications during pregnancy?
What medicines are contraindicated during pregnancy?
What procedures should not be done during pregnancy?
What are various obstetrical and gynecological emergencies?

Adolescent Girls
What is an adolescent girl?
What are other names for adolescent Girl?
What do you know about an adolescent girl?
Here are further guidelines.

Abortion (Medical termination of pregnancy.)

What is abortion?
What are the indications of medical termination of pregnancy?
What should happen if these guidelines are violated?
Who may violate these guidelines?
Do you know any such situation or incident?
Here are further guidelines.

Communication Guidelines for Healthy Sex

How do I get my spouse to communicate better with me?
How can I get my spouse to open up and talk with me?
How can I communicate effectively with my spouse?


What is contraception?
What different types of contraception are there?
Here are further guidelines.


Is there anything you should do around the time of conception like eat anything specific or take supplements?

Discomforts of Pregnancy

What questions do you have about feeling sick or uncomfortable while you are pregnant?

Diagnosing Pregnancy

How do you know if you are pregnant?
What are the signs of pregnancy?
How can you detect pregnancy?

Human Pregnancy Emergencies
Emergency Contraception
Pregnancy Complications Questions

What are examples of human pregnancy emergencies?
What human pregnancy emergencies or complications need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
What symptoms, signs, and/or complaints indicate a human pregnancy emergency?
What complications can occur during pregnancy?
What is the difference between emergency contraception, the "morning after pill", and the "day after pill"?
What medicines are contraindicated during pregnancy?
What procedures should not be done during pregnancy?
What are various obstetrical and gynecological emergencies?
Is Bleeding During Pregnancy cause for alarm?
What are the stages of Cervical Dilation?
Do I have Ectopic Pregnancy Symptoms?
Can my Gestational Diabetes Symptoms mean something else?
Can I stop Intrauterine Growth Retardation?
Can Placenta Abruption and Placenta Previa be caused by me?
When Post Term Pregnancy begin?
What do Preeclampsia Symptoms mean and what can I do?
Can Pregnancy Anemia be cured with diet?
When will this Morning Sickness and Nausea end???
Is Preterm Labor dangerous for my baby?
What are the Signs of Miscarriage?
When should I Call the Doctor if I am worried?
What medical history and physical examination is required in a pregnancy emergency?
Here are further guidelines.

Exercise during pregnancy

Are there any types of exercise that aren’t safe during pregnancy?
Does pregnancy change how your body responds to exercise?
Once your baby is born, when can you start exercising again? >/font>

Female Sexual Problems

When is the right time to seek help for sex issues?
How can counselling help sex issues?
What are female sexual problems?
What causes female sexual problems?
How do you know when to seek help?
How do you get help?

Fertility myths

Are women with bigger breasts usually more fertile?

Gender Prediction Questions

Will (Oriental) Birth Calendar predict a baby boy or a baby girl?
Is the (Oriental) Pregnancy Calendar really accurate?
Does an ovulation calculator really work?

Infant Feeding

How do you plan to feed your baby?
What questions do you have about breastfeeding?

Labor and Birth Questions

How do I time labor contractions?
What is Braxton-Hicks?
What should I Expect in Labor and Birth?
What happens in the delivery room after the Baby is Born?
What Happens immediately after Birth?
Labor, Delivery and Recovery Rooms

Labor, Delivery and Recovery Rooms


If you could recommend one lifestyle change over all others to enhance your chances of getting pregnant what would it be?

Medical history relevant to this medical condition

What medical history should you seek relevant to this issue?
What human pregnancy emergencies or complications need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
What symptoms, signs, and/or complaints indicate a human pregnancy emergency?

Medicolegal cases

Is this a medicolegal case?
If this is a medicolegal case, what are the details?


What is a Miscarriage?
Why do miscarriages occur?
What are the chances of having a Miscarriage?
Here are further guidelines.


Is there an average number of days post last day of your period, that you ovulate?

Premature Labor

What health complications can result from premature labor?
Here are further guidelines.

Prenatal Nutrition

Premarital care

What is fidelity?
What are conjugal rights?
What are his rights?
What are her rights?

Here are further guidelines.

Prenatal care

What type of family centric counseling is mandatory before conception?
Here are further guidelines.


What is included in parenting advice?
Here are further guidelines.


Can you still get pregnant if you have sex during your period?

Premature Labor

Pregnancy Nutrition & Fitness Questions

What's your pregnancy nutrition IQ?
When can I start Postpartum Fitness regimen?
Where can I find Pregnancy Diet and Fitness tips?
What is the best level of Pregnancy Fitness?
How fast will my Pregnancy Weight Gain come off?
Quiz: Test Your Pregnancy Nutrition IQ


When will the uterus return to normal size?
When can women resume sexual intercourse after pregnancy?

Here are further guidelines.

Pregnancy Calendar Questions
Pregnancy Week by Week
Pregnancy Month by Month(Fetal Development/ Physiology of normal pregnancy. )

What is the first trimester (week 1-week 12)?
What is the second trimester (week 13-week 28)?
What is the third trimester (week 29-week 40)?
How will my baby develop week by week?
What are the changes that happen to a woman's body during her 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy?
What are all the Pregnancy Terms I should know?
Can I find any General Pregnancy Information here?
What do they look at during Prenatal Testing?
How do I keep track of my Pregnancy Weekly?
What happens in the First Month of Pregnancy?
What happens during my Pregnancy in Month 2?
What is important for my Pregnancy in Month 3?
What happens during my Pregnancy in Month 4?
What is important for my Pregnancy in Month 5?
What happens during my Pregnancy in Month 6?
What is important for my Pregnancy in Month 7?
What happens during my Pregnancy in Month 8?
What is important for my Pregnancy in Month 9?
What happens during my Pregnancy in the First Trimester?
What is important for my Pregnancy in the Second Trimester?
What happens during my Pregnancy in the Third Trimester?

Pregnancy Danger Signs

Pregnancy, birth control, fertility

Q: What are the symptoms of pregnancy?
Q: What days of the month can a woman get pregnant?

Relevant anatomy, physiology, or biochemistry

Human female reproductive system

What human anatomy should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human physiology should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What human biochemistry should one know relevant to this medical condition?
What is the female reproductive system?
Where is the female reproductive system found?
What does the female reproductive system do?
How does the female reproductive system work?

STD symptoms, treatments, and prevention

Q: How are herpes and warts transmitted? What are the risks?
Q: Can you tell me about visible sores on genitalia or other body parts?
Q: What is BDSM?

Sexual positions
Sexual Positions for Intercourse

Is there a particular sexual position that can help you get pregnant more easily? How long does it take to get pregnant?
Here are further guidelines.

Symptoms and signs

What are the first symptoms of pregnancy?
How long after conception does the fertilized egg implant?
What is the most accurate pregnancy test to use?
Is cramping during pregnancy normal?
Why do pregnant women feel tired?
What is the difference between an embryo, a fetus and a zygote?
Early Pregnancy Questions - Are You Pregnant?
How can I calculate my due date?
Thinking about Trying To Conceive?
What are the common Early Pregnancy Symptoms?
Will my Breast Tenderness go away soon?
Can I do anything about my Pregnancy Constipation?
Are Pregnancy Food Cravings and Aversions for real?
How bad will my Pregnancy Dizziness get?
Is there a reason I have so much Pregnancy Fatigue?
When will this Frequent Urination during Pregnancy stop?
Why am I having these Headaches during Pregnancy?
What is Implantation Bleeding, and what are the symptoms?
Does Pregnancy really cause Lower Back Pain?
If I have Missed my period does that mean I am pregnant?
Why do I have Mood Swings?
Do I have Morning Sickness?
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Early Pregnancy?


I know smoking affects your fertility but if you give up is the damage permanent?

Sleep Problems in Pregnancy

How does pregnancy affect sleep?
How should I position myself for sleep during pregnancy?
How much sleep do you really need?
Why does pregnancy cause fatigue?

Stretch marks

Is there anything you can do to prevent stretch marks?

Trying to Conceive (Getting Pregnant)

Ultrasound in Pregnancy

What is ultrasound?
How does ultrasound work?
Why is an ultrasound done?
What will happen during the ultrasound?
What can an ultrasound find?
Does a normal ultrasound mean I will have a healthy baby?
Is ultrasound safe?
What are the benefits of ultrasound?
How is ultrasound used in women's health care?
How is ultrasound used during pregnancy?
How many ultrasound exams will I have during my pregnancy?
Where is an ultrasound exam done?
Who performs the ultrasound exam?
What type of ultrasound exam will I have?
What do I need to do to prepare for a transabdominal ultrasound exam?
What happens during a transvaginal ultrasound exam?
What is a specialized ultrasound exam?
What are the types of specialized ultrasound exams?
What is Doppler ultrasound?
What are 3D and 4D ultrasound?
What is sonohysterography?
What are the risks of ultrasound exams?
Here are further guidelines.


Are women who carry fat in their stomach area more likely to have difficulty conceiving than those who carry weight all over?

What to Eat During Pregnancy

What questions do you have about what you should eat while you are pregnant?
What do you eat on a typical day?
Communication Guidelines for Healthy Sex

Q: How can I communicate effectively with my partner?
A: Many of the questions we get at the switchboard involve communication with one’s partner as an underlying component. Communication can be very difficult, even between people who genuinely want to understand each other. But communication is also a skill, and like any skill, it can be improved with practice and knowledge.

In that spirit, here are 13 “keys to effective communication” that one of our switchboard volunteers has developed.

1. Environment and availability. Is this the right time and place to be having this discussion? A crowded theater is probably not the best place to hash out relationship problems. Are both parties available to talk here and now? If one or both partners are sleepy, inebriated, upset, or in the middle of something else, it will be difficult to have a clear and productive exchange. Be sure that you have time enough to talk it out, that you will be relatively free of distractions, and that you are in a safe place to discuss what you need to discuss.

2. Commitment and desire. Do both partners actually want to talk about the issue at hand? Do you both agree on what that issue is? Are both partners ready and willing to have this discussion? If not, one partner is likely to be talking at a partner who is tuned out, rather than with a partner who is engaged.

3. Individual clarity. Before starting a serious discussion, it is important to have some degree of clarity about your own thoughts and feelings. Do you know what your goals for the discussion are, and where your limits might be? Has your partner had any chance to think about the issue at hand, or will this be a surprise to him/her? Does one or both of you need more time to sort out individual positions before working on the interpersonal issue?

4. Hidden agendas. Is there a discrepancy between the overt agenda (i.e., what you agree that you are going to talk about) and any covert agendas (i.e., what you really want to get out of this interchange). Seduction is a common covert agenda: you say you want to talk about a given issue, but you actually want to get into the other person’s pants.

5. Body language and nonverbal communication. What you say can be emphasized or undermined by how you say it. If you are shouting about how calm you are, your message is confused and confusing. Think of yourself as an actor with a script: do your tone and carriage match your lines? How about your partner?

6. “I” statements. Rather than talking about your partner’s flaws, inadequacies, errors, and ignorance, try to focus on your own feelings, thoughts, and needs. “I feel hurt and lonely when you stay out late” is much less likely to be perceived as an attack than “You’re late again; you don’t give a damn about our relationship.” It is easier for your partner to hear the former than the latter. “You” statements tend to engender defensiveness and arguments, rather than empathic attunement. Beware of the false “I” statement: “I feel that you are wrong.”

7. Paraphrasing and active listening. Try to repeat back to your partner what he or she just said to you before responding. This serves two purposes. First, it shows your partner that you are listening carefully to what they are saying; second, it gives your partner an opportunity to clear up any misperceptions or misstatements.

8. Questions. Asking your partner to clear up things you don’t understand is central to achieving a positive outcome. This is the opposite of mind reading, where you assume that you know what your partner means without asking. Questions come in two basic flavors: open-ended and closed-ended. Closed-ended questions seek out a specific piece of information (and no more), while open-ended questions invite a partner to give as much information as s/he wants. Closed-ended questions can be used (or perceived) as traps (e.g., “Do you feel angry when I say that?” as opposed to “How do you feel when I say that?”). “Why” questions, however innocent, are often perceived as hostile: try to avoid them if possible.

9. Negotiation. Once you and your partner have clarified your concerns and positions, you are ready to begin negotiating a solution: “Here’s the issue, here’s what I need, here’s what you need, what shall we do about it?”

10. Compromise. Within your limits, where can you meet your partner? Is there any middle ground? If either of you is completely unwilling to compromise or change, your discussion is unlikely to be productive. If both of you have some give and take, and both are willing to bend, your chances of successful resolution are good. Compromise is not the same as caving in: if you are in no position to stand firm, you are in no position to compromise.

11. Consensus. Having discussed the issue, are both parties agreed on the content of the discussion? If changes are to be made, do both parties understand what is to happen, when, and how? Changes that are measurable and verifiable (e.g., “I agree to be home or to call by ten o’clock.”) are less likely to cause further conflict than changes that are vague or “fuzzy” (e.g., “I agree to be more supportive.”).

12. Closure. When you are done, check to see how you and your partner are feeling. Are there residual hurt feelings that need to be addressed?

13. Follow-up. Agree to check back in after some time has passed to see whether the agreed-upon changes are working, whether any new information has entered the picture, or if anyone has further issues or feelings that need to be talked through. Rather than leave it open, it is best to agree on a specific time to check back in.

14. Both partners need to make a commitment to engage in a discussion about intimate concerns.

15. Choose a quiet time for discussion when you are not likely to be interrupted. Give your undivided attention to being with your partner.

16. Sit reasonably close to each other and maintain eye contact. Be aware of the tone and volume of your voice.
17. Avoid blaming, name-calling, accusations and sarcasm.

18. Deal with only one issue at a time.

19. State specifically and clearly what you feel and need. Use "I statements", rather than "you statements." (Example: Say "I felt rejected when you didn't want to hug last night" rather than "You're so cold; the way you treat me is cruel.")

20. Maintain an optimistic perspective that change is possible. Avoid bringing up resentments from the distant past. Refrain from using the words "always" or "never".

21. Listen to your partner. Strive to understand each other's feelings and needs. Communicate that understanding to your partner. (You can communicate understanding and still have a different opinion or perspective than your partner).

22. When discussing sexual intimacy concerns, keep in mind that partners are apt to feel scared, embarrassed, or hurt. Emphasize what you like and what works well before making a new request or discussing something that bothers you.

23. Avoid getting sidetracked on irrelevant issues; "It happened in 2005." "No, it was 2004." Refrain from "I'm right, you're wrong" arguments.

24. Explore and discuss various options for change. Work together to brainstorm how individual needs can be met and feelings addressed more effectively. Make the issue the "problem", not each other.

25. See intimate problems as a normal, natural part of a relationship. Turn them into opportunities to learn and grow as a couple.

26. If you and your partner agree to a solution to the problem, try it out, then plan to discuss in the near future how the solution is working for both of you.

27. Give yourselves permission to table discussion of an issue if you feel no progress is being made. You each may get new insights and understandings thinking about it independently. Make sure you resume discussion within several days.

28. Seek professional help when needed. Don’t allow unresolved sexual issues to fester and erode your positive feelings for each other.

Human Pregnancy Emergencies

What human pregnancy emergencies or complications need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
Maliciously impregnated (medico-legal case that needs emergency contraception).
Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
What symptoms, signs, and/or complaints indicate a human pregnancy emergency?
Here are further guidelines.
What symptoms, signs, and/or complaints indicate a human pregnancy emergency?
If you know any female of childbearing age maliciously impregnated, report an emergency (emergency contraception).

Danger signs during pregnancy

Call your physician if you experience any of the following symptoms during your pregnancy:
Abdominal or epigastric pain
Dizziness, blurred or double vision and spots before your eyes
Fever over 101° and chills
Hard, rigid abdomen with severe pain
Noticeable decline in fetal movement
Painful, difficult or scanty urination
Persistent vomiting
Sudden gush of fluid from the vagina
Severe headaches
Swelling around the eyes with accompanying swelling of the hands (some swelling in the legs and feet can be normal)
Vaginal bleeding

What are examples of human pregnancy emergencies?
There are at least 13 human pregnancy emergencies.
Abruptio Placentae
Ectopic pregnancy
Placenta previa
Preeclampsia & Eclampsia
Premature rupture of membranes
Obstetrical emergencies during labor and delivery
Amniotic fluid embolism
Placenta accreta
Shoulder dystocia
Uterine inversion
Uterine rupture
Umbilical Cord Prolapse
Obstetrical emergencies postpartum
Postpartum Hemorrhage
Postpartum infections
Health problems during pregnancy
Anemia – Lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells
  • Feel tired or weak
  • Look pale
  • Feel faint
  • Shortness of breath
Treating the underlying cause of the anemia will help restore the number of healthy red blood cells. Women with pregnancy related anemia are helped by taking iron and folic acid supplements. Your doctor will check your iron levels throughout pregnancy to be sure anemia does not happen again.
Depression – Extreme sadness during pregnancy or after birth (postpartum)
  • Intense sadness
  • Helplessness and irritability
  • Appetite changes
  • Thoughts of harming self or baby

Women who are pregnant might be helped with one or a combination of treatment options, including:

  • Therapy
  • Support groups
  • Medicines

A mother's depression can affect her baby's development, so getting treatment is important for both mother and baby. Learn more about depression during and after pregnancy.

Ectopic (ek-TOP-ihk) pregnancy – When a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube
  • Abdominal pain
  • Shoulder pain
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Feeling dizzy or faint
With ectopic pregnancy, the egg cannot develop. Drugs or surgery is used to remove the ectopic tissue so your organs are not damaged.
Fetal problems – Unborn baby has a health issue, such as poor growth or heart problems
  • Baby moving less than normal (Learn how to count your baby's movements on our Prenatal care and tests page.)
  • Baby is smaller than normal for gestational age
  • Some problems have no symptoms, but are found with prenatal tests
Treatment depends on results of tests to monitor baby's health. If a test suggests a problem, this does not always mean the baby is in trouble. It may only mean that the mother needs special care until the baby is delivered. This can include a wide variety of things, such as bed rest, depending on the mother's condition. Sometimes, the baby has to be delivered early.
Gestational diabetes – Too high blood sugar levels during pregnancy
  • Usually, there are no symptoms. Sometimes, extreme thirst, hunger, or fatigue
  • Screening test shows high blood sugar levels

Most women with pregnancy related diabetes can control their blood sugar levels by a following a healthy meal plan from their doctor. Some women also need insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control. Doing so is important because poorly controlled diabetes increases the risk of:

High blood pressure (pregnancy related) – High blood pressure that starts after 20 weeks of pregnancy and goes away after birth
  • High blood pressure without other signs and symptoms of preeclampsia
The health of the mother and baby are closely watched to make sure high blood pressure is not preeclampsia.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HEYE-pur-EM-uh-suhss grav-uh-DAR-uhm) (HG) – Severe, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy — more extreme than "morning sickness"
  • Nausea that does not go away
  • Vomiting several times every day
  • Weight loss
  • Reduced appetite
  • Dehydration
  • Feeling faint or fainting
Dry, bland foods and fluids together is the first line of treatment. Sometimes, medicines are prescribed to help nausea. Many women with HG have to be hospitalized so they can be fed fluids and nutrients through a tube in their veins. Usually, women with HG begin to feel better by the 20th week of pregnancy. But some women vomit and feel nauseated throughout all three trimesters.
Miscarriage – Pregnancy loss from natural causes before 20 weeks. As many as 20 percent of pregnancies end in miscarriage. Often, miscarriage occurs before a woman even knows she is pregnant

Signs of a miscarriage can include:

  • Vaginal spotting or bleeding*
  • Cramping or abdominal pain
  • Fluid or tissue passing from the vagina

* Spotting early in pregnancy doesn't mean miscarriage is certain. Still, contact your doctor right away if you have any bleeding.

In most cases, miscarriage cannot be prevented. Sometimes, a woman must undergo treatment to remove pregnancy tissue in the uterus. Counseling can help with emotional healing. See our section on Pregnancy loss.
Placenta previaPlacenta covers part or entire opening of cervix inside of the uterus
  • Painless vaginal bleeding during second or third trimester
  • For some, no symptoms
If diagnosed after the 20th week of pregnancy, but with no bleeding, a woman will need to cut back on her activity level and increase bed rest. If bleeding is heavy, hospitalization may be needed until mother and baby are stable. If the bleeding stops or is light, continued bed rest is resumed until baby is ready for delivery. If bleeding doesn't stop or if preterm labor starts, baby will be delivered by cesarean section.
Placental abruptionPlacenta separates from uterine wall before delivery, which can mean the fetus doesn't get enough oxygen.
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Cramping, abdominal pain, and uterine tenderness
When the separation is minor, bed rest for a few days usually stops the bleeding. Moderate cases may require complete bed rest. Severe cases (when more than half of the placenta separates) can require immediate medical attention and early delivery of the baby.
Preeclampsia (pree-ee-CLAMP-see-uh) – A condition starting after 20 weeks of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and problems with the kidneys and other organs. Also called toxemia.
  • High blood pressure
  • Swelling of hands and face
  • Too much protein in urine
  • Stomach pain
  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
The only cure is delivery, which may not be best for the baby. Labor will probably be induced if condition is mild and the woman is near term (37 to 40 weeks of pregnancy). If it is too early to deliver, the doctor will watch the health of the mother and her baby very closely. She may need medicines and bed rest at home or in the hospital to lower her blood pressure. Medicines also might be used to prevent the mother from having seizures.
Preterm labor – Going into labor before 37 weeks of pregnancy
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pressure and cramping
  • Back pain radiating to the abdomen
  • Contractions
Medicines can stop labor from progressing. Bed rest is often advised. Sometimes, a woman must deliver early. Giving birth before 37 weeks is called "preterm birth." Preterm birth is a major risk factor for future preterm births.

Infections during pregnancy

During pregnancy, your baby is protected from many illnesses, like the common cold or a passing stomach bug. But some infections can be harmful to your pregnancy, your baby, or both. This chart provides an overview of infections that can be harmful during pregnancy. Learn the symptoms and what you can do to keep healthy. Easy steps, such as hand washing, practicing safe sex, and avoiding certain foods, can help protect you from some infections.

Infections during pregnancy
InfectionSymptomsPrevention and treatment

Bacterial vaginosis (BV)

A vaginal infection that is caused by an overgrowth of bacteria normally found in the vagina.

BV has been linked to preterm birth and low birth weight babies.

  • Grey or whitish discharge that has a foul, fishy odor
  • Burning when passing urine or itching
  • Some women have no symptoms

How to prevent BV is unclear. BV is not passed through sexual contact, although it is linked with having a new or more than one sex partner.

Women with symptoms should be tested for BV.

Antibiotics are used to treat BV.

Cytomegalovirus (SEYE-toh-MEG-uh-loh VEYE-ruhss) (CMV)

A common virus that can cause disease in infants whose mothers are infected with CMV during pregnancy. CMV infection in infants can lead to hearing loss, vision loss, and other disabilities.

  • Mild illness that may include fever, sore throat, fatigue, and swollen glands
  • Some women have no symptoms

Good hygiene is the best way to keep from getting CMV.

No treatment is currently available. But studies are looking at antiviral drugs for use in infants. Work to create a CMV vaccine also is underway.

Group B strep (GBS)

Group B strep is a type of bacteria often found in the vagina and rectum of healthy women. One in four women has it. GBS usually is not harmful to you, but can be deadly to your baby if passed during childbirth.

  • No symptoms

You can keep from passing GBS to your baby by getting tested at 35 to 37 weeks. This simply involves swabbing the vagina and rectum and does not hurt.

If you have GBS, an antibiotic given to you during labor will protect your baby from infection. Make sure to tell the labor and delivery staff that you are a group B strep carrier when you check into the hospital.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

A viral infection that can be passed to baby during birth. Newborns that get infected have a 90 percent chance of developing lifelong infection. This can lead to liver damage and liver cancer. A vaccine can keep newborns from getting HBV. But 1 in 5 newborns of mothers who are HBV positive don’t get the vaccine at the hospital before leaving.

There may be no symptoms. Or symptoms can include:

  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Dark urine and pale bowel movements
  • Whites of eyes or skin looks yellow

Lab tests can find out if the mother is a carrier of hepatitis B.

You can protect your baby for life from HBV with the hepatitis B vaccine, which is a series of three shots:

  • First dose of hepatitis B vaccine plus HBIG shot given to baby at birth
  • Second dose of hepatitis B vaccine given to baby at 1-2 months old
  • Third dose of hepatitis B vaccine given to baby at 6 months old (but not before 24 weeks old)

Influenza (flu)

Flu is a common viral infection that is more likely to cause severe illness in pregnant women than in women who are not pregnant. Pregnant woman with flu also have a greater chance for serious problems for their unborn baby, including premature labor and delivery.

  • Fever (sometimes) or feeling feverish/chills
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headaches
  • Feeling tired
  • Vomiting and diarrhea (sometimes)

Getting a flu shot is the first and most important step in protecting against flu. The flu shot given during pregnancy is safe and has been shown to protect both the mother and her baby (up to 6 months old) from flu. (The nasal spray vaccine should not be given to women who are pregnant.)

If you get sick with flu-like symptoms call your doctor right away. If needed, the doctor will prescribe an antiviral medicine that treats the flu.

Listeriosis (lih-steer-ee-OH-suhss)

An infection with the harmful bacteria called listeria. It is found in some refrigerated and ready-to-eat foods. Infection can cause early delivery or miscarriage.

  • Fever, muscle aches, chills
  • Sometimes diarrhea or nausea
  • If progresses, severe headache and stiff neck

Avoid foods that can harbor listeria.

Antibiotics are used to treat listeriosis.

Learn more from our Pregnancy food don'ts – Print-and-go guide (PDF, 126 KB).

Parvovirus B19 (fifth disease)

Most pregnant women who are infected with this virus do not have serious problems. But there is a small chance the virus can infect the fetus. This raises the risk of miscarriage during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Fifth disease can cause severe anemia in women who have red blood cell disorders like sickle cell disease or immune system problems.

  • Low-grade fever
  • Tiredness
  • Rash on face, trunk, and limbs
  • Painful and swollen joints
No specific treatment, except for blood transfusions that might be needed for people who have problems with their immune systems or with red blood cell disorders. There is no vaccine to help prevent infection with this virus.

Sexually transmitted infection (STI)

An infection that is passed through sexual contact. Many STIs can be passed to the baby in the womb or during birth. Some effects include stillbirth, low birth weight, and life-threatening infections. STIs also can cause a woman's water to break too early or preterm labor.

STIs can be prevented by practicing safe sex. A woman can keep from passing an STI to her baby by being screened early in pregnancy.

Treatments vary depending on the STI. Many STIs are treated easily with antibiotics.

Toxoplasmosis (TOK-soh-plaz-MOH-suhss)

This infection is caused by a parasite, which is found in cat feces, soil, and raw or undercooked meat. If passed to an unborn baby, the infection can cause hearing loss, blindness, or intellectual disabilities.

  • Mild flu-like symptoms, or possibly no symptoms.

You can lower your risk by:

  • Washing hands with soap after touching soil or raw meat
  • Washing produce before eating
  • Cooking meat completely
  • Washing cooking utensils with hot, soapy water
  • Not cleaning cats' litter boxes

Medicines are used to treat a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. Sometimes, the baby is treated with medicine after birth.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Bacterial infection in urinary tract. If untreated, it can spread to the kidneys, which can cause preterm labor.

  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Frequent urination
  • Pelvis, back, stomach, or side pain
  • Shaking, chills, fever, sweats
UTIs are treated with antibiotics.

Yeast infection

An infection caused by an overgrowth of bacteria normally found in the vagina. Yeast infections are more common during pregnancy than in other times of a woman's life. They do not threaten the health of your baby. But they can be uncomfortable and difficult to treat in pregnancy.

  • Extreme itchiness in and around the vagina
  • Burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and the vulva
  • Pain when passing urine or during sex
  • A thick, white vaginal discharge that looks like cottage cheese and does not have a bad smell
Vaginal creams and suppositories are used to treat yeast infection during pregnancy.

What is pregnancy?
You are pregnant when you have an embryo or fetus developing in your uterus. If any of these signs and symptoms apply to you, there is a good chance you are pregnant. The first symptom is a must, the others are possibilities. In other words, if your breasts are tender but your period has come, you are not pregnant - you must have a missed period.

A male sperm penetrates an egg and fertilizes it. This usually happens in the woman's fallopian tube after ovulation (the matured egg was released from one of her ovaries).

Sperm has 23 chromosomes, including one of two types of sex chromosomes - X chromosome or Y chromosome. A sperm with an X chromosome that fertilizes an egg will produce a girl, while a Y chromosome sperm will produce a boy. Each egg also has 23 chromosomes. 46 chromosomes are required to make a human. The fusion of sperm and egg makes 46.

As soon as it is fertilized, the zygote starts to divide; it continues doing so until there is a cluster of cells. After five to seven days of dividing and growing, it attaches itself to the wall of the uterus (womb) and puts out root-like veins called villi. The villi make sure the embryo is well anchored to the lining of the uterus. These villi will eventually become the placenta, which feeds and protects the embryo/fetus.

Diagnosing Pregnancy

How do you know if you are pregnant?
Although for many women, missed menstrual periods are the first clue of pregnancy, it is by no means a reliable indication. Actually, doctors can not prove you are pregnant until the baby's heartbeat can be heard at about 10 or 12 weeks with an ultrasound device. But with lab tests and a medical examination, they can make a pretty accurate diagnosis of pregnancy.

What are the signs of pregnancy?
In addition to missed periods, some of the early possible signs include morning sickness, food cravings, frequent urination and swollen, tender breasts. You may experience all or just a few of these signs.

How can you detect pregnancy?
Both the blood and urine tests performed in a laboratory have an accuracy rate of about 95% for detecting pregnancy. The blood test can detect pregnancy as early as 8 to 10 days after conception. The lab urine test can detect pregnancy as early as 20 days. Home pregnancy tests can be almost as accurate as the lab urine test, but only if they are performed correctly. It is also important to note that a positive result from these home tests is more likely to be correct than a negative one.

When should you call your doctor?
If you are experiencing any of the early signs of pregnancy, it is wise to consult your physician. If you are pregnant, the earlier you begin prenatal care, the better.
Here are further guidelines.

What are some common signs of pregnancy?
Signs of pregnancy:
1.Missed period.
2.Nausea with or without vomiting.
5.Breast changes.
6.Breast tenderness.
7.Frequent urination. 8.Positive home pregnancy test

Nausea generally affects pregnant women during the first three to four months of the pregnancy. Tiredness tends to be more acute during the first and last three months. How do I know if I am pregnant?If you suspect you are pregnant, you have two options towards finding out:

¦See your doctor.
¦Buy a home pregnancy test.

If the home pregnancy test confirms you are pregnant you should go to a doctor or midwife for further confirmation. Not only will the doctor find out whether you are pregnant, he/she will also make sure you receive proper advice and support right from the start. In the UK midwives are usually based at GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) surgeries, a midwife unit, or a local hospital.

Pregnancy is diagnosed by detecting the presence of HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the woman's blood or urine. GCG is a pregnancy hormone which is present in a woman as soon as she becomes pregnant, even before her period is due. The more HCG there is in the woman the higher are her chances of having a multiple pregnancy. However, this needs to be confirmed with an abdominal, or transvaginal scan. The scan can tell how many embryos there are, as well as checking where exactly in the womb the embryo is located.

What is the difference between emergency contraception, the "morning after pill", and the "day after pill"?

Actually, there is no difference. Emergency contraceptive pills are often called "morning after pills" and sometimes even "day after pills" because you can use them after sex to prevent pregnancy. Most of the time, when someone mentions “emergency contraceptive pills,” “morning after pills,” or the “day after pill,” they are talking about using the same hormones found in regular daily oral contraceptive pills to reduce your chances of becoming pregnant if you had sex without using contraception, you think your birth control failed, or you were made to have sex against your will.

Even though there’s no difference between what these terms refer to, calling emergency contraceptive pills “morning after pills” or “day after pills” can be misleading because you can use them right away – and you may have up to 120 hours (five days) after sex to take the pills and still prevent pregnancy, depending on how close you are to ovulating.

EC should be taken as soon as possible after unprotected sex. Sperm can live in a woman's body for 5 days after sex. Research shows that ulipristal acetate (ella) can be taken up to 5 days without a decline in effectiveness, and progestin-only EC (like Plan B One-Step, Next Choice One Dose, My Way or Levonorgestrel Tablets) may be effective only through the 4th day after sex. However, keep in mind that ella is effective closer to the time of ovulation than progestin-only EC (but neither pill works after ovulation has occurred). You may not know exactly how close you are to ovulating; therefore, it is important to take EC as soon as possible no matter which pill you use. It may take time to get a prescription and fill it, or find a pharmacy that carries EC, so call your doctor or pharmacy as soon as possible after unprotected sex.

Some people get confused and think that emergency contraceptive pills, or morning after pills, are the same as “abortion pills”. They aren’t. Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy before it begins, and works primarily or perhaps exclusively by delaying or inhibiting ovulation; it does not cause an abortion.

What is the difference between an embryo, a fetus and a zygote?

The embryo exists from the implantation of the zygote (fusion of sperm and ovum) to when all the organs are formed (around 12 weeks) when it becomes a fetus.

When the sperm and egg meet (fuse) a zygote is produced. The cells of the zygote start multiplying (dividing) many times. The zygote grows and develops in the fallopian tubes. The moment it is implanted in the wall of the uterus it becomes an embryo. The difference between a zygote and an embryo is the timing.

The embryo continues developing until most of the organs are formed - around the 12th week. When all the organs are there it becomes a fetus.

The word zygote comes from the Greek word zygotes, meaning "yoked". The Greek word zygon means "yoke". The word embryo comes from the Medieval Latin word embryo, which comes from the Greek word embryon, meaning "young animal, fruit of the womb, that which grows". The word fetus comes from the Latin word fetus, meaning "offspring, bringing forth, hatching of young".

The development or the embryo is rapid - specialized cells create the vital organs, including the bones, muscles, blood, and the nervous system.

When the embryo becomes a fetus it is about 1 inch (2.4cm) long. Most of its internal organs are formed. The external features, such as the ears, mouth, nose, and eyes are evident, while fingers and toes start to appear.

As the fetus gets bigger, so does the uterus. The fetus is surrounded by a fluid, called amniotic fluid. Just before a woman gives birth her "waters break", that water is the amniotic fluid.

The fetus lives in this fluid and swallows it constantly. An amniotic test can be carried out during the pregnancy to find out about the baby's health.

Most pregnancies last from 37 to about 42 weeks. Health care professionals calculate the delivery date 40 weeks from the date of conception (the date the sperm and egg fused). According to the ________ Health Service, UK, only about 1 in every 20 births actually takes place on the due date. A baby who is born before 37 weeks after conception is considered pre-term (premature).

A pregnancy has 3 trimesters

¦The 1st trimester

These are the first 13 weeks of the pregnancy. The baby develops the fastest during this period and becomes almost fully formed by the end of it. Women say this trimester is when they are most likely to feel tired, nausea, and breast tenderness.

¦The 2nd trimester

This is from the 14th to 26th week of the pregnancy. During this trimester it becomes obvious that the mother is pregnant. As well as weighing more because of the growing baby, the expanded uterus, the placenta, and the amniotic fluid, the mother lays down extra reserves of fat. The baby continues to grow and develop. During the second trimester the mother will feel the baby's movements, as will others if they place their hands on the mothers stomach - sometimes movement may be observed without touching.

¦The 3rd trimester

This is from week 27 until the baby is born. During this trimester the baby will build up fat stores, and continue growing rapidly. The baby's lungs will develop, as will his/her sense of hearing, taste and sight. The mother may experience backache and find it harder to get into the right position for a good night's sleep. The mother will also be urinating more often as the baby and everything around him/her presses against her bladder. She may also experience contractions that take place many days or weeks before the birth - they are called Braxton Hicks contractions - these are not the contractions of labor.

Infant Feeding

How do you plan to feed your baby?
What questions do you have about breastfeeding?

Facts: Breastmilk is the best food for your baby.

Pregnancy, birth control, fertility

Q: What are the symptoms of pregnancy?
A: The most common symptom of pregnancy is a missed period. While symptoms like sore breasts, nausea, and fatigue are common, these can mean other things like a flu-like virus or hormonal changes.

The following books may be useful:
o Our Bodies, Ourselves: A New Edition for a New Era by Boston Women’s Health Collective, published by Touchstone
An excellent introduction to sexuality for women and girls, and discusses physical as well as behavioral aspects of sex. o Changing Bodies, Changing Lives: A Book for Teens on Sex and Relationships by Ruth Bell [Buy] This book, from the original authors of Our Bodies, Ourselves, provides information on the physical and emotional aspects of puberty, sexuality, healthcare, sexually transmitted diseases, safer sex and birth control, living with violence, mental health, and eating disorders.

Q: What days of the month can a woman get pregnant?
A: There are days a woman can get pregnant and days when she can’t. Figuring out those days is the tricky part. One of the most common ways people try to figure out “safe” and “fertile” days is called the rhythm method. Because of the guesswork involved the rhythm method can be complicated and is prone to error.

The first day of your period is called Day 1. You then count all the days till you get your period again. The total number of those days is the length of your menstrual cycle. Fourteen days after you ovulate (when an egg is ready to meet the sperm) you get your period. That means if you ovulate on Day 20, your cycle will be 34 days total (20 + 14). Or, if you ovulate on Day 8, you’re cycle will be 22 days long.

You could assume that because your cycles are usually 28 days that you ovulate on Day 14 (28 minus 14) of your period. But how do you know you are going to ovulate on day 14 of this cycle? The truth is, you don’t. Your next cycle may only be 18 days. This means you are going to ovulate on Day 4 (18 minus 14). Because sperm live for about five days, and are viable (strong enough to possibly make you pregnant) for about three days, this means that if you have sex on your period you could get pregnant. Or your cycle may be 35 days this time. This means on Day 21, when you think the egg is no longer going to be around, it’s actually ripe and ready to get fertilized and make you pregnant!

The Fertility Awareness Method (FAM) is the best way to know when you are ovulating and when you aren’t. The Fertility Awareness Handbook is a great place to start learning how to use this method. It may be a little confusing to understand right away, which is why Planned Parenthood teaches classes on FAM. It takes a big commitment and being (or becoming) very comfortable with your body. It involves taking your temperature every morning before you get up, checking your cervical mucus twice a day, and keeping track of these findings on a chart. If this sounds like something you would like to do (it’s a great way to find out more about your body) contact your local Planned Parenthood for a FAM class.

Otherwise, stick with using birth control every time you have intercourse. Unless, of course, you want to have a baby!

Sleep Problems in Pregnancy

How does pregnancy affect sleep?
The key to relieving fatigue is rest. However, many pregnancy symptoms can disturb your sleep, including:

Nausea and vomiting
Frequent urination
Back pain
Fetal movement
Abdominal discomfort
Leg cramps
Shortness of breath
Changes in your respiratory system during pregnancy can also worsen certain conditions, such as sleep apnea.

How should I position myself for sleep during pregnancy?
To minimize discomfort during sleep:

Favor your left side. Research suggests that lying on your left side can help improve blood flow to your baby and to your body. Also, try to keep one or both knees bent. Don't worry, however, if you wake up in a different position.Use pillows. To prevent discomfort, consider using pregnancy or support pillows between your bent knees, under your abdomen and behind your back.Elevate your head. Elevating the head of your bed can prevent or decrease heartburn or snoring.What can I do to rest comfortably? You can take steps to manage sleep disturbances during pregnancy. For example:

Maintain a sleep routine. Regularly go to bed and wake up at the same time. If you need more sleep, try napping early in the day.Watch your fluids. Drink plenty of fluids during the day. To prevent frequent urination at night, cut down on how much you drink late in the day.Eat healthy foods. Strive for a balanced diet rich in vitamins. A healthy diet can help you improve your energy levels and keep your pregnancy weight gain on target. To prevent heartburn, eat small, frequent meals and avoid fried foods, carbonated drinks, citrus fruits or juices, and spicy foods.Keep active. Regular physical activity during pregnancy might help prevent excess weight gain and leg cramps, as well as help reduce stress and boost energy. Although exercise is safe for most pregnant women, make sure you have your health care provider's OK before beginning an exercise program.Stretch. Stretching your calf muscles before bed may help prevent leg cramps during pregnancy.Practice relaxation techniques. Breathing techniques, in particular, can help reduce tension.Use nasal saline sprays or mechanical nasal dilators. These can relieve the nasal congestion that often occurs during pregnancy. Also, avoid smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.Set the mood. A dark, quiet and comfortably cool environment can help encourage sleep.Relieve pain safely. If minor pain caused by muscle stretching or your increased weight during the late stages of pregnancy is keeping you up, occasional use of acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) might help.If you continue to have trouble sleeping during pregnancy or you're concerned about your fatigue, talk to your health care provider.

How much sleep do you really need?
You've heard the standard advice: Get eight hours of sleep a night. But is that true across the board? The answer seems to be that it depends.


As you would expect, infants and toddlers need the most sleep — nine to 10 hours at night plus naps during the day. School-age children, including teens, do best with nine to 11 hours a night. Most adults require seven to eight hours of sleep each night.

While older adults need about the same amount of sleep as younger adults, older adults tend to sleep more lightly and for shorter periods than do younger adults. Older adults often compensate by spending more time in bed at night or napping during the day.


Changes in a woman's body during early pregnancy can increase the need for sleep. Yet pregnancy symptoms, including nausea and vomiting, frequent urination, back pain, leg cramps, and heartburn, may make it difficult to sleep.

Health problems and medications

People who have chronic asthma or bronchitis tend to have more problems falling asleep and staying asleep than healthy people, either because of their breathing difficulties or because of their medications. Other chronic painful or uncomfortable conditions — such as arthritis, congestive heart failure, gastric reflux and sickle cell anemia — also can make it hard to get enough sleep.

Certain commonly used prescription and over-the-counter medicines contain ingredients that can keep you awake. These ingredients include decongestants and steroids. Heart and blood pressure medications known as beta blockers can make it difficult to fall asleep and can cause more awakenings during the night

Sleep deprivation

If you're sleep deprived, the amount of sleep you need increases. And if you consistently skimp on sleep, a sleep debt builds up that affects your health and quality of life.

Many people try to make up for lost sleep during the week by sleeping more on the weekends. But if you've lost too much sleep, sleeping in on a weekend can't completely erase your sleep debt. In addition, sleeping later on the weekends can affect your biological clock, making it harder to go to sleep at the right time on Sunday nights and get up on time on Monday mornings.


Do some people just need fewer hours of sleep a night? Yes, it's estimated that somewhere between 1 and 5 percent of the population are short sleepers — people who sleep six hours or less a night without ill effects. The need for less sleep tends to run in families, as does the need for more sleep, which suggests a genetic basis for sleep duration.

The sweet spot

Studies suggest that getting less than seven hours — or more than nine hours — of sleep a night is associated with increased risk of health problems and psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders, and a higher mortality rate.

Beyond the numbers

The most important factor in determining how much sleep you need is whether you routinely feel sleepy during the day. Do you tend to fall asleep in low stimulus situations, such as long drives, reading, watching television, talking on the phone or completing desk work? If you do, you're likely not getting enough sleep.

Take steps to increase the amount of sleep you're getting. If that doesn't help you feel more rested and alert during the day, consult your doctor. He or she can look for possible underlying causes, such as sleep apnea, that can be treated to improve your sleep quality and reduce daytime sleepiness.

Why does pregnancy cause fatigue?
During early pregnancy, levels of the hormone progesterone soar and your metabolism is running high. This can make you feel exhausted. At the same time, lower blood pressure and increased blood production might team up to sap your energy. If you have another child or children to care for, you might experience even more fatigue.

While fatigue typically lessens after the first trimester, you'll likely feel tired again toward the end of your pregnancy as your baby increases in size.

Trying to Conceive (Getting Pregnant)


Is there an average number of days post last day of your period, that you ovulate?

You ovulate 14 days before the first day of your next period, which, if you have a regular 28 day cycle is also 14 days after your last period, but if your cycle is not that predictable it can be difficult to know.


Is there anything you should do around the time of conception like eat anything specific or take supplements?

You should eat a healthy well balanced diet, give up smoking and alcohol and maintain a healthy weight (Body Mass Index 18.5 - 25) and you should take folic acid supplements daily ideally for three months before conception and for the first three months of pregnancy to reduce the risk of spina bifida.

Spina bifida is a defect in the development of the spinal cord of the baby and it has been shown that taking folic acid supplements significantly reduces the chances of this happening.

The incidence is about one in a thousand births but before we recommended folic acid supplements it was nearer 45 in every thousand births.

Pregnancy Nutrition & Fitness Questions

What's your pregnancy nutrition IQ?

Which of the following vitamins can be harmful to your baby when taken in large doses?
a. Vitamin A
b. Vitamin C
c. Vitamin B6
d. All of the above
All of the above correct!

Which of these vitamins may help ease nausea?
a. Vitamin B6
b. Vitamin C
c. Vitamin E
d. Both vitamin B6 and vitamin E (wrong)
The correct answer is a.

Which nutrient has been proven to prevent birth defects?
a. Manganese
b. Pantothenic acid
c. Folic acid
d. All of the above
The correct answer is c.

Which of these nutrients do most women have a hard time getting enough of during pregnancy?
a. Protein
b. Iron
c. Vitamin C
d. Protein and vitamin C
Iron correct!

Which of these vitamins do you probably need a supplement of if you're not in the habit of exposing your skin to the sun regularly?
a. Vitamin D
b. Vitamin A
c. Thiamin
d. None of the above
Vitamin D correct!

A deficiency of which of these nutrients is linked to miscarriage and other pregnancy complications?
a. Flouride
b. Zinc
c. Chromium
d. Zinc and chromium
The correct answer is b.
During pregnancy, a severe deficiency of zinc can cause miscarriage, preeclampsia, low birth weight, and other problems during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. Your body needs this essential mineral for the production, repair, and functioning of DNA, the basic building block of cells.

Zinc is found in some meat, fish, and fortified cereals. But you may still fall short of the 11 mg you need a day while you're pregnant. Fortunately, your prenatal vitamin should provide you with the zinc you need.

A deficiency of which of these nutrients puts you baby at risk for serious diseases that affect the nervous system, brain, and heart?
a. Thiamin
b. Riboflavin
c. Pantothenic Acid
d. None of the above
Thiamin correct!
Thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, converts carbohydrates into energy for both you and your baby and is essential for your baby's brain development. It also aids the normal functioning of your nervous system, muscles, and heart. A severe deficiency can lead to beriberi, a collection of serious diseases that can affect the nervous system, heart, and brain.

Deficiencies are rare in this country, though, because many foods are fortified with thiamin. And fruits, vegetables, and dairy products contain small amounts. In addition, your prenatal vitamin probably has you covered.

Which of the following vitamins helps your body absorb iron?
a. Vitamin E
b. Riboflavin
c. Vitamin C
d. All of the above

The correct answer is c.
Both you and your baby need vitamin C daily – it's the cementing agent that holds new cells together. It helps your baby grow and builds strong bones and teeth. And it helps your body absorb iron. Try to include a vitamin C-rich food with every meal to get the most iron out of the other foods you eat.

Quiz: Test Your Pregnancy Nutrition IQ

A pregnant woman should eat how many extra calories per day?
Correct! You chose: 300

A woman of average weight should gain how many pounds during her pregnancy?
15 to 25
25 to 35
35 to 45

The correct answer is: 25 to 35

Folic acid, a key nutrient to the growth of your baby, can be found in which foods? Dark, leafy greens
Peas and beans
Citrus fruits and juices
Whole-grain breads and cereals
All of the above

Correct! You chose: All of the above

Women should have 0.4 milligrams a day of folic acid to help prevent neural tube defects. This vitamin can be found in many food sources, including spinach, collard and turnip greens, romaine lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, whole-grain breads and cereals, citrus fruits and juices, organ meats (such as liver), peas, and beans.

True or false: It's okay to have an occasional glass of wine during pregnancy.
Correct! You chose: False
The March of Dimes (MOD) reports that every sip of alcohol during pregnancy can increase your baby's risk of birth defects and mental retardation. There is no "safe" level of alcohol consumption when you're pregnant.

Pregnant women should increase their daily calcium intake by:
20 percent
30 percent
40 percent

The correct answer is: 40 percent

Which of the following sources of carbohydrates offers the least nutritional value?
Whole-grain cereals
Brown rice
White bread

Correct! You chose: White bread

True or false: It is recommended that most pregnant women take vitamin supplements, including folic acid, iron, and calcium.
Correct! You chose: True

Which of the following is the minimum recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy?
3 servings of vegetables and 2 of fruits
2 servings of vegetables and 3 of fruits
4 servings of each

The correct answer is: 3 servings of vegetables and 2 of fruits Fruits and vegetables provide important vitamins and minerals, as well as fiber to aid digestion, according to the MOD.

Which of the following foods are a good source of protein in a vegetarian diet?
Soy products
All of the above

The correct answer is: All of the above

During pregnancy, calories from fat should be limited to what percentage of your daily diet?
30 percent
40 percent
50 percent
Correct! You chose: 30 percent

The recommended daily allowance of iron for pregnant women is:
5 milligrams
10 milligrams
30 milligrams
Correct! You chose: 30 milligrams
Iron prevents fatigue and is necessary to create the red blood cells that deliver oxygen to your baby. The recommended daily allowance of iron for pregnant women is 30 milligrams.

Pregnant women should drink 8 glasses each day of:
A combination of water and juice
Anything liquid

The correct answer is: Water

Drink plenty of fluids -- especially water -- during pregnancy. While water is best, juice is another healthy option, according to the MOD. But keep in mind that juice is high in calories, while water has none. Avoid or limit caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and soda.

True or false: Low-fat dairy products contain less calcium than high-fat dairy products.
Low-fat dairy products contain an equal amount of calcium as high-fat products -- only less fat. In fact, the MOD recommends a daily intake of 3 to 4 servings of low-fat milk, yogurt, or cheese.

Which of the following types of food are good sources of iron?
Red meat
Leafy greens
All of the above

Correct! You chose: All of the above

Pregnancy Danger Signs

If you are pregnant and any of these occur, call your health care provider:
Blurred vision, spots, or light flashes with or without a headache
A hot, reddened painful area on your calf or behind your knee
Pain or burning when you urinate, or unusually frequent urination
Temperature above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit lasting longer than 24 hours
Sudden severe or continuous pain or cramping in the lower abdomen
Bleeding or spotting from your vagina
Injury to your stomach
Sudden, severe swelling of your hands, feet or face
Sores or blisters on your genitals (possibly herpes)
Symptoms of vaginal infection - itching, burning and increase of unusual discharge
Involved in a car accident
Severe headaches or difficulty with vision
Continuous leaking of small amounts of fluid from the vagina or gush of water from the vagina
Baby does not move for more than one day after the 20th week of pregnancy or decreased fetal movement
Five or more uterine contractions in one hour before 36 weeks
Diarrhea, nausea or vomiting lasting longer than 24 hours

Sexual positions

Is there a particular sexual position that can help you get pregnant more easily?

People often say that positions that allow the deepest penetration can aid conception which is based on the theory that deep penetration allows the sperm to be closer to the cervix, but as far as I know there is no research that proves this to be the case.

How long does it take to get pregnant?

If 100 couples are trying to get pregnant, 90 of them will succeed in the first year and 95 will be pregnant within two years. To maximize your chances of conceiving you should aim to have sex regularly around the time that you ovulate.

This is fourteen days before your next period. If your cycle is not regular it can be difficult to know when you ovulate and you may find it useful to use a Clearblue Digital Ovulation Test or Fertility Monitor to help pinpoint your peak fertile days.


Can you still get pregnant if you have sex during your period?

Yes. If you have a regular cycle it is highly unlikely but it is possible that out of the blue you would have a 2 week cycle which would mean that you were ovulating during a bleed, so you should always assume that it is possible.


If you could recommend one lifestyle change over all others to enhance your chances of getting pregnant what would it be?

The best thing you can do is to maintain a healthy weight. A Body Mass index 18.5 – 25 is ideal. You can calculate you BMI by dividing your weight in kilos by the square of your height in meters.


I know smoking affects your fertility but if you give up is the damage permanent?

No - your fertility improves if you give up. We know that smoking has a detrimental effect on a woman's fertility.

It is thought to cause problems with ovulation and implantation and there is also some concern that the chemical in tobacco smoke could even be toxic to sperm.

The good news is that these effects seem to be reversible when you give up.

Symptoms and signs

What are the first symptoms of pregnancy?
Missing a period is usually the first signal of a new pregnancy, although women with irregular periods may not initially recognize a missed period as pregnancy. During this time, many women experience a need to urinate frequently, extreme fatigue, nausea and/or vomiting, and increased breast tenderness. All of these symptoms can be normal. Most over-the-counter pregnancy tests are sensitive 9-12 days after conception, and they are readily available at most drug stores. Performing these tests early helps to allay confusion and guesswork. A serum pregnancy test (performed in a provider's office or laboratory facility) can detect pregnancy 8-11 days after conception.

How long after conception does the fertilized egg implant?
The fertilized conceptus enters the uterus as a 2- to 8-cell embryo and freely floats in the endometrial cavity about 90-150 hours, roughly 4-7 days after conception. Most embryos implant by the morula stage, when the embryo consists of many cells. This happens, on average, 6 days after conception. The new embryo then induces the lining changes of the endometrium, which is called decidualization. It then rapidly begins to develop the physiologic changes that establish maternal-placental exchange. Prior to this time, medications ingested by the mother typically do not affect a pregnancy.

What is the most accurate pregnancy test to use?
Serum beta–human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast beginning on the day of implantation, and it rises in both the maternal blood stream and the maternal urine fairly quickly. The serum hCG test is the most sensitive and specific, and the hormone can be detected in both blood and urine by about 8-9 days after conception. This test can be performed quantitatively or qualitatively. Urine pregnancy tests differ in their sensitivity and specificity, which are based on the hCG units set as the cutoff for a positive test result, usually 2-5 mIU/mL.

Urine pregnancy tests can produce positive results at the level of 20 mIU/mL, which is 2-3 days before most women expect the next menstrual period. The kits are very accurate and widely available. The test can be completed in about 3-5 minutes. The kits all use the same technique—recognition by an antibody of the beta subunit of hCG. Falsely high readings of the hCG hormone can occur in cases of hydatidiform molar pregnancy or other placental abnormalities. Also, test results can remain positive for pregnancy weeks after a pregnancy termination, miscarriage, or birth. On the other hand, false-negative test results can occur from incorrect test preparation, urine that is too dilute, or interference by several medications.

Serum pregnancy tests can be performed by a variety of methods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most popular in many clinical laboratories. This test is a determination of total beta-hCG levels. It is performed using a monoclonal antibody to bind to the hCG; a second antibody is added that also interacts with hCG and emits color when doing so. This form of ELISA is commonly called a "sandwich" of the sample hCG. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is still used by some laboratories. This test adds radiolabeled anti-hCG antibody to nonlabeled hCG of the blood sample. The count is then essentially determined by the amount of displacement of the radiolabeled sample.

The hCG level doubles approximately every 2 days in early pregnancy. However, it should be noted that even increases of only 33% can be consistent with healthy pregnancies. These values increase until about 60-70 days and then decrease to very low levels by about 100-130 days and never decrease any further until the pregnancy is over.

Is cramping during pregnancy normal?
Early in pregnancy, uterine cramping can indicate normal changes of pregnancy initiated by hormonal changes; later in pregnancy, it can indicate a growing uterus. Cramping that is different from previous pregnancies, worsening cramping, or cramping associated with any vaginal bleeding may be a sign of ectopic pregnancy, threatened abortion, or missed abortion.

Other physical effects that are normal during pregnancy, and not necessarily signs of disease, include nausea, vomiting, increase in abdominal girth, changes in bowel habits, increased urinary frequency, palpitations or more rapid heartbeat, upheaving of the chest (particularly with breathing), heart murmurs, swelling of the ankles, and shortness of breath.

Why do pregnant women feel tired?
Fatigue in early pregnancy is very normal. Many changes are occurring as the new pregnancy develops, and women experience this as fatigue and an increased need for sleep. Lower blood pressure level, lower blood sugar levels, hormonal changes due to the soporific effects of progesterone, metabolic changes, and the physiologic anemia of pregnancy all contribute to fatigue. Women should check with their health care provider to determine if an additional work up, prenatal vitamin changes, and/or supplemental iron would be beneficial.

Female Sexual Problems

When is the right time to seek help for sex issues?
How can counselling help sex issues?
What are female sexual problems?
What causes female sexual problems?
How do you know when to seek help?
How do you get help?

When is the right time to seek help for sex issues?
Sexual counselling can be enlightening, as family myths and cultural taboos are explored and debunked. If sex has been exciting at one time, but no longer seems so, why has the change occurred? Has it always been disappointing? In a good relationship, with trained help, there should be the opportunity to find answers.

How can counselling help sex issues? Relationship counselling can help explore the physical communication and the understanding of what sex means to two particular people. Sex may be mechanical and a way to maintain a safe distance for one person. In such cases, the partner may mourn the lack of intimacy and trust which would allow them to feel safe and enjoy sex.

Withdrawal of sex can happen when a person has no alternative way to express their anger and disappointment – so the forbidden feelings are acted out in the bedroom. Control and power are often issues in difficult sexual relationships as one partner may be unconsciously exerting the control and power they feel they lack outside the bedroom.

If the problem is around a dysfunction, a couple can be referred for psychosexual therapy with a suitably qualified person.

If you and your partner are experiencing problems with sex, you are not alone. Recent studies reveal that nearly 40 percent of women of all ages report having sexual problems. It just isn't the kind of thing people want to admit. But you deserve to have a pleasurable sex life and there are professionals who can help.

What are female sexual problems?
There are a variety of sexual problems that women experience, either alone or with a partner. The term "sex" is not limited just to intercourse, and can also refer to a variety of intimate sexual activities such as fondling, self-stimulation (masturbation), and oral sex. Sexual problems are generally defined as any problem that occurs in the course of sexual activity, including: •Not being in the mood •Trouble becoming aroused, which usually involves being too "dry" Difficulty having orgasms •Pain during sex or pain related to sexual activity •Most women experience these from time to time. It is when they are persistent that they become problematic for the woman and her partner. You should seek help more promptly if you are experiencing physical pain.

What causes female sexual problems?
Sexual problems can be influenced by a wide variety of factors. There are two main components-biological and psychological-and usually they interact. Biological problems usually involve such things as hormonal imbalances, infections (like yeast infections), or diseases (like diabetes or multiple sclerosis) that have potential side effects like pain during sex or excessive dryness. There are certain times in a woman's life when she is more prone to sexual problems because of hormonal changes. For example, some women experience a range of sexual responses right after childbirth and during menopause. Also, some commonly prescribed medications, like certain antidepressants, can lead to sexual side effects.

There is also the psychological aspect. This can include such things as the many conflicting cultural messages one learns about sexuality Gender messages are especially influential, impacting how a woman views her sexual self, including body image, roles, power, and her view of her partner.

From birth throughout her life every woman is developing a unique "sexual story" influenced by culture, gender, family of origin, and personal experiences. The "story" takes on the beliefs and meanings that she attributes to her sexuality Couples must negotiate their personal "sexual stories" as they develop their own style of sexual communication and activity This should be an ongoing process, since everyday life problems may get in the way of intimacy and sexuality. Job worries, pressures of juggling work and family, substance abuse, depression, and financial worries can all influence how you feel sexually In our fast paced world, having a lot on your mind, as most people do, can get in the way even when you want to focus on being intimate.

Over time psychological troubles can create biological problems and vice versa. It all starts to blur together so you can't even really pinpoint where the issues started. You just know you want help.

How do you know when to seek help?
It really depends on the woman and her partner. Sometimes a problem seems to go away pretty quickly on its own. But, if this is something that is really worrying or frustrating you or your partner and does not seem to go away no matter what you try, or if you are experiencing considerable pain or discomfort, it may be time to consider professional help.

How do you get help?

Help is available through both individual or couples therapy. Many people will use a combination of the two. When a couple begins therapy, the therapist may refer one or both partners to a physician to rule out any medical conditions that could be contributing to the problem. The therapist or physician should fully inform you of the reasons for the medical procedure. A physician can also help with issues surrounding medication, like experimenting with the dosage of your medication to reduce sexual side effects. There are some hormonal treatments for women that are helpful during and after menopause. For now, there are no drugs available to help improve women's sexual functioning like there are for men, though some may be available in the next few years.

Therapy can help women, either alone or with a partner, who are experiencing sexual problems. Most therapists are used to talking to couples about their sexual lives and will not be embarrassed if you bring it up. The therapist is there to help the woman and her partner gain understanding of some of the relationship dynamics and background issues that may be influencing the problem. The therapist can also provide you with information about human sexuality and sexual functioning, and answer your questions.

Signs of a relationship sex issue
Sex is no longer on the agenda.
Sex is difficult or painful for one partner.
Sex causes disappointment.
One partner has gone off sex.
Sex is the subject of rows and sulks.
Families pass on unspoken messages about sex which can cause unnecessary distress in couples. Often individuals need to explore their own sexuality away from such pressures.

What feels good and what feels disappointing? Attitudes inherited from childhood or out of ignorance can cause unnecessary misery. Cultural pressure may require a detached and analytical re-examination to allow a couple to make their own rules.

Sometimes traumatic sexual experiences from childhood or past relationships can emerge in a present relationship. With trust these can be explored and resolved.

Causes of sex issues
physical – due to alcohol, drugs or illness
aging or loss of self-esteem
anxieties and Stress
loss of status or change in circumstances
betrayal of trust.

1 in 3 females are sexually abused in childhood.
1 in 5-7 males are sexually abused in childhood.
1 in 4 women are raped sometime in their lifetime.
1 in 2 sexually active people will contract a sexually transmitted disease by twenty-five years of age.
1 in 4 people suffer from a sexually transmitted disease sometime in their lives.
1 in 3 women have at least one abortion by the time they are forty-five years of age. 1 in 7-10 people develop a sexual addiction.
1 in 5 women and 1 in 10 men report that sex gives them no pleasure.

Fertility myths

Are women with bigger breasts usually more fertile?

No, I don't think so. I have never seen any evidence to suggest this is the case.
Human Pregnancy Emergencies

Q: What should you know about human pregnancy?
Q: What is human pregnancy?
Q: How does a woman get pregnant?
Q: How do you conclude in the first trimester that a woman is pregnant?
Q: How long does a normal pregnancy last?
Q: What complications can occur during pregnancy?
Q: What are the symptoms or signs of complications during pregnancy?
Q: What medicines are contraindicated during pregnancy?
Q: What procedures should not be done during pregnancy?
Q: What are various obstetrical and gynecological emergencies?
Diagnosis and Management of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Diabetes in Pregnancy
Ectopic Pregnancy
Hypertension in Pregnancy
Postpartum Blues, Depression and Psychoses
Medical history relevant to this medical condition
Menstrual history
Pregnancy history
Surgical history
Medical history
Social history
Contraception history
Human Pregnancy Emergencies

What is your name?

What is your date of birth?

Where and when were you born?

What is your gender?


What is your mailing address?





Where are you located now?


What was your mailing address from birth until now?




Where do you live now?

How long have you lived at this address?

What is your contact information including current mailing address, telephone, e-mail, and any other details, and person to contact in case of emergency?






How long do you plan to live at this address?

Menstrual history

What was the first day of your last menstrual period? (dd/mm/yy) Don’t know


Are you sure of that date? Yes No N/A


How many days does your period last? days


How many days are there between your periods? days


Are your periods regular? Yes No N/A


Pregnancy history

How many times have you been pregnant in total (including this one)?


Year Length of pregnancy (weeks or months)Delivery type(Vaginal C-section)Problems (if any)Location


Miscarriage, abortion, and ectopic
Year Length of pregnancy (weeks or months)Miscarriage Abortion Ectopic Problems (if any)Location
Have you had an ultrasound scan during your current pregnancy?


Yes No

If yes, please bring copy to your appointment


Have you had any pain during your current pregnancy?


Have you had any bleeding during your current pregnancy?


Have you had any nausea or vomiting during your current pregnancy?


Are you currently breastfeeding?


Surgical history

Have you ever had any operations?


Yes No
Year Type of operation Problems (if any) Location
__________________ _________ _________
_________ _________ _________ _________
_________ _________ __________________
__________________ __________________
Have you ever had a general anaesthetic (been put to sleep for surgery)?


Yes No

Have you or anyone in your immediate family ever had any problems with any anaesthetic?


Yes No N/A

Medical history

Do you use any prescription medicines?


Yes No

If yes, please bring them with you


Do you use any other medicines such as herbal or homeopathic rememdies? If yes, please bring them with you


Yes No

Do you have, or have you ever had any of the following:
Asthma Yes No
Other breathing problems Yes No
High blood pressure Yes No
Heart disease Yes No
Heart valve problems Yes No
Heart attack Yes No
Stroke Yes No
Migraine headaches Yes No
Blood clots in your legs, arms or lungs (DVT) Yes No
Bleeding disorder (like haemophilia) Yes No
Clotting disorder (like Factor V Leiden) Yes No
Anaemia Yes No
Sickle cell disease Yes No
Thalassaemia Yes No
Seizures/fits/epilepsy Yes No
Brain tumours Yes No
Mental health problems Yes No
Adrenal problems Yes No
Liver problems Yes No
Gallbladder problems Yes No
Any other gastrointestinal problem Yes No
(like ulcers or irritable bowel syndrome)
Thyroid problems Yes No

Do you have, or have you ever had, any of the following:
Breast cancer Yes No
Cancer of any kind Yes No
What was the date of your last cervical smear?
Abnormal cervical smear Yes No Treatment to your cervix (neck of the womb) Yes No Uterine fibroids Yes No
Abnormally shaped uterus Yes No
Pelvic infection Yes No
Sexually transmitted infection Yes No
Hepatitis Yes No
Have you ever been told you are at Yes No increased risk of CJD or vCJD for public health purposes?
Do you have any other medical problems not mentioned here? Yes No

Social history

Do you smoke tobacco?


Yes No

Do you use any recreational drugs?


Yes No

Contraception history

Were you using any contraception at the time that you got pregnant with your current pregnancy?


If yes, what were you using?

Do you have a copper coil (IUD) or Mirena coil (IUS) currently in place?


Yes No

To the best of my knowledge, the information I have provided is correct and complete.

Signature Date

Medicolegal cases

Is this a medicolegal case?


If this is a medicolegal case, what are the details?

What human pregnancy emergencies or complications need on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment?
Maliciously impregnated (medico-legal case that needs emergency contraception).
Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
What symptoms, signs, and/or complaints indicate a human pregnancy emergency?
If you know any female of childbearing age maliciously impregnated, report an emergency (emergency contraception).

Danger signs during pregnancy

Call your physician if you experience any of the following symptoms during your pregnancy:
Abdominal or epigastric pain
Dizziness, blurred or double vision and spots before your eyes
Fever over 101° and chills
Hard, rigid abdomen with severe pain
Noticeable decline in fetal movement
Painful, difficult or scanty urination
Persistent vomiting
Sudden gush of fluid from the vagina
Severe headaches
Swelling around the eyes with accompanying swelling of the hands (some swelling in the legs and feet can be normal)
Vaginal bleeding
Relevant anatomy, physiology, or biochemistry

Human female reproductive system

Illustration depicting female reproductive system (sagittal view).

Illustration depicting female reproductive anatomy.

Stretch marks

Is there anything you can do to prevent stretch marks?

The hormones of pregnancy and rapid changes in weight make some women prone to stretch marks.

Normal weight gain in pregnancy is around 25 - 35lbs and you should try not to put on a lot more than this although that is only a rough guide and will also depend on your pre pregnancy weight so check with your midwife.

Lots of people recommend using moisturizers containing vitamin E. I'm not sure that there is evidence to support this but it certainly won't do any harm. I used them in all three of my pregnancies.
Ultrasound in Pregnancy
What is ultrasound?
How does ultrasound work?
Why is an ultrasound done?
What will happen during the ultrasound?
What can an ultrasound find?
Does a normal ultrasound mean I will have a healthy baby?
Is ultrasound safe?
What are the benefits of ultrasound?
How is ultrasound used in women's health care?
How is ultrasound used during pregnancy?
How many ultrasound exams will I have during my pregnancy?
Where is an ultrasound exam done?
Who performs the ultrasound exam?
What type of ultrasound exam will I have?
What do I need to do to prepare for a transabdominal ultrasound exam?
What happens during a transvaginal ultrasound exam?
What is a specialized ultrasound exam?
What are the types of specialized ultrasound exams?
What is Doppler ultrasound?
What are 3D and 4D ultrasound?
What is sonohysterography?
What are the risks of ultrasound exams?
What is ultrasound?
Ultrasound is energy in the form of sound waves. The most common type of ultrasound exam is called two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound. In this type of ultrasound, a transducer sends sound waves through the body. The sound waves hit tissues, body fluids, and bones. The waves then bounce back, like echoes. The transducer receives these echoes, which are converted into images of the internal organs and—during pregnancy—the fetus.

Ultrasound comes from a machine that creates an image of the inside of your body. It shows what your baby looks like while still inside your womb (uterus).

Ultrasound can tell you—and your health-care provider—many things about your baby, such as:

• the size of the baby
• how well the baby’s heart works
• how well other organs (such as the spine, brain and kidneys) are growing
• the anticipated date of birth

The moving pictures from the ultrasound machine are like a movie. The pictures appear on a computer screen.

How does ultrasound work?
Ultrasound pictures are made from sound waves which are too high pitched to be heard by the human ear. The sound waves travel through your skin and are focused on a certain part of your body by a scanning device called a “transducer.” It picks up the sound waves as they bounce back from organs inside the body.

Ultrasound is different from x-rays because it does not use radiation. This makes it safer for you and your baby. Ultrasound is used in many areas of medicine.

Why is an ultrasound done?
An ultrasound can help to check on many aspects of a healthy pregnancy, such as:

• the number of babies
• whether the baby ’s size is right for his/her age
• how the baby’s internal organs are growing
• whether the placenta (afterbirth) is in the correct place
• whether there are problems with the mother’s uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries

Experts in Canada recommend that all women have an ultrasound when they are pregnant. The best time to do this is between 18 and 22 weeks of pregnancy.

You might be asked to have ultrasound at other times during your pregnancy. Your health-care provider may suggest this:

• to see what position the baby is in
• to check the placenta (afterbirth)
• to view how much fluid is around the baby
• to check the baby’s growth and well-being
• to check for signs of a possible genetic problem

What will happen during the ultrasound?
Before you go for an ultrasound, you will get information on how to prepare and where to go. Sometimes, women are told to arrive with a full bladder, but not so full it causes pain. This helps the sound waves travel better through the skin and tissues. You may be asked to change from your own clothing into a medical gown.

The person who does the ultrasound is called an ultrasonographer. Once you are lying down on the examining table, clear gel will be put on your skin. The gel allows the transducer to move easily on your skin and helps the sound waves to transmit into your body. You may feel light pressure on your tummy but no pain. An ultrasound exam takes about 30 minutes. If more tests are needed, it could take longer.

Sometimes, the ultrasound must be done through the vagina (birth passage). A special kind of transducer is placed into your vagina. Most women feel no pain during this type of ultrasound.

What can an ultrasound find?
You should make sure you are fully informed about why you are having an ultrasound. It is an important way to learn about problems. The results of an ultrasound may mean you will need to have more tests. Talk to your health-care provider before you have an ultrasound to make an informed decision.

For most pregnant women, ultrasound assures them that their baby is healthy and all is well. Sadly, for a few, the ultrasound will find signs that all is not normal. Remember that the screening test only indicates an increased chance for concern and cannot tell you for sure if the baby does have a specific condition.

Your health- care provider will be told if the ultrasound shows any signs of abnormality. They will discuss this with you. You may be referred to a centre that has expert doctors with experience in the field of fetal abnormalities.

Does a normal ultrasound mean I will have a healthy baby?
Ultrasound can detect many, but not all, abnormalities. Finding an abnormality depends on many factors, including the age and position of the baby, as well as the size and type of abnormality.

The clarity of the pictures depends on the ultrasound equipment and how well the ultrasound can pass through the mother’s abdomen. For example, ultrasound will be less clear when the mother’s abdomen is thick or scarred.

Is ultrasound safe?
Ultrasound has been used on pregnant women for more than 30 years. Studies continue to make sure ultrasound is safe. So far, there is no reason to think that it harms mothers or babies. As with all medical tests, the benefits must always be greater than the risks.

Health Canada regulates ultrasounds in Canada through two laws: the Medical Devices Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act and the Radiation Emitting D evices Act. This helps to ensure that ultrasounds are safe when used for medical reasons.

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and Health Canada have produced guidelines on diagnostic ultrasound. They state that ultrasound should not be used for any of these reasons:

• to have a picture of the baby, solely for non-medical reasons
• to learn the sex of the baby, solely for non-medical reasons
• for commercial use, such as trade shows or making videos of a baby

What are the benefits of ultrasound?
Ultrasounds provide pregnant women with important medical information. It helps Canadian women have healthy babies.

Ultrasound must be used carefully to ensure that mothers and their babies benefit from what it offers.

If your health-care provider recommends that you have an ultrasound, make sure you know:
• why it is needed
• the risks that may be involved
• how it will be done

How is ultrasound used in women’s health care?
Ultrasound can be used to diagnose and monitor certain problems, such as a pelvic mass, a breast lump, abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, or infertility. It also can be used during pregnancy to monitor the fetus.

How is ultrasound used during pregnancy?
Ultrasound is used during pregnancy to find out whether the growing fetus inside your uterus is developing normally. It can be used to check the anatomy of the fetus for defects or problems. It also can be used to find out the following information: • Age of the fetus • Location of the placenta • Fetal position, movement, breathing, and heart rate • Amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus • Number of fetuses Ultrasound may be used to screen for certain birth defects, such as Down syndrome. Ultrasound also is used during chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis to help guide these procedures.

How many ultrasound exams will I have during my pregnancy?
You may have at least one standard exam during your pregnancy. This ultrasound exam usually is performed at about 16–20 weeks of pregnancy. Some women may have an ultrasound exam in the first trimester of pregnancy. If a problem occurs during pregnancy, such as bleeding or pelvic pain, ultrasound may be used to help find the cause.

Where is an ultrasound exam done?
An ultrasound exam may be done in a health care provider’s office or a hospital.

Who performs the ultrasound exam?
It may be performed by your health care provider or a specially trained technician. How is the ultrasound exam performed? During an ultrasound exam, the transducer is either moved across your abdomen (transabdominal ultrasound) or placed in your vagina (transvaginal ultrasound).

What type of ultrasound exam will I have?
The type of ultrasound exam you have depends on what types of images your health care provider needs and why the exam is being done. If you are pregnant, it also depends on how far along you are in your pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound often is used in early pregnancy. Transabdominal ultrasound often is used after about 10 weeks of pregnancy. Your weight also can determine which type of exam is needed.

What do I need to do to prepare for a transabdominal ultrasound exam?
If you are having a transabdominal ultrasound exam, wear loose-fitting clothes. This will allow your abdomen to be exposed easily. You may need to drink several glasses of water during the 2 hours before your exam. This will make your bladder full. A full bladder is helpful because sound waves pass more easily through liquid than through air. What happens during a transabdominal ultrasound exam? For this exam, you will lie on a table with your abdomen exposed from the lower part of the ribs to the hips. A gel is applied to the surface of the abdomen. This improves contact of the transducer with the skin surface. The handheld transducer then is moved along the abdomen.

What happens during a transvaginal ultrasound exam?
For a transvaginal ultrasound exam, you will be asked to change into a hospital gown or undress from the waist down. You do not need to fill your bladder before the test. You will lie on your back with your feet in stirrups, like for a pelvic exam. The transducer for this exam is shaped like a wand. It is covered with a latex sheath, like a condom, and lubricated before it is inserted into the vagina.

What is a specialized ultrasound exam?
A specialized ultrasound exam often uses additional technology to examine a particular organ. If your health care provider suspects a problem based on other tests, you may have a specialized ultrasound exam.

What are the types of specialized ultrasound exams?
Specialized ultrasound exams include Doppler ultrasound, three-dimensional and four-dimensional (3D and 4D) ultrasound, and sonohysterography.

What is Doppler ultrasound?
This test is done during pregnancy using transabdominal ultrasound. Sound waves are used to measure blood flow in the fetus’s umbilical cord or other blood vessels. It also can be used to listen to the heartbeat. A health care provider may order this test if the fetus is not growing normally or with other tests to detect fetal anemia.

What are 3D and 4D ultrasound?
In a 3D ultrasound exam, multiple 2D images are taken at various angles. The images then are assembled into a 3D image. A 4D image is similar to a 3D image, but it shows movement. A 3D or 4D ultrasound sometimes is done when a specific problem is suspected during pregnancy, such as a problem with the placenta or fetus.

What is sonohysterography?
This test is used to look for problems within the uterus, often as part of an infertility evaluation. For sonohysterography, you first have a transvaginal ultrasound exam. Next, a catheter (a thin tube) is inserted through the cervix. A saline solution (salt water) is injected through the catheter into the uterus. The saline makes the inside of the uterus easier to see with ultrasound.

What are the risks of ultrasound exams?
Currently, there is no reliable evidence that ultrasound is harmful to a developing fetus. No links have been found between ultrasound and birth defects, childhood cancer, or developmental problems later in life. However, it is possible that effects could be identified in the future. For this reason, it is recommended that ultrasound exams be performed only for medical reasons by qualified health care providers. Glossary Amniocentesis: A procedure in which a needle is used to withdraw and test a small amount of amniotic fluid and cells from the sac surrounding the fetus. Amniotic Fluid: Water in the sac surrounding the fetus in the mother’s uterus. Anemia: Abnormally low levels of blood or red blood cells in the bloodstream. Cervix: The lower, narrow end of the uterus at the top of the vagina. Chorionic Villus Sampling: A procedure in which a small sample of cells is taken from the placenta and tested. Down Syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome and characterized by intellectual disability, abnormal features of the face, and medical problems such as heart defects. Fetus: The developing organism in the uterus from the ninth week of pregnancy until the end of pregnancy. Placenta: Tissue that provides nourishment to and takes waste away from the fetus. Sonohysterography: A procedure in which sterile fluid is injected into the uterus through the cervix while ultrasound images are taken of the inside of the uterus. Transabdominal Ultrasound: A type of ultrasound in which a device is moved across the abdomen. Transducer: A device that emits sound waves and translates the echoes into electrical signals. Transvaginal Ultrasound: A type of ultrasound in which a device specially designed to be placed in the vagina is used. Trimester: One of the three 3-month periods into which pregnancy is divided. Ultrasound: A test in which sound waves are used to examine internal structures. During pregnancy, it can be used to examine the fetus. Umbilical Cord: A cord-like structure containing blood vessels that connects the fetus to the placenta. Uterus: A muscular organ located in the female pelvis that contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy.

What questions do you have about weight gain during pregnancy?
What do you eat on a typical day?

Eat a healthy diet.
25-35 pounds for normal weight woman
15-25 pounds for overweight woman
25-40 pounds for underweight woman

Eat foods high in fiber.
Drink plenty of liquids.
Eat small frequent meals.
Avoid spicy and/or greasy foods.

Are women who carry fat in their stomach area more likely to have difficulty conceiving than those who carry weight all over?

Carrying weight around your middle is associated with higher risk of heart disease than carrying the same weight on your hips and thighs.

Being overweight can be associated with reduced fertility but I don't think it makes any difference where you carry that weight.

Being Active
Feeling Good

How do you feel about being active while you are pregnant?
What do you do now to be active?

Who has authored these resources?
Authored by Doctor Asif Qureshi

Parenting Advice
Table of Contents
Here are further guidelines.
What is in the table of contents of this resource?
  1. Birth

  2. Children with special needs

  3. Clothes

  4. Child Care Center

  5. Discipline

  6. Everyday discussion

  7. Education

  8. Food

  9. Friends

  10. Housing

  11. Hygiene

  12. Labor & Birth Terms to Know

  13. Monthly progress

  14. Medical doctor or pediatrician advice

  15. Parenting advice by ages

  16. Parenting classes

  17. Potty training

  18. Parenting resources

  19. Politics

  20. Postpartum contraception

  21. Safety

  22. Speech and Language

  23. Sleep

  24. School

  25. Social Skills

  26. Television

  27. Table manners or Dastarkhan manners

  28. Telephone conversations

  29. Vaccine

  30. 3 - 4 year old children:

  31. 4 - 8 year old children:

  32. Developing skills and abilities

  33. Checklist for parents of high school students / Abilities/Skills
Parenting Advice
What best describes your needs?
Parenting advice for existing parents
Parenting advice for those who plan to be parents

Do you need this advice for yourself or someone else?

If someone else what are his, her, or their details?

What is included in parenting advice?


Do you have proper family planning guidelines for you before the birth?

What and where can one get proper family planning guidelines for the birth and after the birth?
Here are further guidelines.
What describes the child?
Child born out of criminal conspiracy.
Child born with special needs.
Child born without any controversy (i.e., normal).
Further details must be included with the issues.

Child born out of criminal conspiracy: Who all are involved?
Do all involved know there is no statute of limitation for such criminal activities?
What punishments did they get?
What further punishments are justified?

Child born with special needs: What describes the child born with special needs?

Child born without any controversy (i.e., normal).

Birth to next 365 days.

What should be the next 365 days of parenting or caregiver?
18 things that must be around.
Changing diapers
Monitoring crawling, sitting, walking, and talking.

What 18 things must be around?
This book authored by Doctor Asif Qureshi for every existing or future mom
A baby bathtub
A tube of Aquaphor
Baby monitor
Baby rattles
Cotton swaddle sleep sack
Diaper changer/target cart
Diaper Genie
Different pacifiers
Exercise for yourself
Pacifier clips
Pack 'n play
Rock 'n' play
Stroller and car seat combo
Support cushion
White cotton toys
Zippered pajamas


What food will you give your newborn for the first 24 hours?
Breastfeeding is recommended.
Suckle at the breast about 50 minutes after birth.
Your baby needs to be fed 8 times in the first 24 hours.
When breastfeeding, try different positions for feeding until you feel comfortable.

How do you know if you are providing the child nutritious food every day?
Here are further guidelines.
Newborn Nutrition
Breastfeeding and Bottle-feeding

Which is better, breastfeeding or formula-feeding?
What is in an infant formula, and how do I choose the right one?
Can I make my own infant formula?
So, what types of formula should parents give to their babies?
Find a local Pediatrician in your town
What are the main types of infant formula?
What infant formula preparations are available?
What is an Infant Formula?
How do parents know what formula to feed to their infant?
Do infants fed infant formulas need to take additional vitamins and minerals?
Do "house brand" or generic infant formulas differ nutritionally from name brand formulas?
What does the "use by" date mean on infant formula product labels?
What are counterfeit infant formulas? How can I avoid buying such products?
I have seen bottled water marked for use in preparing infant formula. What does this mean?
Are there approved recipes for homemade infant formulas?
How do I report a problem or illness caused by an infant formula?

Which is better, breastfeeding or formula-feeding?

Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants. This includes premature and sick newborns, with rare exceptions. Pediatricians generally advise that full-term, healthy infants exclusively breastfeed when possible for the first 12 months of life and, thereafter, for as long as mutually desired. Advantages of breastfeeding include: (1) breast milk is nutritionally sound and easy to digest; (2) breastfeeding is believed to enhance a close mother-child relationship; and (3) breast milk contains infection-fighting antibodies (immunoglobulins) that may reduce the frequency of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, otitis media (ear infections), and other respiratory infections in the infant. Please see the Breast

Feeding article for more information.

Some parents choose formula-feeding either because of personal preference or because medical conditions of either the mother or the infant make breastfeeding ill-advised. Parents need not feel guilty for choosing formula-feeding. Infant formulas are a time-tested, perfectly acceptable alternative to breastfeeding. Even though formula-fed babies do not receive infection-fighting antibodies from the breast milk, they still will have received a four- to six-month supply of these antibodies through the maternal bloodstream prior to delivery. Remember also that the majority of breastfeeding infants end up on a combination of breast- and formula-feedings before their first birthday.

Some common reasons for choosing formula-feeding include:

* There is an inadequate supply of maternal breast milk.

* The baby is sucking inefficiently.

* Parents are unable to quantify the amount of breast milk received by the baby. Some parents want to know exactly how much their baby is receiving at each feeding, and formula/bottle-feeding allows exact measurement.

* A significant reason for not breastfeeding is concern about transferring certain drugs the mother is taking due to a medical problem through the breast milk to the infant. Examples of medications that are considered unsafe for the baby include cimetidine (Tagamet), cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), lithium (Lithobid), gold salts, methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), metronidazole (Flagyl), cyclosporine, and bromocriptine (Parlodel). Numerous other medications have not yet been adequately studied in the context of breastfeeding and the possible effects on the baby. Mothers may choose bottle-feeding rather than risk any potential effect on the baby.

* An increasing number of mothers must return to work shortly after their baby's delivery. Formula-feeding offers a practical alternative for mothers who may not be able to breastfeed due to work schedules. Formula-fed babies often need to eat less frequently than do breastfed babies because breast milk moves through the digestive system more quickly. Thus, breastfed babies may become hungry more frequently.

* A benefit of bottle-feeding is that the entire family can immediately become intimately involved in all aspects of the baby's care, including feedings. The mother can therefore get more rest, which can be critically important, especially if the pregnancy and/or delivery were especially difficult.

What is in an infant formula, and how do I choose the right one?

o Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding

+ It's important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts' ability to produce milk diminishes soon after childbirth without the stimulation of breastfeeding. Breast milk is easily digested by babies and contains infection-fighting antibodies and cholesterol, which promotes brain growth. Formula-fed babies actually need to eat somewhat less often since formula is less readily digested by the baby than human milk. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of both forms of feeding.

More o Iron Deficiency
+ Iron is a mineral our bodies need. Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from not enough iron in the body. It is the most common nutritional deficiency and the leading cause in the US. Iron deficiency is caused due to increased iron deficiency from diseases, nutritional deficiency, or blood loss and the body's inability to intake or absorb iron. Children, teen girls, pregnant women, and babies are at most risk for developing iron deficiency. Symptoms of iron deficiency include feeling weak and tired, decreased work or school performance, slow social development, difficulty maintaining body temperature, decreased immune function, and an inflamed tongue. Blood tests can confirm an iron deficiency in an individual. Treatment depends on the cause of the deficiency. Proper diet that includes recommended daily allowances of iron may prevent some cases of iron deficiency.

Parenting and Newborn Resources

* What You Should Never Put in a Baby's Bottle

Infant Formulas

* Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency and the leading cause of anemia in the United States.

* Iron deficiency is due either to increased need for iron by the body or a decreased absorption or amount of iron taken in.

* Signs of iron deficiency include fatigue, decreased work and school performance, slow cognitive and social development during childhood, difficulty maintaining body temperature, decreased immune function, and glossitis (an inflamed tongue).

* Blood tests establish the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

* Dietary changes or iron supplements are possible treatments for iron deficiency.

What is iron and why do we need it?

Iron is a mineral needed by our bodies. Iron is a part of all cells and does many things in our bodie...

What is in an infant formula, and how do I choose the right one?

This information can help "demystify" the myriad of choices available to a parent when considering options at the pharmacy or grocery store. A small percentage of newborn infants will require a specialized formula (for example, premature infants, infants with metabolic diseases, or infants with intestinal malformations). These children's unique dietary requirements should be an item of individual discussion between the parents and the infant's pediatrician and will not be addressed here.

In order to achieve appropriate growth and maintain good health, infant formulas must include proper amounts of water, carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals. Each of these components is discussed below. The three major classes of infant formulas are

1. milk-based formulas, which are prepared from cow milk with added vegetable oils, vitamins, minerals, and iron. These formulas are suitable for most healthy full-term infants and should be the feeding of choice when breastfeeding is not used, or is stopped before 1 year of age.

2. soy-based formulas, which are made from soy protein with added vegetable oils (for fat calories) and corn syrup and/or sucrose (for carbohydrate). These formulas are suitable for infants who cannot tolerate the lactose (lactose intolerant, see below) in most milk-based formulas or who are allergic to the whole protein in cow milk and milk-based formulas. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of soy formulas for the above infants as well as for infants of parents seeking a vegetarian-based diet for a term infant. These formulas are not recommended for low-birth-weight or preterm infants or for the prevention of colic or allergies.

3. special formulas for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, low-sodium formulas for infants that need to restrict salt intake, and "predigested" protein formulas for infants who cannot tolerate or are allergic to the whole proteins (casein and whey) in cow milk and milk-based formulas


Water is an important part of a baby's diet because water makes up a large proportion of the baby's body. When properly prepared, all infant formulas are approximately 85% water.

Infant formulas are available in three forms: liquid ready-to-use, liquid concentrate, and powder concentrate. Liquid ready-to-use formulas do not require the addition of water, while the liquid and powder concentrates require the addition of water.

It is of prime importance for parents to read, understand, and follow the manufacturer's directions when adding water to liquid and powder concentrates. Adding too much water to these concentrates or adding water to ready-to-use formulas can lead to water intoxication in the baby. In severe cases, water intoxication can cause low blood sodium levels, irritability, coma, and even permanent brain damage. Conversely, failing to adequately dilute the concentrates with water causes the formulas to be too concentrated, or "hypertonic." Hypertonic formulas can induce diarrhea and dehydration. In extreme cases, ingestion of overly hypertonic formulas can lead to kidney failure, gangrene of the legs, and coma. Therefore, parents should not adjust the amount of water that is added to concentrates to either "fatten the baby up" or "put the baby on a diet." Instead, parents should discuss their concerns regarding the baby's calorie intake with his/her pediatrician.


Carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, galactose, etc.) are sugars or several sugars linked together. Carbohydrates provide energy (calories) for the brain tissues, muscles, and other organs. Lactose is a carbohydrate consisting of glucose linked to galactose. Lactose is the major carbohydrate in human breast milk, cow milk, and in most milk-based infant formulas.

While most infants will thrive on a formula that contains lactose, some infants are lactose intolerant. Lactose intolerance is due to a lactase enzyme deficiency (low levels of enzyme activity) in the small intestine. Lactase enzymes are necessary for "digesting" lactose by breaking the link between glucose and galactose. The intestines can then absorb the smaller glucose and galactose molecules. In infants who are lactase deficient, the undigested lactose cannot be absorbed. This, in turn, can cause diarrhea, cramps, bloating, vomiting, and gas. Lactase deficiency is more common in premature infants than in full-term babies. Lactase deficiency can also develop temporarily during recovery from viral gastroenteritis (commonly referred to as the "stomach flu"). Finally, lactase deficiency can be inherited (rarely).

For infants with lactose intolerance, formulas that contain no lactose can be used. Lactofree is an example of a milk-based formula that contains corn-syrup solids rather than lactose as its carbohydrate calorie source. Many soy-protein formulas also do not contain lactose and are suitable for lactose intolerant infants. In addition to corn-syrup solids, other examples of carbohydrates contained in lactose-free formulas include sucrose (table sugar), tapioca starch, modified cornstarch, and glucose polymers (short chains of glucose molecules).


Proteins contain different amino acids that are linked together. Proteins provide both calories and the amino-acid building blocks that are necessary for proper growth. The protein in human milk provides between 10%-15% of an infant's daily caloric need. Casein and whey are the two major proteins of human milk and most milk-based formulas. (Immunoglobulins, a type of protein unique to breast milk, provide infection-fighting immunity and are not considered as a nutritional source and are not efficiently metabolized.) While formulas from different manufacturers may vary slightly in the relative proportion of these two proteins, healthy babies generally thrive on any milk-based formula brand.

Some 0.5%-7.5% of infants have a true allergy to the cow proteins that are in milk-based formulas. Infants with true cow milk allergy can develop abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, skin rash, and wheezing when given milk-based formulas. These symptoms will disappear as soon milk-based formula is removed from the diet. Allergy to cow-milk protein is different from lactose intolerance. Treatment of cow-milk-protein allergy involves using formulas that contain no cow milk or using formulas that contain "predigested" casein and whey proteins. The predigesting process breaks the whole proteins into smaller pieces or into amino acids. The amino acids and smaller protein pieces are hypoallergenic (do not cause allergy).

Soy-protein formulas contain no cow milk and are reasonable alternatives for infants with true cow-milk allergy. Since most soy-protein formulas also contain no lactose, they are also suitable for infants with lactose intolerance. The carbohydrates in soy-protein formulas are sucrose, corn-syrup solids, and cornstarch or glucose polymers.

Certain infants have allergy to both cow-milk proteins and soy proteins. These infants require a formula in which the cow-milk protein (casein) has been "predigested" and specific amino acids added to provide a formula that can provide proper nutrition. The decision to utilize one of these specialized formulas should be made in consultation with the infant's pediatrician.


Fat in human milk and formula provides a significant percentage of the total daily caloric needs for a growing infant. Formula manufacturers utilize many different vegetable oils for fat, including corn, soy, safflower, and coconut oils. Some formulas contain "predigested" fats known as medium chain triglycerides (MCT). These are analogous to the "predigested proteins" discussed above. Because of their unique application, formulas containing MCT are not routinely recommended for healthy infants and children.

There is a significant amount of research into determining the ideal concentration and ratios of fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) for infant nutrition. Some studies have suggested that these may have a positive effect on short-term cognitive function. More research is needed to clarify this issue, and you should discuss this with your infant's pediatrician before supplementing.


Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in minute quantities for the proper growth, maintenance, and functioning of the baby. Vitamins must be obtained from food because the body cannot produce them. The exception is vitamin D, which can be produced by the skin when it is exposed to the sun. There are four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and several water-soluble vitamins. These include the B vitamins, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), and B12 (cobalamin), as well as folate and vitamin C and pantothenic acid, and biotin. These vitamins have been added to infant formulas to ensure proper nutrition. Unless otherwise directed by their pediatricians, routine vitamin supplementation is not necessary for healthy full-term infants taking formulas.

High doses of certain vitamins can have adverse effects. For example, high doses of vitamin A can cause headaches, vomiting, liver damage, brain swelling, and bone abnormalities. High doses of vitamin D can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood and kidney and heart damage. Therefore, high doses of vitamins should not be given to infants and young children without supervision by their pediatricians.


Minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, and zinc) and trace elements (manganese, chromium, selenium, and molybdenum) are included in most formulas. Therefore, there is no evidence that mineral supplementation is necessary for healthy formula-fed, full-term infants.

Several years ago, it was recommended that infants from birth to 4 months of age receive a lower quantity of iron compared with those from 4 to 12 months of age. As such, several milk-based formulas such as Similac (Abbot Nutrition—formerly Ross) and Enfamil (Mead Johnson Pharmaceuticals) were marketed under two varieties—"low iron" and "high iron." Multiple studies on iron requirements for all infants have since been performed, and in 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended against the use of any "low iron" formula for infants, due to the fact that these formulas are nutritionally deficient. Pediatricians currently recommend that all children receive the standard iron content found in most formulas. Both the FDA and the AAP have encouraged the infant-formula makers to discontinue production of "low iron" products, without success. This is due to the fact that many parents still purchase these because of a belief that iron in formula causes gastrointestinal side effects, including increased gas and constipation. Many studies have conclusively shown this not to be the case.

* Which is better, breastfeeding or formula-feeding?
* What is in an infant formula, and how do I choose the right one?
* Can I make my own infant formula?
* So, what types of formula should parents give to their babies?
* Infant Formulas Glossary
* Infant Formulas Index
* Find a local Pediatrician in your town

Can I make my own infant formula?

The FDA and AAP recommend against homemade infant formulas. This is due to the fact that these formulas do not meet all of an infant's nutritional needs. In addition, cow-milk protein that has not been cooked or processed appropriately is difficult for an infant to digest and may damage an infant's immature kidneys. Today's infant formula is a very controlled, state-of-the-art product that cannot be duplicated at home.

So, what types of formula should parents give to their babies?

* Most infants and children will thrive on a cow-milk-based, lactose-containing formula such as Similac (Abbott Nutrition), Enfamil (Mead Johnson Pharmaceuticals), or Good Start (Nestle).

* Some infants may be lactose intolerant (not allergic) and will better tolerate a lactose-free milk-based formula such as Enfamil Lactofree (Mead Johnson Pharmaceuticals) or Similac Lactose-Free (Abbott Nutrition). For children who are recovering from infectious diarrhea and gastroenteritis, the short-term use of lactose-free formulas may help decrease cramps and diarrhea. This should only be a temporary change, and reintroduction to standard formulas is recommended.

* Some parents of lactose-intolerant infants may prefer to use soy-protein-based formulas such as Isomil (Abbott Nutrition), Prosobee (Mead Johnson Pharmaceuticals), and Allsoy (Nestle). Infants who are allergic to cow-milk protein can also use soy-based formulas.

* For infants who are allergic to cow-milk protein and soy protein (approximately 35% of infants allergic to cow-milk protein are also allergic to soy proteins), the "predigested" protein formulas including Pregestimil (Mead Johnson), Nutramigen (Mead Johnson), and Alimentum (Abbott Nutrition) can be used.

* Unique medical conditions may require a specific formula recommendation by the pediatrician. This applies to children with some common genetic deficiencies such as PKU, and for premature and low-birth-weight infants.

* Generic infant formulas are also available and are often made by the same manufacturers that produce the brand name products. Whether you are considering brand name or generic products, check the expiration dates on the packages, and compare ingredient lists to be sure you are purchasing products with the same ingredients.

* Homemade infant __________.

* Equipment you'll need
* How to sterilise equipment
* Making up the formula
* General safety tips
* Giving the bottle
* Getting the formula to flow
* How much formula?

Equipment you’ll need

* 4-6 large bottles, rings, caps and several teats. Teats are either made from latex (brown) or silicone (clear) and either is fine. Choose any bottle or teat you like, as none is better than another. Teats are graded according to the age of the baby, but this is not based on anything scientific. Try teats with bigger or smaller holes until you find the one that you and your baby are happy with.

* A bottle brush to clean the bottles and teats.

* Sterilising equipment. Until your baby is six months old, her immune system isn’t strong enough to fight off some infections, so disinfecting her bottle equipment will reduce the chance of her getting sick. If you have trouble getting clean water or access to a refrigerator, keep sterilising even when your baby is older than six months.

How to sterilise equipment

When you’ve finished feeding, dismantle bottles, teats and rings and rinse everything in cold water straight away. Then before you sterilise for the next feed, wash it all in hot, soapy water and rinse thoroughly. Squirt water through the teat to clear the little hole.

There are several ways you can sterilise your bottle equipment.


* Put all the utensils in a large pot.
* Fill the pot with water until the utensils are covered.
* Put the pot on the stove, bring it to the boil and boil for five minutes.
* Store equipment you are not going to use straight away in a clean container in the fridge.
* Boil cleaning implements such as bottle brushes every 24 hours.

Safety when boiling water

If you have older children, you might want to use this method when they’re asleep or out of the house to reduce the risk of scalding them. To avoid scalding yourself, let the equipment cool in the pot until you can touch it.

Using chemicals

* You can also sterilise your bottles with an antibacterial solution that comes in liquid or tablet form. This is a type of bleach that is diluted with water so it’s safe for your baby but strong enough to kill bacteria.

* Follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when you make up the solution to make sure it’s the right strength.

* Wash with warm soapy water and rinse thoroughly. Then completely submerge everything and leave it all in the solution for the recommended time before using. Equipment may be left in the solution for 24 hours when not in use.

Safety when using chemicals

* Store the concentrate and solution well out of the reach of children.

* You can only keep the solution for 24 hours once it’s made up, so after this time throw it away, thoroughly scrub the container and equipment in warm soapy water and make up some new solution.

* If you use chemical sterilisers you need plastic or glass equipment (that includes the container you use to mix the solution), rather than metal which will eventually be eaten away by the solution.

Steam sterilisers

Steam sterilisers are automatic units that ‘cook’ your equipment at a temperature high enough to kill bacteria. Put your clean equipment into the unit, add water according to the manufacturer's instructions and switch on. The unit switches itself off when the job is done.

Microwave steam sterilisers

These are like steam sterilisers, but you put them in the microwave oven.

Making up the formula

First, boil some water. Start with water fresh from the tap (not water that has been sitting around in a jug or kettle; it’s more likely to have dirt or insects in it) and bring it to the boil either in an electric jug or on the stove top. You don’t need to keep the water boiling any longer than 30 seconds.

Let the water cool down to room temperature before you add the powder or liquid.

To prepare the bottle

1. Pour the amount of cooled, boiled water you need into the bottle.

2. Using the scoop from the formula tin, measure the required number of scoops into the bottle. Level off each scoop (you can do this with a knife or other implement).

3. Seal the bottle with a cap and disc. Swirl first so powder doesn’t block the teat, and then shake the bottle gently to mix it.

4. If you are not using the formula right away, store it in the back of the fridge where it is coldest, not in the door where it is warmer. Doctors recommend that you only make up formula when you want to use it rather than making it up ahead of time.

5. Throw out any mixed, refrigerated formula you haven’t used after 24 hours.

General safety tips

* Wash your hands and work surfaces before preparing formula.

* Put formula into the fridge as soon as it is made if you’re not using it right away.

* Storing half-empty bottles for future use is risky as they quickly become contaminated once they have been sucked on. Throw away the contents of used but unfinished bottles after about an hour.

* Check the expiry date on tins of formula and discard them if they are out of date. Discard any opened tin of formula after one month.

* The safest way to transport formula is to take the cooled, boiled water and the powdered formula in separate containers and mix them when needed.

* If you need to transport prepared formula or expressed breastmilk it must be icy cold when you leave the house.

Carrying it in a thermal baby bottle pack will keep it cold.

* It can be bad for your baby to 'prop' a bottle and walk away leaving baby to manage on her own. The milk may flow too quickly and she may breathe it into her lungs – that could cause a lung infection or (much less likely) drowning. Babies who feed a lot on their own are at greater risk of ear infections (milk can flow through to her ear cavity, which can cause ear infections).

Holding, cuddling and talking to your baby while she’s feeding will help her develop and grow. To find out more about this, see Connecting and communicating.

Giving the bottle

* Giving babies cold formula is not harmful but babies seem to prefer formula warmed to room temperature. If she doesn’t mind cold formula, feel free to serve it cold.

* Standing the bottle in warm to hot water is the safest way of warming the milk. Bottle warmers are convenient and safe as long as they have a thermostat control. (Leaving the bottle in the warmer more than 10 minutes may cause bacteria to breed in the formula. These bacteria are a common cause of diarrhoea.)

* Microwaves aren't the safest way to warm milk, as they don’t warm milk evenly, and ‘hot spots’ in the formula may burn your baby’s mouth. Closed bottles can also explode in the microwave.

* Check the temperature of the feed by shaking a little milk from the teat onto the inside of your wrist.

* Make yourself comfortable, cuddle your baby close to you, holding her gently but firmly. It’s better for her to be on a slight incline so any air bubbles rise to the top, making burping easier.

* Put the teat against her lips. She will open her mouth and start to suck. Keep the neck of the bottle at an angle so it is filled with the milk mixture. When she stops sucking strongly or when she has drunk about half the milk, gently remove the bottle and see if she wants to burp.

* If she goes to sleep unwrap her, put her over your shoulder, rub her back and stroke her head, legs and tummy to wake her up. A nappy change is a good way to wake her up if that doesn’t work. Wait until she is properly awake before offering her the rest of the milk.

Getting the formula to flow

* To test the flow, hold the bottle upside down when it is filled with the milk mixture at room temperature – the milk should drip steadily but not pour out.

* If you have to shake it vigorously it is too slow and your baby might go to sleep before she drinks what she needs. * A little leakage at the corners of her mouth while she feeds is nothing to worry about – as she gets older this will stop.

* If you have trouble finding the perfect teat, go for a faster teat rather than a slow one.

How much formula?

All babies drink variable amounts and may have some feeds close together and others further apart. There is no set amount of food or number of feeds a baby should have. The following is only a guide – you can also use the chart on the formula tin:

* Commonly, babies have 6-7 feeds every 24 hours – researchers recommend you feed your baby whenever she is hungry.

Information about the quantity for age on formula tins is a guide only and may not necessarily suit your baby. Some babies never drink the 'required amount' for their age and size, and others need more. Plenty of wet nappies, consistent weight gains that are not excessive and a thriving, active baby mean all is well.

What are the main types of infant formula?

* Cow's milk formulas. Most infant formula is made with cow's milk that's been altered to resemble breast milk. This gives the formula the right balance of nutrients — and makes the formula easier to digest. Most babies do well on cow's milk formula. Some babies, however — such as those allergic to the proteins in cow's milk — need other types of infant formula.

* Soy-based formulas. Soy-based formulas can be useful if you want to exclude animal proteins from your child's diet. Soy-based infant formulas may also be an option for babies who are intolerant or allergic to cow's milk formula or to lactose, a sugar naturally found in cow's milk. However, babies who are allergic to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk.

* Protein hydrolysate formulas. These are meant for babies who have a milk or soy allergy. Protein hydrolysate formulas are easier to digest and less likely to cause allergic reactions than are other types of formula. They're also called hypoallergenic formulas.

In addition, specialized formulas are available for premature infants and babies who have specific medical conditions. Why use formula instead of regular milk?

What infant formula preparations are available?

Infant formulas come in three forms. The best choice depends on your budget and desire for convenience:

* Powdered formula. Powdered formula is the least expensive. Each scoop of powdered formula must be mixed with water.

* Concentrated liquid formula. This type of formula also must be mixed with water.

* Ready-to-use formula. Ready-to-use formula is the most convenient type of infant formula. It doesn't need to be mixed with water. It's also the most expensive option.

What is an Infant Formula?

Infant formulas are liquids or reconstituted powders fed to infants and young children. They serve as substitutes for human milk. Infant formulas have a special role to play in the diets of infants because they are often the only source of nutrients for infants. For this reason, the composition of commercial formulas is carefully controlled and FDA requires that these products meet very strict standards.

How does FDA regulate Infant Formulas?

The safety and nutritional quality of infant formulas are ensured by requiring that manufacturers follow specific procedures in manufacturing infant formulas. In fact, there is a law -- known as the Infant Formula Act -- which gives FDA special authority to create and enforce standards for commercial infant formulas. Manufacturers must analyze each batch of formula to check nutrient levels and make safety checks. They must then test samples to make sure the product remains in good condition while it is on the market shelf. Infant formulas must also have codes on their containers to identify each batch and manufacturers must keep very detailed records of production and analysis.

Does FDA have nutrient specifications for infant formulas?

FDA regulations list specifications for minimum amounts of 29 nutrients and maximum amounts for 9 of those nutrients. All formulas marketed in the United States must meet these nutrient requirements. As more information becomes available about infants' nutrient needs, FDA's nutrient specifications for infant formulas may be modified to incorporate that information.

Does FDA approve infant formulas before they are marketed?

The law does not require that FDA approve infant formulas but instead requires companies to provide certain information to FDA before they market new infant formulas. Manufacturers must provide assurances that they are following good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures and that the formula will allow infants to thrive. If such assurances are not provided, FDA will object to the manufacturer's marketing of the formula; however, the manufacturer may market the new infant formula over FDA's objection.

How do parents know what formula to feed to their infant?

A wide selection of different types of infant formulas is available on the market. Parents should ask their infant's health care provider if they have questions about selecting a formula for their infant.

Do infants fed infant formulas need to take additional vitamins and minerals?

Infants fed infant formulas do not need additional nutrients unless a low-iron formula is fed. If infants are fed a low-iron formula, a health care professional may recommend a supplemental source of iron, particularly after 4 months of age.

FDA's nutrient specifications for infant formulas are set at levels to meet the nutritional needs of infants. In addition, manufacturers set nutrient levels for their label claims that are generally above the FDA minimum specifications and they add nutrients at levels that will ensure that their formulas meet their label claims over the entire shelf-life of the product.

Do "house brand" or generic infant formulas differ nutritionally from name brand formulas?

All infant formulas marketed in the United States must meet the nutrient specifications listed in FDA regulations. Infant formula manufacturers may have their own proprietary formulations but they must contain at least the minimum levels of all nutrients specified in FDA regulations without going over the maximum levels, when maximum levels are specified.

Some ingredient statements on infant formula labels include ingredients in addition to nutrients and familiar components such as milk. Why are those ingredients added?

Ready-to-feed and concentrated liquid formulas often contain ingredients such as lecithin, carrageenan, and mono- and diglycerides added to ensure that the formula doesn't separate during shelf-life.

What does the "use by" date mean on infant formula product labels?

The "use by" date on infant formulas is a date, selected by the manufacturer based on tests and other information, to inform retailers and consumers about the quality of the infant formula. Until that declared date, the infant formula will contain no less than the amount of each nutrient declared on the product label and will otherwise be of acceptable quality. The "use by" date is required by FDA regulations on each container of infant formula.

What are counterfeit infant formulas? How can I avoid buying such products?

Counterfeit infant formulas are infant formula products that have been diverted from normal distribution channels and relabeled. Diverted products may be relabeled with counterfeit labels to misrepresent the quality or identity of a formula. For example, if an infant formula is past the "use by" date, a counterfeit label may bear a false "use by" date to obscure the fact that the product may no longer contain the amounts of nutrients listed on the label and may otherwise not be of acceptable quality. As a second example, an infant formula may be relabeled to disguise the true content of the product. Infants who are intolerant to certain ingredients and are fed such a counterfeit formula could experience serious adverse health consequences.

To protect infants, parents or other caregivers should always look for any changes in formula color, smell, or taste. Parents should make sure the lot numbers and "use by" dates on the containers and boxes are the same (if buying by the case), check containers for damage, and call the manufacturer's toll-free number with any concerns or questions.

I have seen bottled water marked for use in preparing infant formula. What does this mean?

Are there approved recipes for homemade infant formulas?

How do I report a problem or illness caused by an infant formula?

Children with special needs

How should you raise children with special needs?
What does special needs mean?
Here are further guidelines.


Have you got proper clothes relevant to age and climate?
Here are further guidelines.

Child Care Center

What is a day care center?
Day care, daycare, child day care, or childcare is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child's immediate family.
What does it take to run a daycare?
Day care center licensing requirements are set at the state level and may vary slightly depending on your state.

•Licensing Requirements. A day care center must be licensed before opening.
•Safety Requirements.
•Location Requirements.
•Staffing Requirements.
•Training and Certification.
•Activities and Equipment.
•Other Requirements.


What is the difference between discipline and abuse?

How should you discipline a child or adolescent?
Be responsive and cooperate with your children as often as possible.
Set clear, high expectations.
Use minimal coercion and minimal rewards.
Reiterate values.
Use discipline before getting angry.
Use teaching and explanation to discipline, including getting your children to take the other person’s perspective and feel concern for a victim.
Include your children in family decision-making and problem-solving.
Use logical consequences.
Provide age-appropriate opportunities for responsibility.
Here are further guidelines.

Everyday discussion

Are you discussing with him or her relevant questions in the English language every day?

If you do not know the English language, get relevant questions translated from the English language to your language.
Here are further guidelines.


Do not wait for a child to begin elementary education on his or her 5th birthday in elementary school. Elementary school education of a child starts at home.

Have you told the child, adolescent, or elders to visit www.qureshiuniversity.com in case of any education needs?

Have you updated your state department of education that courses are needed like those at www.qureshiuniversity.com?
Here are further guidelines.


Who should be his or her friends?

Why should they be his or her friends?

Do his or her friends and their families know - relevant to age - about good character, good behavior, insight of rights, state economy, state planning and development, and state budget?
Here are further guidelines.


Have you fixed a location for housing from birth and while the child grows?
Here are further guidelines.


Have you listed hygiene topics?
Here are further guidelines.

Monthly progress

What and where is the monthly progress you should look forward to for the child?

What should happen if this monthly progress does not occur?
Consult a medical doctor or a pediatrician as soon as possible.
Here are further guidelines.

Medical doctor or pediatrician advice

Does having a license to practice medicine or license to be a pediatrician guarantee that he or she can answer relevant questions?
No, it does not.

How should parents select a medical doctor or pediatrician for their children?

If they are not able to answer relevant questions, declare publicly that you seek advice from those able to advise in question-and-answer format.
Here are further guidelines.

Parenting advice by ages

What age-specific parenting should you know?
Here are further guidelines.

Parenting classes

Who needs parenting classes?
If you do not have answers to relevant questions of parenting, you need parenting classes.
Here are further guidelines.

Potty training

What are various potty training guidelines?
When is bedwetting abnormal?
Why are there different potty training guidelines?
Various cultures, communities impart different potty training as per culture or community practices. Not every region has toilet paper.
Here are further guidelines.

Parenting resources

Do you know any parenting resource better than this resource?


Are you educating him or her of the values of good character, good behavior, insight of rights, state planning and development with a global perspective, state economy, and state budget?
Here are further guidelines.


Have you updated yourself and him or her about safety?
What are various safety guidelines?
Do not mingle or associate with strangers.
Ask relevant questions while dealing with any issue.
Here are further guidelines.

Speech and Language

How do speech and language develop?
What are the milestones for speech and language development?
What is the difference between a speech disorder and a language disorder?
What are voice, speech, and language?
What types of speech and language disorders affect school-age children?
How may a speech-language disorder affect school performance?
How do parents and school personnel work together to insure that children get the speech-language support they need?

Here are further guidelines.


How much sleep do children need?
Here are further guidelines.


What should be his or her normal day before going to school?

What should be his or her normal day after going to school at school and at home?

Does the school have a quality curriculum in the English language relevant to the English language, math, social studies, and science?

Does the school have quality teachers able to answer relevant questions?
Here are further guidelines.

Social Skills

What are Social Skills?

What should parents not do?
Do not admire fiction movie stars.
Do not discuss fiction movie stars.
Your kids will be educated in fantasy and fiction.
Your kids will face problems in real world.
Here are further guidelines.

Table manners or Dastarkhan manners

What are the do's and dont's of table manners?

Here are further guidelines.

Telephone conversations

At what age should children begin telephone conversations?

What should be taught to children about telephone conversations?

Here are further guidelines.

3 - 4 year old children:

Is your child ready to interact with peers, but needs support?
Do you feel your child’s social development may be behind that of his/her peers?

4 - 8 year old children:

Does your child have problems sharing with others?
Does your child often get into disagreements with children on the playground, or have trouble expressing how he feels or regulating his emotions?
Do you feel your child’s social development may be behind that of his/her peers?

Developing skills and abilities

Your children’s skills and abilities will be their most valuable asset throughout their lives. Skills are behaviors that we can learn and improve through practice. Every day, students are learning and practicing skills as they also increase their knowledge in the subjects they study. Abilities are closely related to skills – they are natural talents. We tend to think of singing as an ability because people are born with good voices and typing as a skill because it can be learned. Some of our strongest skills, however, are really well developed (practiced) talents.

As a parent, you can help your children learn about skills and abilities – their own and those that are used by others. You can help them develop a vocabulary of skill words. “I am honest, reliable, and organized. I can use the computer for word processing and spread sheets. I work well with others and can coordinate activities of groups. I am good at gathering and evaluating information. I have a high attention to detail.” Understanding that they have skills, that these skills are valued by others, and that they can develop the skills that they enjoy using contributes to self-esteem and motivation.

What kinds of skills should my child develop?
Skills can be categorized in many different ways. One helpful way to break them apart is to look at them as:
•Employability skills. Skills that are needed by all workers, regardless of job, work setting, or industry. These include good work habits and other personal qualities, basic reading, writing and math skills, and thinking skills that are required to perform any type of work effectively.
•Transferable skills. Skills that are used in many different work settings by different kinds of workers. They can be transferred from one line of work to another.
•Technical or job specific skills. Skills that are very specific to a particular activity, job, or industry. For example, the technical skills for a plumber include installing and soldering pipes.

During elementary years through high school, your children are primarily developing employability and transferable skills. At the youngest ages, they begin developing their employability skills as they learn individual responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management, and integrity. They are also building basic skills required for functioning in any work situation through what they learn in school – reading, writing, arithmetic and mathematics, speaking, and listening, thinking creatively, making decisions, solving problems, reasoning, and knowing how to learn.

How can I help my child with problem solving skills?
Problem solving involves math and thinking skills. Demonstrate an interest in mathematics and make math and problem-solving a part of the family routine. Here are some everyday activities that can help build them:
•Cook together. Have your children follow a recipe. Explain fractions and measurements while cooking.
•Shop together. Illustrate percentages with pennies and dollars. Have your children check the grocery receipt, and calculate prices.
•Travel together. Have your children act as the navigators on a family outing. Play simple games such as “how far is it?” Keep a chart of daily temperatures to help plan for a family vacation.
•Play games together. Have your children learn the rules of a game by reading and enforcing directions.
Do projects together.
•Involve them in routine home maintenance work. Involve your children in family decisions. Have your children anticipate and experience the consequences of a decision.

How can I help my child with communication skills?
Communication includes reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Keep lots of quality reading material around the house. Make visits to the library part of your family routine. Point out that pleasurable reading comes from good writing. Here are some ideas to develop better communicators:

•Read to your children. Spend 20 minutes a day reading to preschoolers. Have older children read to you or take turns reading to younger siblings. Let your children see you read at least 20 minutes a day.
•Encourage good listening. Discuss the content of what you or they have read. Tell stories and have children re-tell them in detail. •Play games that involve writing, speaking, and listening.
•Encourage writing. Expect that your children will write letters and thank you notes to relatives and friends. Make sure your children have writing materials, such as journals and diaries, available.

How can I help my child with teamwork?
Teams are not only important on the athletic field. All aspects of life require people to work effectively as members of teams. Think of your family as a team, and use some of these ideas:
•Build your family team. Involve children in family discussions or decisions, as appropriate for their age and maturity level.
•Work together. Give kids important jobs to do within the family or work on chores together.
•Practice conflict resolution. Teach them to get along with others by modeling good teamwork and conflict resolution.
•Learn together. Emphasize the learning that takes place in groups, whether on school projects or team activities like sports, music, theater, or volunteering.

How can I help my child with other employment foundations?
Employment requires understanding and using tools and technology, working in organizations and systems, and following procedures. You can begin building these skills at home by:
•Do projects that require many steps, use of tools, and following procedures, such as:
?Cook together. Have your children read recipes and measure ingredients.
?Do laundry. Have your children sort items of clothing according to color, read washing instructions, measure detergent and time wash cycles.
?Go grocery shopping. Have your children write shopping lists, compare food prices, make change, and identify and classify food items.
?Fix the family photo album. Have your children sort pictures, write labels for each photo and write a story about some of the photos.
?Organize the house. Have your child sortren items in a "junk drawer," label them and arrange them alphabetically.
•Talk about products and services you use. Introduce your children to all aspects of work; including technology, business, artistic, social and customer service perspectives.
•Discuss new technologies and how they change our lives. Discuss ways to improve products, processes and services with your children. Encourage your children to brainstorm solutions to technical and human problems.

Checklist for parents of high school students

High school goes by quickly for most students – and their parents. And after high school, what then? Regardless of whether your teen plans to go to college, work, apprentice, join the military, travel, or some combination, high school is an important time to prepare. Your student needs your help because his or her responsibilities are mounting. Here are some things you will want to stay on top of. The first is a list of general items for all four years, followed by specific lists for each year.

Make sure your teens attend school each school day. They are not too old to have help waking up or reminders to take their homework, books and notebooks, and other supplies every morning. Encourage them to do their best each day.

Attend school events. Participate in school open houses, parent nights, and parent/teacher conferences. Come prepared with your questions and concerns. Keep materials and information that are handed out for future reference. Support student events and performances by helping with them and by attending them.

Learn about the high school’s graduation requirements and program options. Make sure you understand the standardized testing policies and opportunities. Encourage your teens to take the most challenging course of study they can manage and help them connect the classes to their goals and plans.

Make your home a good place to learn. Encourage learning by modeling it. Read regularly yourself, and continue to read together as a family. Agree to limits for viewing television, playing video games, conversing with friends on telephone or computer, and being out for school or social events. Listen to your teens’ concerns each day with empathy. Praise them regularly.

Encourage your students to be involved in school life and extracurricular activities. Find out about and encourage them to join clubs and activities in their interest areas. Participation in clubs, athletic teams, music groups, yearbook staff, and leadership activities will be important for college and scholarship applications and resumes. Help them keep a balance between activities and academics.

Talk with your teens about their interests and their plans. High school may open up new opportunities for your students. Help them by talking about their dreams and what it takes to achieve those dreams with them on a regular basis.

Continue saving money for education or training after high school (or get started if you haven’t). Some parents believe that unless they have a lot of cash to set aside, there’s little point in saving for college or some other postsecondary training. Not true. Saving even a little bit (for example, $25 each month) can add up over time and starting early is critical.

9th Grade

Meet with the school counselor to make sure your teens’ high school course plans are consistent with their goals. Course selections in every year of high school are important, but the courses students take in the 9th grade set the stage for 10th grade and beyond.

Encourage your students to take part in programs that are offered on college campuses (for example, Saturday academies, summer programs, and athletic clinics). Seeing different campuses and experiencing campus life at an early age can help young people see themselves as future college students.

Encourage your teens to build relationships. Freshman year in high school can be a lonely time, especially if your students are entering a new school. Help them connect with their peers, teachers, and counselors through school work and activities. You can connect to other parents by attending school events and volunteering.

10th Grade

Discuss what your students want to do after high school; and if attending college is part of their plans, begin talking about what they want in a college. Visit local college campuses. Whenever you are on a family trip, make it a point to stop by the campuses that are nearby.

Help your students develop a way to document their activities and achievements. They will need to have this information handy and well-organized when they complete job, college, and scholarship applications.

Encourage your teens to participate actively in career activities. Many schools require sophomores to do job shadows and service learning. They may need your help to locate interesting placements and make adult connections. Career-related learning helps your students see how school connects to the real world. It also helps them discover new aspects of their personalities, interests, and talents.

11th Grade Encourage your students to take on leadership roles in school and community activities. Continue documenting student activities and achievements. Begin identifying teachers and other adults who will make good references for college, scholarship, and job applications.

If you students are working, help them make the most of their experiences. Discuss what they are doing in their part-time jobs, especially what kinds of skills they are learning and how these skills are transferable to other settings. Remind them that they are developing contacts for work and personal recommendations.

Encourage your teens to participate actively in career activities. Many schools will require juniors to complete class projects or internships that connect classroom learning to real life problems and issues. By junior year, their activities will focus on a broad career area. Reflecting on the experiences is critical to making next step choices.

Help your students make a list of their college selection criteria and begin identifying possible colleges. 12th Grade

Help your students focus on school and avoid “senioritis.” Contrary to popular belief, senior year grades and classes do count!

Encourage your teens to participate actively in career activities. Many schools will require seniors to complete a senior project or other activity that demonstrates real life application of what they have learned in high school.

Help your students organize their college application process. Continue college visits to narrow down college options.

1.Keep copies of applications and forms sent to colleges.
2.Line up recommendations (if needed).


Human Organ Systems functions

Is there a difference between human organ system functions and abilities?

What is the difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
Human pulse, blood pressure, temperature, consciousness, and respiratory rate are signs of human organ system functions.
These signs exist from birth onwards. These are signs of human organ system functions; they are not abilities.
Abilities are learned gradually after birth.

This example will make you understand.
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.

If an individual does not have English language reading, speaking, understanding, and writing abilities, that does not mean there is impairment of human organ system functions.
These are all learned abilities.
If an individual is educated properly, he or she will learn these abilities.

What should be goals of your school education?
Learn abilities.
General abilities are learned at school.
Professional abilities are learned in professional training programs.

At this resource, www.qureshiuniversity.com, there are general abilities guidelines and professional abilities guidelines.

How many abilities does an individual learn from birth up to 18 years?

What are various examples of human abilities?
  1. Ability to Adapt

  2. Ability to delegate

  3. Able to concentrate

  4. Able to coordinate

  5. Accepting Differences

  6. Accepting responsibility

  7. Accumulate

  8. Action planning

  9. Action planning

  10. Activities of Everyday Living

  11. Adaptability

  12. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers.

  13. Adjusting controls

  14. Adjusting functional parts

  15. Administrative Skills

  16. Administer

  17. Administrative

  18. Advise

  19. Age-specific English language

  20. Age-specific social skills (Social Sciences)

  21. Algebra

  22. Aligning fixture

  23. Ambitious

  24. Amuse

  25. Analysis and Research

  26. Analytical Ability

  27. Analytical Reasoning

  28. Analyze data or facts

  29. Analyzing

  30. Analyzing—seeing implications and relationships, picking and investigations

  31. Answer

  32. Appoint

  33. Appraise

  34. Arbitrate

  35. Arrange

  36. Arrange social functions

  37. Arrive on time

  38. Articulate

  39. Artistic

  40. Asking questions—learning to formulate good questions, to

  41. Assertive

  42. Assertiveness

  43. Assertiveness in interviews

  44. Assign

  45. Assigning/Delegating

  46. Assist

  47. Attend

  48. Audit

  49. Audit records

  50. Auditory Processing

  51. Auditory Reception

  52. Authorize

  53. Balancing principles

  54. Basic Clerical skills

  55. Basic mechanics

  56. Basic Skills (Essential skills)

  57. Bathing

  58. be selective in asking

  59. Behavioral Interview Questions

  60. Behavioral Skills

  61. Behavioral Skills (supervisors)

  62. Being between alternatives

  63. Brushing your teeth is a learned human ability.

  64. Bookkeeping

  65. Budget

  66. Budgeting

  67. Calculate

  68. Calculate, compute

  69. Calculating

  70. Calibrate

  71. Calibrating—learning the basic information about calibration, calibrating a thermometer, balance, timer,

  72. Capable

  73. Career Skills

  74. Caring

  75. Caring for an instrument—knowing how to store it, using

  76. Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)

  77. Character

  78. Cheerful

  79. Choices

  80. Choose

  81. Classify

  82. Classify data

  83. Classifying—identifying groups and categories, deciding

  84. Climbing

  85. Cognitive Skills

  86. Cognitive Skills of the Brain

  87. Cognitive speed

  88. Cooking Abilities

  89. Collect

  90. Collecting data

  91. Communicate

  92. Communicate verbally

  93. Communication Skills

  94. Communications

  95. Community Servicevolunteering

  96. Compare, inspect, or record facts

  97. Comparing—noticing how things are alike, looking for

  98. Competence

  99. Competent

  100. Competitive

  101. Complaint Resolving Skills

  102. Complaint Solving Skills

  103. Completion of Assignments

  104. Complex Problem Solving Skills

  105. Compose

  106. Computer Proficiency

  107. Computer Skills

  108. Computer Skills (e. g., word processing, spreadsheets,

  109. Computing skills

  110. Concentration

  111. Concern for others

  112. conclusions

  113. Conduct

  114. Conducting

  115. Confer

  116. Conflict Resolution

  117. Conflict Resolution Skills

  118. Confront others

  119. Conscientious

  120. Console

  121. Constructing buildings

  122. Constructing—making simple equipment for demonstrations

  123. Consulting

  124. Contacting

  125. Contrast

  126. Contrasting—noticing how things differ, looking for

  127. Contribution to group

  128. Control

  129. Controlling

  130. Controlling budgets

  131. Convince

  132. Cooperation

  133. Coordinating

  134. Correct English usage

  135. Correspond with others

  136. Counsel

  137. Counsel people

  138. Counseling

  139. Counselling Skills

  140. Count, observe, compile

  141. Counting

  142. Create new ideas

  143. Creative

  144. Creative & Visionary

  145. Creativity

  146. Creativity & Communication

  147. Creativity techniques

  148. Credibility

  149. Critical Thinking

  150. Criticizing—constructively criticizing or evaluating a

  151. Curiosity

  152. Customer Service Skills (List)

  153. Customer Service Skills (Top 10)

  154. Cutting

  155. Data processing

  156. Data, drawing conclusions

  157. Data-entry operations

  158. Debate

  159. Decide

  160. Decision making

  161. Decision making skills

  162. Decision-making

  163. Decisive

  164. Defining

  165. Delegate

  166. Deliberate

  167. Demonstrate

  168. Demonstrating—setting up apparatus, describing parts and demonstration; describing the problem, method, data

  169. Dependable

  170. Describe

  171. Design

  172. Designing

  173. Designing—identifying new problems

  174. Detail & Completion

  175. Detail-oriented

  176. Detecting

  177. Determination

  178. Determine

  179. Develop

  180. Develop/Create

  181. Developing methods

  182. Developing questions

  183. Devise

  184. Diagnose

  185. Diagnosing

  186. Dictate

  187. Diplomatic

  188. Direct

  189. Direct others

  190. Directing

  191. Discover

  192. Discreet

  193. Discriminative Thinking

  194. Discuss

  195. Discussing—learning to contribute ideas, listening to

  196. Disease Prevention

  197. Dismantling

  198. dissimilarities, noticing unlike features

  199. Distinguish

  200. Diverting

  201. Do heavy work

  202. Do precise machine work

  203. Do routing office work

  204. Document

  205. Drafting

  206. Dressing and undressing are learned human abilities.

  207. Driving

  208. Eager

  209. Economic/Bus. Sense

  210. Economics

  211. Economy and Budget

  212. Edit

  213. Effective Problem Solving

  214. Efficiency Skills

  215. Efficient

  216. Efficient Planning

  217. Electrical principles

  218. Electronic principles

  219. Elementary Code of Conduct (Grades K-6)

  220. Empathy

  221. Energetic

  222. Enforce

  223. English Greetings

  224. English language reading abilities.

  225. English language speaking abilities.

  226. English language understanding abilities.

  227. English language writing abilities.

  228. English language telephone conversation is an ability.

  229. Entertain

  230. Enthusiasm for Your Work

  231. Enthusiastic

  232. Entrepreneurial Skills

  233. Essential Skills

  234. etc.) Evaluate

  235. Evaluating

  236. Evaluating data

  237. Evaluating—recognizing good and poor features, knowing

  238. Examine

  239. Examining

  240. Exchanging

  241. Execute

  242. Experiment

  243. Experimenting—recognizing a question, planning a

  244. Explain

  245. Explain things to others

  246. Explaining

  247. Explaning—describing to someone else clearly, clarifying

  248. Extrapolating

  249. Facilitation Skills

  250. Faculty

  251. Figuring

  252. Filing

  253. Filing, labeling

  254. Finger dexterity

  255. Fitness for duty

  256. Flexible

  257. Focus and Self-Control

  258. Follow directions

  259. Follow instructions

  260. Following specifications

  261. Forecast

  262. Formal

  263. Formulate

  264. Friendly

  265. Functions, illustrating scientific principles

  266. Gathering data—tabulating, organizing, classifying,

  267. General Office

  268. General Skills

  269. Get along with co-workers

  270. Get along with supervisor

  271. Get results

  272. Getting started after sleep

  273. Giving

  274. Goal setting

  275. Good attendance

  276. Good human behavior

  277. Good human character

  278. Good manners

  279. Good natured

  280. Good Note-Taking

  281. Good sense of timing

  282. Good Study Habits

  283. Grade

  284. Grammar skills

  285. Graphing—putting in graphical form the results of a study

  286. Greet

  287. Guiding

  288. Handle detail work

  289. Handle precise work

  290. Hands-On

  291. Hard skills

  292. Hard-working, productive

  293. Healthy Eating

  294. Healthy life-style

  295. Help others

  296. Helpful

  297. Helping Skills

  298. Hitching

  299. Honest

  300. Horticultural

  301. Housekeeping Skills

  302. how to improve grades

  303. Human behavior

  304. Human relations

  305. Humble

  306. Humor

  307. Hygiene

  308. Hypothesize

  309. Idea Production

  310. ideas of others, keeping on the topic, arriving at

  311. Identify

  312. Imaginative

  313. Imitate

  314. Implement

  315. implications for further work

  316. Improving

  317. Index

  318. Indicate

  319. Industrious

  320. Influence

  321. Influencing

  322. Inform

  323. Informing the public

  324. Ingenious

  325. Initiate

  326. Initiative

  327. Innovate

  328. Inquiring—asking, interviewing, corresponding

  329. Inquisitive

  330. Insightful

  331. Inspect

  332. Inspecting products

  333. Instruct

  334. Instructing others

  335. Intelligent

  336. Interest

  337. Interpersonal Skills

  338. Interpret

  339. Interpreting ideas

  340. Interview

  341. Interview others

  342. Interviewing

  343. Intrapersonal

  344. Intuitive

  345. Invent

  346. Inventing—creating a method, device, or technique

  347. Inventive

  348. Inventory

  349. Investigate

  350. Investigating—formulating questions

  351. Investigation principl

  352. Job Content Skills - what have you done?

  353. Judge

  354. Keep _______ records

  355. Keeping Records

  356. Kind

  357. knowing its rate capacity, transporting it safely

  358. Knowledge

  359. Knowledge and achievement

  360. Knowledge of products

  361. Knowledge of subject

  362. Knowledge of tools

  363. Labor skills

  364. Language

  365. Language ability and auditory reception

  366. Language skills

  367. Lateral Thinking Test

  368. Laundry

  369. Lead

  370. Leadership

  371. Leadership Skills

  372. Leading

  373. Learn quickly

  374. Learning

  375. Learning Skills

  376. Learning to learn

  377. Lecture

  378. Life Skills

  379. Lift heavy equipment

  380. List

  381. Listen

  382. Listening

  383. Listening Skills

  384. Listening—being attentive, alert, questioning

  385. Living

  386. Locate answers or information

  387. Logic and Reasoning

  388. Logical

  389. Loyal

  390. Lubricating/cleaning parts

  391. Machinery

  392. Maintaining equipment

  393. Maintaining favorable image

  394. Maintaining machinery

  395. Maintaining morale

  396. major points, exhibiting patience, being willing to

  397. Making Connections

  398. Making effective presentations

  399. Manage

  400. Manage resources

  401. Managing skills are learned human abilities.

  402. Managing

  403. Managing feelings

  404. Managing ______ or budgets

  405. Managing people

  406. Manual work

  407. Marketable/useful

  408. Marshal

  409. Match

  410. Mathematical

  411. Mathematical skills

  412. Mature

  413. Measure

  414. Measuring production

  415. Media process

  416. Mediate

  417. Mediate problems

  418. Meet

  419. Meet deadlines

  420. Meeting

  421. Meeting deadlines

  422. Meeting the public

  423. Memory

  424. Memory and learning

  425. Methodical

  426. Modest

  427. Monitoring

  428. Monitoring Performance

  429. Motivate

  430. Motivate people

  431. Motivated

  432. Motivational

  433. Motivator

  434. Multicultural Awareness

  435. Multilingual

  436. Natural

  437. Negotiate

  438. Negotiate agreements

  439. Negotiating

  440. Negotiating principles

  441. Negotiating Skills

  442. Negotiating strategies

  443. Negotiation

  444. Networking

  445. Numeracy

  446. Numeracy Skills

  447. Nurturing

  448. Observe

  449. Observing indicators

  450. Observing—being accurate, alert, systematic

  451. Odd hours

  452. of attack, setting up hypotheses

  453. Open-minded

  454. Operate communications systems

  455. Operating

  456. Operating basic

  457. Operating tools

  458. Optimistic

  459. or experiment, being able to interpret the graph for

  460. or other instrument

  461. Oral Communication Order

  462. Ordering parts

  463. Orderly thinking

  464. Organization Skills

  465. Organization/Details/Multi-tasking

  466. Organizing

  467. Organizing or managing projects

  468. Organizing—putting items in order, establishing a system,

  469. Original

  470. out causes and effects, locating new problems

  471. Outgoing

  472. Outlining—employing major headings and subheadings, using

  473. Packing

  474. Pain Disability Questionnaire

  475. parts

  476. Patient

  477. Performing manual tasks

  478. People Skills

  479. Persistent

  480. Personal Safety

  481. Personal Skills

  482. Personnel practices

  483. Perspective Taking

  484. Persuade

  485. Persuading

  486. Persuading & negotiating

  487. Persuading, influencing and negotiating skills

  488. Physical

  489. Physically strong

  490. piece of work, a scientific procedure, or conclusion

  491. Plan

  492. Planning

  493. Planning ahead—seeing possible results and probable modes

  494. Planning/organizing

  495. Pleasant

  496. Plot

  497. Plumbing principles

  498. Polite

  499. Polite

  500. Politeness Guidelines

  501. Positive Attitude

  502. Post

  503. Practice new skills

  504. Prescribe

  505. Presentation Skills

  506. principles

  507. Problem-solving skills

  508. procedure, collecting data, recording data, analyzing procedures

  509. Processing Speed

  510. Prognosticate

  511. Project management

  512. Projecting

  513. projects

  514. Promote

  515. Proper settings, keeping it clean, handling it properly

  516. Provide

  517. Public speaking

  518. Question

  519. Questions

  520. Questioning in the English language is an ability

  521. Rank

  522. Rate

  523. Reading

  524. Reason

  525. Reasoning

  526. Reasoning and idea production

  527. Recognize problems

  528. Recognizing problems

  529. Recommend

  530. Recommending

  531. Reconcile

  532. Record

  533. recording

  534. recording completely

  535. Recording—tabulating, charting, working systematically

  536. Regulate

  537. Relating

  538. relationships

  539. Relay

  540. Reliable

  541. Remember information

  542. Removing parts

  543. Repairing engines

  544. Repairing equipment

  545. repeat

  546. Replacing defective

  547. Report

  548. Reporting—orally reporting to a class or teacher in

  549. Representing

  550. Request

  551. Research

  552. Research design

  553. Research Skills

  554. Researching

  555. Researching—locating a problem, learning background,

  556. Resiliency

  557. Resource Management Skills

  558. Resourceful

  559. Respond to emergencies

  560. Responsibility

  561. Responsible

  562. Reviewing

  563. Reviewing products

  564. Reviewing—identifying important items

  565. Run meetings

  566. Safety rules

  567. Sanitation

  568. Scan

  569. Schedule

  570. Scheduling

  571. School Skills

  572. Scrutinize

  573. Searching—locating sources, using several sources, being

  574. Secondary Code of Conduct (Grades 7-12)

  575. Secretarial Skills

  576. Self-Care Abilities Listing

  577. Segregate

  578. Select

  579. Self care abilities

  580. Self Discipline

  581. Self Esteem

  582. Self responsibility

  583. Self-awareness

  584. Self-care abilities

  585. Self-Care Abilities Listing

  586. Self-confidence

  587. Self-confident

  588. Self-controlled

  589. Self-Directed, Engaged Learning

  590. Self-Discipline

  591. Self-Management Skills

  592. Self-motivated

  593. Self-motivation

  594. Self-reliant

  595. Sense of humor

  596. Sensitive

  597. Sensory abilities

  598. sequential, logical organization

  599. Service learning

  600. Serving

  601. Setting standards

  602. setting up investigations, analyzing data, drawing

  603. Setting-up

  604. Settle

  605. Sharing

  606. similarities, noticing identical features

  607. Sincere

  608. Smell

  609. Sociable

  610. Social Media Skills

  611. Social Skills

  612. Soft skills

  613. Solve

  614. Solving problems

  615. Sort

  616. Seeing

  617. Hearing

  618. Speaking

  619. Sitting

  620. Sleeping

  621. Speaking in public

  622. Speaking Situations

  623. Speech

  624. Speech Analysis Questions

  625. Speech and Language

  626. Speech Clarity

  627. Speech Disorders and Language Disorders

  628. Speech Therapy

  629. Spoken communication

  630. Spoken English

  631. Spontaneous

  632. Statistics

  633. Steady

  634. Stress Management

  635. Stress Management (Rel

  636. Striving for excellence

  637. Study

  638. Study Skills

  639. Subject knowledge

  640. Suggest

  641. Summarize

  642. Supervise

  643. Supervising others

  644. Supervisory

  645. Supply

  646. Synthesize

  647. Synthesizing

  648. Systems Skills

  649. Tabulate

  650. Tactful

  651. Take inventory

  652. Take pride in work

  653. Take risks

  654. Taking on Challenges

  655. task, its limitations

  656. Teach

  657. Teaching & Counseling

  658. Teaching Skills

  659. Team Management Skills

  660. Teamwork

  661. Teamwork

  662. Teamwork/Cooperation

  663. Teamworking

  664. Technical & Information Skills

  665. Technical Skills

  666. Technical/Manual Skills

  667. Techniques to reach your goals.

  668. Telecommunications

  669. Telephone answering message guidelines

  670. Telephone Conversations

  671. Telephone Manners

  672. Telephone protocol

  673. Tenacious

  674. Test

  675. The Ability to Set Attainable Goals

  676. Thinking

  677. Thinking skills (including problem solving, making decisions, planning, o

  678. rganizing tasks, finding information, and making good use of memory).

  679. Thrifty Time

  680. Time management

  681. Tolerant

  682. Top 10 Skills for High-School Students

  683. Train

  684. Transferable Skills Checklist

  685. Translate

  686. Transpose

  687. Travel frequently

  688. Trust

  689. Trustworthy

  690. Tutor

  691. Truthfulness is a human ability.

  692. Understand

  693. Use computer search programs

  694. Usher

  695. Using an instrument—knowing the instrument’s parts, how

  696. Verbal/Written Communi

  697. cation Verify

  698. Verifying

  699. Versatile

  700. Visual perception

  701. Visual Processing

  702. Wait upon

  703. Walking Skills

  704. Weigh

  705. Well-organized

  706. Willingness to learn

  707. Wise use of resources

  708. Work as a team member

  709. Work Ethic

  710. Work in an office/outdoors

  711. Work in office

  712. Work in small studios Work in varied climate

  713. Work independently

  714. Work indoors/outdoors

  715. Work long hours

  716. Work nigh shifts

  717. Work odd hours

  718. Work on assembly line

  719. Work on long-term

  720. Work on weekends

  721. Work outdoors

  722. Work outdoors/indoors

  723. Work under hazardous

  724. Work under stress

  725. Work very long hours

  726. Work with committees

  727. Work with people

  728. Work without direction

  729. Working

  730. Working with others.

  731. Workplace Essential Skills

  732. Write clearly

  733. Writing

  734. Writing in the English language

  735. Writing news releases

  736. Writing—writing a report of an experiment or

  737. Written communications

What should a doctor of medicine know about human abilities?
Is there a difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
What is the difference between human organ system functions and abilities?
How many organ systems does the human body have?
What are the organ systems of the human body?
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
What are the differences between abilities of a newborn and abilities of an 18-year-old human?
What abilities must an 18-year-old human have?
What should you know about human abilities relevant to age?
What should you know about human organ systems’ functions?
How is a human body organized?
What are the human organs and their function?
Is there a difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
What is the difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
What are the signs of the 11 human organ systems’ functions?
When is fitness for duty required?
What are Essential Skills?
What is ability?(What is skill?)
What is technique?
What are skills?
Why are skills important?
What are the different types of skills?
What is ability, and where do individual differences in ability come from?
What are the various types of cognitive ability?
What are the various types of emotional ability?
What are the various types of physical ability?
What is intelligence?
Can we Increase our Intelligence?
What is IQ (Intelligence Quotient)?
How does cognitive ability affect job performance and organizational commitment?
What is abilities assessment?
How are abilities assessed?
What do physical ability tests look like?
What about Functional Capacity Evaluations?
What is spatial ability?
Why is spatial ability important?
What is a Skills Center?
What do you have to do to improve your skills?
What are other names for self-care abilities?
What are other names for transferable skills?
What English grammar should you know relevant to abilities?
What should a doctor of medicine know about Human organ systems and functions?
What organs comprise make this human organ system?
What are the functions of this human organ system?
What are various self-care abilities?
At what age should self-care abilities be learned?
Is a human born with abilities or are abilities learned?
What abilities should every child learn before age 5?
What abilities should every child learn before age 12?
What abilities should every human learn before age 18?
What are various abilities relevant to specific professions?
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
What are vital signs?
What should be included in the levels of consciousness?
What is body temperature?
What is the pulse rate?
What is the respiration rate?
What is blood pressure?
What special equipment is needed to measure blood pressure?
Human Organ Systems functions
What should a doctor of medicine know about human abilities?
Abilities categories
Alphabetical listing of human abilities
Aging effects on human body abilities
Behavioral Skills List
Child Development
Cognitive Abilities (Cognitive Ability/Brain Function/Skills involved)
Complaint Solving Skills
Difference between abilities and human organ system functions
English grammar relevant to abilities
Fitness for duty
Human organ system functions
Human organs/structures
Human organ system's functional impairment
Human organ system's functional capacity evaluation
Human healthcare
Human rights violations
Mastering skills
Physical abilities
Psychomotor abilities
Sensory abilities
Skills Assessment
Transferable skills analysis
Vital signs of human organ system’s function
Alphabetical listing of human abilities
Cognitive Abilities (Cognitive Ability/Brain Function/Skills involved)
Physical abilities
Psychomotor abilities
Sensory abilities
Alphabetical order
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers.
Analytical Ability
Abilities (text format)
Ability to delegate
Auditory Processing
Basic Skills (Essential skills)
Behavioral Interview Questions
Career Skills
Complaint Solving Skills
Creativity techniques
Computer Skills
Communication Skills
Complex Problem Solving Skills
Conflict Resolution Skills
Counselling Skills
Essential Skills
English Language Abilities
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.
Economy and Budget
Facilitation Skills
General Skills
Hard skills
Interpersonal Skills
Labor skills
Learning Skills
Life Skills
Leadership Skills
Leadership Skills Course
Listening Skills
Learning Skills
Logic and Reasoning
Management Skills
Numeracy Skills
Oral Communication
Organization Skills
People Skills
Personal Skills
Politeness Guidelines
Presentation Skills
Processing Speed
Project management
Resource Management Skills
Secretarial Skills
Self-care abilities
School Skills
Social skills
Soft skills
Stress Management
Study Skills
Systems Skills
Technical Skills
Team Management Skills
Transferable Skills Checklist
Technical/Manual Skills
Visual Processing
Willingness to learn
Writing in the English language
Workplace Essential Skills

Child Development

What is child development?
Child development is a process every child goes through. This process involves learning and mastering skills like sitting, walking, talking, skipping, and tying shoes. Children learn these skills, called developmental milestones, during predictable time periods.

Children develop skills in five main areas of development:
  1. Cognitive Development
    This is the child's ability to learn and solve problems. For example, this includes a two-month-old baby learning to explore the environment with hands or eyes or a five-year-old learning how to do simple math problems.

  2. Social and Emotional Development
    This is the child's ability to interact with others, including helping themselves and self-control. Examples of this type of development would include: a six-week-old baby smiling, a ten-month-old baby waving bye-bye, or a five-year-old boy knowing how to take turns in games at school.

  3. Speech and Language Development
    This is the child's ability to both understand and use language. For example, this includes a 12-month-old baby saying his first words, a two-year-old naming parts of her body, or a five-year-old learning to say "feet" instead of "foots".

  4. Fine Motor Skill Development
    This is the child's ability to use small muscles, specifically their hands and fingers, to pick up small objects, hold a spoon, turn pages in a book, or use a crayon to draw.

  5. Gross Motor Skill Development
    This is the child's ability to use large muscles. For example, a six-month-old baby learns how to sit up with some support, a 12-month-old baby learns to pull up to a stand holding onto furniture, and a five-year-old learns to skip.
What is a developmental milestone?
A developmental milestone is a skill that a child acquires within a specific time frame. For instance, one developmental milestone is learning to walk. Most children learn this skill or developmental milestone between the ages of 9 and 15 months.

Milestones develop in a sequential fashion. This means that a child will need to develop some skills before he or she can develop new skills. For example, children must first learn to crawl and to pull up to a standing position before they are able to walk. Each milestone that a child acquires builds on the last milestone developed.

To find out more information about age-appropriate developmental milestones click on a specific age below. If you are concerned your child has not met a developmental milestone, click here to learn more.

What are typical milestones, or skills, children learn at different ages?
We now know that our brains are not fully developed at birth. In fact, a baby's brain weighs about one quarter (1/4) of what an adult's brain weighs!

The brain grows very rapidly during the first several years of life. During this time, your child is learning all sorts of new skills.

Because children usually acquire developmental milestones or skills during a specific time frame or "window", we can predict when most children will learn different skills. The pages below describe the types of skills children usually learn at different ages. If you are concerned your child has not met a developmental milestone, click here to learn more.

Childhood Development:

What if my child does not meet a developmental milestone?
Each child is an individual and may meet developmental milestones a little earlier or later than his peers. You may have heard people say things like, "he was walking before he turned 10 months, much earlier than his older brother" or "she didn't say much until she was about 2 years old and then she talked a blue streak!" This is because each child is unique and will develop at his or her own pace.

However, there are definitely blocks of time when most children will meet a milestone. For example, children learn to walk anytime between 9 and 15 months of age. So, if your child is 13 months of age and not yet walking, there is no need to worry if he is crawling and pulling to a stand. He has acquired the skills he needs to learn to walk and may begin walking soon. However, if you have a child 15 months of age who is not yet walking, it would be a good idea to talk with your child's pediatrician to make sure there aren't any medical or developmental problems since age 15 months is outside of the normal "window" or time frame in which children learn to walk.
How can I help my child meet these developmental milestones?
As parents, we all want our children to succeed and be the best they can be. We know from research that two factors influence how your child succeeds and grows: genes and environment.

One of the factors that influence our child's development is their genetic makeup or "genes." Some people refer to this as "nature." Genes are the genetic material we pass onto our children. Children are born with their "genes" in place. These genes act like a blueprint for what characteristics a child may have. For example, genes determine if a child will have blue eyes or brown eyes; they also determine if he will be left- or right-handed.

The other factor that influences child development is the environment. This includes experiences children have in their home, school and community environments. Some people refer to this as "nurture." The environment can either improve or harm a child's genetic blueprint. For example, malnourished children who live in third world countries may not reach their IQ potential because of the impact of their environment on their brain development.

We often think we need to run out and buy special toys, music and games to stimulate our child's development, but we have to remind ourselves that it is more important to provide the following, every-day activities you can do with your child to encourage brain development.
  • Give your child lots of love and attention. No matter what a child's age, holding, hugging, and listening are important ways to show your child they matter.
  • Interact with your child by talking, singing, playing, eating, and reading with your child. Your child will grow up feeling special and important to you. You will also learn a lot about your child's interests and skills.
  • Read, read, read. Research has shown that children who are read to by their parents have a larger vocabulary than other children. Reading also provides children with new perspectives about the world we live in.
  • Learn some simple parenting skills for helping your child to learn how to behave. The most important parenting skills are having consistent rules, rewarding behaviors you want to see your child do more of, and having consequences for behaviors you do not want your child to continue to do.

  • Here are further guidelines.

    Here are further guidelines.
Meaning Units
Communication The exchange of thoughts and ideas by speech or writing
Multicultural Awareness The ability to understand and work with diversity
Multilingual The ability to communicate in a language other than one's own
Management skills The ability to guide or organize other people in order to implement various _______ and initiative and resolve conflicts among others
Teamwork/Cooperation Cooperative effort within a group in order to achieve a desired goal
Creativity To give rise to imaginative or artistic abilities as well as the ability to find novel solutions to problems
Ability to Adapt The ability to change and adjust to a new situation
Empathy The ability to understand or feel another person's ideas and emotions
Stress Management (Relaxation)  Control over the stressors that face each person, and the effects of stress
Work Ethic A principle of correct or good conduct to attain a level of integrity in one's work ability
Self Discipline Training or control over one's conduct for personal improvement as well as the ability to forgo immediate pleasure for long term goals
Responsibility The desire to achieve personal accountability
Discriminative thinking The ability to discern factual from opinionated information
Grammar skills The effective use of grammatical rules and guidelines in order to express one's ideas in correct form
Analytical Reasoning The ability to use the defined principles of logic and effectively engage in abstract thinking to achieve mastery or understanding
Economic/Business Sense Use of principles governing business and economic relationships
Mathematical skills Ability to use and apply the basic theories of the associative properties and arrangements of numbers and basic understanding of math and its uses
Computer Skills Ability to use computer technology effectively, including word-processing and spreadsheets
Telecommunication Communication occurring between two or more distant sources (fax machines, etc.)

Skills Listed By Type

Analytical Skills
Behavioral Skills
Behavioral Skills (supervisors)
Communication Skills (List)
Communication Skills (Top 10)
Customer Service Skills (List)
Customer Service Skills (Top 10)
Efficiency Skills
Entrepreneurial Skills
General Skills
Hard Skills
Helping Skills
Interpersonal Skills
Leadership Skills (List)
Management / Leadership Skills
Management Skills
Monitoring Performance
Organizational Skills
Problem Solving Skills
Presentation Skills
Personal Skills
Research Skills
Resource Management Skills
Social Media Skills
Soft Skills (List)
System Skills
Teaching Skills
Technical Skills
Ability to delegate
What are Directives?
What is delegation?
Who is allowed to delegate authority?
Who decides what authority to delegate or sub-delegate?
How long does a delegated authority last?
How do I make an amendment?
What are some common examples of delegation?
What do I need to know about the delegation regulation?
How do orders and delegation differ?
Who can delegate, which acts can be delegated and who can accept delegation?

Pick the right person best suited for the task.
Make sure the person can work independently.
Make sure the person understands exactly what it is you want them to do.
Determine what tasks will need more monitoring than others.
Once the project or task is completed, carefully review.
Here are further guidelines.
Difference between abilities and human organ system functions
What are skills?
A skill is the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job.

What are cognitive skills?
Attention Skills
Auditory Processin
Executive Functions
English language reading abilities.
English language speaking abilities.
English language understanding abilities.
English language writing abilities.
Logic and Reasoning
Processing Speed
Visual Processing

Cognitive abilities are brain-based skills we need to carry out any task from the sim­plest to the most com­plex. They have more to do with the mech­a­nisms of how we learn, remem­ber, problem-solve, and pay atten­tion rather than with any actual knowl­edge. For instance, answer­ing the tele­phone involves at least: per­cep­tion (hear­ing the ring tone), deci­sion tak­ing (answer­ing or not), motor skill (lift­ing the receiver), lan­guage skills (talk­ing and under­stand­ing lan­guage), social skills (inter­pret­ing tone of voice and inter­act­ing prop­erly with another human being).

Men­tal func­tions or cog­ni­tive abil­i­ties are based on spe­cific neu­ronal net­works or brain struc­tures. For instance mem­ory skills rely mainly on parts of the tem­po­ral lobes and parts of the frontal lobes (behind the forehead).

Attention Skills: A student's ability to attend to incoming information can be observed, broken down into a variety of sub-skills, and improved through properly coordinated training. We train and strengthen the three primary types of attention:
•Sustained Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task, and the amount of time we can focus.
•Selective Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task while being subjected to related and unrelated sensory input (distractions).
•Divided Attention: The ability to remember information while performing a mental operation and attending to two things at once (multi-tasking).

Executive Functions

Abilities that enable goal-oriented behavior, such as the ability to plan, and execute a goal. These include:
Flexibility: the capacity for quickly switch­ing to the appropriate mental mode.
Theory of mind: insight into other people’s inner world, their plans, their likes and dis­likes.
Anticipation: prediction based on pattern recognition.
Problem-solving: defining the problem in the right way to then generate solutions and pick the right one.
Decision making: the abil­ity to make deci­sions based on problem-solving, on incomplete information and on emo­tions (ours and oth­ers’).
Working Memory: the capac­ity to hold and manipulate information “on-line” in real time.
Emotional self-regulation: the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions for good performance.

Sequencing: the ability to break down complex actions into manageable units and prioritize them in the right order.

Inhibition: the ability to withstand distraction, and internal urges.

Memory: The ability to store and recall information:
Long-Term Memory: The ability to recall information that was stored in the past. Long-term memory is critical for spelling, recalling facts on tests, and comprehension. Weak long-term memory skills create symptoms like forgetting names and phone numbers, and doing poorly on unit tests.

Short-Term / Working Memory: The ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness while simultaneously performing a mental operation. Students with short-term memory problems may need to look several times at something before copying, have problems following multi-step instructions, or need to have information repeated often.

Logic and Reasoning: The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. Deductive reasoning extends this problem-solving ability to draw conclusions and come up with solutions by analyzing the relationships between given conditions. Students with underdeveloped logic and reasoning skills will generally struggle with word math problems and other abstract learning challenges. Symptoms of skill weaknesses in this area show up as questions like, "I don't get this", "I need help...this is so hard", or "What should I do first?"

Auditory Processing: The ability to analyze, blend, and segment sounds. Auditory processing is a crucial underlying skill for reading and spelling success, and is the number one skill needed for learning to read. Weakness in any of the auditory processing skills will greatly hinder learning to read, reading fluency, and comprehension. Students with auditory processing weakness also typically lose motivation to read.

Ability to mobilize our muscles and bodies.
Ability to manipulate objects.

Visual Processing: The ability to perceive, analyze, and think in visual images. This includes visualization, which is the ability to create a picture in your mind of words or concepts. Students who have problems with visual processing may have difficulty following instructions, reading maps, doing word math problems, and comprehending.

Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli (smell, touch, hearing, etc.)

Processing Speed: The ability to perform simple or complex cognitive tasks quickly. This skill also measures the ability of the brain to work quickly and accurately while ignoring distracting stimuli. Slow processing speed makes every task more difficult. Very often, slow processing is one root of ADHD-type behaviors. Symptoms of weaknesses here include homework taking a long time, always being the last one to get his or her shoes on, or being slow at completing even simple tasks.

English grammar relevant to abilities
What English grammar should you know relevant to abilities?
Take a look at this.

Word abilities is plural of word ability.
Abilities are learned.
An individual is not born with abilities.
Skills is a synonym for abilities.
Here are further guidelines.
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
Blood pressure
Respiratory rate

In some regions, consciousness and pain are not considered vital signs.

What are the differences between abilities of a newborn and abilities of an 18-year-old human?
A newborn does not have any learned abilities.
A newborn has five findings: Breathing effort, Heart rate, Muscle tone, Response to smell or foot slap, Skin color.
A doctor of medicine calls this Apgar scoring.
Apgar scoring determines the health of a newborn. These findings are due to human organ systems’ functions.
Sucking reflex, defecation, urination, and crawling are monitored later.

A human learns more than 600 abilities from birth up to 18 years.

What abilities must an 18-year-old human have?
Take a look at this.

Some of the abilities of an 18-year-old human are professional abilities also.

Highly-skilled professions like doctor of medicine, engineer, lawyer, and teacher need further training for abilities beyond 18 years.

What should you know about human abilities relevant to age?
Cognitive abilities
Physical abilities
Psychomotor abilities
Sensory abilities
English grammar relevant to abilities
Human organ systems functions and relevance to abilities
Human organ system functions
What should you know about human organ systems’ functions?
Human organ systems functions exist from birth.

How is a human body organized?
Cells are the basic unit of life.
Tissues are clusters of cells that perform a similar function.
Organs are made of tissues that perform one specific function.
Organ systems are groups of organs that perform a specific purpose in the human body.

The purpose of the 11 organ systems is for the human body to maintain homeostasis.

Organs and Functions

What are the human organs and their function?
Adrenal glands - Fight or flight emergency explosive action and mental clarity.
Appendix - No longer in direct use, theorized to help Immune system.
Bladder - Temporally collects liquids from food waste.
Brain - A neural network of interdependent systems to send signals to muscles.
Epidermis - protect against pathogens, oxidant stress (UV light) and chemicals.
Esophagus - Muscular tube through which food travels to the stomach.
Eyes - Conversion of photons into a data stream for the optic nerve.
Gall bladder - Fat conversion/digestion with high powered chemicals.
Heart - Pump to move blood around the body.
Kidney - Regulate acidity, blood pressure, salt/water balance, signal hormones.
Large intestine - Absorb water and last remaining nutrients from waste.
Liver - Filter out the blood of impurities and toxins.
Lungs - Absorption of Oxygen and release of Carbon Dioxide.
Mouth - Temporary storage area for food while it is evaluated and crushed.
Ovaries - In Females, secrete estrogen, progesterone and create ovums.
Pancreas - Break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in food.
Parathyroid - Control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.
Pleura - Lubricant and structure to convert muscle movements to inhale/exhale.
Prostate gland - In Males, Assist in the preparation of semen.
Rectum - About 12cm of temporary storage site for feces.
Small intestine - Primary absorption of nutrients and minerals in food.
Spine - Bendable support structure for upper body, protects wires from brain to lower body.
Spleen - Secondary backup systems to regulate blood and immune system.
Stomach - Dissolve and churn eaten foods with acids.
Testes - In Males, create sperm containing the DNA code to build another human.
Thyroid gland - Configuration for energy storage, dial in sensitivity to hormones.
Tongue - Evaluate and reposition food in the mouth and push down esophagus.
Uterus - Hold and supply nutrients to the ovum while it grows into a human.

Adrenal glands
Blood vessels
Bronchial tubes
Gall bladder
Large intestine
Lymph nodes
Lymph vessels
Mammary glands
Nasal passages
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland
Prostate gland
Pituitary gland
Small intestine
Spinal cord
Sweat glands
Thyroid gland
Urinary bladder
Vas deferens
Here are further guidelines.

Here are further guidelines.
How many organ systems does the human body have?
The human body has 11 organ systems.

What are the organ systems of the human body?
Take a look at this.
Organ Systems of the Body

Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)
Circulatory System
Digestive System
Endocrine System
Integumentary system
Lymphatic (immune) system
Muscular system
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Skeletal System
Urinary system
Brain & Central Nervous System (Nervous system) Nerve Cells (Neurons)
Support Cells (Neuroglia)
Spinal Cord (Central Nervous System)
Brain (Central Nervous System)
Nerves (Peripheral Nervous System)
Sensory System
Motor System
The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and controls various systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment. Neuroscience,
Neurology (disease),
Psychiatry (behavioral),
Ophthalmology (vision),
Otolaryngology (hearing, taste, smell)
Circulatory System Heart, blood vessels, blood Rapid flow of blood throughout the body’s tissues Cardiology (heart), hematology (blood)
Digestive System Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder Digestion and absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water Gastroenterology
Endocrine System All glands secreting hormones: Pancreas, testes, ovaries, hypothalamus, kidneys, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, intestinal, thymus, and pineal Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body Endocrinology
Integumentary system Skin Protection against injury and dehydration; defense against foreign invaders; regulation of temperature Dermatology
Lymphatic (immune) system The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolize lymph, the fluid found in between cells.

Immune system
White blood cells, lymph vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus, and other lymphatic tissues

Defense against foreign invaders; return of extracellular fluid to blood; formation of white blood cells
The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid). Oncology, immunology
Muscular system (listed by action site):
Muscles that act on the arm (or humerus bone)
Muscles that act on the shoulder
(or scapula bone)
Muscles that act on the forearm
(or radius & ulna bones)
Muscles that act on the wrist & hand
(or carpals, metacarpals & phalanges)
Muscles that act on the ant. thigh
(or anterior femur bone)
Muscles that act on the post. thigh
(or posterior femur bone)
Muscles that act on the leg
(or tibia and fibula bones)
Muscles that act on the anke & foot
(or tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges)
Muscles that act on the back
(or posterior vertebral column)
Muscles that act on the neck & head
(or vertebral column and skull)
Muscles that act on the abdomen
(or anterior vertebral column)
Muscles that act on the mandible
(for mastication or chewing)
Muscles that act on the face
(for facial expression; now adding)
Muscles that act on the chest
(for breathing; now drawing)
Cartilage, ligaments, tendons, joints, skeletal muscle
Support, protection, and movement of the body Orthopedics (bone and muscle disorders and injuries)
Reproductive System Male: Testes, penis, and associated ducts and glands

Female: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands Production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female
Production of eggs; provision of a nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus Gynecology (women), andrology (men), sexology (behavioral aspects) embryology (developmental aspects), obstetrics (partition)
Respiratory System Nose, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hydrogen-ion concentration Pulmonology
Skeletal System Lower Limbs
Ribs and Sternum
Upper Limbs
Orthopedics (bone and muscle disorders and injuries)
Urinary system The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body. Nephrology (function), urology (structural disease)
Circulatory System:
Cardiovascular organs: heart, blood vessels, blood

Digestive System:
Primary organs: mouth, stomach, intestines, rectum
Other organs: teeth, tongue, liver, pancreas

Endocrine System:
Endocrine structures: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thymus, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland

Integumentary System
Integumentary structures: skin, nails, hair, sweat glands

Lymphatic: Lymphatic organs: lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, tonsils

Nervous System:
Structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves

Reproductive System:
Male organs: testes, scrotum, penis, vas deferens, prostate
Female organs: ovaries, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

Respiratory System:
Respiratory organs: lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi

Muscular System

Skeletal System:
Structures: bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilage

Urinary/Excretory Systems
Structures: kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters

The human body is composed of interactive systems. Most organs in the body are necessary, a few like tonsils are not.  There are specific functions for each of the organs in the systems, but they cannot operate by themselves.

Below is a chart that will help you review the different systems with your students.




respiratory lungs, nasal passages,   bronchi, pharynx, trachea, diaphragm, bronchial tubes intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide from body
nervous  spinal cord, brain, nerves, skin, eyes, ears, tongue, nose control of body activities and the reaction to stimuli
digestive stomach, liver, teeth, tongue, pancreas, intestine, esophagus break down of food and absorption for use as energy
excretory kidneys, bladder ureters, skin controls water and salt balance
 endocrine pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, gonads production of hormones and body regulation
skeletal and muscular bones, muscles protection and movement
circulatory blood, blood vessels, heart, lymph transport of nutrients, metabolic wastes, water, salts, and disease fighting cells
 integumentary skin protection of body from injury and bacteria, maintenance of tissue moisture, holds receptors for stimuli response, body heat regulation

Fitness for duty

Is there a difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?

What is the difference between human body functional capacity evaluation and fitness for duty?
Functional capacity evaluation measures 11 human organ system functions relevant to age.
Fitness for duty measures general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a profession.

Functional Capacity Evaluation measures 11 human organ system functions relevant to age.

1.What is the health status of this individual relevant to age?
Here is an example.
100% mentally fit.
95% physically fit.

What are the signs of the 11 human organ systems’ functions?

At birth, breathing effort, heart rate, muscle tone, response to smell or foot slap, skin color.
After birth, various signs of organ system functions are visible relevant to age.

Here is a list in alphabetical order.
Ability to hear, see, talk (consciousness): Normal/abnormal
Breathing: Normal/abnormal
Blood pressure: Normal/abnormal
Eating: Normal/abnormal
Emotion: Angry, polite, hostile
Getting started after sleep: Problem/no problem
Learning: Problem/no problem
Medicolegal issues (survival needs, harms from others, or stress)
Pain: Yes (evaluate severity/no pain)
Performing manual tasks: Problem/no problem
Pulse: Normal/abnormal
Respiratory rate: Normal/abnormal
Sitting: Normal/abnormal
Skin: Normal/abnormal
Sleeping: Normal/abnormal
Stools: Normal/abnormal
Temperature: Normal/abnormal
Urination: Normal/abnormal
Walking: Normal/abnormal

These signs of human organ systems functions are all relevant to age.
An 18-year-old human should have normal function of all these signs of human organ systems.
Abilities relevant to specific profession or professions need fitness for duty analysis.
See fitness for duty details.

In case of any issues or problem, see further details.
Caring for oneself (eating, dressing, toileting, etc.)

2. What work is available?

Is the individual mentally and physically fit relevant to a specific profession?

Fitness for duty measures general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a profession.

Fitness for duty
Various examples have been quoted.

When is fitness for duty required?
Fitness of duty can be required while an individual is on existing duty or when an individual needs to be placed at a specific position, including executive, senior, supervisor, and entry level.

What can be reasons a person is not fit for specific work/duty/profession?
Personality disorder (liar, etc).
Harmful to self or others.
Lack of knowledge of specific profession.
Insufficient knowledge of specific profession.
Criminal traits.
Lack of desire for public service.

Fitness for duty

1 . What is the profile of the individual and where is this individual now whose fitness of duty is required?
Take a look at this.

2. How would you rate the human organ system’s functions of this individual for mental fitness and physical fitness on the scale of 1-100?
100% mentally fit.
95% physically fit.

3. For what profession does this individual need to be fit for duty?
Governor of the state.
Head of the state.

4. Does the fitness for duty require analysis for executive, senior, supervisory, or entry-level professional duties in the state or outside the state?

5. Is this individual able to understand, read, write, and speak the English language?

6. How would you rate this individual’s English language abilities on a scale of 1–10, with 10 being the best?

7. How would you rate the truthfulness of this individual on a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the best?

8. How would you rate this individual’s politeness (speech, manners, behavior) in the last five years on a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the best?

9. Does the individual have general abilities and professional abilities relevant to a specific profession or professions?
Take a look at this.
Everything is displayed at this location.

10. Can this individual guide one profession or many professions?
Many professions.

11. What is the proof that this individual can guide one profession or many professions?
Here are various facts.

12. Can this individual guide a teacher, lawyer, engineer, or doctor?

13. Can this individual answer questions relevant to the existing duty of a specific profession or professions?

14. Does this individual have specific technical abilities?

15. Is this individual able to answer relevant questions from time to time relevant to existing duty?

16. How would you describe this individual’s fitness for existing duty and further placement?
Fit for existing duty.
Recommendations for further placement.

These are basic questions; there are many more.

These questions are answered under the pretext of fitness for duty.
What is ability?

A natural or acquired skill or talent.

Synonyms: aptitude, capability, capacity, competence, competency, comprehension, dexterity, endowment, facility, faculty, intelligence, might, potentiality, qualification, resourcefulness, skill, strength, talent, understanding

What is technique?

A systematic procedure, formula, or routine by which a task is accomplished.

What are the different types of skills?

Take a look at this.
This resource has guidelines for thousands of skills ranging from general purpose skills to work-specific skills.
What body system helps humans turn the food they eat into energy? (Digestive.)
What body system helps humans breathe? (Respiratory.)
What body system controls other body systems? (Nervous.)
What body system provides structure for the body? (Skeletal.)
What body system allows us to move? (Muscular.)
What body system includes a transport system (blood) and a pump (the heart) that keeps the transport system moving? (Circulatory.)
Can you think of two body systems that work together? (Examples include the respiratory and circulatory, muscular and skeletal, digestive and circulatory, and nervous and any other system.) What part of the nervous system is essential for it to work properly? (Brain.)
What event could disrupt one or more body systems? (Injury or disease could disrupt one or more body systems.)
What parts of the respiratory system would need to be blocked to not allow any air into this system? (The mouth, nose, or trachea.)
What is the person's level of functioning?
What treatments or interventions can maximize functioning?
What are the outcomes of the treatment? How useful were the interventions?
How would I rate my capacity in mobility or communication?
What health care and other services will be needed?
How well do we serve our clients? What basic indicators for quality assurance are valid and reliable?
How useful are the services we are providing?
How _____-effective are the services we provide? How can the service be improved for better outcomes at a lower _____?
What are the needs of persons with various levels of disability - impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions?
How can we make the social and built environment more accessible for all person, those with and those without disabilities ?
Can we assess and measure improvement?

Body Functions are physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions).
Body Structures are anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs and their components.
Impairments are problems in body function or structure such as a significant deviation or loss.
Activity is the execution of a task or action by an individual. Participation is involvement in a life situation.
Activity Limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities.
Participation Restrictions are problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations.
Environmental Factors make up the physical, socal and attitudinal environment in which people live and conduct their lives.

Body Structure (s)
0 no change in structure
1 total absence
2 partial absence
3 additional part
4 aberrant dimensions
5 discontinuity
6 deviating position
7 qualitative changes in structure, including accumulation of fluid
8 not specified
9 not applicable

Body Function:
Mental Functions
Sensory Functions and Pain
Voice and Speech Functions
Functions of the Cardiovascular, Haematological, Immunological and Respiratory Systems
Functions of the Digestive, Metabolic, Endocrine Systems
Genitourinary and Reproductive Functions
Neuromusculoskeletal and Movement-Related Functions
Functions of the Skin and Related Structures

Structure of the Nervous System
The Eye, Ear and Related Structures
Structures Involved in Voice and Speech
Structure of the Cardiovascular, Immunological and Respiratory Systems
Structures Related to the Digestive, Metabolic and Endocrine Systems
Structure Related to Genitourinary and Reproductive
Structure Related to Movement
Skin and Related Structures

Activities and Participation

Learning and Applying Knowledge
General Tasks and Demands
Self Care
Domestic Life
Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships
Major Life Areas
Commmunity, Social and Civic Life

What is abilities assessment?

You have to prove your performance in the real world.

You should have abilities/skills relevant to the real world.

Always show abilities, skills, and knowledge relevant to specific profession or professions in the real world, particularly through advertising or media.

You must prove your competence in the real world.

You should be able to answer relevant questions in the real world from time to time relevant to your profession.

How are abilities assessed?

Unlike tests of skills, personality, interests or values – all of which are influenced by changes over time – abilities are assessed through the actual performance of manual and mental tasks which measure how easily the test-taker can perform those tasks.

What is spatial ability?

Spatial ability is the capacity to understand and remember the spatial relations among objects. This ability can be viewed as a unique type of intelligence distinguishable from other forms of intelligence, such as verbal ability, reasoning ability, and memory skills. Spatial ability is not a monolithic and static trait, but made up of numerous subskills, which are interrelated among each other and develop throughout your life.

Why is spatial ability important?

Visual-spatial skills are of great importance for success in solving many tasks in everyday life.

What is a Skills Center?
What do you have to do to improve your skills?
Here are further guidelines.
Personal Skills List

Self-Management Skills:

Clear thinking
Detail oriented
Fair minded
Sense of humor
Thinks quickly
Transferable Skills Checklist
What are other names for transferable skills?
Transferable skills are known by a variety of terms - key skills, core skills, soft skills, generic skills, generic competences. Transferable skills have been defined quite simply as "skills developed in one situation which can be transferred to another situation". They are the kinds of skills which are necessary for effective performance by individuals, not only in the workplace but in life in general. Some examples of such skills include team working, communication skills, problem solving and planning skills.

What are transferable skills?
Transferable skills are skills that you can take with you from one situation to another, from one job to another.
Transferable skills (also called “life skills”) may be defined as a set of qualities that can be applied to any field or career, regardless of where they were first learned.

Your transferable skills are often:
Acquired through a class (e.g., an English major who is taught technical writing)
Acquired through experience

Working With People
Working With Things
Working With Data/Information


Key Transferable Skills

Working with People
Other Transferable Skills
(Dealing with things)
Creative, Artistic
Dealing with Data
Add any other Transferable Skills that you think are important
Using Words, Ideas

Checklist of Transferable Skills

Adapt to Situations: Learn a new task and/or work in a different area with different co- workers.
Analyze: Break a problem down to see what is really going on.
Assemble Products: Put things together with your hands.
Calculate Numbers: Use a calculator, cash register or computer to answer numerical questions.
Communicate: Speak and/or write well and get your ideas across to other easily.
Confident: Believe in and feel good about yourself.
Considerate: Always think about how others may feel about things, especially before you say or do things that my affect them.
Creativity: Use your imagination to come up with new ideas or to solve problems.
Decision Making: Make good judgements about what to do in a difficult situation, even when the supervisor is not present.
Delegate: Assign tasks to others to complete.
Dependable: Can be counted on to do what you said you would do (i.e. show up for work on time, do your job duties well, etc).
Efficient: Perform tasks in the fastest and simplest ways that they can be done.
Energetic: Lots of energy to use at work and at play. Explain: Tell others why you do certain things they way you
do or why you think the way you do. Flexible: Can carry out many different responsibilities, sometimes with very little advanced notice.
Handle Complaints: Deal effectively with complaints made by customers or constructive criticism from your _________.
Helpful: Enjoy helping people solve their problems.
Interpret: Look at things and make sense of them, figure out what makes things work,why there is a problem, etc.
Learn Quickly: Do new things and carry out new responsibilities easily by watching other or by following instructions.
Listen: Listen/pay attention to what others are saying, without daydreaming or forming judgement about them.
Loyal: Committed and devoted to things/people that mean a lot to you (i.e. your best friend, your job/supervisor).
Motivate Others: Help keep others' spirits up and encourage them to do their best.
Operate Equipment: Turn equipment on and off as well as how to use it safely and wisely. (If you don't know how to operate certain things, you always ask for help.)
Order Goods/Supplies: Keep track of items and how to order them.
Organize: Arrange people/plan events/put things in order so that they run smoothly.
Pleasant: Nice person for others to talk to and be with.
Precise: Make sure that things are done accurately, correctly and exactly.
Punctual: Always on time for things.
Record Data: Write thorough and accurate notes/numbers.
Resourceful: Thing of new, creative and different ways to do things when there are no obvious solutions available.
Self-assured: Feel very confident and positive about yourself and your abilities.
Service Customers: Be friendly, patient and polite with customers and try your best to service their needs/wants.
Set Goals: Set goals for yourself to achieve and plan ways to achieve them.
Supervise: Watch others to make sure that everything is ok and/or that they are doing their jobs well.
Take Instructions: Follow instructions well, ask questions when you do not fully understand instructions.
Think Ahead: Plan your day and keep problems/accidents from happening.
Time Management: Plan your time so that you don't forget to do things, you're almost always/always on time, and you know how to prioritize and give yourself enough time to do the things that you need to do.
Trouble-shoot: Figure out what the problem is, why there is a problem, or prevent a problem before it happens.
Trustworthy: Can be trusted to get the job done, to look after things or keep secrets that are very important to other people.

Transferable Skills

These skills are general skills that can be useful in a variety of jobs. For example, writing clearly, good language skills, or the ability to organize and prioritize tasks would be desirable in many jobs. These are called transferable skills because they can be transferred from one job-or even career-to another.

Key Transferable Skills

o Meeting deadlines
o Planning
o Speaking in public
o Controlling budgets
o Supervising others
o Accepting responsibility
o Instructing others
o Solving problems
o Managing budgets
o Managing people
o Meeting the public
o Negotiating
o Organizing or managing projects
o Written communications

Dealing with data

o Analyze data or facts
o Investigate
o Audit records
o Keep records
o Budget
o Locate answers or information
o Calculate, compute
o Manage money
o Classify data
o Negotiate
o Compare, inspect, or record facts
o Count, observe, compile
o Research
o Detail-oriented
o Synthesize
o Evaluate
o Take inventory

Working with people

o Administer
o Patient
o Negotiate
o Persuade
o Confront others
o Teach
o Pleasant
o Counsel people
o Sensitive
o Demonstrate
o Sociable
o Tolerant
o Diplomatic
o Supervise
o Help others
o Tactful
o Insightful
o Interview others
o Instruct
o Listen
o Trust
o Understand
o Outgoing
o Kind

Using Word, Ideas

o Research
o Articulate
o Inventive
o Logical
o Ingenious
o Write clearly
o Design
o Develop/Create
o Edit
o Correspond with others
o Remember information
o Communicate verbally
o Create new ideas
o Speak in public


o Arrange social functions
o Motivate people
o Competitive
o Negotiate agreements
o Decisive
o Plan
o Delegate
o Run meetings
o Direct others
o Self-controlled
o Explain things to others
o Self-motivated
o Get results
o Solve problems
o Mediate problems
o Take risks

Creative, Artistic

o Artistic
o Music appreciation
o Play instruments
o Perform, act
o Drawing, art
o Expressive
o Dance, body movement
o Present artistic ideas

Other Transferable Skills

o Using my hands, dealing with things
o Assemble or make things
o Build, observe, and inspect things
o Construct or repair buildings
o Operate tools and machinery
o Drive or operate vehicles
o Good with my hands
o Use complex equipment
o Endure long hours
o Follow directions
o File records
o Learn quickly

Creative, Artistic Skills

Draw, sketch, render
Music Appreciation
Perform, act
Play Instruments
Present artistic ideas

Analytical Skills

Analyze data or facts
Audit records
Calculate, compute
Classify data
Compare, inspect, record facts
Count, observe, compile
Locate answers/information
Take inventory

Key Transferable Skills

Accept responsibility
Control budget
Increase sales or efficiency
Instruct other
Manage people
Meet deadlines
Meet the public
Organize/manage projects
Solve problems
Speak in public
Supervise others
Written communications


Arrange social functions
Direct others
Explain things to others
Get results
Mediate problems
Motivate people
Negotiate agreements
Run meetings
Self motivated
Solve problems
Take risks

Other Transferable Skills:

Assemble or make things
Build, observe, inspect things
Construct or repair buildings <
br> Drive or operate vehicles Good with my hands
Operate tools/machinery
Repair things
Use complex equipment
Use my hands

Using Words and Ideas:

Communicate verbally
Correspond with others
Create new ideas
Remember information v Research
Speaking in public
Write clearly

Working with People:

Care for
Confront others
Counsel people
Help others

Job Content Skills - what have you done?

Adapting new procedure
Administering programs
Advising people
Analyzing data
Analyzing problems
Assembling apparatus
Becoming actively involved
Being thorough
Budgeting expenses
Calculating numerical data
Checking for accuracy
Coaching individuals
Comparing results
Compiling statistics
Conducting meetings
Coordinating schedules/times
Coping with deadlines
Delegating responsibility
Developing plans for projects
Dispensing information
Drafting reports
Editing work
Encouraging others
Evaluating programs
Expressing ideas orally to individuals or groups
Finding/gathering information
Handling complaints
Handling detail work
Imagining new solutions
Inspecting physical objects
Interacting with people at
various levels
Interviewing prospective employees
Investigating problems
Knowledge of concepts and principles
Listening to others
Locating missing information
Maintaining accurate records
Maintaining emotional control under stress
Making decisions
Managing an organization
Managing people
Mediating between people
Meeting new people
Motivating others
Negotiating, arbitrating conflicts
Operating equipment
Organizing files
Organizing tasks
Performing numeric analysis
Persuading others
Picking out important
Planning agendas/meetings
Planning organizational needs
Preparing written
Prioritizing work
Promoting events
Proposing ideas
Providing customer service
Public speaking
Reading volumes of materials
Recommending course of action
Recommending ideas
Rehabilitating people
Relating to the public
Running meetings
Screening telephone calls
Selling ideas/products
Setting up demonstrations
Setting work/committee goals
Teaching/Training Individuals
Thinking in a logical manner
Taking independent action

Personal Development and Personal Empowerment
Self-Motivation and Emotional Intelligence
Time Management and Removing Distractions to help you achieve more
Avoiding Stress
Anger Management
Relaxation Techniques
Building Confidence and Self-Esteem

Verbal Communication

o Speak well in public appearances
o Confront and express opinions without offending
o Interview people to obtain information
o Handle complaints ___in person ___over phone
o Present ideas effectively in speeches or lecture
o Persuade/influence others to a certain point of view
o Sell ideas, products or services
o Debate ideas with others
o Participate in group discussions and teams
o Perform

Nonverbal Communication

o Listen carefully and attentively
o Convey a positive self image
o Use body language that makes others comfortable
o Develop rapport easily with groups of people
o Establish culture to support learning
o Express feelings through body language
o Promote concepts through a variety of media
o Believe in self worth
o Respond to non-verbal cues
o Model behavior or concepts for others

Written Communication

o Write technical language, reports, manuals
o Write poetry, fiction plays
o Write grant proposals
o Prepare and write logically written reports
o Write copy for sales and advertising
o Edit and proofread written material
o Prepare revisions of written material
o Utilize all forms of technology for writing
o Write case studies and treatment plans
o Demonstrate expertise in grammar and style


o Teach, advise, coach, empower
o Conduct needs assessments
o Use a variety of media for presentation
o Develop educational curriculum and materials
o Create and administer evaluation plan
o Facilitate a group
o Explain difficult ideas, complex topics
o Assess learning styles and respond accordingly
o Consult and recommend solutions
o Write well organized and documented reports


o Study data or behavior for meaning and solutions
o Analyze quantitative, physical and/or scientific data
o Write analysis of study and research
o Compare and evaluate information
o Systematize information and results
o Apply curiosity
o Investigate clues
o Formulate insightful and relevant questions
o Use technology for statistical analysis


o Identify appropriate information sources
o Search written, oral and technological information
o Interview primary sources
o Hypothesize and test for results
o Compile numerical and statistical data
o Classify and sort information into categories
o Gather information from a number of sources
o Patiently search for hard-to-find information
o Utilize electronic search methods

Plan and Organize

o Identify and organize tasks or information
o Coordinate people, activities and details
o Develop a plan and set objectives
o Set up and keep time schedules
o Anticipate problems and respond with solutions
o Develop realistic goals and action to attain them
o Arrange correct sequence of information and actions
o Create guidelines for implementing an action
o Create efficient systems
o Follow through, insure completion of a task

Counsel and Serve

o Counsel, advise, consult, guide others
o Care for and serve people; rehabilitate, heal
o Demonstrate empathy, sensitivity and patience
o Help people make their own decisions
o Help others improve health and welfare
o Listen empathically and with objectivity
o Coach, guide, encourage individuals to achieve goals
o Mediate peace between conflicting parties
o Knowledge of self-help theories and programs
o Facilitate self-awareness in others

Interpersonal Relations

o Convey a sense of humor
o Anticipate people's needs and reactions
o Express feelings appropriately
o Process human interactions, understand others
o Encourage, empower, advocate for people
o Create positive, hospitable environment
o Adjust plans for the unexpected
o Facilitate conflict management
o Communicate well with diverse groups
o Listen carefully to communication


o Envision the future and lead change
o Establish policy
o Set goals and determine courses of action
o Motivate/inspire others to achieve common goals
o Create innovative solutions to complex problems
o Communicate well with all levels of the organization
o Develop and mentor talent
o Negotiate terms and conditions
o Take risks, make hard decisions, be decisive
o Encourage the use of technology at all levels


o Manage personnel, projects and time
o Foster a sense of ownership in employees
o Delegate responsibility and review performance
o Increase productivity and efficiency to achieve goals
o Develop and facilitate work teams
o Provide training for development of staff
o Adjust plans/procedures for the unexpected
o Facilitate conflict management
o Communicate well with diverse groups
o Utilize technology to facilitate management

Economy and Budget

o Calculate, perform mathematical computations
o Work with precision with numerical data
o Keep accurate and complete ______ records
o Perform accounting functions and procedures
o Compile data and apply statistical analysis
o Create computer generated charts for presentation
o Use computer software for records and analysis
o Forecast, estimate
o Appraise and analyze
o Create and justify organization's budget to others


o Communicate well with key people in organization
o Identify and purchase necessary resource materials
o Utilize computer software and equipment
o Organize, improve, adapt office systems
o Track progress of projects and troubleshoot
o Achieve goals within budget and time schedule
o Assign tasks and sets standards for support staff
o Supervise
o Demonstrate flexibility during crisis
o Oversee communication, email and telephones

Create and Innovate

o Visualize concepts and results
o Intuit strategies and solutions
o Execute color, shape and form
o Brainstorm and make use of group synergy
o Communicate with metaphors
o Invent products through experimentation
o Express ideas through art form
o Remember faces, accurate spatial memory
o Create images through, sketches, sculpture, etc.
o Utilize computer software for artistic creations

Construct and Operate

o Assemble and install technical equipment
o Build a structure, follow proper sequence
o Understand blueprints and architectural specs
o Repair machines
o Analyze and correct plumbing or electrical problems
o Use tools and machines
o Master athletic skills
o Landscape and farm
o Drive and operate vehicles
o Use scientific or medical equipment

76 Transferable Skills

Information Management Skills:

Ability to ...
    Sort data and objects
    Compile and rank information
    Apply information creatively to specific problems or tasks
    Synthesize facts, concepts and principles
    Understand and use organizing principles
    Evaluate information against appropriate standards
Design and Planning Skills: Ability to ...
    Identify alternative courses of action
    Set realistic goals
    Follow through with a plan or decision
    Manage time effectively
    Predict future trends and patterns
    Accommodate multiple demands for commitment of time, energy and resources
    Assess needs
    Make and keep a schedule
    Set priorities
Valuing Skills: Ability to ...
    Assess a course of action in terms of its long-range effects on the general human welfare
    Make decisions that will maximize both individual and collective good
    Appreciate the contributions of art, literature, science and technology to contemporary society
    Identify one's own values
    Assess one's values in relation to important life decisions
Human Relations and Interpersonal Skills:

Ability to ...
    Keep a group "on track" and moving toward the achievement of a goal
    Maintain group cooperation and support
    Delegate tasks and responsibilities
    Interact effectively with peers, superiors, and subordinates
    Express one's feelings appropriately/understand the feelings of others
    Use argumentation techniques to persuade others
    Make commitments to people
    Be willing to take risks
    Teach a skill, concept or principle to others
    Analyze behavior of self and others in group situations
    Demonstrate effective social behavior in a variety of settings and under different circumstances
    Work under time and environmental pressures
Research and Investigation Skills: Ability to ...
    Use a variety of sources of information
    Apply a variety of methods to test the validity of data
    Identify problems and needs
    Design an experiment plan or model that systematically defines a problem
    Identify information sources appropriate to special needs or problems
    Formulate questions relevant to clarifying a particular problem, topic or issue
Communication Skills: Ability to ...
    Listen with objectivity and paraphrase the content of a message
    Use various forms and styles of written communication
    Speak effectively to individuals or groups use media formats to present ideas imaginatively
    Express one's needs, wants, opinions and preferences without offending the sensitivities of others
    Identify and communicate value judgments effectively
    Describe objects or events with a minimum of factual errors
    Convey a positive self-image to others
Critical Thinking Skills:

Ability to ...
    Identify quickly and accurately the critical issues when making a decision or solving a problem
    Identify a general principle that explains interrelated experiences or factual data
    Define the parameters of a problem
    Identify reasonable criteria for assessing the value or appropriateness of an action or behavior
    Adapt one's concepts and behavior to changing conventions and norms
    Apply appropriate criteria to strategies and action plans
    Take given premises and reason to their conclusion
    Create innovate solutions to complex problems
    Analyze the interrelationships of events and ideas from several perspectives
Management and Administration Skills:

Ability to ...
    Analyze tasks
    Identify people who can contribute to the solution of a problem or task
    Identify resource materials useful in the solution of a problem
    Delegate responsibility o f completion of a task
    Motivate and lead people
    Organize people and tasks to achieve specific goals
Personal/Career Development Skills:

Ability to ...
    Analyze and learn from life experiences - both one's own and others'
    Relate the skills developed in one environment (e.g., school) to the requirements of another environment (e.g., work)
    Match knowledge about one's own characteristics and abilities to information about job or career opportunities
    Identify, describe and assess the relative importance of one's needs, values, interests, strengths and weaknesses
    Develop personal growth goals that are motivating
    Identify and describe skills acquired through formal education and general life experiences
    Identify one's own strengths and weaknesses
    Accept and learn from negative criticism
    Generate trust and confidence in others
    Take risks
    Accept the consequences of one's actions
    "______" oneself to prospective _______

Interpersonal Skills

What are Interpersonal Skills?
A List of Interpersonal Skills Includes:
Verbal Communication - What we say and how we say it. Non-Verbal Communication - What we communicate without words, body language is an example.
Listening Skills - How we interpret both the verbal and non-verbal messages sent by others.
Negotiation - Working with others to find a mutually agreeable outcome. Problem Solving - Working with others to identify, define and solve problems.
Decision Making – Exploring and analysing options to make sound decisions.
Assertiveness – Communicating our values, ideas, beliefs, opinions, needs and wants freely.

Interpersonal Skills—skills that are about your attitude, work ethic, reliability, flexibility, personal interaction with co-workers/customers/others.
What is Negotiation?

Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument.

In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organisation they represent). However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.

Stages of Negotiation

In order to achieve a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured approach to negotiation. For example, in a work situation a meeting may need to be arranged in which all parties involved can come together. The process of negotiation includes the following stages:

3.Clarification of goals
4.Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome
6.Implementation of a course of action

1. Preparation

Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place to discuss the problem and who will attend. Setting a limited time-scale can also be helpful to prevent the disagreement continuing.

This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. In the work example above, this would include knowing the ‘rules’ of your organisation, to whom help is given, when help is not felt appropriate and the grounds for such refusals. Your organisation may well have _______ to which you can refer in preparation for the negotiation.

Undertaking preparation before discussing the disagreement will help to avoid further conflict and unnecessarily wasting time during the meeting.

Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument.

In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organisation they represent). However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.

Specific forms of negotiation are used in many situations: international affairs, the legal system, government, industrial disputes or domestic relationships as examples. However, general negotiation skills can be learned and applied in a wide range of activities. Negotiation skills can be of great benefit in resolving any differences that arise between you and others.

Our negotiation pages:

Describe the common stages in the process of negotiation.
Describe the different types of negotiation.
Outline key points for successful negotiation.
Explain the difference between interests and positions in the negotiation process.
Recognise why effective communication is essential to negotiation.

Why Negotiate?

It is inevitable that, from time-to-time, conflict and disagreement will arise as the differing needs, wants, aims and beliefs of people are brought together. Without negotiation, such conflicts may lead to argument and resentment resulting in one or all of the parties feeling dissatisfied. The point of negotiation is to try to reach agreements without causing future barriers to communications.

Stages of Negotiation

In order to achieve a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured approach to negotiation. For example, in a work situation a meeting may need to be arranged in which all parties involved can come together. The process of negotiation includes the following stages:

3.Clarification of goals
4.Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome
6.Implementation of a course of action

1. Preparation

Before any negotiation takes place, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place to discuss the problem and who will attend. Setting a limited time-scale can also be helpful to prevent the disagreement continuing.

This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. In the work example above, this would include knowing the ‘rules’ of your organisation, to whom help is given, when help is not felt appropriate and the grounds for such refusals. Your organisation may well have _______ to which you can refer in preparation for the negotiation.

Undertaking preparation before discussing the disagreement will help to avoid further conflict and unnecessarily wasting time during the meeting.

2. Discussion

During this stage, individuals or members of each side put forward the case as they see it, i.e. their understanding of the situation. Key skills during this stage are questioning, listening and clarifying. Sometimes it is helpful to take notes during the discussion stage to record all points put forward in case there is need for further clarification. It is extremely important to listen, as when disagreement takes place it is easy to make the mistake of saying too much and listening too little. Each side should have an equal opportunity to present their case.

3. Clarifying Goals

From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides of the disagreement need to be clarified. It is helpful to list these in order of priority. Through this clarification it is often possible to identify or establish common ground.

4. Negotiate Towards a Win-Win Outcome

This stage focuses on what is termed a Win-Win outcome where both sides feel they have gained something positive through the process of negotiation and both sides feel their point of view has been taken into consideration.

A Win-Win outcome is usually the best result. Although this may not always be possible, through negotiation, it should be the ultimate goal.

Suggestions of alternative strategies and compromises need to be considered at this point. Compromises are often positive alternatives which can often achieve greater benefit for all concerned compared to holding to the original positions.

5. Agreement

Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides’ viewpoints and interests have been considered. It is essential to keep an open mind in order to achieve a solution. Any agreement needs to be made perfectly clear so that both sides know what has been decided.

6. Implementing a Course of Action

From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented to carry through the decision.

Failure to Agree

If the process of negotiation breaks down and agreement cannot be reached, then re-scheduling a further meeting is called for. This avoids all parties becoming embroiled in heated discussion or argument, which not only wastes time but can also damage future relationships.

At the subsequent meeting, the stages of negotiation should be repeated.

Any new ideas or interests should be taken into account and the situation looked at afresh. At this stage it may also be helpful to look at other alternative solutions and/or bring in another person to mediate.

Informal Negotiation

There are times when there is a need to negotiate more informally. At such times, when a difference of opinion arises, it might not be possible or appropriate to go through the stages set out above in a formal manner.

Nevertheless, remembering the key points in the stages of formal negotiation may be very helpful in a variety of informal situations.

In any negotiation, the following three elements are important and likely to affect the ultimate outcome of the negotiation:

3.Interpersonal Skills


All negotiation is strongly influenced by underlying attitudes to the process itself, for example attitudes to the issues and personalities involved in the particular case or attitudes linked to personal needs for recognition.


The more knowledge you possess of the issues in question, the greater your participation in the process of negotiation. In other words, good preparation is essential.

Do your homework and gather as much information about the issues as you can.

Furthermore, the way issues are negotiated must be understood as negotiating will require different methods in different situations.
Here are further guidelines.

Organizational Skill
Organizational Skills—skills that demonstrate your abilities to get a job done, planning, develop new ways of doing things, initiate improvements to a job, assist others in getting a task done, efficiency on the job.

Secretarial Skills

Secretarial Skills—write business letters, data entry, operate office machines including computers, keep inventory, order supplies, scheduling people or rooms.

Technical/Manual Skills

Technical/Manual Skills—skills that list your computer hardware and software abilities, machines you can operate, things you can put together, items you can handle, stack, lift, turn, repair or place

ABILITY TO HANDLE CONFLICT : Can you handle stressful, tense situations and make th em come out right?

What is intelligence?
The ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences
The ability to solve problems
The capacity to adapt and learn from experiences
Includes characteristics such as
creativity and interpersonal skills The mental abilities that enable one to adapt to, shape, or select one’s environment
The ability to judge, comprehend, and reason
The ability to understand and deal with people, objects, and symbols
The ability to act pu rposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment

As you think about what intelligence is, you should ask the following questions:
To what extent is intelligence genetic?
To what extent is intelligence stable?
How do cognitive abiliti es interact with other aspects of functioning?
Are there true sex differences?
Is intelligence a global capacity (similar to “good health”) or can it be differentiated into various dimensions (called “factors” or “aptitudes”)?
Are there a number of “intell igences”?
How do you measure intelligence?
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) : Measure of intelligence that takes into account a child’s mental and chronological age IQ Score = MA / CA x 100 Mental age (MA) : the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age Chronological age (CA) : the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test People whose mental age is equal to their chronological age will always have an IQ of 100. If the chronological age exceeds mental age – below - averag e intelligence (below 100). If the mental age exceed the chronological age – above - average intelligence (above 100).

The normal distribution: most of the population falls in the middle range of scores between 84 and 116.

Very Superior I ntelligence ( gifted ) - Above 130

Superior Intelligence - 120 to 129

High Average Intelligence - 110 to 119

Average Intelligence - 90 to 109

Low Average Intelligence - 80 to 89

Borderline Intellectual Functioning - 71 to 79

Mild Mental Retardation - 55 to 70

Moderate Retardation - 40 to 54

Severe Mental Retardation - 25 to 39

Profound Mental Retardation - Below 25

Are IQ tests culturally biased?
Pain Disability Questionnaire
Cognitive Skills

Reasoning and Problem Solving:
Speed of Processing:


Rote memorization
Gist (e.g. recall the plot of Jane Eyre)
Procedures (e.g. draw a right triangle)


Selective attention: filter out distractions, ignore irrelevant information
Sustained attention: focus for long periods of time
Divided attention: focus on more than one thing)


Fine motor control
Hand-eye coordination
Gross motor control

Executive functions

Inhibit irrelevant or automatic responses
Flexibility: change direction if not working; adopt multiple approaches
Strategy use: ability to reflect on strategy and select appropriate strategy
Automaticity: make skills automatic

Language skills

Listening skills: ability to take in and process auditory information
Reading: recognition of sight words and decoding new words
Comprehension: understanding what is read or said
Formulation: ability to access and organize information to express it

Thinking skills

Reasoning about concrete items versus abstract ideas
Analyzing/evaluating arguments
Developing a logical argument
Inductive reasoning: using specific examples/observations and forming a more general principal
Deductive reasoning: use stated general premise to reason about specific examples
Generate hypotheses: intuition, aesthetics, emotion
Hypothesis testing: test ideas through experience or manipulation of variables
Application: use knowledge in a new area
Appreciation: recognition of value of something
Responding to novelty: ability to react appropriately in a novel situation
Self-reflection: ability to think about oneself in relation to the material

Test Time Limit
Arithmetic 5
Language Skills 5

Sample Test Questions


This is a test of your ability to do arithmetic problems involving the addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of whole numbers.
Look at the examples below. Each is followed by four possible answers, plus None . You are to do each problem and then blacken the circle below the correct answer. If the correct answer is not given, mark None .

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide real numbers.


1. 2 + 3 = 4 5 6 7 None
2. 4 – 1 = 1 2 3 4 None
3. 19 x 2 = 21 17 37 43 None
4. 30 ÷ 2 = 15 16 12 10 None

Remember, mark None if the correct answer is not given.
1. 5
2. 3
3. None
4. 15

Look at the sample sentence below. Part of the sentence is underlined. The underlined section may contain errors in spelling, punc tuation, capitalization, grammar, or usage.

Following the sentence are three ch anges to replace the underlined section. Select the best answer and darken the circle in front of it. If the underlin ed section contains no error, darken the circle in front of No Change

1. The staff meeting will be held on Tusday

No Change


Cognitive Skills of the Brain

Because the brain in the central hub for the all of the body’s functions, understanding how this organ works can be helpful in terms of understanding Traumatic Brain Injury.

Cognitive Skills of the Brain

Because the brain in the central hub for the all of the body’s functions, understanding how this organ works can be helpful in terms of understanding Traumatic Brain Injury.

There are six components inside of the brain; the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum and the brain stem. Read below to understand the functions of each part of the brain, the roles they play in the body’s overall health, and observed problems in behavior or well being if that particular part of the brain is injured.

Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe links and integrates all components of behavior at the highest level. Emotion and social adjustment and impulse control are also localized here. Injury to parts of the frontal lobe may cause an inability to move part of the body or the whole side of the body. Speech may become halting, disorganized or be stopped except for single explosive words. Personality may change. Social rules of behavior may be disregarded. The executive functions, planning, abstract reasoning, impulse control, sustained attention and insight are all located here. The frontal lobe is highly susceptible to injury.


  • Initiation
  • Problem solving
  • Judgment
  • Inhibition of behavior
  • Planning/anticipation
  • Self-monitoring
  • Motor planning
  • Personality/emotions
  • Awareness of abilities/limitations
  • Organization
  • Attention/concentration
  • Mental flexibility
  • Speaking (expressive language)

Observed Problems

  • Emotion (i.e., depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, and social inappropriateness).

Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe is largely responsible for construction ability and language. Injury to the front parts of this lobe may cause someone to lose sensation on parts of the body. With an injury in this area, one may become disoriented. Recall of long term memories may be mixed up in time or sequencing. They may become easily lost or confuse left and right. They may have difficulty recognizing or naming what they see. Injury may also produce disorders in the ability to read, write or perform math calculations. This area also includes conscious sensation and voluntary motion.

  • Sense of touch
  • Differentiation: size, shape, color
  • Spatial perception
  • Visual perception
  • Academic skills (reading)

Observed Problems

  • Sensation (i.e., touch, taste, and smell)

Occipital Lobe

Injury to this area usually results in “blindness” to part or all of the visual field. Usually people experience “holes” or “blind spots” in what they see. There may be problems picking things out of space or they may misperceive pictures or objects. Recognition of colors may also be disturbed.


  • Vision
  • Reading (perception and recognition of printed words)

Observed Problems

  • Depth perception
  • Color perception
  • Difficulty tracking moving objects
  • Partial or total blindness

Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe perceives and recognizes verbal material. It is among the most frequently injured parts of the brain during head injury. A person may have difficulty screening out distractions. Injury to the upper temporal area can cause someone to misunderstand what is said. They may make sounds like words but which are not recognizable as words at all. They may also misunderstand body language. Emotional changes such as unexplained panic or unexpected tearfulness may be noted. Left temporal area includes production of speech, naming and verbal memory. The right temporal area includes musical abilities, foreign languages, visual memory, and comprehension of the environment.


  • Memory
  • Hearing
  • Understanding language (receptive language)
  • Organization and sequencing
  • Musical awareness

Observed Problems

  • Thinking (i.e., memory and reasoning)
  • Language (i.e., communication, expression, and understanding)


Obtaining a general understanding of the brain and its functions is important to understanding the rehabilitation process. It is very important, however, to understand that the rehabilitation professional is concerned with the whole person. The identification of individual problems gives the rehabilitation team areas in which to focus treatment plans, all of these plans are designed to work toward the rehabilitation of the whole person. Each problem area affects other areas and many times resolving one problem has a major impact on other problems. For example, reestablishing postural balance and eliminating dizziness greatly enhances concentration and attention which allows for improved cognition and problem solving.


  • Coordination of voluntary movement
  • Balance and equilibrium
  • Some memory for reflex motor acts

Observed Problems

  • Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
  • Loss of ability to walk
  • Inability to reach out and grab objects
  • Tremors
  • Dizziness (vertigo)
  • Slurred speech (scanning speech)
  • Inability to make rapid movements

Brain Stem

The brain stem plays a vital role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness. All information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from our brain. Like the frontal and temporal lobes, the brain stem is located in an area near bony protrusions making it vulnerable to damage during trauma.


  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
  • Swallowing
  • Reflexes to seeing and hearing (startling response)
  • Controls sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature (autonomic nervous system)
  • Affects level of alertness
  • Ability to sleep
  • Sense of balance (vestibular function)

Observed Problems

  • Decreased vital capacity in breathing, important for speech
  • Swallowing food and water (dysphasia)
  • Difficulty with organization/perception of the environment
  • Problems with balance and movement
  • Dizziness and nausea (vertigo)
  • Sleeping difficulties (insomnia, sleep apnea)

  • Here are further guidelines.

    Locus coeruleus

    The locus coeruleus (also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons (part of the brainstem) involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

    The locus coeruleus is the principal site for brain synthesis of norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The locus coeruleus and the areas of the body affected by the norepinephrine it produces are described collectively as the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system or LC-NA system. Norepinephrine may also be released directly into the blood from the adrenal medulla.

    In adult humans (19-78) the locus coeruleus has 22,000 to 51,000 total pigmented neurons that range in size between 31,000 and 60,000 µm3

    In stress
    In opiate withdrawal
    Rett syndrome
    Neurodegenerative diseases

    Here are further guidelines.
Health Care
Developmental Disabilities
Learning Disabilities
Doctor Consultation
Functional Abilities Essential for Nursing Practice
Functional Capacity Evaluations
Physical abilities
Age-specific physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living.
Profession-specific physical abilities.
Physical Ability Tests

What are examples of physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living and age?
What are examples of physical abilities relevant to job-specific physical abilities and age?

Take a look at this.
What are examples of physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living and age?

Basic ADLs

What are activities of daily living (ADLs)?

Bathing and showering (washing the body)
Brushing teeth/combing/styling hair)
Climbing stairs
Eating/feeding (including chewing and swallowing)
Functional mobility (moving from one place to another while performing activities)
Getting started after sleep
Personal hygiene and grooming
Toilet hygiene (completing the act of Urinating/defecating)

Needs Help
Cannot Do

Instrumental ADLs

What are instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)?

Ability to use telephone
Food Preparation
Keeping track of Resources
Managing medication
Maintaining the home
Using transportation

Needs Help
Cannot Do

Is there a difference between evaluation of physical abilities relevant to activities of everyday living and job-specific physical abilities?

Physical Ability Tests
Muscular Tension Tests - Tasks requiring pushing, pulling, lifting
Muscular Power Tests - Tasks requiring the individual to overcome some initial resistance (e.g., loosening a nut on a bolt)
Muscular Endurance Tests - Tasks involving repetitions of tool use (e.g., removing objects from belts)
Cardiovascular Endurance Tests - Tasks assessing aerobic capacity (e.g., climbing stairs) Flexibility Tests - Tasks where bending, twisting, stretching or reaching of a body segment occurs (e.g., installing lighting fixtures)
Balance Tests - Tasks in which stability of body position is difficult to maintain (e.g., standing on rungs of a ladder)

Basic Law Enforcement Academy

Date of Birth:_______________
Date of Test:_______________
Class Session:_______________
TAC Officer(s):_______________

The Physical Ability Test score for each test item is recorded and added on the individual participant’s sheet. The passing score is 160, with the range of scores for each test between 30 and 50.

Example: The below measures are merely for illustration and are only approximate values.
Sit-Ups 34 = 40 Points.
Push-Ups 38 = 50 Points (Note that 34 and above receives the same maximum points)
1.5-Mile Run 14:31 = 30 Points.
300 Meter Dash 60 sec. = 45 Points.
Total Test battery score is 200 points.

Physical Ability Testing Card

300 Meter Sprint (Seconds)71 63.5 56
Push Ups, Maximum (Repetitions)21 28 35
Sit Ups, 60 second (Repetitions)30 34 38
1.5 Mile Run (Minutes)14:31 14:02 13:35
Psychomotor abilities
Psychomotor ability is the capability or capacity to develop or learn a skill that involves both physical and psychological abilities.

Psychomotor abilities are skills such as hand-eye coordination, balance, and reaction time that arise from a unity of cognitive and physical functions.

Developing a psychomotor ability requires the development of both the cognitive and physical aspects of that ability.

Many different skills and activities require the development of psychomotor abilities. Basic skills learned during early development, such as walking and jumping, required the development of such abilities. Many skills developed later in life for personal or professional reasons, such as typing on a keyboard or driving, also involve developing psychomotor abilities. Such abilities are based on applying a combination of more foundational psychomotor abilities, such as hand-eye coordination, multi-limb coordination, orientation, and control of movement speed.

The cognitive, associative, and autonomic stages are the three main parts of the development of new psychomotor abilities. In the cognitive stage, the learner very deliberately attempts to direct his physical movements based on his conceptualized cognitive ideas, usually resulting in slow and awkward movements. The associative stage involves less thought and is marked by an increase in automatic movements. By the autonomic phase, the necessary movements have been committed to "muscle memory," and the learner no longer needs to think about them in order to perform them. The learner can still improve and refine the learned movements through practice, though, so it is not necessary to achieve perfection the first time.
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Sensory abilities

Can you name our five senses?

Here are your five senses.
Our five senses:

How many senses does a human being have?

We are taught that, as we stumble through the world, we have touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight to guide us. It turns out that we have been underestimating ourselves. Scientists count between fourteen and twenty actual senses, most of which aren't taught in _______. See what information you're really working with.

1. The sense of pain
2. The sense of time
3. The sense of movement
4. The sense of where you are in the world
5. The sense of where your body is compared to itself
6. The sense of temperature
7. The sense of pressure
8. The sense of itchiness
9. The sense of hunger and thirst
10. The sense of when you have to go to the bathroom.

Abilities — Sensory Abilities
Abilities that influence visual, auditory and speech perception
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance. Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.

What is your favorite smell?
What is your favorite taste?
What is your favorite sight?
What is your favorite sound?
What is your favorite touch?
100 Very Cool Facts About The Human Body

Human Body Systems

100 trillion cells
206 bones
600 muscles
22 internal organs
<a name="Bones"> <font size="7"> Bones </font><br> <h1> List of bones of the human skeleton </h1><br><br> A typical adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones. Anatomical variation may also result in the formation of more or fewer bones. More common variations include cervical ribs or an additional lumbar vertebra.<br><br> The 206 Bones of the Human Body
Human Body (206)
Axial Skeleton (80) Appendicular Skeleton (126)
Skull (28) Torso (52) Upper Extremity (32 x 2 = 64) Lower Extremity (31 x 2 = 62)
Paired Bones (11 x 2 = 22)
  1. Nasal
  2. Lacrimal
  3. Inferior Nasal Concha
  4. Maxiallary
  5. Zygomatic
  6. Temporal
  7. Palatine
  8. Parietal
  9. Malleus
  10. Incus
  11. Stapes
Paired Bones (12 x 2 = 24)
  1. Rib 1
  2. Rib 2
  3. Rib 3
  4. Rib 4
  5. Rib 5
  6. Rib 6
  7. Rib 7
  8. Rib 8 (False)
  9. Rib 9 (False)
  10. Rib 10 (False)
  11. Rib 11 (Floating)
  12. Rib 12 (Floating)
  1. Scapula
  2. Clavicle
  3. Humerus
  4. Radius
  5. Ulna
  6. Scaphoid
  7. Lunate
  8. Traquetrum
  9. Pisiform
  10. Hamate
  11. Capitate
  12. Trapezoid
  13. Trapezium
  14. Metacarpal 1
  15. Proximal Phalange 1
  16. Distal Phalange 1
  17. Metacarpal 2
  18. Proximal Phalange 2
  19. Middle Phalange 2
  20. Distal Phalange 2
  21. Metacarpal 3
  22. Proximal Phalange 3
  23. Middle Phalange 3
  24. Distal Phalange 3
  25. Metacarpal 4
  26. Proximal Phalange 4
  27. Middle Phalange 4
  28. Distal Phalange 4
  29. Metacarpal 5
  30. Proximal Phalange 5
  31. Middle Phalange 5
  32. Distal Phalange 5
  1. Hip (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis)
  2. Femur
  3. Patella
  4. Tibia
  5. Fibula
  6. Talus
  7. Calcaneus
  8. Navicular
  9. Medial Cuneiform
  10. Middle Cuneiform
  11. Lateral Cuneiform
  12. Cuboid
  13. Metacarpal 1
  14. Proximal Phalange 1
  15. Distal Phalange 1
  16. Metacarpal 2
  17. Proximal Phalange 2
  18. Middle Phalange 2
  19. Distal Phalange 2
  20. Metacarpal 3
  21. Proximal Phalange 3
  22. Middle Phalange 3
  23. Distal Phalange 3
  24. Metacarpal 4
  25. Proximal Phalange 4
  26. Middle Phalange 4
  27. Distal Phalange 4
  28. Metacarpal 5
  29. Proximal Phalange 5
  30. Middle Phalange 5
  31. Distal Phalange 5
  1. Frontal
  2. Ethmoid
  3. Vomer
  4. Sphenoid
  5. Mandible
  6. Occipital
  1. Hyoid
  2. Sternum
  3. Cervical Vertebrae 1 (atlas)
  4. C2 (axis)
  5. C3
  6. C4
  7. C5
  8. C6
  9. C7
  10. Thorasic Vertebrae 1
  11. T2
  12. T3
  13. T4
  14. T5
  15. T6
  16. T7
  17. T8
  18. T9
  19. T10
  20. T11
  21. T12
  22. Lumbar Vertebrae 1
  23. L2
  24. L3
  25. L4
  26. L5
  27. Sacrum
  28. Coccyx
Below is a listing of the cranial nerves and their functions:

Cranial nerve Function
1. Olfactory NerveSmell
2. Optic NerveVision
3. Oculomotor NerveEye Movement; Pupil Dilation
4. Trochlear Nerve Eye Movement
5. Trigeminal Nerve Somatosensory information (touch, pain) from the face and head; muscles for chewing
6. Abducens NerveEye Movement
7. Facial Nerve Taste
8. Vestibulocochelear Nerve Taste
9. Glossopharyngeal NerveTaste
10. Vagus Nerve Sensory, Motor and Autonomic Functions of Viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate, etc.)
11. Spinal Accessory Nerve Controls muscles used in head movement
12. Hypoglossal Nerve Controls muscles of the tongue

Human anatomy by category
Head Anatomy
Neck Anatomy
Shoulder Anatomy
Back Anatomy
Chest Anatomy
Abdominal Anatomy
Hip Anatomy
Upper Leg Anatomy
Knee Anatomy
Lower Leg Anatomy
Ankle Anatomy
Foot Anatomy
Upper Arm Anatomy
Elbow Anatomy
Forearm Anatomy
Wrist Anatomy
Hand Anatomy
Skin Anatomy
Internal Organ Anatomy
Internal Organs Anatomy
Gall bladder
Large intestine
Small intestine
Human Health Care Settings
Human Body Quiz
Internet Human Health Care Services
Job Related Skills
Role of Minerals in the Body
Skills Training
Types of human deformities
What should a doctor of medicine know about Human organ systems and functions?

He/she should know about:
Brain & central nervous system (nervous system)
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Endocrine system
Integumentary system
Lymphatic (immune) system
Muscular system
Reproductive system
Respiratory system
Skeletal system
Urinary system

What organs comprise make this human organ system?
What are the functions of this human organ system?

Self-care abilities

What are other names for self-care abilities?
Self-management skills

What are various self-care abilities?
Bath taking
Dressing and undressing
Food preparation
Personal belongings
Play and social (indoor)
Room cleaning
Table cleaning

At what age should self-care abilities be learned?

Is a human born with abilities or are abilities learned?
Abilities are learned.
A human is born with organ system functions and signs of organ system functions at birth.
Signs of organ system functions of a newborn are:
Breathing efforts
Color of skin (pink, pale or blue)
Heart rate
Muscle tone

What abilities should every child learn before age 5?
What abilities should every child learn before age 12?
What abilities should every human learn before age 18?

Here are further guidelines.

Ability means capacity to do or act physically, mentally, legally, morally, etc.

What are various abilities relevant to specific professions?

Vital signs of human organ system’s function

What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
What are vital signs?
What should be included in the levels of consciousness?
What is body temperature?
What is the pulse rate?
What is the respiration rate?
What is blood pressure?

What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?
Blood pressure
Respiratory rate

What should be included in the levels of consciousness?
Obtunded reflexes

In some regions, consciousness and pain are not considered vital signs.


Postpartum contraception

What is postpartum contraception?
Postpartum contraception is used to prevent unintended and closely spaced pregnancies in the first 12 months after giving birth.
Starting family planning methods after childbirth
MethodBreastfeedingNot breastfeedingEffectiveness
Start immediately after childbirth; can use if exclusively breastfeeding day and night for up to 6 months or until periods returnN/AVery effective with correct use, few side effects
IUDInsert within 2 days of childbirth, or from 4 weeks after childbirthInsert within 2 days of childbirth, or from 4 weeks after childbirthAlways very effective, long term method but may have side-effects
Female sterilizationPerform within 7 days, or from 6 weeks after childbirthPerform within 7 days, or from 6 weeks after childbirthAlways very effective, permanent method, fewer side-effects
Combined pill (estrogenprogestogen)From 6 months after childbirthFrom 3 weeks after childbirthVery effective with careful use, may have side-effects
Monthly injection
From 6 months after childbirthFrom 3 weeks after childbirthVery effective with careful use, may have side-effects
From 6 weeks after childbirthFrom immediately after childbirthVery effective with careful use, may have side-effects
DMPA and NET-EN (3 or 2 month injection)From 6 weeks after childbirthFrom immediately after childbirthVery effective with careful use, may have side-effects
ImplantsFrom 6 weeks after childbirthFrom immediately after childbirthAlways very effective, long term method but may have side-effects
CondomsFrom immediately after childbirthFrom immediately after childbirthEffective with careful use
DiaphragmFrom 6 to 12 weeks after childbirth (depending on when the uterus and cervix return to normal)From 6 to 12 weeks after childbirth (depending on when the uterus and cervix return to normal)Effective with careful use
Fertility awareness-based methodsWhen periods return to normalWhen periods return to normalEffective with careful use

Labor & Birth Terms to Know

Abruptio Placenta (Placental Abruption): The placenta has started to separate from the uterine wall before the baby is born.
Amniotic Fluid: This protective liquid, consisting mostly of fetal urine and water, fills the sac surrounding the fetus.
APGAR : A measurement of the newborn’s response to birth and life outside the womb. The ratings, APGAR, are based on Appearance (color), Pulse (heartbeat), Grimace (reflex), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration (breathing). The scores, which are taken at 1 and 5 minutes following birth, range from 1 to 10.
Breech Presentation: When the fetus is positioned head up to be born buttocks first or with one or both feet first.
Cephalopelvic Disproportion (CPD): The baby is too large to safely pass through the mother’s pelvis.
Cervidil: A medication used to ripen the cervix before induction.
Cesarean: An incision through the abdominal and uterine walls for delivery of the baby; it may be vertical or more commonly horizontal. Also called abdominal delivery; commonly called C-Section.
Colostrum: This is a thin, white fluid discharge from the breasts in the early stage of milk production; this is usually noticeable during the last couple weeks of pregnancy.
Complete Breech: The baby’s buttocks are presenting at the cervix, but the legs are folded “Indian style,” making vaginal delivery difficult or impossible.
Contraction: The regular tightening of the uterus, working to push the baby down the birth canal.
Crowned/Crowning: When the baby’s head has passed through the birth canal and the top or “crown” stays visible at the vaginal opening.
Dilation: The extent to which the cervix has opened in preparation for childbirth. It is measured in centimeters, with full dilation being 10 centimeters.
Effacement: This refers to the thinning of the cervix in preparation for birth and is expressed in percentages. You will be 100% effaced when you begin pushing.
Engaged: The baby’s presenting part (usually the head) has settled into the pelvic cavity, which usually happens during the last month of pregnancy.
Epidural: A common method of anesthesia used during labor. It is inserted through a catheter which is threaded through a needle, into the epidural space near the spinal cord.
Episiotomy: An incision made to the perineum to widen the vaginal opening for delivery.
Fetal Distress: Condition when the baby is not receiving enough oxygen or is experiencing some other complication.
Fontanelle: Soft spots between the unfused sections of the baby’s skull. These allow the baby’s head to compress slightly during passage through the birth canal.
Forceps: Tong-shaped instrument that may be used to help guide the baby’s head out of the birth canal during delivery.
Frank Breech: The baby’s buttocks are presenting at the cervix, and the baby’s legs are extended straight up to the baby’s head.
Incontinence: Inability to control excretions. Urinary incontinence can occur as the baby places heavy pressure on the bladder.
Induced Labor: Labor is started or accelerated through intervention, such as placing prostaglandin gel on the cervix, using an IV drip of the hormone oxytocin (Pitocin), or by rupturing the membranes.
Jaundice: Condition in newborn babies reflected in yellowing of the skin. This is caused by the immature liver’s inability to process excess red blood cells.
Labor: Regular contractions of the uterus that result in dilation and effacement of the cervix.
Lightening: When the baby drops in preparation for delivery (engagement).
Meconium: This is a greenish substance that builds up in the baby’s bowels and is generally excreted shortly after delivery.
Neonatologist: A specialist who cares for newborns.
NICU: Acronym standing for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
Nubain: Synthetic narcotic pain reliever commonly used in labor and delivery.
Oxytocin: Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates contractions and the milk-eject reflex. Pitocin is the synthetic form of this hormone.
Perineum: The muscle and tissue between the vagina and the rectum.
Phenergan: A sedative administered that also controls nausea and vomiting.
Placenta: The tissue that connects the mother and fetus to transport nourishment and take away waste.
Placenta Previa: When the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix.
Posterior: The baby is in a face-up position during delivery. Normal presentation is anterior (face-down).
Postpartum: The period after childbirth.
Post-Term: Pregnancy lasting more than 42 weeks.
Preterm: Babies born earlier than 37 weeks.
Prostaglandin Cream: Medication used to ripen the cervix before induction.
Ruptured Membranes: Usually refers to the breaking of the fluid-filled sac surrounding the baby. The fluid may come as a gush of water or as a slow leak. Slow leaks are sometimes mistaken as incontinence.
Speculum: An instrument used to open the vagina slightly wider so the cervix can be seen more easily.
Timing Contractions: Contractions are measured from the beginning of one contraction until the beginning of the next contraction.
Transverse: Baby’s body length is horizontal in the uterus. If the baby cannot be moved, it will have to be delivered by cesarean.
Umbilical Cord: The cord that transports blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the baby from the placenta.
Vacuum Extractor: Instrument that attaches to the baby’s head and helps guide it out of the birth canal during delivery.



What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is a substance that primes the body’s immune system to make antibodies, T-cells and memory cells which are the body’s defense against infection. When you are vaccinated you actually build up your immune system, making you stronger and more resistant to disease as you grow. Vaccines are the best way to protect you and your family against some very serious infections.

What is vaccination?
Vaccination means having the vaccine - actually getting the injection.

What is immunization?
Immunization means both receiving the vaccine and becoming immune to ward off a disease as a result of immunization.

Like eating well and exercise, getting immunized is a foundation for a healthy life.

Immunizations help save lives, prevent serious illnesses, and are recognized as one of the most effective public health interventions. Immunizations help the body make its own protection (or antibodies) against certain diseases.

Why is immunization important?
When children are immunized, their bodies make antibodies that fight specific infections. If they are not protected and come in contact with one of these infections, they may get very sick and potentially experience complications, or even die.

How effective are vaccines?
Vaccines are very effective in preventing disease when given as recommended. However, no vaccine will work for 100 per cent of the children who receive it. Studies of disease outbreaks show that although some immunized children can develop the infection, the illness is often less severe.

How safe are vaccines?
All vaccines have to be tested to make sure they are both safe and effective. The most common side effects are mild pain, swelling and redness where the injection was given.

Some infant vaccines may cause a low-grade fever (approximately 38°C) or fussiness for a day or two after the injection. Physicians may recommend acetaminophen to prevent fever and pain. Serious side effects from immunizations are rare. Please report any side effects or severe vaccine reactions to your health care provider or local public health unit. You should always discuss the benefits and risks of any vaccine with your health care provider.

Children's Vaccination: What is the schedule?
When was it last updated?
Who updated it?

Your child should get the first shots at 2 months of age (or in some cases before leaving the hospital after birth), then at 4 months, 6 months and 12-15 months of age. Remember, each of these visits is important! Your child must complete the series to be fully protected. More immunizations are recommended at 2 years and before school entry. Adolescents also need immunizations at 11-12 years of age, before entering 7th grade.

2 months old
4 months old
6 months old
12 months old
15 months old
18 months old
4 - 6 years old
Grade 7 students
Grade 8 females
14 -16 years old (10 years after 4-6 year old booster)
Every year (in autumn)

Vaccines that protect against the following diseases are available free of charge, and are required for attendance at school (unless there is a valid written exemption) :

•Diphtheria is a very serious bacterial infection. It can cause breathing problems, heart failure, nerve damage and death in about 10% of cases.

•Tetanus (Lockjaw) causes painful muscle spasms, breathing failure and can lead to death. It is caused by bacteria and spores in the soil that can infect wounds.

•Polio can cause paralysis (loss of control over muscles in the body), inflammation of the brain and death. People get polio from drinking water or eating food with the polio virus in it. It is no longer common in Canada because of high immunization rates, but cases do occur elsewhere in the world and polio may be acquired when traveling if you are not fully immunized.

•Measles causes rash, high fever, cough, runny nose and watery eyes. It can cause middle ear infection, pneumonia (lung infection), inflammation of the brain, hearing loss, brain damage and death.

•Mumps causes fever, headache, painful swelling of the glands in the mouth and neck, earache and can cause inflammation of the brain. It can cause temporary or permanent deafness and swelling of the ovaries in women and testes in men, possibly leading to sterility.

•Rubella (German Measles) causes fever, rash, swelling of the neck glands and swelling and pain in the joints. It can cause bruising and bleeding. If a pregnant woman gets rubella, it can be very dangerous for the unborn baby.

Vaccines against the following diseases are recommended but not required for attendance at school. These vaccines are available free of charge :

•Pertussis (Whooping Cough) causes severe coughing spells for weeks or months. It can also cause pneumonia (lung infection), middle ear infection, convulsions (seizures), inflammation of the brain and death. The risk of complications is greatest in children younger than one year of age.

•Hepatitis B is a virus that can cause serious liver problems that can be fatal, such as liver failure and liver cancer. The vaccine is free for grade 7 students and certain high-risk groups (including infants born to mothers who are infected with hepatitis B and can pass the disease on to their babies).

•Influenza (the Flu) is a viral infection that causes cough, high fever, chills, headache and muscle pain. It can cause pneumonia (infection of the lungs), middle ear infections, heart failure and death. The danger of this infection varies from year to year depending on the strain and can be mild to life-threatening.

•Varicella (Chickenpox) is a highly contagious viral infection. It can cause fever, headache, chills, muscle or joint aches a day or two before the itchy, red rash appears. A pregnant woman with chickenpox can pass it on to her unborn baby. Mothers with chickenpox can also give it to their newborn baby after birth. Chickenpox can be very severe or even life-threatening to newborn babies.

•Meningococcal disease is a very serious bacterial infection and a common cause of meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and meningococcaemia (severe infection of the blood) that can cause severe complications and death.

•Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common virus transmitted through sexual activity. HPV has been found to cause cervical cancer, some other rare cancers and genital warts. (About 95 per cent of adults will have at least one HPV infection in their lifetime.) The vaccine is free for grade 8 females.

Vaccines against the following diseases are recommended for younger children. These vaccines are available free of charge :

•Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of severe diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is a very common and is easily spread from person to person. Rotavirus causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines (gastroenteritis). This vaccine is recommended for infants between 6 to 24 weeks of age.

•Haemophilus Influenzae type b (HIB) is a bacteria that can infect any part of the body. It can cause middle ear infections, breathing problems, damage to joints, pneumonia (lung infection), inflammation of the brain leading to brain damage and death. This vaccine is recommended for children less than 5 years of age.

•Pneumococcal disease is a bacterial infection that can cause serious illnesses such as pneumonia, blood infection and meningitis. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is now available free of charge in Ontario for the routine immunization of children less than 2 years old as well as high-risk children 2 to 59 months of age.

Because of changes in the influenza (flu) strains, adults also need to receive the flu shot each year.

Adults should continue to get the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine every 10 years throughout life, to be protected against these diseases.

Thinking about getting pregnant?

Be sure you are protected against rubella before pregnancy to protect your future baby from serious problems during its development.

How do vaccines work?
A vaccine contains a killed or weakened part of a germ that is responsible for infection. Because the germ has been killed or weakened before it is used to make the vaccine, it can not make the person sick. When a person receives a vaccine, the body reacts by making protective substances called "antibodies". The antibodies are the body's defenders because they help to kill off the germs that enter the body. In other words, vaccines expose people safely to germs, so that they can become protected from a disease but not come down with the disease.

What do you do after you learn from this textbook?
Doctor Asif Qureshi has authored more than 40 other textbooks.
Make sure you learn from these textbooks also.
Last Updated: June 6, 2018